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Education ?

Medical School Score
Eastern Virginia Medical School (2003)

Awards & Distinctions ?

Patients' Choice Award (2015)
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2014 - 2015)
On-Time Doctor Award (2015)
Stanford Hospital & Clinics
American Board of Otolaryngology
American Rhinologic Society

Affiliations ?

Dr. Becker is affiliated with 5 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • Mcg Health, Inc
    1120 15th St, Augusta, GA 30912
    Top 25%
  • Durham Regional Hospital
    3643 N Roxboro St, Durham, NC 27704
    Top 50%
  • Duke University Hospital
    2301 Erwin Rd, Durham, NC 27710
    Top 50%
  • Duke Raleigh Hospital
    3400 Wake Forest Rd, Raleigh, NC 27609
    Top 50%
  • Stanford University Hospital
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Becker has contributed to 44 publications.
    Title Prostatic Involution After Intraprostatic Injection of Cobra Toxin.
    Date November 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology

    We evaluated the comparative effects of intraprostatic injection of cobra cardiotoxin D and botulinum toxin type A on prostate structure in the rat model.

    Title Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Released from a Waste Water Treatment Plant in Bavaria, Germany.
    Date October 2010
    Journal Environmental Science and Pollution Research International

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and precursors and derivatives thereof have been employed as surfactants and anti-adhesives. PFOA and PFOS are environmentally persistent and the discharge of municipal waste waters is one of the principal routes of these compounds into the aquatic environment. In a previous study, the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in grab samples collected from the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of Bayreuth, a city of 72,000 inhabitants in Bavaria, Germany, during two periods showed considerable variability. For a better estimate of average mass flows, the surfactants were monitored (five samplings) from 16 March to 18 May 2007. In a second campaign, river water receiving the WWTP effluent was sampled twice a day for five consecutive days.

    Title Characteristics of a Nickel-albumin Binding Assay for Assessment of Myocardial Ischaemia.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Biomarkers : Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals

    The aim of this study was to describe a method to measure ischaemia-induced alterations of the binding capacity of serum albumin to exogenous nickel.

    Title Invariant Nkt Cell Development Requires a Full Complement of Functional Cd3 Zeta Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs.
    Date June 2010
    Journal Journal of Immunology (baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells regulate early immune responses to infections, in part because of their rapid release of IFN-gamma and IL-4. iNKT cells are proposed to reduce the severity of Lyme disease following Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Unlike conventional T cells, iNKT cells express an invariant alphabeta TCR that recognizes lipids bound to the MHC class I-like molecule, CD1d. Furthermore, these cells are positively selected following TCR interactions with glycolipid/CD1d complexes expressed on CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. Whereas conventional T cell development can proceed with as few as 4/10 CD3 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), little is known about the ITAM requirements for iNKT cell selection and expansion. We analyzed iNKT cell development in CD3 zeta transgenic lines with various tyrosine-to-phenylalanine substitutions (YF) that eliminated the functions of the first (YF1,2), third (YF5,6), or all three (YF1-6) CD3 zeta ITAMs. iNKT cell numbers were significantly reduced in the thymus, spleen, and liver of all YF mice compared with wild type mice. The reduced numbers of iNKT cells resulted from significant reductions in the expression of the early growth response 2 and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger transcription factors. In the mice with few to no iNKT cells, there was no difference in the severity of Lyme arthritis compared with wild type controls, following infections with the spirochete B. burgdorferi. These findings indicate that a full complement of functional CD3 zeta ITAMs is required for effective iNKT cell development.

    Title Association Between Ischemia Modified Albumin, Inflammation and Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Clinical Biochemistry

    The aim of this study was assess serum ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in type 2 diabetes patients and determine its correlation with other risk factors for chronic complications such as inflammation and hyperglycemia.

    Title Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Two Fish Species Collected from the Roter Main River, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Date April 2010
    Journal Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in the environment. In this study the accumulation potential of PFOA and PFOS in two fish species with different feeding strategies, i.e. chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and river goby (Gobio gobio) inhabiting a river receiving treated waste waters from a municipal waste water treatment plant, were estimated. PFOS was detected in chub (7-250 microg kg(-1) wet weight) and river goby (70-400 microg kg(-1) wet weight) with bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of 4600 (liver) and 11,000 (organs). PFOA concentrations in both fish were low and in chub mostly below detection limit.

    Title Evaluation of Ischemia-modified Albumin in Myocardial Infarction and Prostatic Diseases.
    Date February 2010
    Journal Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie

    Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) has been shown to be a rapidly rising and sensitive biochemical marker for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. In this study, we evaluated the levels of IMA in myocardial infarction and prostate diseases, as well as the influence of HDL cholesterol levels on C-reactive protein (CRP) and IMA levels.

    Title Percolation Thresholds on Two-dimensional Voronoi Networks and Delaunay Triangulations.
    Date January 2010
    Journal Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

    The site percolation threshold for the random Voronoi network is determined numerically, with the result pc=0.714 10+/-0.000,02 , using Monte Carlo simulation on periodic systems of up to 40,000 sites. The result is very close to the recent theoretical estimate pc approximately 0.7151 of Neher For the bond threshold on the Voronoi network, we find pc=0.666, 931+/-0.000,005 implying that, for its dual, the Delaunay triangulation pc=0.333 069+/-0.000 005 . These results rule out the conjecture by Hsu and Huang that the bond thresholds are 2/3 and 1/3, respectively, but support the conjecture of Wierman that, for fully triangulated lattices other than the regular triangular lattice, the bond threshold is less than 2 sin pi/18 approximately 0.3473 .

    Title Postnatal Evaluation of Infants with an Abnormal Antenatal Renal Sonogram.
    Date October 2009
    Journal Current Opinion in Pediatrics

    Antenatally detected renal abnormalities are frequently encountered. Recommended postnatal evaluation of these infants has evolved to minimize invasive testing while maximizing detection of significant abnormalities.

    Title The Cytoplasmic Tail of the T Cell Receptor Cd3 Epsilon Subunit Contains a Phospholipid-binding Motif That Regulates T Cell Functions.
    Date September 2009
    Journal Journal of Immunology (baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    The CD3 epsilon subunit of the TCR complex contains two defined signaling domains, a proline-rich sequence and an ITAM. We identified a third signaling sequence in CD3 epsilon, termed the basic-rich stretch (BRS). Herein, we show that the positively charged residues of the BRS enable this region of CD3 epsilon to complex a subset of acidic phospholipids, including PI(3)P, PI(4)P, PI(5)P, PI(3,4,5)P(3), and PI(4,5)P(2). Transgenic mice containing mutations of the BRS exhibited varying developmental defects, ranging from reduced thymic cellularity to a complete block in T cell development. Peripheral T cells from BRS-modified mice also exhibited several defects, including decreased TCR surface expression, reduced TCR-mediated signaling responses to agonist peptide-loaded APCs, and delayed CD3 epsilon localization to the immunological synapse. Overall, these findings demonstrate a functional role for the CD3 epsilon lipid-binding domain in T cell biology.

    Title Case Studies in the Surgical Management of Nasal Airway Obstruction.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America

    Nasal obstruction is one of the most common complaints evaluated by the otolaryngologist. The differential diagnosis is broad, ranging from benign reversible causes to life-threatening diseases. In addition, patients may suffer from a combination of etiologies, further confusing the diagnosis. Surgical management is directed at the underlying origin of obstruction. The clinician therefore must use a careful history and physical examination as well as appropriate sinonasal imaging in accurately identifying the causes of nasal obstruction. To further illustrate these principles, we present two interesting cases of patients presenting with nasal obstruction.

    Title Proteomics Blood Testing to Distinguish Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subtypes.
    Date December 2008
    Journal The Laryngoscope

    To evaluate the potential of surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) proteomic profiling of serum samples to distinguish chronic rhinosinusitis subtypes.

    Title Perfluorooctane Surfactants in Waste Waters, the Major Source of River Pollution.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Chemosphere

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent and widely distributed in the environment. Recently, the discharge of municipal waste water has been shown to be an important route of such perfluoroalkyl surfactants into the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to assess the mass flow of PFOA and PFOS from typical waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) into surface waters. Samples were collected at different stages of treatment of four WWTPs in Northern Bavaria, Germany, and from the rivers receiving the treated waste waters (WW). The outflow of PFOA from the WWTPs to the rivers was 20-fold higher than the inflow to the plants; about a tenth was removed with the sludge. For PFOS, the increase from inlet to outlet was about 3-fold; almost half of it was retained in the sludge. Both surfactants were released into river water from the WWTP of a medium-sized city with domestic, industrial and commercial waste waters; in domestic waste waters the surfactants were found at much lower levels.

    Title Serum Inflammatory Protein Profiles in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis Undergoing Sinus Surgery: a Preliminary Analysis.
    Date June 2008
    Journal American Journal of Rhinology

    BACKGROUND: The specific aim of this study was to evaluate surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS) as a clinical screening tool in differentiating patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) from healthy control patients. METHODS: Serum samples were prospectively collected at a tertiary care academic medical center from 96 CRS patients who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and 38 control volunteers who were negatively screened according to the Rhinosinusitis Task Force guidelines on CRS. SELDI-TOF-MS was performed on serum samples to detect protein profiles in the range of 1-100 kDa. Analysis of spectral data was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of SELDI-TOF-MS in distinguishing patients with CRS requiring FESS from healthy controls and to determine potential markers for protein purification. RESULTS: Serum protein profiles generated from SELDI-TOF-MS in the range of 1-100 kDa were analyzed. Classification and regression tree analysis based on peak expression correctly classified patients with CRS with 77.1% sensitivity and 65.8% specificity, a positive predictive value of 88%, and a negative predictive value of 53%. Underexpression of a protein peak at 8.4 kDa was associated with CRS in 77% of cases. CONCLUSION: SELDI-TOF-MS serum protein profile analysis is able to distinguish CRS patients requiring FESS from healthy, negatively screened controls with a sensitivity of 77.1% and specificity of 65.8%. Additional investigation is required to determine if SELDI-TOF-MS will make an effective clinical tool.

    Title The Effects of Smoking on Short-term Quality of Life Outcomes in Sinus Surgery.
    Date June 2008
    Journal The Laryngoscope

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the short-term benefit of endoscopic sinus surgery for smokers and nonsmokers using a disease specific, clinically validated, quality of life outcomes measure, the Sinonasal Outcomes Test-20 (SNOT-20). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. METHODS: A total of 235 patients were prospectively enrolled at a single tertiary academic center. Preoperative SNOT-20 scores and comprehensive demographic data were obtained. All patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery under the supervision of the senior author. Preoperative SNOT-20 scores were compared to short-term postoperative SNOT-20 scores. RESULTS: Short-term postoperative results were available for 221 patients for comparison. Preoperative SNOT-20 scores in 49 smokers (mean: 27.8) and 172 nonsmokers (mean: 26.2) were statistically similar. Both smokers and nonsmokers achieved a highly significant reduction in SNOT-20 scores at short-term follow-up evaluations. (P < .0005) Smokers achieved a greater reduction in SNOT-20 scores (mean difference: 22.1) at short-term follow-up compared to nonsmokers (mean difference: 16.1). This result was statistically significant (P < .044). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that smokers and nonsmokers achieve a highly significant short-term benefit from endoscopic sinus surgery using a clinically-validated symptom severity scale in a prospective study. Interestingly, smokers achieved a greater short-term benefit than nonsmokers did. This study calls into question the notion that current smokers are poorer candidates for endoscopic sinus surgery. Further prospective studies to confirm these results and provide long-term analysis should be performed.

    Title New Technologies in Thyroid Surgery.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America

    Recent technological innovations are facilitating new approaches to surgery of the thyroid gland, including minimally invasive approaches that have the added advantage of allowing the surgeon to avoid drains, thus enabling outpatient surgery. Laryngeal nerve monitoring may be a useful adjunct in identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, particularly for the low-volume endocrine surgeon. Endoscopic surgical techniques allow improved visualization and permit thyroidectomy to be performed through small incisions, often less than 3 cm, which may improve cosmetic outcomes. Finally, surgical robotics, with the promise of further enhanced visualization and surgical dexterity better than that possible with traditional endoscopic approaches, may have future applications to thyroid surgery.

    Title Mercury Intoxication: Lack of Correlation Between Symptoms and Levels.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Clinical Pediatrics

    The incidence of mercury intoxication has decreased considerably because of stricter public health regulations. However, it has not been completely eliminated and should be considered in a child with unexplained tachycardia, hypertension, mood changes, weight loss, and acrodynia. Mercury intoxication can be difficult to differentiate from pheochromocytoma and Kawasaki's disease. Here, the authors report the case of an 8-year-old boy with history of mercury exposure, signs and symptoms suggestive of mercury intoxication, and good response to chelation therapy, but with only mild increase in urinary mercury levels. This case highlights the fact that urinary mercury levels do not necessarily correlate with the severity of clinical signs and symptoms of mercury intoxication.

    Title Primary Renal Lymphoma Presenting with Hypertension.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Pediatric Blood & Cancer

    Primary renal lymphoma (PRL) is a rare lymphoma which usually presents with hematuria, flank pain, abdominal mass, and weight loss. PRL is more diagnosed in adults than children. We describe an asymptomatic child who presented with hypertension and was subsequently diagnosed with primary renal lymphoma. This case represents an atypical presentation for PRL.

    Title Ontogeny of Nhe8 in the Rat Proximal Tubule.
    Date August 2007
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology

    Proximal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption is primarily mediated via the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, identified as NHE3 in adults. Previous studies have demonstrated a maturational increase in rat proximal tubule NHE3 expression, with a paucity of NHE3 expression in neonates, despite significant Na(+)-dependent proton secretion. Recently, a novel Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (NHE8) was identified and found to be expressed on the apical membrane of the proximal tubule. To determine whether NHE8 may be the antiporter responsible for proton secretion in neonates, the present study characterized the developmental expression of NHE8 in rat proximal tubules. RNA blots and real-time RT-PCR demonstrated no developmental difference in the mRNA of renal NHE8. Immunoblots, however, demonstrated peak protein abundance of NHE8 in brush border membrane vesicles of 7- and 14-day-old compared with adult rats. In contrast, the level of NHE8 expression in total cortical membrane protein was higher in adults than in neonates. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of NHE8 on the apical membrane of the proximal tubules of neonatal and adult rats. These data demonstrate that NHE8 does undergo maturational changes on the apical membrane of the rat proximal tubule and may account for the Na(+)-dependent proton flux in neonatal proximal tubules.

    Title The Constitutive Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Cd3zeta Results from Tcr-mhc Interactions That Are Independent of Thymic Selection.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Journal of Immunology (baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    The TCR complex, when isolated from thymocytes and peripheral T cells, contains a constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated CD3zeta molecule termed p21. Previous investigations have shown that the constitutive phosphorylation of CD3zeta results from TCR interactions with MHC molecules occurring in both the thymus and the periphery. To determine what contribution the selection environment had on this constitutive phosphorylation, we analyzed CD3zeta from several distinct class I- and II-restricted TCR-transgenic mice where thymocyte development occurred in either a selecting or a nonselecting MHC environment. Herein, we report that constitutively phosphorylated CD3zeta (p21) was present in thymocytes that developed under nonselecting peptide-MHC conditions. These findings strongly support the model that the TCR has an inherent avidity for MHC molecules before repertoire selection. Biochemical analyses of the TCR complex before and after TCR stimulation suggested that the constitutively phosphorylated CD3zeta subunit did not contribute to de novo TCR signals. These findings may have important implications for T cell functions during self-MHC recognition under normal and autoimmune circumstances.

    Title Delaying Postoperative Radiotherapy in Advanced Laryngeal Cancer.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Title Effects of Phenanthrene on Lemna Minor in a Sediment-water System and the Impacts of Uvb.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Ecotoxicology (london, England)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if the Lemna-bioassay is appropriate to test contaminated sediments. A mixture of sand was spiked with phenanthrene to investigate whether sediment-bound pollutants can affect the plants via direct contact of the roots or the underside of the leaves. After 24h of equilibration for sorption/desorption processes, the test was carried out in the sediment-water mixture, and another test was performed with the aqueous phase which was separated from the sediment. The growth inhibition of Lemna was nearly the same in both tests. Hence it follows that the toxicant is adsorbed from the aqueous phase via the underside of the leaves and sediment bound phenanthrene is not bioavailable. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known to show photoinduced toxicity to plants in the presence of UV which is a result of photosensitization reactions in the plant and photomodification to more toxic and better soluble photoproducts. Photoinduced toxicity could be observed in the water phase during UVB treatment, whereas the presence of suspended sediment probably lowered the UV intensity, resulting in a lower growth inhibition.

    Title Developmental Competencies for Staff in the Nicu.
    Date November 1996
    Journal Neonatal Network : Nn
    Title [irregular Antibodies. A Comparative Study of 2 Series of 20,000 Subjects: One with a Conventional Identification Test, the Other with Gel-test]
    Date September 1995
    Journal Transfusion Clinique Et Biologique : Journal De La Société Française De Transfusion Sanguine

    The results of irregular antibody screening in two successive series of 21485 and 19819 individuals were retrospectively analysed. All the irregular antibody screenings were performed with an autoanalyser according to Rosenfield and Lalezary [1, 2] but red cell antibody identification tests were not the same: conventional manual tests in the first series and gel-test Diamed in the second one. In spite of a bigger number of identification tests performed in the second series, the percentage of patients with irregular antibodies was approximately the same (2.27% and 2.22%) in each series. Analysis of identified specificities shows in the second series the increase of immune antibodies (+ 42.3%) especially antibodies with anti-Rh specificity and the decline of natural antibodies (- 28.9%) essentially of anti-Lewis b and P1 antibodies. The sensitivity of both the gel-test and the autoanalyser screening for identification of immune antibodies are more or less the same. The sensitivity of gel-test probably gives a safer transfusion but increases the workload of both the laboratory and the blood bank delivery service.

    Title Success-failure on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses by Nurse Candidates from an Accelerated Baccalaureate Nursing Program.
    Date December 1992
    Journal Journal of Professional Nursing : Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing

    Nine years of data from first-time nurse candidates taking the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) were examined to identify predictors of successful performance and determine probabilities of success. Using logistic regression, four statistical models at strategic time periods during an accelerated baccalaureate nursing program were tested to see when intervention might be initiated to influence student performance on the NCLEX-RN. By the end of the first semester the model could predict failure for 94 per cent of those who failed, but it was less consequential in correctly predicting success of those who passed. Significant variables placing nurse candidates at risk included their first-semester grade point average, sex, and whether they were foreign educated. By the end of the second semester, with each full letter grade increase in cumulative grade point average, nurse candidates had a 46 times better chance of passing the NCLEX-RN; American-educated nurse candidates had a 4.5 times better chance of passing than their foreign-educated counterparts. At the end of the final semester, with each full letter grade increase on the final cumulative grade point average, nurse candidates had a 97 times greater likelihood of performing successfully on the NCLEX-RN.

    Title The Odds for Success on Nclex-rn by Nurse Candidates from a Four-year Baccalaureate Nursing Program.
    Date December 1992
    Journal The Journal of Nursing Education

    First-time nurse candidates from a four-year baccalaureate nursing program were examined to identify predictors of success on NCLEX-RN. Five logistic regression models were tested to see if specific variables increased nurse candidates' odds for success or failure. The use of admission criteria was the poorest model in predicting performance. Cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) suggested that the end of the sophomore year was the best time for predicting success and the end of the junior year was best for predicting failure. Age was inversely related to successful performance in three of the five models. Using cumulative nursing GPAs, the likelihood of predicting success on NCLEX-RN increased at the end of each academic year.

    Title Meta-analysis of Data from Experimental Research.
    Date February 1991
    Journal The Kansas Nurse
    Title Helping Patients Recover Faster.
    Date November 1990
    Journal The American Journal of Nursing
    Title A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Nursing Interventions on Children and Parents.
    Date May 1990
    Journal Mcn. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
    Title Propionibacterium Acnes Immunotherapy in Chronic Recurrent Canine Pyoderma. An Adjunct to Antibiotic Therapy.
    Date April 1989
    Journal Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, dogs with chronic recurrent pyoderma were treated with antibiotics plus intravenous injections of either Propionibacterium acnes or placebo. Responses (an increase, decrease, or clearing of lesions) were measured and evaluated statistically. Eighty percent (12 of 15) of the dogs treated with antibiotics and P acnes compared with 38% (five of 13) of the dogs treated with antibiotics and placebo responded with significant improvement or complete remission of lesions at the end of the 12-week treatment schedule (P less than 0.05).

    Title Nursing Interventions and Patient Outcomes: a Meta-analysis of Studies.
    Date October 1988
    Journal Nursing Research

    The 84 subject-studies and 4,146 individual subjects in this meta-analysis were obtained from nurse-conducted experimental research over an 8-year period. The entire universe of accessible subject-studies that met criteria was included. Although both published and unpublished research were included to protect the study from publication bias, there was no statistically significant difference in findings. The mean effect size for the sample of comparisons from the 84 studies was .59. The associated U3 value of 72.2 and r of .28 indicate that patients who receive research-based nursing interventions can expect 28% better outcomes than 72% of the patients who receive standard nursing care.

    Title [anti-erythrocyte Alloimmunization in the Rh System (with the Exception of Antigen D) After the Transfusion of Platelet Concentrates]
    Date September 1985
    Journal Revue Française De Transfusion Et Immuno-hématologie
    Title [cost of Transfusion in Aids. Experience at the Claude-bernard Hospital Apropos of 28 Cases]
    Date January 1985
    Journal Revue Française De Transfusion Et Immuno-hématologie

    The study of 28 confirmed cases of AIDS shows that transfused patients use a large amount of hospital's blood products, especially platelets. For these patients, the average cost of transfusion is higher than that, for intensive care unit patient's. The use of irradiated products increases the cost (+ 35%). As there is a shortage of donors, if the present precautions are respected, there is no reason why the hospital should not continue to ask the patient's family and circle of friends, to donate blood.

    Title 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic Acid in Antibiotic Biosynthesis. Vi. Directed Biosynthesis Studies with Ansamycin Antibiotics.
    Date January 1984
    Journal The Journal of Antibiotics

    Biosynthesis of the ansamycin antibiotic actamycin (2) was markedly increased by the addition of the precursor 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (1) to the producing Streptomyces fermentation. Similar addition of the 4-chloro, 6-chloro, N-methyl and O-methyl analogues 4, 6, 5 and 7 of the amino acid 1 reduced actamycin production and did not yield structurally modified ansamycins. These results with the analogues 4, 5 and 7 indicate that the corresponding chlorine, N-methyl and O-methyl substituents present in the nuclei of various ansamycins are introduced at biosynthetic stages beyond the level of the amino acid 1.

    Title [psychiatry and Antipsychiatry. Future Aspects of an Unsettled Controversy]
    Date December 1983
    Journal Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift

    The quotation of two representative examples of so-called "antipsychiatry" shows that the given arguments are neither coherent nor of practical use. There is no doubt that antipsychiatry has not only utopian but also very down-to-earth aims in mind which could finally result in parts of psychiatry and, in particular, of psychotherapy being more or less split off from medicine. This can, in the long run, be avoided only if medicine not only makes an effort to continuously update its own theoretical foundations (which are included in the following key words), but more over investigates to what degree practical psychiatric research takes them into account. Difficulties in this context are shown.

    Title Metabolites of Dactylaria Lutea. The Structures of Dactylariol and the Antiprotozoal Antibiotic Dactylarin.
    Date August 1978
    Journal The Journal of Antibiotics

    The metabolites of the predacious fungus Dactylaria lutea ROUTIEN include the anthraquinone macrosporin (2) and three hydroxylated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro derivatives of this anthraquinone, altersolanol A (5), altersolanol B (4) and dactylariol (6). The structure and relative configuration of dactylariol are established from spectroscopic studies, and its absolute configuration is proposed as 1R, 2R, 3R by virtue of its co-occurrence with altersolanol B. Dactylarin, suggested by other authors to have the structure (1), is shown to be identical with altersolanol B (4).

    Title Gamma Benzene Hexachloride in Guinea-pig Brain After Topical Application.
    Date June 1977
    Journal The Journal of Investigative Dermatology

    Blood and brain levels of gamma benzene hexachloride had been measured following topical application in guinea pigs. Levels increased with number of application, and the concentration in brain was at least 10 times greater than in blood.

    Title The Absolute Configuration of the Glutarimide Antibiotics Streptimiodone and 9-methylstreptimidone.
    Date April 1977
    Journal Helvetica Chimica Acta
    Title [manifestations of Human Aggressiveness]
    Date June 1971
    Journal Bibliotheca Psychiatrica
    Title [use of Virgimycin, a Pediatric Powder, in Infants]
    Date April 1966
    Journal Annales Médicales De Nancy
    Title Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in the Sediment of the Roter Main River, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Journal Environmental Pollution (barking, Essex : 1987)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Their sources are known but few studies about their accumulation potential in river sediments exist. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in sediments in relation to their levels in river water receiving effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). PFOS accumulates by a factor of about 40 relative to river water, PFOA only up to threefold. In contrast to previous suggestions, in this case the enrichment on sediment is not correlated to the total organic carbon contents.

    Title The Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Ptpn4/ptp-meg1, an Enzyme Capable of Dephosphorylating the Tcr Itams and Regulating Nf-kappab, is Dispensable for T Cell Development And/or T Cell Effector Functions.
    Journal Molecular Immunology

    T cell receptor signaling processes are controlled by the integrated actions of families of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). Several distinct cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatases have been described that are able to negatively regulate TCR signaling pathways, including SHP-1, SHP-2, PTPH1, and PEP. Using PTPase substrate-trapping mutants and wild type enzymes, we determined that PTPN4/PTP-MEG1, a PTPH1-family member, could complex and dephosphorylate the ITAMs of the TCR zeta subunit. In addition, the substrate-trapping derivative augmented basal and TCR-induced activation of NF-kappaB in T cells. To characterize the contribution of this PTPase in T cells, we developed PTPN4-deficient mice. T cell development and TCR signaling events were comparable between wild type and PTPN4-deficient animals. The magnitude and duration of TCR-regulated ITAM phosphorylation, as well as overall protein phosphorylation, was unaltered in the absence of PTPN4. Finally, Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines and in vivo immune responses to Listeria monocytogenes were equivalent between wild type and PTPN4-deficient mice. These findings suggest that additional PTPases are involved in controlling ITAM phosphorylations.

    Title Breast Carcinoma Cells in Primary Tumors and Effusions Have Different Gene Array Profiles.
    Journal Journal of Oncology

    The detection of breast carcinoma cells in effusions is associated with rapidly fatal outcome, but these cells are poorly characterized at the molecular level. This study compared the gene array signatures of breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions. The genetic signature of 10 primary tumors and 10 effusions was analyzed using the Array-Ready Oligo set for the Human Genome platform. Results for selected genes were validated using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Array analysis identified 255 significantly downregulated and 96 upregulated genes in the effusion samples. The majority of differentially expressed genes were part of pathways involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-cell interaction, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Genes that were upregulated in effusions included KRT8, BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, while DCN, CLDN19, ITGA7, and ITGA5 were downregulated at this anatomic site. PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the array findings for BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, and DCN. Our data show that breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions have different gene expression signatures, and differentially express a large number of molecules related to adhesion, motility, and metastasis. These differences may have a critical role in designing therapy and in prognostication for patients with metastatic disease localized to the serosal cavities.

    Title Conservative Management of a Grade V Injury to an Ectopic Pelvic Kidney Following Blunt Trauma to the Lower Abdomen: a Case Report.
    Journal Journal of Medical Case Reports


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