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Urologist
26 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School Score
State University of New York Downstate (1984)
  • Currently 1 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
South Jersey Magazine "Top Physicians 2011" Reader’s Choice Award
US News and World Report's "Top Doctors 2011" Places Dr. Seftel in the Top 1% of Urologists Nationwide
Inside Jersey, "Top Doctors" 2010, 2011
"Best Doctors in America" 2001 through 2011
Philadelphia Magazine, "Top Doctors" 2011
Castle Connolly America's Top Doctors® (2002 - 2008, 2010 - 2014)
Patients' Choice Award (2008)
Associations
American Board of Urology
American College of Surgeons
American Urological Association
American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Seftel is affiliated with 9 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Uh Richmond Medical Center
    27100 Chardon Rd, Cleveland, OH 44143
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • University Hospitals of Cleveland
    11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Cooper University Hospital *
    Urology
    1 Cooper Plz, Camden, NJ 08103
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Cooper Medical Center
  • Cleveland Va Medical Center
  • Uh Bedford Med Centers
  • Cleveland Va Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio
  • Cooper Hospital Umc
  • University Hospitals Case Medical Center
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Seftel has contributed to 51 publications.
    Title Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Evaluation and Management by Urologists and Primary Care Physicians: Practice Patterns from the Observational Bph Registry.
    Date October 2011
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We examined the evaluation of and management for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia by physician specialty (urologist vs primary care physician).

    Title Improvements in Confidence, Sexual Relationship and Satisfaction Measures: Results of a Randomized Trial of Tadalafil 5 Mg Taken Once Daily.
    Date September 2009
    Journal International Journal of Impotence Research
    Excerpt

    An efficacy study of tadalafil (5 mg once daily) for treating erectile dysfunction included sexual satisfaction and psychosocial outcome measures such as Treatment satisfaction (THX) domain of Sexual Life Quality Questionnaire, Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile questions 4 (SEP4; hardness satisfaction) and 5 (SEP5; overall satisfaction), intercourse satisfaction (IS) and overall satisfaction (OS) domains of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and partner SEP question 3 (pSEP3). After a 4-week run-in phase, participants were randomized to receive either tadalafil (N=264) or placebo (N=78) for 12 weeks. Participants and partners were more satisfied (THX) with tadalafil (75 and 73, respectively) than with placebo (51 and 55, respectively, P<0.001). Statistically significant improvements in sexual relationship, confidence, self-esteem and overall relationship (SEAR), in addition to IS, OS, SEP5 and pSEP3 for tadalafil compared with placebo (P<0.001) correlated with erectile function (EF) improvement (assessed by change from baseline in IIEF-EF score). Tadalafil significantly improved treatment and sexual satisfaction, while improving multiple outcomes measured by SEAR.

    Title Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Evaluation, Treatment and Association with Sexual Dysfunction: Practice Patterns According to Physician Specialty.
    Date July 2008
    Journal International Journal of Clinical Practice
    Excerpt

    AIMS: Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) are a common problem in ageing men and are accompanied by sexual dysfunction (SD) in 40-70% of men evaluated in large-scale epidemiological studies. One year after the 2003 American Urological Association (AUA) guideline on BPH management was published, a survey of US urologists (UROs) and primary care physicians (PCPs) was conducted to ascertain physician knowledge of the AUA guideline and practice patterns regarding LUTS/BPH diagnosis, treatment and association with SD. METHODS: A 19-question qualitative survey, sponsored by the American Foundation of Urologic Disease, was mailed April 2004 to 7500 UROs and 17,500 PCPs, with responses collected until May 2004. RESULTS: A total of 788 surveys were returned (437 UROs; 351 PCPs). Only 62% of PCPs were aware of and only 41% of PCPs used the AUA-Symptom Index/International Prostate Symptom Score (AUA-SI/IPSS) to assess LUTS compared with 97% and 81% of UROs respectively. Alpha-blocker monotherapy was the treatment of choice for both UROs and PCPs. Compared with UROs, PCPs reported higher rates of SD in association with LUTS or BPH (37% vs. 27%) and BPH pharmacotherapy (27% vs. 21%). UROs and PCPs reported higher rates of SD side effects [ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction (ED)] for tamsulosin (EjD: UROs 22%, PCPs 12%; ED: UROs 7%, PCPs 10%) and doxazosin (EjD: UROs 14%, PCPs 10%; ED: UROs 7%, PCPs 12%) than for alfuzosin (EjD: UROs 6%, PCPs 4%; ED: UROs 4%, PCPs 5%). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that many PCPs are not using the AUA-SI/IPSS to assess LUTS in their ageing male patients. Both UROs and PCPs appear to be underestimating the prevalence of SD in men with LUTS/BPH relative to prevalence rates reported in large-scale epidemiological studies.

    Title Hypogonadism is Associated with Overt Depression Symptoms in Men with Erectile Dysfunction.
    Date April 2008
    Journal International Journal of Impotence Research
    Excerpt

    Depression and hypogonadism are associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). We evaluated the prevalence of both conditions in men presenting to an ED specialty clinic, and tested whether hypogonadism correlated with the presence of depressive symptoms using a validated questionnaire. From July 2001 to June 2003, 157 men referred to an ED specialty clinic prospectively filled the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and had testosterone serum levels drawn. Median age was 53 (range=21-85 years). Hypogonadism, defined as serum T (testosterone)<300 mg/dl, was present in 36% of patients. This proportion was higher in men over the median age compared to younger patients (45 and 26%, respectively, P=0.002). Overt depression symptoms, defined as a CES-D> or =22, were found in 24% of men. Mean age of men with overt depression was 49.9+/-10.1 years vs 55.1+/-15.8 years for those with CES-D<22 (P=0.02). Hypogonadal men were more likely to have overt depression scores compared to eugonadal counterparts (35 vs 18%, P=0.02). This association was statistically stronger after correcting for age in a multivariate linear model (P=0.005). The relative risk of having overt depression was 1.94 times higher in men with hypogonadal testosterone level (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 3.7). We conclude that in an ED referral population, symptoms of hypogonadism and depression symptoms are fairly prevalent, and that overt depression symptoms are strongly associated with hypogonadism. Clinicians should consider testosterone measurements in all men with high depression symptom scores.

    Title Erectile Dysfunction and Sleep Related Disorders.
    Date March 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: There are reported links between erectile dysfunction and sleep disorders. We reviewed the physiology of penile erection during sleep and the possible links between the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction and the most commonly diagnosed sleep disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search using the identifiers erectile dysfunction, sleep, sleep disorders, sleep apnea, insomnia and narcolepsy was performed to identify the current literature pertaining to erectile dysfunction and sleep disorders. The peer reviewed literature and relevant surveys from 1985 to 2006 were subsequently reviewed. RESULTS: An association between erectile dysfunction and sleep disorders appears to exist in survey studies relying on self-report and in small case series. Hormonal, neural and endothelial mechanisms have been implicated in linking sleep disorders with erectile dysfunction. Treatment of sleep disorders, specifically sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure, has been shown to improve patient erectile function. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider concomitant sleep disorders when evaluating patients with erectile dysfunction, especially in those refractory to routine therapy. Further studies are necessary to clearly define the causative link between sleep disorders and erectile dysfunction.

    Title Office Evaluation of Male Sexual Dysfunction.
    Date January 2008
    Journal The Urologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    Historically, the office visit for a man complaining of sexual dysfunction focused on erectile dysfunction (ED). Over the past several years, epidemiologic studies and novel data have mandated that the clinician redirect this office visit. The office visit has now expanded into a variety of other areas, including premature ejaculation, libido, and hypogonadism as well as a cardiovascular assessment in light of the data suggesting that ED may be a sentinel sign of cardiovascular disease. This article provides the rationale for this global assessment paradigm.

    Title Centrally Acting Mechanisms for the Treatment of Male Sexual Dysfunction.
    Date January 2008
    Journal The Urologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    The development of pharmacologic therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED) has been possible because of incremental growth in our understanding of the physiology of normal erections and the complex pathophysiology of ED. Although the oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors have provided safe, effective treatment of ED for some men, a large proportion of men who have ED do not respond to PDE5 inhibitors or become less responsive or less satisfied as the duration of therapy increases. Also, men who are receiving organic nitrates and nitrates, such as amyl nitrate, cannot take PDE5 inhibitors because of nitrate interactions. The current options for treatment beyond PDE5 inhibitors are invasive, unappealing to some patients, and sometimes ineffective. The search for other options by which ED can be treated has branched out and now encompasses centrally acting mechanisms that control erectile function. Drugs available in Europe include apomorphine. This article focuses on the mechanism of centrally acting agents and reviews clinical data on potential new centrally acting drugs for men who have ED.

    Title Testosterone and Ageing: What Have We Learned Since the Institute of Medicine Report and What Lies Ahead?
    Date December 2007
    Journal International Journal of Clinical Practice
    Excerpt

    A 2003 report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) surveyed the literature on the benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy in older men and identified knowledge gaps and research needs. This review summarises some key studies published since the IOM report. The possible relationship of testosterone to risk of prostate cancer remains a concern; however, no new evidence has emerged to suggest that testosterone replacement therapy increases the risk. Recent studies have demonstrated that hypogonadism in men may be more prevalent than previously thought, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, and may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies have shown that testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men improves metabolic syndrome indicators and cardiovascular risk factors. Maintaining testosterone concentrations in the normal range has been shown to contribute to bone health, lean muscle mass, and physical and sexual function, suggesting that testosterone replacement therapy may help to prevent frailty in older men. Based on current knowledge, testosterone replacement therapy is unlikely to pose major health risks in patients without prostate cancer and may offer substantial health benefits. Larger, longer-term randomised studies are needed to fully establish the effects of testosterone replacement therapy.

    Title Development and Validation of Four-item Version of Male Sexual Health Questionnaire to Assess Ejaculatory Dysfunction.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: An abridged version of the 25-item Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ) was developed and validated (MSHQ-EjD Short Form) for assessing ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD). METHODS: The MSHQ was administered to 1245 men in the Men's Sexual Health Population Survey, 179 gay/bisexual men in the Urban Men's Health Study, and 6909 men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in the BPH Registry & Patient Survey. Factor analysis, scale reliability, construct and discriminant validity, and the correlation between the MSHQ-EjD Short Form and the MSHQ ejaculatory function domain were assessed. RESULTS: Factor loadings of greater than 0.5 were demonstrated for four ejaculatory function items (force, volume, frequency, and delay). The force and volume of ejaculation had the greatest factor loadings (range 0.77 to 0.81), followed by frequency of ejaculation (0.64 and 0.66). These three ejaculatory function items had a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha > or = 0.78) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.72). The three items discriminated between men with none/mild LUTS and those with moderate/severe LUTS (P <0.001). After adjusting for age, depression, and erectile function, the odds ratio for a diagnosis of moderate/severe LUTS was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.96; P <0.05). The three items had a correlation coefficient of 0.95 with the 7-item MSHQ ejaculatory function domain. The MSHQ ejaculation bother item, an independent domain, showed moderate correlation with the three ejaculatory function items (r = -0.41 and r = -0.45). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that the MSHQ-EjD Short Form, with three ejaculatory function items and one ejaculation bother item, has excellent psychometric properties and should be a useful instrument for assessing EjD in clinical and research settings.

    Title Review of Time of Onset and Duration of Clinical Efficacy of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors in Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Urology
    Title Multi-institutional Outcome Study on the Efficacy of Closed-suction Drainage of the Scrotum in Three-piece Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Surgery.
    Date January 2006
    Journal International Journal of Impotence Research
    Excerpt

    Infection is a devastating complication of penile prosthesis surgery that occurs in approximately 2-5% of all primary inflatable penile primary implants in most series. Prevention of hematoma and swelling with closed-suction drains has been shown not to increase infection rate and yield an earlier recovery time. Despite the intuitive advantages of short-term closed-suction drainage in reducing the incidence of postoperative scrotal swelling and associated adverse effects, many urologists are reluctant to drain the scrotum because of a theoretical risk of introducing an infection. In conclusion, this study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of infection in three-piece penile prosthesis surgery with scrotal closed-suction drainage. A retrospective review of 425 consecutive primary three-piece penile prosthesis implantations was performed at three institutions in New Jersey, Ohio, and Arkansas from 1998 to 2002. Following the prosthesis insertion, 10 French Round Blake (Johnson & Johnson) or, in a few cases, 10 French Jackson Pratt, closed-suction drains were placed in each patient for less than 24 h. All subjects received standard perioperative antibiotic coverage. Average age at implant was 62 y (range 24-92 y). Operative time (incision to skin closure) was less than 60 min in the vast majority of cases. There were a total of 14 (3.3%) infections and three hematomas (0.7%) during an average 18-month follow-up period. In conclusion, this investigation revealed that closed-suction drainage of the scrotum for approximately 12-24 h following three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis surgery does not result in increased infection rate and is associated with a very low incidence of postoperative hematoma formation, swelling, and ecchymosis.

    Title Sonographic Evaluation of Penile Trauma.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the normal sonographic anatomy of the penis and various imaging manifestations of penile trauma. METHODS: Penile trauma cases were collected and reviewed retrospectively from our archive. RESULTS: The normal sonographic anatomy of the penis and various pathologic conditions of patients with penile trauma are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Sonography (especially with color Doppler sonography) is a useful imaging method for evaluating penile anatomy and various pathologic features in patients with penile trauma.

    Title Restorative Increases in Serum Testosterone Levels Are Significantly Correlated to Improvements in Sexual Functioning.
    Date May 2005
    Journal Journal of Andrology
    Excerpt

    It is recognized that testosterone (T) levels decrease in men with age, as does sexual function. We hypothesize that T supplementation in hypogonadal men with sexual dysfunction will restore certain elements of sexual function. Hypogonadal male subjects (total T < or = 300 ng/dL, n = 406, mean age 58 years) reporting one or more symptoms of low testosterone were randomized to T gel (50 mg/d and 100 mg/d), T patch, or placebo. Twenty-four-hour pharmacokinetic profiles for T were obtained. The 3 primary end points evaluated at 30 and 90 days posttreatment included a significant change in the frequency of intercourse and nighttime erections per 7-day week as well as a change in sexual desire measured on a Likert-type scale and calculated as a mean daily score. At day 30, a significant increase from baseline in sexual desire was noted for those on 100 mg/d T gel compared with those on 50 mg/d T gel, T patch, or placebo (1.2 vs 0.4, 0.7, and 0.4, respectively). A significant increase from baseline in the frequency of nighttime erections was also noted for those on 100 mg/d T gel compared with those on 50 mg/d T gel or placebo (51% of subjects in the 100 mg/d T gel group had an increase in frequency vs 30% for the 50 mg/d T gel group and 26% in the placebo group). Finally, a significant increase from baseline in the frequency of intercourse was evidenced for those on 100 mg/d T gel compared with those on T patch or placebo (39% of subjects in the 100 mg/d T gel group had an increase in frequency vs 21% for the T patch group and 24% in the placebo group). Similar results were seen for 100 mg/d T gel at day 90 for sexual desire and nighttime erections vs placebo. These data demonstrate a clear relationship between restoring serum T concentrations and improvement in certain parameters of sexual function. We propose that threshold T levels are needed in order to significantly affect improvements in sexual functioning.

    Title Computational Models for Detection of Erectile Dysfunction.
    Date January 2005
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Vascular comorbidities are well known to correlate with erectile dysfunction (ED) but a correlation with hypogonadism and depression is less clear. Using several linear and nonlinear mathematical models we investigated the correlation of age, hypogonadism and depression with ED using the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) as a surrogate marker for ED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A data set of 140 exemplars containing the input features age, total testosterone in ng/dl, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale score and output SHIM score (thresholded to 10 for moderate ED) was randomized into a modeling (training) set of 105 and a cross-validation (test) set of 35 with similar outcome frequencies preserved in each set. Using neUROn++, a set of C++ programs that we developed using the Cygwin (Red Hat, Raleigh, North Carolina) GNU C++ port for Windows (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington) distributed across Pentium (Intel, Santa Clara, California) platforms we modeled the data set using the linear methods, linear and quadratic discriminant function analysis, and logistic regression, and the nonlinear method of neural computation with several investigated architectures. RESULTS: A 4 hidden node network was found to have the highest accuracy compared to linear and quadratic discriminant function analyses, and logistic regression. ROC areas for the test set were 0.702, 0.645, 0.676 and 0.618, respectively. Analysis of the neural network demonstrated that moderate ED correlated with patient age and depression score. Forward and reverse regression of the neural network based on Wilk's generalized likelihood ratio test revealed that age was most significant (p <0.001), followed by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score (p <0.03), followed by testosterone (p >0.6). CONCLUSIONS: We investigated linear and nonlinear computational models of moderate ED. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration that SHIM correlates with age and a depression metric. Furthermore, moderate ED based on SHIM with a correlation with age may now provide a rationale and basis for future investigation into the understanding of age related erectile pathophysiology.

    Title The Efficacy and Safety of Tadalafil in United States and Puerto Rican Men with Erectile Dysfunction.
    Date August 2004
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We evaluate the efficacy and safety of tadalafil, taken as needed, in men with mild to severe erectile dysfunction (ED) and assess sexual intercourse attempt patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel study conducted in the United States and Puerto Rico 207 men with ED were randomized to placebo or 20 mg tadalafil for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variables were changes from baseline in the mean International Index of Erectile Function erectile function domain score and mean per patient percentage of "yes" responses to Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions 2 (successful penetration) and 3 (successful intercourse). The Global Assessment Question was a secondary end point and post hoc analyses on sexual intercourse attempt patterns were conducted. RESULTS: Men treated with tadalafil compared with placebo reported greater mean changes from baseline on the erectile function domain score (9.3 vs 0.3 with placebo, p <0.001) and on the mean per patient percentage of successful penetration (SEP question 2, 31.6% vs 2.3% with placebo, p <0.001) and successful intercourse attempts (SEP question 3, 43.6% vs 3.5% with placebo, p <0.001). The per treatment group percentage of successful intercourse attempts during treatment was higher for tadalafil than placebo (67.6% vs 24.1%, respectively, p <0.001) and most successful intercourse attempts occurred between 4 and 36 hours after taking tadalafil. Of the men treated with tadalafil 82.8% reported improved erections versus 19.6% taking placebo (Global Assessment Question, p <0.001). The most common treatment emergent adverse events were headache (15.7% vs 6.3% with placebo), back pain (8.8% vs 0%), and dyspepsia (7.5% vs 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Tadalafil (20 mg) significantly improved erectile function and patients did not closely temporally link sexual intercourse attempts with taking tadalafil. Tadalafil was also well tolerated in both groups of men with mild to severe ED.

    Title Priapism.
    Date June 2004
    Journal Radiologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    Priapism is a relatively uncommon condition that may present as a medical emergency associated with significant pain and anxiety in the veno-occlusive or low-flow variant. Pharmacologic advances and, specifically, the availability of intracavemosal alpha-agonist therapy have dramatically improved the prospects of resolution for patients with low-flow priapism presenting within the first few hours of the acute episode. High-flow priapism is not considered an emergency and treatment measures are typically conservative aimed at preservation of potency. Urologists, radiologists, and other health care personnel caring for the patient with priapism must be familiar with various etiologic factors implicated in low-flow and high-flow priapism to formulate a logical step-care approach. Differentiation of the low-flow from the high-flow state is perhaps the most critical initial diagnostic challenge that determines the sequence of further interventions including surgical shunts in low-flow priapism refractory to medical therapy.

    Title Benign Intrascrotal Lesions.
    Date May 2004
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We summarize important clinical, pathological and diagnostic features of benign intrascrotal lesions, including paratesticular lesions (adenomatoid tumors, fibrous pseudotumors, cystadenomas, spermatoceles, hydroceles, varicoceles and hernias) and intratesticular lesions (tunica albuginea cysts, testicular simple cysts, epidermoid cysts, cystic ectasia of the rete testis, intratesticular varicocele, adrenal rest tumors and splenogonadal fusion). This review provides the reader with a better understanding of benign lesions that occur in the scrotum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A directed MEDLINE literature review of benign scrotal lesions and of each individual lesion was performed. This information was enhanced with relevant information from select journals and texts. Particular emphasis was placed on clinical, pathological and diagnostic features. RESULTS: Intrascrotal lesions continue to provide a diagnostic challenge for physicians. A diagnosis can be made with a thorough history, physical examination and understanding of the pathophysiological processes of the structures contained within the scrotum. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy should prompt urological consultation and radiological imaging. Ultrasound aids in the diagnosis in instances of uncertainty. Ultimately surgery may be necessary to make a histological diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical assessment, physical examination and an understanding of benign intrascrotal processes are key to making a diagnosis. Ultrasound has an important role and adds essential information. If surgery is necessary and a benign process is recognized, a testis sparing procedure should be performed.

    Title Prostate-specific Antigen Changes in Hypogonadal Men Treated with Testosterone Replacement.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Journal of Andrology
    Excerpt

    Testosterone supplementation is commonly used as a treatment for hypogonadal men with or without erectile dysfunction. The effect of parenteral testosterone replacement therapy on the development or growth of prostate cancer is unclear. We assessed the effect of this treatment on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and risk of prostate cancer in hypogonadal men with erectile dysfunction. Criteria for inclusion were a normal pre-treatment PSA (<4.0 ng/mL) in conjunction with a normal digital rectal examination (DRE) or a negative pretreatment prostate biopsy for men with either an abnormal DRE or an elevated PSA. Patients received intramuscular injections every 2 to 4 weeks, allowing for dose titration. In this retrospective analysis, 54 hypogonadal men with erectile dysfunction were included, with a mean age of 60.4 years (range 42.0-76.0) and a mean follow-up of 30.2 months (range 2.0-82.0) on testosterone therapy. Mean pretreatment total testosterone level was 1.89 ng/mL (range 0.2-2.92), which increased during treatment to a mean of 9.74 ng/mL (range 1.50-26.30, P <.001). Mean pretreatment PSA was 1.86 ng/mL (median 1.01 ng/mL, range 0.0-15.80), which increased to a mean PSA level of 2.82 ng/mL (median 1.56 ng/mL, range 0.0-32.36, P <.01) with testosterone treatment. Of the 54 men included in this study, 6 (11.1%) required prostate biopsy while on testosterone therapy because of a rise in serum PSA above 4.0 ng/mL. One patient (1.9%) was diagnosed with prostate cancer. In conclusion, testosterone replacement therapy in men with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism is associated with a minor PSA elevation, but there does not appear to be a short-term increase in risk for the development of prostate cancer.

    Title Erectile Dysfunction and Symptoms of Sleep Disorders.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Sleep
    Excerpt

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep apnea often is associated with impotence and/or erectile dysfunction (ED). The purpose of this study was to test whether a presentation for ED confers a pretest probability for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). DESIGN: A self-report survey for sleep complaints was conducted in consecutive male patients (>16 years of age) presenting to a urologic practice site. SETTING: The survey was provided to new and follow-up out-patients over a 2 month period of time. Other information collected included the presenting complaint, the clinical diagnosis for ED, and history of preexisting medical conditions. PARTICIPANTS: N/A. INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MEASUREMENTS and RESULTS: 285 males [91% of the sample: 50 years old (range 16-82) and body mass index, 27.3 (range 16.8-52.5)] completed the survey. 181 (63%) had complaints of ED; of those, 76% had a final diagnosis of organic and 8.2%, psychogenic or both psychogenic and organic ED. Of all respondents, 35.4% reported persistent snoring, 14% reported persistent waketime sleepiness or fatigue, and 26.8% were at "high risk" (Netzer et al., 1999) for OSAHS. Some were high risk for insomnia (13.6%) and restless legs syndrome or for narcolepsy (2% each). There was a correlation between those with ED complaints (p<0.014) or those with a final diagnosis of organic ED (p<0.029) and snoring. In a logistic model that included age, snoring, and preexisting conditions, only age, depression, and history of hypercholesterolemia, were found to vary significantly among those with and without ED. CONCLUSIONS: Urology patients will report a variety of sleep problems, but neither persistent snoring nor suspected OSAHS is correlated uniquely to ED.

    Title Priapism Secondary to Hypertriglyceridemia.
    Date February 2003
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title The Accuracy of the Increased Prostate Specific Antigen Level (greater Than or Equal to 20 Ng./ml.) in Predicting Prostate Cancer: is Biopsy Always Required?
    Date November 2002
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Urologists are often referred patients who initially present with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. Despite a presumptive diagnosis of prostate cancer, many of these men undergo biopsy to obtain a tissue diagnosis before treatment with androgen ablative therapy. We examined a data base of men undergoing prostate biopsy to determine the accuracy of high PSA levels (greater than or equal to 20 ng./ml.) in predicting prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 1,250 consecutive patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at 1 institution. From this data base we identified all patients with PSA greater than or equal to 20 ng./ml. at the time of prostate biopsy. The accuracy of PSA in predicting cancer was determined by calculating positive predictive values for PSA ranges and PSA cutoffs. RESULTS: We identified 187 men (15%) presenting with PSA greater than or equal to 20 ng./ml. Of these 187 men 157 (84.0%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer on initial biopsy. Due to a negative initial biopsy, yet a high suspicion of cancer, 12 (6.4%) patients underwent at least 1 repeat biopsy. Of these 12 men 6 (50%) were diagnosed with cancer on repeat biopsy. Overall, 163 of the 187 men (87.2%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer by biopsy. Stratified by PSA ranges, positive predictive values were 73.6% for 20 to 29.9, 90.3% for 30 to 39.9, 93.8% for 40 to 49.9, 100% for 50 to 99.9, 95% for 100 to 199.9 and 100% for greater than or equal to 200 ng./ml. Using PSA cutoffs positive predictive values were 95.7% for PSA greater than or equal to 30, 97.6% for PSA greater than or equal to 40 and 98.5% for PSA greater than or equal to 50 ng./ml. CONCLUSIONS: Serum PSA, when increased above 50 ng./ml., is 98.5% accurate in predicting the presence of prostate cancer on tissue biopsy. Nonetheless, since transrectal prostate biopsy has a low complication rate and is relatively well tolerated, we recommend continuing to biopsy most patients with high PSA levels. However, carefully selected elderly patients on chronic anticoagulation, with severe co-morbidities or presenting with spinal cord compression may not require biopsy before androgen ablative therapy since PSA is highly accurate in diagnosing prostate cancer at levels greater than 50 ng./ml.

    Title Efficacy and Safety of Sildenafil Citrate (viagra) in Men with Erectile Dysfunction and Spinal Cord Injury: a Review.
    Date November 2002
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects a substantial number of men who are young, active, and otherwise healthy. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common consequence of SCI. Since its approval, sildenafil citrate (Viagra) has been shown to effectively treat ED of various etiologies. We review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of sildenafil treatment of ED in men with SCI. A literature search identified 2 randomized controlled trials and 4 prospective case series that evaluated sildenafil treatment for ED from SCI. Efficacy was evaluated using an assessment of global efficacy and a more specific assessment of erectile function. For general efficacy, the proportion of patients who reported improved erections and ability to have intercourse was as high as 94%. Up to 72% of intercourse attempts were successful. For measures of erectile function, 5 of the 6 studies showed statistically significant improvements among sildenafil-treated versus placebo-treated patients. Erectile response rates were generally higher in patients with incomplete versus complete SCI and in patients with upper versus lower motor neuron lesions. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of patients with complete lesions, regardless of level or lower motor neuron lesions, also benefited from sildenafil. Sildenafil was well tolerated. Incidence rates and types of adverse events that occurred in these studies were similar to those published previously. Symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia were not reported in any study. Existing evidence suggests that oral sildenafil is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment for ED associated with SCI.

    Title Distribution of Chronic Prostatitis in Radical Prostatectomy Specimens with Up-regulation of Bcl-2 in Areas of Inflammation.
    Date April 2002
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We examined the anatomical relationship of chronic prostatitis with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) based on the hypothesis that there may be an association of prostatitis with these other entities that may involve up-regulation of bcl-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 40 whole mount radical prostatectomy specimens for the presence and distribution of chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Immunostaining for bcl-2 was done in 10 cases. RESULTS: Chronic prostatitis was identified in all 40 cases with peripheral zone inflammation in 95% and transition zone inflammation in 87.5%. In all cases of transition zone inflammation the infiltrate was noted within and/or around BPH. Inflammatory infiltrate was microscopically associated with prostate cancer in 23 of the 40 cases (57.5%). In these 23 cases, there was no association of inflammation with Gleason score, preoperative prostate specific antigen, positive margins, or seminal vesicle invasion. Patients with BPH unassociated with prostatitis had significantly smaller prostate weight (median 32 gm.) and were younger (mean age 54.4 years) than those with BPH associated with prostatitis (median weight 40 gm. and mean age 61.4 years, p <0.05). Bcl-2 staining was intensified in benign glands within areas of prostatitis in all 10 cases examined. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic prostatitis is a common finding in radical prostatectomy specimens. Inflammation was associated with BPH and cancer but had a greater tendency to be associated with BPH. Bcl-2 was prominently expressed in areas of prostatitis. Our findings indirectly support a potential role for prostatitis in the pathogenesis of BPH.

    Title Report of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease (afud) Thought Leader Panel for Evaluation and Treatment of Priapism.
    Date February 2002
    Journal International Journal of Impotence Research
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Patients with priapism often develop permanent erectile dysfunction and personal sexual distress. This report is intended to help educate the public by reviewing the varied definitions and classifications of priapism and limited literature reports of pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment outcomes of priapism. The AUA priapism guidelines committee is responsible for creating consensus as to appropriate individual patient management of priapism by physicians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel, consisting of 19 thought leaders in priapism, was convened by the Sexual Function Health Council of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease to address pertinent issues concerning the role of the urologist, primary care providers and other health care professionals in the education of the public regarding management of men with priapism. The panel utilized a modified Delphi method and built upon the peer review literature on priapism. RESULTS: The Thought Leader Panel recommended adoption of the definition of priapism as a pathological condition of a penile erection that persists beyond or is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Priapism is stressed to be an important medical condition that requires evaluation and may require emergency management. The classification system is categorized into ischemic and non-ischemic priapism. Essential elements of the ischemic classification are the inclusion of: (i) clinical characteristics of pain and rigidity; (ii) diagnostic characteristics of absence of cavernosal arterial blood flow; (iii) pathophysiological characteristics of a closed compartment syndrome; (iv) a time limit of 4 h prior to emergent medical care; and (v) a description of the potential consequences of delayed treatment. Essential elements of the non-ischemic classification are the inclusion of: (i) clinical characteristics of absence of pain and presence of partial rigidity; (ii) diagnostic and pathophysiological characteristics of unregulated cavernosal arterial inflow; and (iii) the need for evaluation but emphasizing the lack of a medical emergency. The panel recommended adoption of a rational management algorithm for the assessment and treatment of priapism where the cornerstone of initial assessment includes a careful clinical history, a focused physical examination and selected laboratory and/or radiologic tests. The panel recommended that specific criteria and clinical profiles requiring specialist referral should be identified. The panel further recommended that patient (and partner) needs and education concerning priapism should be addressed prior to therapeutic intervention, however only in the case of chronic management or post acute presentation evaluation should this delay intervention. Treatment goals to be discussed include management of the priapism with concomitant prevention of permanent and irreversible erectile dysfunction and associated psychosocial consequences. The panel recommended that when specific therapies for priapism are required, a step-care treatment approach based upon reversibility and invasiveness should be followed. CONCLUSIONS: The Thought Leader Panel calls for research to expand our understanding of the prevalence and diagnosis of priapism and education to create awareness among the public of the potential urgency of this condition. Critical areas to be addressed include the multiple pathophysiologies of priapism as well as multi-institutional trials to objectively assess safety and efficacy in the various treatment modalities.

    Title Desquamative Penile Lesion As a Manifestation of Behcet's Disease.
    Date January 2001
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title Vasculogenic Impotence and Cavernosal Oxygen Tension.
    Date December 2000
    Journal International Journal of Impotence Research
    Excerpt

    AIMS OF THIS STUDY: To determine the associations, if any, of cavernosal oxygen tension with vasculogenic impotence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated penile cavernosal blood gas levels in men with suspected vasculogenic impotence during penile duplex ultrasonography and/or dynamic infusion cavernosometry and cavernosography (DICC). Patients with suspected impotence were evaluated from 1992-1996. Patient ages ranged from 24-75 y (mean 48 y). Eighteen men had arteriogenic impotence diagnosed by abnormal penile duplex ultrasound after injection of a vasoactive agent, and 23 men had venous leakage diagnosed by DICC. RESULTS: Eighteen men with arteriogenic impotence had the following mean blood gas values: pH = 7.38+/-0.01, PCO2 = 45.50+/-0.94, PO2 = 65.17+/-2.16. Twenty-three men with venogenic (venous leak) impotence had the following mean cavernosal blood gas values: pH = 7.41+/-0.01, PCO2 = 42.26+/-0.83, PO2 = 74.17+/-2.51. The differences in PO2 were significant (P<0.05). A subgroup of men with severe venous leakage had PO2 values that were similar to the low arterial PO2 values. CONCLUSION: The low PO2 in patients with arteriogenic impotence, and the subset of men with severe venous leak impotence, support a global concept of low cavernosal PO2 as a mechanism for both arteriogenic and venogenic impotence.

    Title Sexual Function in Men with Diabetes Type 2: Association with Glycemic Control.
    Date March 2000
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We evaluated the association of glycemic control with erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes type 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of men with diabetes type 2 at the Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center completed questions 1 to 5 of the International Index of Erectile Function. The primary outcome measure was erectile function score, calculated as the sum of questions 1 to 5. Details of disease duration, complications, medication use, patient age and level of glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained by reviewing the medical record. RESULTS: Mean subject age plus or minus standard deviation was 62.0+/-12.3 years, mean hemoglobin A1c was 8.1%+/-1.9% and mean erectile function score was 16.6+/-5.9 (range 5 to 23). Stratified analysis revealed that mean erectile function score decreased as hemoglobin A1c increased (analysis of variance p = 0.002). The test for linearity was also significant (p = 0.001). There were no statistically significant associations of levels of glycemic control with alpha-blocker, beta-blocker or diuretic use. Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of hemoglobin A1c with neuropathy but not with patient age, duration of diabetes, alpha-blockers, beta-blockers or diuretics. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that hemoglobin A1c was an independent predictor of erectile function score (p<0.001) even after adjusting for peripheral neuropathy, which was also an independent predictor (p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Our data add to the growing body of literature suggesting that erectile dysfunction correlates with the level of glycemic control. Peripheral neuropathy and hemoglobin A1c but not patient age were independent predictors of erectile dysfunction.

    Title Cocaine Associated Priapism.
    Date June 1999
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Cocaine abuse is an ongoing epidemic in the United States. Priapism associated with cocaine use has been reported only twice in the urological literature. To our knowledge we report the first series of priapism associated with cocaine use and the first case associated with the use of this drug in its solid form, known as crack.

    Title Edits: Development of Questionnaires for Evaluating Satisfaction with Treatments for Erectile Dysfunction.
    Date May 1999
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To develop Patient and Partner versions of a psychometrically sound questionnaire, the EDITS (Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction), to assess satisfaction with medical treatments for erectile dysfunction. METHODS: Treatment satisfaction differs from treatment efficacy as it focuses on a person's subjective evaluation of treatment received. Twenty-nine items representing the domain of treatment satisfaction for men and 20 representing partner satisfaction were generated. Two independent samples of 28 and 29 couples completed all items at two points in time. Spearman rank-order correlations were derived to assess test-retest reliability and couple coefficients of validity. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for both Patient and Partner versions and a content validity panel was used to analyze content validity. RESULTS: Only items that met all the following criteria were selected to comprise the final questionnaires: (a) range of response four or more out of five; (b) test-retest reliability greater than 0.70; (c) ratings by at least 70% of the content validity panel as belonging in and being important for the domain; and (d) significant correlation between the subjects' and partners' responses. Eleven patient items met criteria and formed the Patient EDITS; five partner items met criteria and formed the Partner EDITS. Scores on the two inventories were normally distributed with internal consistencies of 0.90 and 0.76, respectively. Test-retest reliability for the Patient EDITS was 0.98; for the Partner EDITS, it was 0.83. CONCLUSIONS: Reliability and validity were well established, enabling the EDITSs to be used to assess satisfaction with treatment modalities for erectile dysfunction and to explore the impact of patient and partner satisfaction on treatment continuation.

    Title Superior Hypogastric Plexus Block Successfully Treats Severe Penile Pain After Transurethral Resection of the Prostate.
    Date February 1999
    Journal Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Superior hypogastric plexus block has been used to treat cancer pain of the pelvis. METHODS: A patient with severe chronic nonmalignant penile pain after transurethral resection of the prostate underwent a single superior hypogastric plexus block with local anesthetic and steroid. The patient was also started on medications that treat neuropathic pain a few hours after the procedure was finished. RESULTS: The superior hypogastric plexus block resulted in complete pain relief immediately after the procedure. The pain relief continued at 1, 2, 4, and 8 months follow up. CONCLUSIONS: In this case of severe penile pain the superior hypogastric plexus block was useful diagnostically and therapeutically.

    Title Intraurethral Alprostadil for Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury.
    Date February 1999
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES. To assess the efficacy of intraurethral prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil, MUSE) in treating erectile dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS. Intraurethral alprostadil was tested in 15 patients with SCI to evaluate its effectiveness in treating SCI-associated erectile dysfunction. All patients were at least 1 year after injury, and all had previously used intracavernosal injections successfully (Schramek's grade 5 erection). The intraurethral drug was administered in the office, in the presence of a physician, with monitoring of blood pressure. If effective, the patient was then able to use MUSE at home. The first 3 patients underwent gradual dose escalation starting with 125 microg, without the use of a constriction ring. Because of hypotension, the remaining 12 patients all used a penile constriction ring prior to intraurethral drug administration using 1000 microg. The quality of the erection was compared with that achieved with intracavernosal injections using Schramek's grading. RESULTS. The dose escalation (titration) in the first 3 patients demonstrated that the 1000-microg dose was the most effective in creating an erectile response. Transient hypotension was noted in these first 3 patients in whom the constricting band was not used. The highest dose of MUSE (1000 microg) was, therefore, used in the remaining 12 patients, with the constriction band. The quality of the erection varied and appeared to be less rigid in all patients (12 patients with grade 1 to 3; 3 patients with grade 4) than that noted with intracavernosal injection therapy (1 5 patients with grade 5). There was no incidence of priapism. The 3 patients with grade 4 erections tried the MUSE at home. All 3 patients were dissatisfied with the quality of the erection and did not continue to use the MUSE at home and returned to intracavernosal injection therapy. CONCLUSIONS. MUSE appears to be somewhat effective in creating erections; however, these were less rigid erections than those obtained with intracavernosal therapy and provided less overall satisfaction. It should always be used in the patient with SCI after placement of a constriction ring to prevent hypotension. Its ultimate use depends on the patient's level of satisfaction with the quality of the erection compared with intracavernosal injections.

    Title Hepatotoxicity Related to Intracavernous Pharmacotherapy with Papaverine.
    Date November 1998
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of hepatotoxicity related to self-administration of intracavernous papaverine or papaverine/phentolamine (bimix). METHODS: From October 1994 through June 1996, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 71 consecutive patients diagnosed with organic erectile dysfunction (ED) and receiving intracavernous injection therapy. Inclusion criteria were documentation of normal baseline liver function tests (LFTs), a minimum of 6 months of follow-up that included LFTs, at least one self-injection every 2 weeks, and no other prior or concurrent treatment for ED. Thirty evaluable patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and formed group 1. Mean age was 63 years (range 40 to 77), mean follow-up was 18 months (range 6 to 32), and mean number of injections per month was 5.7 (range 3 to 12). An age-matched population of 20 patients (mean age 69 years, range 46 to 90) without ED but with similar comorbid risk factors formed the control group (group 2). All patients in group 2 had routine long-term follow-up of LFTs (mean 52 months, range 10 to 1 14). RESULTS: Two patients (6.67%) from group 1 had elevated LFTs during treatment: one experienced a mild elevation in alanine aminotransferase and the other developed transient elevations of total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase 6 months after beginning therapy. Both patients reported a history of alcohol abuse. Both patients remained asymptomatic. Neither patient required discontinuation of therapy. One patient (5%) from group 2 developed an elevation of total bilirubin at a follow-up of 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Routine monitoring of LFTs is probably unnecessary during intracavernous pharmacotherapy. Patients with a history of alcohol abuse or liver disease, however, should be followed up more closely when papaverine is selected for intracavernous injection. In these patients, LFTs should be obtained before initiating treatment and at 6-month intervals.

    Title High Flow Priapism Complicating Veno-occlusive Priapism: Pathophysiology of Recurrent Idiopathic Priapism?
    Date April 1998
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title Erectile Dysfunction in Aging: Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether alterations in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis or activity contribute to age-related erectile dysfunction and to elucidate the mechanisms causing these alterations using the rabbit as our model of aging. METHODS: We compared the ability of the rabbit cavernosal smooth muscle to relax in the organ bath in response to acetylcholine (Ach, endothelium-dependent vasodilator), sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor), and A23187 (a calcium ionophore) in young (6 month old) and aged (2.5 to 3.5 year old) rabbits. In addition, the immunohistochemical expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in both young and aged rabbit cavernosal tissue was examined. Endothelial integrity was examined immunohistochemically with JC70. RESULTS: Ach-mediated relaxation of penile corporal tissue was significantly attenuated from a maximum of 68.39 +/- 6.27 (0.1 mM Ach, n = 4) in young rabbits to 39.02 +/- 4.88 (0.1 mM Ach, n = 6) in aged rabbits (P < 0.04). No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was noted between cavernosal relaxation to sodium nitroprusside between young rabbits (97.8%, 0.1 mM SNP, n = 5) and aged rabbits (76.1%, 0.1 mM SNP, n = 5). This suggested that the defect in the Ach-NO pathway was at the level of NO synthesis, not activity. Immunohistochemical staining for eNOS demonstrated upregulation in both the vascular endothelium and corporal smooth muscle of aged rabbit tissue compared with young rabbit cavernosal tissue (n = 5). Anatomic endothelial integrity was demonstrated in the young and aged rabbits by the presence of JC70. This suggested that the defect in the Ach-NO synthetic pathway was not at the level of eNOS and was not due to anatomic endothelial cell disruption. Finally, Ach-mediated cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation in the young rabbit was not significantly augmented (P > 0.05) in the presence of the calcium ionophore A23187 (10 microM). A23187, however, significantly augmented (P < 0.04) Ach-mediated relaxation in the aged rabbit from a maximum of 33.93 +/- 6.58 to 41.55 +/- 6.58 (10 microM Ach, n = 5). This suggested that a potential defect in the Ach-NO synthetic pathway was at the level of intracellular calcium flux and possibly at the level of the calcium-eNOS interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelium-dependent relaxation is attenuated in the aging rabbit; eNOS is upregulated in the aging rabbit; and no difference is noted in response to direct NO donation between the young and aged rabbit. The endothelium is anatomically intact in both the young and aging rabbit. The calcium ionophore A23187 augmented the attenuated vasorelaxation in the aging rabbit cavernosum (although not to the levels seen in the young rabbit cavernosum) and had no effect on the young rabbit cavernosum. These data suggest that erectile dysfunction in the aging rabbit cavernosum appears to be related to endothelial dysfunction and is characterized by eNOS upregulation and aberrant intracellular calcium fluxes.

    Title Inguinal Scrotal Incision for Penile Fracture.
    Date December 1997
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We report a new incision for repair of penile fracture.

    Title Age-related Increase in an Advanced Glycation End Product in Penile Tissue.
    Date April 1997
    Journal World Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation (glycation) of proteins, often referred to as the Maillard reaction, has been proposed to play a role in age and diabetes-related processes by forming protein and DNA adducts and cross-links. These cross-links may contribute to erectile dysfunction by scavenging nitric oxide, which is needed for erection. As the basis for a possible role of the advanced Maillard reaction in age-related erectile dysfunction, we investigated the presence of the specific advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) pentosidine in penile corpus cavernosum tissue and penile tunica albuginea tissue as a function of age. A total of 23 penile tissue specimens were obtained at autopsy, from which 19 samples of tunica albuginea and 21 samples of corpus cavernosum were derived. In addition, 13 penile corporal and tunical specimens were procured at the time of insertion of a penile prosthesis, from which 12 tunica albugineal specimens and 10 samples of corpus cavernosum were derived. Collagen was extracted with acetic acid and pepsin digestion, and the final insoluble collagen product was acid-hydrolyzed with 6 N HCL for 24 h at 110 degrees C. Pentosidine was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reverse-phase column. The level of pentosidine (expressed in picomoles per milligram of insoluble collagen) was found to increase with age in cadaver as well as living penile corporal and tunical albugineal tissues. Best-fit analysis revealed an exponential increase in both types of cadaver penile tissue, with regression equations of y = 15.29 x 10(9.9e-3x), R2 = 0.79, being obtained in the tunica and y = 13.2 x 10(7.63e-3x), R2 = 0.56, in the corpora. These correspond to 6- and 4-fold increases in pentosidine levels from puberty to the age of 100 years (P < 0.05), respectively. Mean pentosidine levels were higher in the tunica than in the corpora. Comparison of pentosidine levels in the tunica versus the corpora revealed a weakly linear correlation (y = 24.88 + 1.08x, R2 = 0.32). Levels in the tunical and corporal specimens from the living human specimens fell with the predicted confidence intervals of the cadaveric tissue. Tunical specimens from patients who underwent repair or revision of a previously inserted penile prosthesis had very low levels of pentosidine. The exponential age-related increase in pentosidine observed in both types of penile tissue suggests an impairment of collagen turnover, which could be related to the advanced glycation reaction in aging. It is not known whether pentosidine itself is directly associated with erectile dysfunction, but its formation is usually accompanied by extensive tissue modification. Formation of advanced Maillard reaction products, which is greatly accelerated in aging, diabetes, and uremia, could contribute to erectile dysfunction in these syndromes.

    Title Corpus Cavernosum-spongiosum Fistula After Blunt Pelvic Trauma: Successful Resolution with Digoxin.
    Date November 1996
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title Perineal Abscess After Embolization for High-flow Priapism.
    Date September 1996
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    High-flow priapism is unusual and is most often due to blunt perineal trauma with resultant laceration of the cavernosal artery, creating an arteriocavernosal fistula. Although few cases have been reported, the consensus on management appears to be embolization of the fistula with autologous clot, alone or in combination with Gelfoam. We present a case of high-flow priapism treated in this manner. The embolized pseudoaneurysm evolved into an abscess that eventually spread to the perineum. The rarity of this entity and the postprocedural morbidity are reported.

    Title Nitric Oxide Relaxes Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle Via a Potassium-conductive Pathway.
    Date May 1996
    Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
    Excerpt

    We tested the hypothesis that acetylcholine-induced relaxation in cavernosal tissue is the result of nitric oxide production that alters K+ conductance. In the organ bath, acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation of corpus cavernosum were significantly attenuated by tetraethylammonium. Basal [K+]i in cavernosal smooth muscle cells was 102 +/- 11 mM using a K+-sensitive fluorescent dye. Acetylcholine produced a decrease in [K+]i to 74 +/- 10 (n > 4, P < 0.05). Tetraethylammonium pretreatment blunted the acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced decrease in [K+]i by 82%, (n > 5, P < 0.001), respectively. L-NMMA blunted the acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced fall in [K+]i by 93% and 83% (n > 4, P < 0.001), respectively. These data suggest that acetylcholine-mediated cavernosal smooth muscle cells relaxation occurs through nitric oxide release with activation of K+ conductance.

    Title Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction After Infusion of Nonionic Intravenous Contrast Material for an Excretory Urogram: a Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    Date May 1995
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Delayed adverse reactions to ionic and nonionic intravenous contrast media have been reported previously. We report a case in which delayed hypersensitivity to iohexol, a nonionic intravenous contrast agent commonly used in excretory urography, resulted in a bi-phasic allergic response. This reaction consisted of a mild post-infusion episode of urticaria, which preceded and was clinically distinct from a moderately severe dermatological eruption. The episode of urticaria was self-limited. The dermatological reaction was treated successfully with antihistamine therapy.

    Title Penile Ultrasound.
    Date March 1995
    Journal Seminars in Urology
    Title Dorsal Nerve Block for Management of Intraoperative Penile Erection.
    Date February 1994
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Intraoperative penile erection during general anesthesia can delay or prevent the completion of cystoscopic or penile surgical procedures. The dorsal penile nerve block is offered as a treatment for intraoperative erection. Advantages of this technique include less potential for cardiovascular complications and improved postoperative analgesia.

    Title Use of a Polytetrafluoroethylene Tube Graft As a Circumferential Neotunica During Placement of a Penile Prosthesis.
    Date November 1992
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Various techniques have evolved for augmentation of the tunica albuginea in cases when tunical tissue has been found deficient during penile prosthesis implantation. An intraoperative situation occurred in which the size of the tunical defect did not permit primary tunical closure or allow for approximation by placement of a tunical patch graft. In this case, to ensure satisfactory insertion of a penile prosthesis a polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) tube graft was used as a circumferential neotunica.

    Title The Hemodynamic Pathophysiology of Impotence Following Blunt Trauma to the Erect Penis.
    Date October 1992
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    A total of 19 patients provided a history of impotence following blunt trauma to the erect penis during intercourse or masturbation, or after accidents. Corporeal veno-occlusive dysfunction was the most common hemodynamic abnormality (16 of 19 patients, or 84%). A site-specific leak, which consisted of abrupt filling of the dorsal vein and/or corpus spongiosum from a focal site on the penile shaft, was demonstrated in 15 patients (79%). Cavernous artery insufficiency was found less often (7 of 19 patients, or 37%). A focal mid shaft cavernous artery occlusion was demonstrated in 5 patients (28%). It is hypothesized that the aforementioned hemodynamic abnormalities are caused by tunica and intracavernous vasculature injuries induced by the marked short-term pressure increases, which approach or exceed the tunica tensile strength during acute abrupt loading of the erect penis. This hypothesis is supported by direct recording of intracavernous pressures that exceeded 450 mm. Hg in response to angulation and manual compression of the penile shaft. Further evidence was created by a biomechanical model that was based on previously published intracavernous pressure--circumference patient data during dynamic infusion pharmacocavernosometry. Using a typical patient data set a 60% diminution of circumference at the site of abrupt loading was calculated to induce a 15% increase in circumference in the nonloaded portion of the penile shaft and an elevated intracavernous pressure exceeding 900 mm. Hg. The site-specific hemodynamic abnormalities were found to occur not only in patients with a classical penile fracture history but also in patients with injuries during masturbation or following accidents who had no acute penile swelling or ecchymosis. Thus, the erect penis is at risk for injury during any acute loading situation. It is likely that this erect trauma-induced hemodynamic pathology occurs more frequently than previously appreciated and that this type of impotence may be the underlying basis for many cases of idiopathic Peyronie's disease.

    Title Disturbed Sexual Function in Patients with Spinal Cord Disease.
    Date November 1991
    Journal Neurologic Clinics
    Excerpt

    The normal neural pathways involved in erection and ejaculation and the various spinal cord and central nervous system disorders that can adversely affect these functions are reviewed in this article. Also outlined are treatment strategies currently being employed.

    Title Testicular Malignancy Associated with Massive Inguinal Adenopathy and Life Threatening Hemorrhage.
    Date October 1989
    Journal New York State Journal of Medicine
    Title Hormonal Therapy for Advanced Prostatic Carcinoma.
    Date October 1989
    Journal Journal of Surgical Oncology. Supplement
    Excerpt

    Since the work of Huggins and Hodges, hormonal therapy, i.e., orchiectomy or estrogens, has been the gold standard of treatment for patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Recently, many new drugs have been introduced in the hope of achieving a beneficial response as compared with hormonal therapy, while avoiding some of the adverse effects. Various newer agents are reviewed. It appears that while these agents may be attractive secondary to specific effects, they do not appear to offer any survival advantage over diethylstilbestrol or orchiectomy. Finally, the theory of total androgen blockade is reviewed. Institution of total blockade does not appear to offer a survival advantage over standard androgen blockade.

    Title Kaposi's Sarcoma of the Penis in a Patient with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
    Date September 1986
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We report a case of secondary Kaposi's sarcoma of the penis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Recognition of the penile lesion as being secondary Kaposi's sarcoma is paramount, since the clinical course appears to be dependent upon systemic disease. Local therapy is reserved for palliation upon disease recurrence.

    Title Loss of Tgfbeta, Apoptosis, and Bcl-2 in Erectile Dysfunction and Upregulation of P53 and Hif-1alpha in Diabetes-associated Erectile Dysfunction.
    Date
    Journal Molecular Urology
    Excerpt

    Vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with collagen replacement of the cavernosal smooth muscle, mediated by an increase in transforming growth factor (TGF)-production secondary to hypoxemia. We tested the hypothesis that human ED is the result of an increase in apoptosis of the cavernosal smooth muscle cells with replacement by collagen, mediated by the TGFbeta upregulation. We also examined the tissue for proteins associated with apoptosis. Human cavernosal tissue was procured from impotent men at the time of prosthesis insertion. Normal corpous cavernosum served as a control. The TUNEL assay was used to assess apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to detect TGFbeta and Bcl-2 expression, while Western blot analysis was used to detect expression of Bcl-2, p53, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a. Immunohistochemistry showed downregulation of TGFbeta protein expression in the corpus cavernosum of men with ED. Apoptotic nuclei were noted in cavernosal smooth muscle from a potent man but were not found in cavernosal tissue from men with ED. To gain insight into the possible mechanism of apoptosis in men with ED, the proto-oncogene Bcl-2, a potential inhibitor of apoptosis, was examined. Both immunohistochemistry and Western analysis revealed the presence of Bcl-2 in the cavernosal nerve of a potent man but its absence in cavernosal tissue from men with ED. Thus, loss of Bcl-2 expression correlated with the loss of apoptosis. In contrast, Western blotting demonstrated upregulation of p53 and HIF-1a expression in the cavernosal tissues from the men with ED and diabetes. Male ED follows an active process characterized by a loss of TGFb expression, apoptosis, and Bcl-2 expression. However, there is upregulation of p53 and HIF-1a in men with diabetes. These data support the possibility of hypoxia-mediated ED in diabetes via upregulation of p53 and HIF-1a but does not substantiate a role for TGFbeta in ED.

    Title Erectile Dysfunction and Testosterone Screening with Prostate Specific Antigen Screening at Age 40: Are These Three Gender Specific Determinants Additive for Overall Men's Heath and Do They Improve Traditional Non-gender Specific Determinants to Lessen Cardiovascular Risk and All-cause Mortality?
    Date
    Journal International Journal of Clinical Practice
    Excerpt

    Assess support for a recommendation to add screening for both erectile dysfunction (ED) and hypogonadism to the initial medical evaluation of young-to-middle aged (≥ 40 years of age) men in light of recent guidelines suggesting prostate-specific antigen screening occur at that age.

    Title The Neri Hypogonadism Screener: Psychometric Validation in Male Patients and Controls.
    Date
    Journal Clinical Endocrinology
    Excerpt

    Hypogonadism (HG) is a clinical disorder consisting of reduced testosterone (T) levels and characteristic signs and symptoms of low T. Current instruments used to assess hypogonadal symptoms in men lack adequate measurement properties. To present data on the quantitative validation of a new self-report instrument (HG Screener) developed to identify men with symptoms of HG.

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