Browse Health
8 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Johns Hopkins University (2002)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Society of Urologic Oncology
American Urological Association

Affiliations ?

Dr. Baccala is affiliated with 6 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations



  • Harford Memorial Hosp
    501 S Union Ave, Havre De Grace, MD 21078
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Franklin Square Hospital
    9000 Franklin Square Dr, Rosedale, MD 21237
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Union Hospital of Cecil County
    106 Bow St, Elkton, MD 21921
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Lehigh Valley Hospital
    1200 S Cedar Crest Blvd, Allentown, PA 18103
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Upper Chesapeake Medical Center
    500 Upper Chesapeake Dr, Bel Air, MD 21014
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Lehigh Valley Hospital - Muhlenberg
    2545 Schoenersville Rd, Bethlehem, PA 18017
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Baccala has contributed to 6 publications.
    Title D'amico Risk Stratification Correlates with Degree of Suspicion of Prostate Cancer on Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    Date March 2011
    Journal The Journal of Urology

    We determined whether there is a correlation between D'Amico risk stratification and the degree of suspicion of prostate cancer on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging based on targeted biopsies done with our electromagnetically tracked magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion platform.

    Title Cancer Cells Engineered to Secrete Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Using Ex Vivo Gene Transfer As Vaccines for the Treatment of Genitourinary Malignancies.
    Date September 2000
    Journal Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

    When irradiated and administered intradermally as vaccines, cancer cells engineered to secrete high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by gene transfer elicit potent anticancer immune responses in a variety of animal tumor models. Upon vaccination, antigens present in the cancer cells are phagocytosed and processed by skin dendritic cells. These dendritic cells then prime anticancer immune responses by presenting antigenic peptides to T cells. The immune responses generated are capable of eradicating small but lethal cancer cell inocula with minimal toxicity in preclinical animal tumor studies. To develop this vaccination strategy for the treatment of human genitourinary cancers, we have conducted phase I clinical trials using human genitourinary cancer cells as sources of cancer cell antigens. In the first human clinical trial of genetically engineered cancer cell vaccines, a phase I clinical trial of kidney cancer cell vaccines (n = 18), kidney cancer cells were removed at surgery, propagated briefly in vitro, and then genetically modified to secrete high levels of GM-CSF via ex vivo transduction with the retrovirus MFG-GM-CSF. After irradiation, the kidney cancer cells were administered as vaccines to 18 patients with advanced kidney cancers. Vaccine treatment, which caused few side effects, nonetheless appeared to trigger anticancer immune responses manifest as conversion of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses against irradiated autologous cancer cells after vaccination. Biopsies of vaccine sites yielded findings reminiscent of biopsies from preclinical animal model studies, with evidence of vaccine cell recruitment of dendritic cells, T cells, and eosinophils. One patient with measurable kidney cancer metastases treated at the highest vaccine dose level experienced a partial treatment response. The bioactivity of GM-CSF-secreting autologous cancer cell vaccines was confirmed in a phase I clinical trial for prostate cancer (n = 8). Vaccine cells were prepared from surgically harvested prostate tumors by ex vivo transduction with MFG-GM-CSF in a manner similar to that used for the kidney cancer trial. Vaccine treatment was well tolerated and associated with induction of anticancer immunity as assessed using DTH skin testing. In addition, new antiprostate cancer cell antibodies were detected in serum samples from treated men as a consequence of vaccination. These first clinical trials of GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines for the treatment of genitourinary cancers have demonstrated both safety and bioactivity, in that very few side effects have been seen and anticancer immune responses have been detected. Future clinical studies will be required to assess vaccine treatment efficacy, refine vaccination dose and schedule, define the appropriate clinical context for the use of such vaccines, and ascertain optimal combinations involving vaccines and other local or systemic anticancer treatments.

    Title Induction of Immunity to Prostate Cancer Antigens: Results of a Clinical Trial of Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Prostate Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Using Ex Vivo Gene Transfer.
    Date November 1999
    Journal Cancer Research

    Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. Expansion of primary cultures of autologous vaccine cells was successful to meet trial specifications in 8 of 11 cases (73%); the yields of the primary culture cell limited the number of courses of vaccination. Side effects were pruritis, erythema, and swelling at vaccination sites. Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. T-cell responses, evaluated by assessing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions against untransduced autologous tumor cells, were evident in two of eight patients before vaccination and in seven of eight patients after treatment. Reactive DTH site biopsies manifested infiltrates of effector cells consisting of CD45RO+ T-cells, and degranulating eosinophils consistent with activation of both Th1 and Th2 T-cell responses. A distinctive eosinophilic vasculitis was evident near autologous tumor cells at vaccine sites, and at DTH sites. B-cell responses were also induced. Sera from three of eight vaccinated men contained new antibodies recognizing polypeptides of 26, 31, and 150 kDa in protein extracts from prostate cells. The 150-kDa polypeptide was expressed by LNCaP and PC-3 PCA cells, as well as by normal prostate epithelial cells, but not by prostate stromal cells. No antibodies against prostate-specific antigen were detected. These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines.

    Title Increased Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha in Rat and Human Prostate Cancer.
    Date December 1998
    Journal Cancer Research

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia. Expression of HIF-1alpha was evaluated in rat and human prostate cancer cell lines. Increased expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA in rat prostate cancer cell lines and hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1alpha protein in human prostate cancer cell lines are associated with increased cell growth rates and metastatic potential. HIF-1alpha mRNA was undetectable in the normal rat ventral prostate by Northern blot hybridization. HIF-1alpha protein expression and HIF-1 DNA binding activity were detected in normoxic PC-3 cells. Human prostate cancer cells plated at low density manifested higher functional HIF-1alpha expression than cells plated at high density independent of O2 tension. HIF-1alpha may become dysregulated in prostate cancer and thus drive the transcription of hypoxia-adaptive genes involved in tumor progression. This is also the first evidence that human cancer cells can express functional HIF-1alpha protein under normoxic conditions.

    Title Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Candidate Biomarker of Metastatic Tumor Response to Ex Vivo Gene Therapy of Renal Cell Cancer.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Urology

    We report the close correlation between changes in serum immunoreactive vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (iVEGF165) levels and metastatic tumor burden measured by computed tomography scan before treatment, during the antitumor response, and during early progression in a patient treated with ex vivo gene therapy for renal cell carcinoma. With the researcher blinded to outcome, iVEGF levels were measured in archived serum samples from a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who demonstrated a 7-month partial remission to treatment with autologous, irradiated human GM-CSF gene transduced tumor vaccine. Although a spontaneous regression could not be formally excluded in this patient, the appearance of 20 new pulmonary metastases on computed tomography scan after nephrectomy and before vaccination indicates that if spontaneous regression occurred, it took place at the start of vaccine treatment.

    Title Is Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Associated with Clinical Risk Scores for Prostate Cancers That Are Visible on 3-t Mr Images?
    Journal Radiology

    To investigate whether apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3 T correlate with the clinical risk of prostate cancer in patients with tumors that are visible on MR images, with MR imaging/transrectal ultrasonography (US) fusion-guided biopsy as a reference.

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