Surgical Specialist
15 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients
Northwest Dallas
5201 Harry Hines Blvd
Dallas, TX 75235
214-648-8870
Locations and availability (3)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
State University of New York at Buffalo (1995)
  • Currently 3 of 4 apples
Top 50%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Special Recognition for Outstanding Achievement in Resident Teaching Award, Department of Surgery (2005)
Traveling Fellow Award (2005)
Excellence in Education Award, Clinical Teaching Core Clerkship, Acute Care (2006)
Best Overall Resident, Department of Surgery, State University of New York at Buffalo (2000)
Associations
American College of Surgeons
American Burn Association
American Board of Surgery

Affiliations ?

Dr. Arnoldo is affiliated with 5 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Children's Medical Center of Dallas
    1935 Motor St, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - Zale Lipshy
    5151 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - St. Paul
    5909 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Dallas County Hospital District
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Arnoldo has contributed to 25 publications.
    Title Il-10 Polymorphism Associated with Decreased Risk for Mortality After Burn Injury.
    Date November 2010
    Journal The Journal of Surgical Research
    Excerpt

    Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin-10 promoter (-592 and -819) on risk for death after burn injury.

    Title Ophthalmic Manifestations of Stevens-johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Relation to Scorten.
    Date October 2010
    Journal American Journal of Ophthalmology
    Excerpt

    To evaluate the severity of ocular involvement of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and SJS/TEN overlap, and to investigate the relationship of the SCORTEN (a severity-of-illness score for SJS and TEN based on a minimal set of well-defined variables calculated within 24 hours of admission) with eye disease in this patient population.

    Title Analysis of Factorial Time-course Microarrays with Application to a Clinical Study of Burn Injury.
    Date June 2010
    Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Excerpt

    Time-course microarray experiments are capable of capturing dynamic gene expression profiles. It is important to study how these dynamic profiles depend on the multiple factors that characterize the experimental condition under which the time course is observed. Analytic methods are needed to simultaneously handle the time course and factorial structure in the data. We developed a method to evaluate factor effects by pooling information across the time course while accounting for multiple testing and nonnormality of the microarray data. The method effectively extracts gene-specific response features and models their dependency on the experimental factors. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional time-course data can be handled by our approach. The method was used to analyze the impact of age on the temporal gene response to burn injury in a large-scale clinical study. Our analysis reveals that 21% of the genes responsive to burn are age-specific, among which expressions of mitochondria and immunoglobulin genes are differentially perturbed in pediatric and adult patients by burn injury. These new findings in the body's response to burn injury between children and adults support further investigations of therapeutic options targeting specific age groups. The methodology proposed here has been implemented in R package "TANOVA" and submitted to the Comprehensive R Archive Network at http://www.r-project.org/. It is also available for download at http://gluegrant1.stanford.edu/TANOVA/.

    Title Early Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Progressive Renal Dysfunction and Higher Mortality in Severely Burned Adults.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    The incidence and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) developing during acute resuscitation have not been well characterized in burn patients. The recently developed Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage (RIFLE) classification provides a stringent stratification of AKI severity and can allow for the study of AKI after burn injury. We hypothesized that AKI frequently develops early during resuscitation and is associated with poor outcomes in severely burned patients. We conducted a retrospective review of patients enrolled in the prospective observational multicenter study "Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury." A RIFLE score was calculated for all patients at 24 hours and throughout hospitalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish the impact of early AKI on progressive renal dysfunction, need for renal replacement therapy, and hospital mortality. A total of 221 adult burn patients were included, with a mean TBSA burn of 42%. Crystalloid resuscitation averaged 5.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, with urine output of 1.0 +/- 0.6 ml/kg/hr at 24 hours. Sixty-two patients met criteria for AKI at 24 hours: 23 patients (10%) classified as risk, 32 patients (15%) as injury, and 7 (3%) as failure. After adjusting for age, TBSA, inhalation injury, and nonrenal Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II > or =20, early AKI was associated with an adjusted odds ratio 2.9 for death (95% CI 1.1-7.5, P = .03). In this cohort of severely burned patients, 28% of patients developed AKI during acute resuscitation. AKI was not always transient, with 29% developing progressive renal deterioration by RIFLE criteria. Early AKI was associated with early multiple organ dysfunction and higher mortality risk. Better understanding of how early AKI develops and which patients are at risk for progressive renal dysfunction may lead to improved outcomes.

    Title Association of Mitochondrial Allele 4216c with Increased Risk for Sepsis-related Organ Dysfunction and Shock After Burn Injury.
    Date March 2010
    Journal Shock (augusta, Ga.)
    Excerpt

    Impaired mitochondrial activity has been linked to increased risk for clinical complications after injury. Furthermore, variant mitochondrial alleles have been identified and are thought to result in decreased mitochondrial activity. These include a nonsynonymous mitochondrial polymorphism (T4216C) in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 gene (ND1), encoding a key member of complex I within the electron transport chain, which is found almost exclusively among Caucasians. We hypothesized that burn patients carrying ND1 4216C are less able to generate the cellular energy necessary for an effective immune response and are at increased risk for infectious complications. The association between 4216C and outcome after burn injury was evaluated in a cohort of 175 Caucasian patients admitted to the Parkland Hospital with burns covering greater than or equal to 15% of their total body surface area or greater than or equal to 5% full-thickness burns under an institutional review board-approved protocol. To remove confounding unrelated to burn injury, individuals were excluded if they presented with significant non-burn-related trauma (Injury Severity Score > or =16), traumatic or anoxic brain injury, spinal cord injury, were HIV/AIDS positive, had active malignancy, or survived less than 48 h postadmission. Within this cohort of patients, carriage of the 4216C allele was significantly associated by unadjusted analysis with increased risk for sepsis-related organ dysfunction or septic shock (P = 0.011). After adjustment for full-thickness burn size, inhalation injury, age, and sex, carriage of the 4216C allele was associated with complicated sepsis (adjusted odds ratio = 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-9.1; P = 0.005), relative to carriers of the T allele.

    Title Sustained Impairments in Cutaneous Vasodilation and Sweating in Grafted Skin Following Long-term Recovery.
    Date August 2009
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    We previously identified impaired cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in grafted skin 5 to 9 months postsurgery. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that cutaneous vasodilation, but not sweating, is restored as the graft heals. Skin blood flow and sweat rate were assessed from grafted skin and adjacent noninjured skin in three groups of subjects: 5 to 9 months postsurgery (n=13), 2 to 3 years postsurgery (n=13), and 4 to 8 years postsurgery (n=13) during three separate protocols: 1) whole-body heating and cooling, 2) local administration of vasoactive drugs, and 3) local heating and cooling. Cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during whole-body heating were significantly lower (P<.001) in grafted skin when compared with noninjured skin across all groups and demonstrated no improvements with recovery time postsurgery. Maximal endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine) and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside) cutaneous vasodilation remained attenuated (P<.001) in grafted skin up to 4 to 8 years postsurgery, indicating postsynaptic impairments. In grafted skin, cutaneous vasoconstriction during whole-body and local cooling was preserved, whereas vasodilation to local heating was impaired, regardless of the duration postsurgery. Split-thickness skin grafts have impaired cutaneous vasodilation and sweating up to 4 to 8 years postsurgery, thereby limiting the capability of this skin's contribution to thermoregulation during a heats stress. In contrast, grafted skin has preserved vasoconstrictor capacity.

    Title Cutaneous Vasoconstriction During Whole-body and Local Cooling in Grafted Skin Five to Nine Months Postsurgery.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that skin grafting (5-9 months after surgery) impairs sympathetically mediated cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) was assessed in grafted skin and adjacent healthy control skin in fourteen subjects (seven male, seven female) during indirect whole-body cooling (ie, cooling the entire body, except the area where skin blood flow was assessed), as well as local cooling (ie, only cooling the area where skin blood flow was assessed). Whole-body cooling was performed by perfusing 5 degrees C water through a water perfusion suit for 3 minutes. Local cooling was performed on a separate visit using a custom Peltier cooling device, which decreased local skin temperature from 39 degrees C to 19 in 5 degrees C decrements in 15-minute stages. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated from the ratio of skin blood flow to mean arterial pressure. Indirect whole-body cooling decreased CVC from baseline (DeltaCVC) similarly (P = 0.17) between grafted skin (DeltaCVC = -0.23 +/- 0.04 au/mm Hg) and adjacent healthy skin (DeltaCVC = -0.16 +/- 0.02 au/mm Hg). Likewise, decreasing local skin temperature from 39 to 19 degrees C resulted in similar decreases (P = .82) in CVC between grafted skin (DeltaCVC = -1.11 +/- 0.18 au/mm Hg) and adjacent healthy skin (DeltaCVC = -1.06 +/- 0.18 au/mm Hg). Appropriate cutaneous vasoconstriction in grafted skin to both indirect whole-body and local cooling indicates re-innervation of the cutaneous vasoconstrictor system at the graft site. These data suggest that persons with significant skin grafting may have a normal capacity to regulate body temperature during cold exposure by cutaneous vasoconstriction.

    Title Epistatic Interactions Are Critical to Gene-association Studies: Pai-1 and Risk for Mortality After Burn Injury.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Replication of statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease phenotypes has been problematic. One reason for conflicting observations may be failure to consider confounding factors, including gene-gene (epistatic) interactions. Our experience with the insertion/deletion polymorphism at -688 in the promoter region of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) seems to support this contention and may foreshadow problems for genome-wide association scans, which tend to use unadjusted analytical methodologies. One hundred forty-nine patients with > or =15% total body surface area (TBSA) burns, without significant nonburn-related trauma (injury severity score < or =16), traumatic or anoxic brain injury or spinal cord injury who survived >48 hours postadmission were enrolled under a protocol approved by the UT Southwestern and Parkland Hospital IRBs. Clinical data were collected prospectively and candidate polymorphisms in PAI-1 (-688), toll-like receptor 4 (+896), CD14 (-159), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (-308), and interleukin-6 (-174) were genotyped. The PAI-1 SNP was significantly associated (P-value for trend = 0.036) with risk for death when evaluated in isolation by unadjusted analysis. However, after adjustment for potential confounders using multiple logistic regression, only age, full-thickness burn size, and CD14 genotype (as previously reported) were associated with increased mortality. Genetic association analyses should be adjusted for interactions between multiple SNPs, injury or disease characteristics, and demographic variables. Increasingly sophisticated analytical methods will be required as gene-mapping studies transition from a candidate-gene based approach to genome-wide association scans.

    Title The Parkland Formula Under Fire: is the Criticism Justified?
    Date March 2008
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Controversy has continued regarding the practicality and accuracy of the Parkland burn formula since its introduction over 35 years ago. The best guide for adequacy of resuscitation is urine output (UOP) per hour. A retrospective study of patients resuscitated with the Parkland formula was conducted to determine the accuracy (calculated vs. actual volume) based on UOP. A review of burn resuscitation from a single institution over 15 years was conducted. The Parkland formula was defined as fluid resuscitation of 3.7 to 4.3 ml/kg/% total body surface area (TBSA) burn in the first 24 hours. Adequate resuscitation was defined as UOP of 0.5 to 1.0 ml/kg/hr. Over-resuscitation was defined as UOP > 1.0 ml/kg/hr. Patients were stratified according to UOP. Burns more than 19% TBSA were included. Electrical burns, trauma, and children (<15 years) were excluded. Four hundred and eighty-three patients were reviewed. Forty-three percent (n = 210) received adequate resuscitation. Forty-eight percent (n = 233) received over-resuscitation. The mean fluid in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups was 5.8 and 6.1 ml/kg/%, respectively (P = .188). Mean TBSA and full thickness burns in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups were 38 and 43%, and 19 and 24%, respectively (P < .05). Inhalation injury was present in 12 and 18% (P = .1). Only 14% of adequately resuscitated and 12% of over-resuscitated patients met Parkland formula criteria. The mean Ivy index in the adequately and over-resuscitated groups was 216 and 259 ml/kg (P < .05). There was no significant difference in complication rates (80 vs. 82%) or mortality (14 vs. 17%). The actual burn resuscitation infrequently met the standard set forth by the Parkland formula. Patients commonly received fluid volumes higher than predicted by the Parkland formula. Emphasis should be placed not on calculated formula volumes, as these should represent the initial resuscitation volume only, but instead on parameters used to guide resuscitation. The Parkland formula only represents a resuscitation "starting" point. The UOP is the important parameter.

    Title Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in the Severely Burned Patient.
    Date December 2007
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Scant data exist regarding patient outcome after treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) with decompressive laparotomy. This work reviews the outcome of 25 burn patients at a single institution who underwent decompressive laparotomy for treatment of ACS in the periresuscitation period. A computerized burn registry and directed chart review were used for data collection and analysis in this retrospective review. From September 1996, 25 patients underwent decompressive laparotomy after developing ACS. Mean burn size was 65 +/- 19% TBSA. Mean age was 28 +/- 19 years. Twenty-two (88%) died. Myo/ hemoglobinuria was present at admission in eight patients, one of whom survived. Fourteen patients had inhalation injury, of whom two survived. Before decompressive laparotomy, mean bladder pressure and peak inspiratory pressure were 57 +/- 4.2 mm Hg and 41 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, respectively. Mean urine output improved from 28 ml/hr to 90 ml/hr after decompressive laparotomy. The mean Ivy score was 443 +/- 34.95 ml/kg. Development of ACS in burn patients is associated with a high mortality. With development of IAH, therapeutic maneuvers such as sedation and paralysis, escharotomies, or changes in fluid management can be performed in hopes of altering the evolution of intra-abdominal hypertension to ACS. In patients with >40% TBSA burns, bladder pressures should initially be measured every 6 hours. When the Ivy score reaches 200 ml/kg, measure bladder pressures hourly. Decompressive laparotomies should be performed in all patients with ACS if less-invasive maneuvers fail.

    Title Skin Grafting Impairs Postsynaptic Cutaneous Vasodilator and Sweating Responses.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    This study tested the hypothesis that postsynaptic cutaneous vascular responses to endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilators, as well as sweat gland function, are impaired in split-thickness grafted skin 5 to 9 months after surgery. Intradermal microdialysis membranes were placed in grafted and adjacent control skin, thereby allowing local delivery of the endothelial-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (ACh; 1 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-1) M at 10-fold increments) and the endothelial-independent nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 5 x 10(-8) to 5 x 10(-2) M at 10-fold increments). Skin blood flow and sweat rate were simultaneously assessed over the semipermeable portion of the membrane. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated from the ratio of laser Doppler-derived skin blood flow to mean arterial blood pressure. deltaCVC responses from baseline to these drugs were modeled via nonlinear regression curve fitting to identify the dose of ACh and SNP causing 50% of the maximal vasodilator response (EC50). A rightward shift in the CVC dose response curve for ACh was observed in grafted (EC50 = -2.61 +/- 0.44 log M) compared to adjacent control skin (EC50 = -3.34 +/- 0.46 log M; P = .003), whereas the mean EC50 for SNP was similar between grafted (EC50 = -4.21 +/- 0.94 log M) and adjacent control skin (EC50 = -3.87 +/- 0.65 log M; P = 0.332). Only minimal sweating to exogenous ACh was observed in grafted skin whereas normal sweating was observed in control skin. Increased EC50 and decreased maximal CVC responses to the exogenous administration of ACh suggest impairment of endothelial-dependent cutaneous vasodilator responses in grafted skin 5 to 9 months after surgery. Greatly attenuated sweating responses to ACh suggests either abnormal or an absence of functional sweat glands in the grafted skin.

    Title Use of High-frequency Percussive Ventilation in Inhalation Injuries.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Inhalation injury causes significant morbidity and mortality, accounting for nearly 80% of non-fire-related deaths and affecting nearly 25% of all patients hospitalized with thermal injury. High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has been reported to decrease both the incidence of pulmonary barotrauma and pneumonia in inhalation injury. It has evolved into a ventilatory modality promoted to rapidly remove airway secretions and improve survival of patients with smoke inhalation injury. From 1997 to 2005, a total of 92 patients with inhalation injury were treated with HFPV. This group was compared with 130 patients treated with conventional mechanical ventilation between 1997 and 2005. The diagnosis of inhalation injury was made on admission, based on the following clinical criteria: injury in a closed space, carbonaceous sputum, and/or positive bronchoscopy (presence of carbonaceous deposits, erythema or ulceration). Both modes of ventilation were begun within 24 hours of injury. Both groups were similar with respect to demographics and injury severity. The mean number of ventilator days, days in the intensive care unit, length of stay, and incidence of pneumonia did not differ significantly between groups. Twenty-six of 92 (28%) patients treated with HFPV, and 56 of 130 with conventional mechanical ventilation (43%) died. There was a significant decrease in both overall morbidity and mortality in the subset of patients with < or = 40% TBSA treated with HFPV. Future randomized, controlled trials are needed to determine the precise role of HFPV in the treatment of inhalation injuries.

    Title Cd14-159 C Allele is Associated with Increased Risk of Mortality After Burn Injury.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Shock (augusta, Ga.)
    Excerpt

    Although comprehension of postburn pathophysiology has grown in recent years, we are still unable to accurately identify burn patients who are at an increased risk of infectious complications and death. This unexplained variation is likely influenced by heritable factors; the genetic predisposition for death from infection has been estimated as greater than that for cardiovascular disease or cancer. Identify genetic variants associated with increased mortality after burn injury. A total of 233 patients with burns of 15% of total body surface area or greater or smoke inhalation injury who survived more than 48 h after admission and were without significant nonburn-related trauma (injury severity score > or = 16), traumatic or anoxic brain injury, or spinal cord injury. We examined the influence of genotype at five candidate loci (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, toll-like receptor 4, CD14) on mortality risk after burn injury. DNA was isolated from residual blood from laboratory draws and candidate genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan probes. Clinical data were prospectively collected into a local, curated database. Allelic associations were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. After adjustment for age, full-thickness burn size, inhalation injury, ethnicity, and sex, carriage of the CD14-159 C allele imparted at least a 1.3-fold increased risk for death after burn injury, relative to TT homozygotes (adjusted odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.8; P = 0.01). This association was stronger (adjusted odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-8.4; P = 0.01) when the analysis was conducted only on deaths accompanied by severe sepsis. In addition, a gene dosage effect for increased mortality was apparent for carriage of the CD14-159 C allele (P = 0.006). The gene dosage effect remained when white, Hispanic, or African American patients were analyzed independently, although statistical significance was not achieved in the subgroup analysis. None of the other single nucleotide polymorphisms examined were significantly associated with mortality. These data provide strong evidence that a CD14 promoter allele that is known to impart lower baseline and induced CD14 transcription also affects mortality risk after burn injury. A potential (although untested) mechanism for our observation is that reduced signaling through CD14/toll-like receptor 4 in response to challenge by gram-negative bacteria after burns results in a blunted innate immune response and subsequent increased likelihood for systemic infection and death.

    Title Innate Immunity Snps Are Associated with Risk for Severe Sepsis After Burn Injury.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Clinical Medicine & Research
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze allelic association with clinical outcome in a cohort of burn patients. PATIENTS: Two hundred twenty-eight individuals with burns > or =15% total body surface area without significant non-burn related trauma who survived >48 hours post-admission were enrolled. One hundred fifty-nine of these patients were analyzed previously. METHODS: Candidate polymorphisms within interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cellular differentiation marker 14 (CD14) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were evaluated by logistic regression analysis for association with increased risk for severe sepsis (sepsis plus organ dysfunction or shock). RESULTS: After adjustment for age, burn size, ethnicity, gender and inhalation injury, alleles at TNF-alpha (308G, p=0.013), TLR4 (+896G, p=0.027), IL-6 (174C, p=0.040) and CD14 (159C, p=0.047) were significantly associated with an increased risk for severe sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: Carriage of variant alleles at immune response genes were associated with increased risk for severe sepsis after burn injury.

    Title Detecting Genetic Predisposition for Complicated Clinical Outcomes After Burn Injury.
    Date February 2007
    Journal Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
    Excerpt

    Sepsis, septic shock and organ failure are common among patients with moderate to severe burns. The inability of demographic and clinical factors to identify patients at high risk for such complications suggests that genetic variation may influence clinical outcome. Moreover, the genetic predisposition to death from infection has been estimated to be greater than for cardiovascular disease or cancer . While it is widely accepted that genetic factors influence many complex disease processes, controversy has emerged regarding the most appropriate methods for detection and even the validity of many published allelic associations . This article will review the few studies of genetic predisposition that have been conducted in the setting of burn injury, then discuss some of the obstacles and potential approaches for the discovery of additional allelic associations.

    Title Self-esteem Measurement Before and After Summer Burn Camp in Pediatric Burn Patients.
    Date February 2007
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Pediatric burn injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, from which some children will experience prolonged psychological and social difficulty. As early as 1967, it was noted that participation in a group was important in the resolution of problems caused by severe disability and stressful experiences. Since 1982, there have been summer burn camps for children and adolescent burn survivors. The primary focus of camp is to have "fun" at the various daily activities. The principal goal, however, is psychosocial readjustment. Fifty-three burn survivors attended the 1-week duration annual summer camp. Campers were invited to complete a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale on the first day of summer burn camp and shortly after the camp ended. Younger children were assisted with the survey tool by their parents. Of the 53 campers, 45 completed both pre- and postcamp surveys. The age of the campers ranged from 6 to 18 years (mean, 12.8 years). Burn size ranged from 1% to 90% TBSA (mean, 30.4% TBSA). The interval from date of injury to camp attendance was 2 months to 15.5 years. Nine campers had never attended burn camp before this year. Twenty- nine percent of the campers had an increase in self-esteem score. Fifty-eight percent had no change, and 13% demonstrated a decrease. The burn camp experience though an enriching summer activity, did not necessarily increase self-esteem in the majority of campers as measured by the survey tool employed.

    Title Adult Burn Patients: the Role of Religion in Recovery--should We Be Doing More?
    Date February 2007
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Title Heterotopic Ossification Revisited: a 21-year Surgical Experience.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is an infrequently encountered complication of a burn. A retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate our treatment and results. Forty-two patients were identified with HO during 21 yrs. Mean age was 38 yrs. Mean total body surface area and third-degree burn were 55% and 37%, respectively. The elbow was the most frequent site (>90%), and 44% were bilateral. The next most common sites were shoulder, hip, knee, and forearm. Greater than 90% of patients had ventilator support and intensive care unit length of stay 58 and 79 days, respectively. HO was first suspected by decreased range of motion, painful and/or swollen joint, or a nerve deficit. Conventional radiographs were used to confirm the clinical diagnosis. The majority of burns overlying joints with HO were associated with prolonged wound closure because of depth, wound infection, or graft loss. Mean day of diagnosis was 71 days (range, 21-134). Excision of HO was undertaken only when range of motion compromised activities of daily living. Surgery successfully improved range of motion in all cases. The mean elbow arc of motion before and after surgery was 52 degrees and 119 degrees (range, 30-180 degrees), respectively. Seventy percent of elbows were ankylosed. A continuous passive motion device was instituted immediately postoperatively. Local postoperative complications included hematoma, wound dehiscence, infection, and nerve deficit. Maintaining range of motion was difficult for 75% of patients. Symptomatic recurrence of HO occurred in four elbows and one forearm. Because the cause(s) are unknown, prevention is impossible; once diagnosed, medical treatment is problematic and spontaneous resolution is infrequent. Surgery continues to be the recommended treatment when activities of daily living or life style are affected.

    Title Acute Cholecystitis in Burn Patients.
    Date June 2006
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Acute cholecystitis is a complication in critical illnesses, including burns. The purpose of this report is to review one institution's experience with this complication during a 21-year time period. A computerized burn registry was used for data collection and analysis in this retrospective review. Twenty patients developed cholecystitis from a total burn admission population of 10,762 in this 21-year period (0.18%). Mean patient age was 43.5 years, and their mean burn size was 37.4% with a mean full-thickness burn size of 23% TBSA. Mean patient length of stay was 77.4 days. Sixteen of these patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated for a mean of 56 days. Total parental nutrition was required in 12 patients. The use of total parental nutrition steadily decreased over the length of the study, and early enteral tube feed use has become the norm. All but two patients were in the Burn Intensive Care Unit at the time of diagnosis. Men outnumbered women by three to one. Nine patients with positive sonograms were successfully managed without surgical intervention. Two of these patients also had positive hydroxy iminodiacetic acid scans. Surgically managed patients were treated with both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy as well as cholecystostomy tube placement. Mortality was 25%. Acute cholecystitis remains a serious although relatively rare complication in burn patients. Patients often have an unreliable physical examination, several possible causes of fever, and abnormal laboratory results. A high index of suspicion and sound clinical judgment is required to manage this rare-but-challenging problem.

    Title A Case Report of Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Cladophialophora Bantiana Treated in a Burn Unit.
    Date October 2005
    Journal The Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation
    Excerpt

    Black molds are a heterogeneous group of fungi that are distributed widely in the environment and that occasionally cause human infection. The spectrum of disease includes mycetomas, chromoblastomycosis, sinusitis, and superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, and systemic phaeohyphomycosis. Cladophialophora bantiana, an agent of phaeohyphomycosis, causes rare infections mainly of the central nervous system. Extracerebral involvement is uncommon, and only a few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 32-year-old immunosuppressed female who developed a cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis from C. bantiana. The patient was treated in a burn unit with wound care, surgical excision, grafting, and itraconazole. Patients with complex fungal infections represent yet another population with specialized needs that are adequately met in a verified burn center.

    Title Electrical Injuries: a 20-year Review.
    Date April 2005
    Journal The Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation
    Excerpt

    Electrical injuries continue to present problems with devastating complications and long-term socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this study is to review one institution's experience with electrical injuries. From 1982 to 2002, there were 700 electric injury admissions. A computerized burn registry was used for data collection and analysis. Of these injuries, 263 were high voltage (> or =1000 V), 143 were low voltage (<1000 V), 277 were electric arc flash burns, and 17 were lightning injuries. Mortality was highest in the lightning strikes (17.6%) compared with the high voltage (5.3%) and low voltage (2.8%) injuries, and mortality was least in electric arc injuries without passage of current through the patient (1.1%). Complications were most common in the high-voltage group. Mean length of stay was longest in this group (18.9 +/- 1.4 days), and the patients in this group also required the most operations (3 +/- 0.2). Work-related activity was responsible for the majority of these high-voltage injuries, with the most common occupations being linemen and electricians. These patients tended to be younger men in the prime of their working lives. Electrical injuries continue to make up an important subgroup of patients admitted to burn centers. High-voltage injuries in particular have far reaching social and economic impact largely because of the patient population at greatest risk, that is, younger men at the height of their earning potential. Injury prevention, although appropriate, remains difficult in this group because of occupation-related risk.

    Title Potential of Hemoglobin-based Oxygen Carriers in Trauma Patients.
    Date February 2002
    Journal Current Opinion in Critical Care
    Excerpt

    Injured patients have a unique requirement for early blood transfusion. A product that can be used in the prehospital setting that adequately carries and delivers oxygen to peripheral tissues would potentially be life saving for severely injured patients. Allogeneic blood is not the ideal agent in the pre-hospital setting. Present limitations in the allogeneic blood supply include the need for cross-matching, refrigeration, marginal supply, transfusion reactions, infectious disease transmission and immunomodulation increasing the risk of organ dysfunction after transfusion.Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers have been under present development for the last 25 years. These compounds use either human or bovine hemoglobin that is then chemically altered to improve safety. These compounds exhibit many desirable characteristics that make them potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of the injured patient. These compounds do not need to be cross-matched, have favorable oxygen dissociation characteristics, long half lives, do not transmit disease, appear to be less immunoreactive than blood and theoretically can be used in the pre-hospital setting as a low volume oxygen carrying solution without need for refrigeration.There are at least three agents presently under development that use different techniques to alter the basic hemoglobin tetramer. While there is no FDA approved hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier approved for use in injured patients at this writing, phase III studies are currently either underway or being developed. There is high likelihood that one or more of these agents will be approved for clinical use in the near future.

    Title Impact of Oxandrolone Treatment on Acute Outcomes After Severe Burn Injury.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Pharmacologic modulation of hypermetabolism clearly benefits children with major burns, however, its role in adult burns remains to be defined. Oxandrolone appears to be a promising anabolic agent although few outcome data are as yet available. We examined whether early oxandrolone treatment in severely burned adults was associated with improved outcomes during acute hospitalization. We evaluated for potential associations between oxandrolone treatment and outcomes in a large cohort of severely burned adults in the context of a multicenter observational study. Patients were dichotomized with respect to oxandrolone treatment, defined as administration within 7 days after admission, with duration of at least 7 days. Acute hospitalization outcomes were compared with univariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred seventeen patients were included in this analysis. Mean patient age was 42.6 years (range, 18-86); 77% were male, with an average TBSA of 44.1%. Baseline and injury characteristics were similar among treatment and nontreatment cohorts. Oxandrolone treatment (N = 59) did not impact length of stay but was associated with a lower mortality rate (P = .01) by univariate analysis. Oxandrolone treatment was independently associated with higher survival by adjusted analyses (P = .02). Examination of early oxandrolone treatment in this cohort of severely burned adults suggests that this therapy is safe and may be associated with improved survival. Further studies are necessary to define the exact mechanisms by which oxandrolone is beneficial during inpatient treatment.

    Title Hydrofluoric Acid Burns: a 15-year Experience.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a strong inorganic acid commonly used in many domestic and industrial settings. It is one of the most common chemical burns encountered in a burn center and frequently engenders controversy in its management. We report our 15 year experience with management of HF burns. We reviewed our experience from 1990 to 2005 for patients admitted with HF burns. Primary treatment was with calcium gluconate gel. Arterial infusion of calcium and fingernail removal were reserved for unrelenting symptoms. There were 7944 acute burn admissions to our center during this study period, 204 of which were chemical burns. HF burns comprised 17% of these chemical burn admissions (35 patients). All were men, with a mean burn size of 2.1 +/- 1.5% (range, 1-6%) and hospital stay of 1.6 +/- 0.7 days (range, 0-3 days). The most common seasonal time of injury was in the summer. Twelve patients (34%) were admitted to the intensive care unit for a total of 14 intensive care unit days, primarily for arterial infusions. Ventilator support was not required in any patient. No electrolyte abnormalities occurred. All burns were either partial thickness or small full thickness with no operative intervention required and no deaths. The upper extremity was most commonly involved (29 patients, 83%). The most common cause was air conditioner cleaner (8 patients, 23%). HF is a common cause of chemical burns. Although hospital admission is usually required for vigorous treatment and pain control, burn size is usually small and does not cause electrolyte abnormalities, significant morbidity, or death.

    Title Early Enteral Nutrition in Burns: Compliance with Guidelines and Associated Outcomes in a Multicenter Study.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association
    Excerpt

    Early nutritional support is an essential component of burn care to prevent ileus, stress ulceration, and the effects of hypermetabolism. The American Burn Association practice guidelines state that enteral feedings should be initiated as soon as practical. The authors sought to evaluate compliance with early enteral nutrition (EN) guidelines, associated complications, and hospitalization outcomes in a prospective multicenter observational study. They conducted a retrospective review of mechanically ventilated burn patients enrolled in the prospective observational multicenter study "Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury." Timing of initiation of tube feedings was recorded, with early EN defined as being started within 24 hours of admission. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish barriers to initiation of EN and the impact of early feeding on development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, infectious complications, days on mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and survival. A total of 153 patients met study inclusion criteria. The cohort comprised 73% men, with a mean age of 41 ± 15 years and a mean %TBSA burn of 46 ± 18%. One hundred twenty-three patients (80%) began EN in the first 24 hours and 145 (95%) by 48 hours. Age, sex, inhalation injury, and full-thickness burn size were similar between those fed by 24 hours vs after 24 hours, except for higher mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (26 vs 23, P = .03) and smaller total burn size (44 vs 54% TBSA burn, P = .01) in those fed early. There was no significant difference in rates of hyperglycemia, abdominal compartment syndrome, or gastrointestinal bleeding between groups. Patients fed early had shorter ICU length of stay (adjusted hazard ratio 0.57, P = 0.03, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.94) and reduced wound infection risk (adjusted odds ratio 0.28, P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.76). The investigators have found early EN to be safe, with no increase in complications and a lower rate of wound infections and shorter ICU length of stay. Across institutions, there has been high compliance with early EN as part of the standard operating procedure in this prospective multicenter observational trial. The investigators advocate that initiation of EN by 24 hours be used as a formal recommendation in nutrition guidelines for severe burns, and that nutrition guidelines be actively disseminated to individual burn centers to permit a change in practice.


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