Browse Health
Internist, Cardiologist (heart)
9 years of experience


Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of California at Davis (2003)
Top 50%

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Davidson is affiliated with 1 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations

  • Veterans Affairs Medical Center - Portland
    3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd, Portland, OR 97239
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Davidson has contributed to 24 publications.
    Title Chemically Defined Medium Supporting Cardiomyocyte Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.
    Date January 2009
    Journal Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

    Many applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) will require fully defined growth and differentiation conditions including media devoid of fetal calf serum. To identify factors that control lineage differentiation we have analyzed a serum-free (SF) medium conditioned by the cell line END2, which efficiently induces hESCs to form cardiomyocytes. Firstly, we noted that insulin, a commonly used medium supplement, acted as a potent inhibitor of cardiomyogenesis in multiple hESC lines and was rapidly cleared by medium conditioning. In the presence of insulin or IGF-1, which also suppressed cardiomyocyte differentiation, the PI3/Akt pathway was activated in undifferentiated hESC, suggesting that insulin/IGF-1 effects were mediated by this signaling cascade. Time course analysis and quantitative RT-PCR revealed impaired expression of endoderm and mesoderm markers in the presence of insulin, particularly if added during early stages of hESC differentiation. Relatively high levels of the neural ectoderm marker Sox1 were expressed under these conditions. Secondly, comparative gene expression showed that two key enzymes in the prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) synthesis pathway were highly up-regulated in END2 cells compared with a related, but non-cardiogenic, cell line. Biochemical analysis confirmed 6-10-fold higher PGI2 levels in END2 cell-conditioned medium (END2-CM) vs. controls. Optimized concentrations of PGI2 in a fully synthetic, insulin-free medium resulted in a cardiogenic activity equivalent to END2-CM. Addition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-inhibitor SB203580, which we have shown previously to enhance hESC cardiomyogenesis, to these insulin-free and serum-free conditions resulted in a cardiomyocyte content of >10% in differentiated cultures without any preselection. This study represents a significant step toward developing scalable production for cardiomyocytes from hESC using clinically compliant reagents compatible with Good Manufacturing Practice.

    Title Enhanced Cardiomyogenesis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by a Small Molecular Inhibitor of P38 Mapk.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can differentiate to cardiomyocytes in vitro but with generally poor efficiency. Here, we describe a novel method for the efficient generation of cardiomyocytes from hESC in a scalable suspension culture process. Differentiation in serum-free medium conditioned by the cell line END2 (END2-CM) readily resulted in differentiated cell populations with more than 10% cardiomyocytes without further enrichment. By screening candidate molecules, we have identified SB203580, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, as a potent promoter of hESC-cardiogenesis. SB203580 at concentrations <10 microM, induced more than 20% of differentiated cells to become cardiomyocytes and increased total cell numbers, so that the overall cardiomyocyte yield was approximately 2.5-fold higher than controls. Gene expression indicated that early mesoderm formation was favored in the presence of SB203580. Accordingly, transient addition of the inhibitor at the onset of differentiation only was sufficient to determine the hESC fate. Patch clamp electrophysiology showed that the distribution of cardiomyocyte phenotypes in the population was unchanged by the compound. Interestingly, cardiomyogenesis was strongly inhibited at SB203580 concentrations > or =15 microM. Thus, modulation of the p38MAP kinase pathway, in combination with factors released by END2 cells, plays an essential role in early lineage determination in hESC and the efficiency of cardiomyogenesis. Our findings contribute to transforming human cardiomyocyte generation from hESC into a robust and scalable process.

    Title Survival and Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes in Rat Hearts.
    Date December 2007
    Journal Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes are a promising cell source for cardiac repair. Whether these cells can be transported long distance, survive, and mature in hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion with minimal infarction is unknown. Taking advantage of a constitutively GFP-expressing hESC line we investigated whether hESC-derived cardiomyocytes could be shipped and subsequently form grafts when transplanted into the left ventricular wall of athymic nude rats subjected to ischemia/reperfusion with minimal infarction. Co-localization of GFP-epifluorescence and cardiomyocyte-specific marker staining was utilized to analyze hESC-derived cardiomyocyte fate in a rat ischemia/reperfused myocardium. Differentiated, constitutively green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing hESCs (hES3-GFP; Envy) containing about 13% cardiomyocytes were differentiated in Singapore, and shipped in culture medium at 4 degrees C to Los Angeles (shipping time approximately 3 days). The cells were dissociated and a cell suspension (2 x 10(6) cells for each rat, n=10) or medium (n=10) was injected directly into the myocardium within the ischemic risk area 5 min after left coronary artery occlusion in athymic nude rats. After 15 min of ischemia, the coronary artery was reperfused. The hearts were harvested at various time points later and processed for histology, immunohistochemical staining, and fluorescence microscopy. In order to assess whether the hESC-derived cardiomyocytes might evade immune surveillance, 2 x 10(6) cells were injected into immune competent Sprague-Dawley rat hearts (n=2), and the hearts were harvested at 4 weeks after cell injection and examined as in the previous procedures. Even following 3 days of shipping, the hESC-derived cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies (EBs) showed active and rhythmic contraction after incubation in the presence of 5% CO(2) at 37 degrees C. In the nude rats, following cell implantation, H&E, immunohistochemical staining and GFP epifluorescence demonstrated grafts in 9 out of 10 hearts. Cells that demonstrated GFP epifluorescence also stained positive (co-localized) for the muscle marker alpha-actinin and exhibited cross striations (sarcomeres). Furthermore, cells that stained positive for the antibody to GFP (immunohistochemistry) also stained positive for the muscle marker sarcomeric actin and demonstrated cross striations. At 4 weeks engrafted hESCs expressed connexin 43, suggesting the presence of nascent gap junctions between donor and host cells. No evidence of rejection was observed in nude rats as determined by inspection for lymphocytic infiltrate and/or giant cells. In contrast, hESC-derived cardiomyocytes injected into immune competent Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in an overt lymphocytic infiltrate. hESCs-derived cardiomyocytes can survive several days of shipping. Grafted cells survived up to 4 weeks after transplantation in hearts of nude rats subjected to ischemia/reperfusion with minimal infarction. They continued to express cardiac muscle markers and exhibit sarcomeric structure and they were well interspersed with the endogenous myocardium. However, hESC-derived cells did not escape immune surveillance in the xenograft setting in that they elicited a rejection phenomenon in immune competent rats.

    Title Whole Genome Analysis of Human Neural Stem Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells and Stem and Progenitor Cells Isolated from Fetal Tissue.
    Date May 2007
    Journal Stem Cells (dayton, Ohio)

    Multipotent neural stem cells (NSC) have been derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) as well as isolated from fetal tissues. However, there have been few exclusive markers of NSC identified to date, and the differences between NSC from various sources are poorly understood. Although cells isolated from these two sources share many important characteristics, it is not clear how closely they are related in terms of gene expression. Here, we compare the gene expression profiles of 11 lines of NSC derived from hESC (ES_NSC), four lines of NSC isolated from fetus (F_NSC), and two lines of restricted progenitors in order to characterize these cell populations and identify differences between NSC derived from these two sources. We showed that ES_NSC were clustered together with high transcriptional similarities but were distinguished from F_NSC, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and astrocyte precursor cells. There were 17 genes expressed in both ES_NSC and F_NSC whose expression was not identified in restricted neural progenitors. Furthermore, the major differences between ES_NSC and F_NSC were mostly observed in genes related to the key neural differentiation pathways. Here, we show that comparison of global gene expression profiles of ES_NSC, F_NSC, and restricted neural progenitor cells makes it possible to identify some of the common characteristics of NSC and differences between similar stem cell populations derived from hESCs or isolated from fetal tissue. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

    Title Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Dopaminergic Neurons in Serum-free Suspension Culture.
    Date May 2005
    Journal Stem Cells (dayton, Ohio)

    The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a source of dopaminergic neurons for Parkinson's disease cell therapy will require the development of simple and reliable cell differentiation protocols. The use of cell cocultures, added extracellular signaling factors, or transgenic approaches to drive hESC differentiation could lead to additional regulatory as well as cell production delays for these therapies. Because the neuronal cell lineage seems to require limited or no signaling for its formation, we tested the ability of hESCs to differentiate to form dopamine-producing neurons in a simple serum-free suspension culture system. BG01 and BG03 hESCs were differentiated as suspension aggregates, and neural progenitors and neurons were detectable after 2-4 weeks. Plated neurons responded appropriately to electrophysiological cues. This differentiation was inhibited by early exposure to bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-4, but a pulse of BMP-4 from days 5 to 9 caused induction of peripheral neuronal differentiation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount immunocytochemistry demonstrated the expression of multiple markers of the midbrain dopaminergic phenotype in serum-free differentiations. Neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were killed by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxic catecholamine. Upon plating, these cells released dopamine and other catecholamines in response to K+ depolarization. Surviving TH+ neurons, derived from the cells differentiated in serum-free suspension cultures, were detected 8 weeks after transplantation into 6-OHDA-lesioned rat brains. This work suggests that hESCs can differentiate in simple serum-free suspension cultures to produce the large number of cells required for transplantation studies.

    Title Plasma Fluorescence Scanning and Fecal Porphyrin Analysis for the Diagnosis of Variegate Porphyria: Precise Determination of Sensitivity and Specificity with Detection of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Mutations As a Reference Standard.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Clinical Chemistry

    Variegate porphyria (VP) is the autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX). Plasma fluorescence scanning has been reported to be a more sensitive test for VP than traditional fecal chromatography. Previous comparisons of these techniques predated identification of the PPOX gene. We assessed these techniques in a large group of patients characterized for VP at the DNA level.

    Title Introduction of Cell Markers into Germ Layer Tissues of the Mouse Gastrula by Whole Embryo Electroporation.
    Date August 2003
    Journal Genesis (new York, N.y. : 2000)

    We have optimized the technique of electroporation for introducing genetic markers into cells of the gastrulating mouse embryo to follow cell fates, tissue movement, and lineage differentiation. Using a plate-needle electrode combination and specific route of plasmid delivery, labeling could be targeted to discrete regions of the epiblast or the endoderm of the late gastrula. Among the various types of fluorescent and chromogenic reporter constructs tested, those driven by CMV promoter are efficient and strong expression can be detected as soon as 2-3 h after electroporation. The efficacy of marking cell lineages by CRE-mediated activation of reporters proved to be inefficient for tracking cell lineages due to an obligatory 8-9-h lag from the electroporation of constructs to the expression of reporter. This significant time lag also raises concern of the temporal precision at which tissue- or stage-specific knock-out or activation of genetic activity may be achieved by the Cre-loxP mechanism.

    Title A Mouse Model for South African (r59w) Variegate Porphyria: Construction and Initial Characterization.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Cellular and Molecular Biology (noisy-le-grand, France)

    Variegate porphyria is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease with variable penetrance. It is characterized clinically by photocutaneous sensitivity and acute neurovisceral attacks, and biochemically by abnormal porphyrin excretion in the urine and feces. While the world-wide incidence of variegate porphyria is relatively low, in South Africa it is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. Due to the large number of patients with variegate porphyria in South Africa, and the fact that variegate porphyria is representative of both the so-called "acute" and the "photocutaneous" porphyrias, it would be valuable to have an animal model in which to study the disease. In this study we have produced a mouse model of "South African" variegate porphyria with the R59W mutation in C57/BL6 mice via targeted gene replacement. Hepatic protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity was reduced by approximately 50% in mice heterozygous for the mutation. Urine and fecal samples from these mice, in the absence of exogenous inducers of hepatic haem synthesis, contain elevated concentrations of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors in a pattern similar to that found in human variegate porphyric subjects. Bypassing the rate-limiting step in haem biosynthesis by feeding 5-aminolevulinic acid to these mice, results in an accentuated porphyrin excretory pattern characteristic of the variegate porphyric phenotype and urinary porphobilinogen is increased significantly. This initial characterization of these mice suggest that they are a good model for variegate porphyria at the biochemical level.

    Title A Duplicated Hnf-3 Binding Site in the Cyp2h2 Promoter Underlies the Weak Phenobarbital Induction Response.
    Date December 2001
    Journal The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology

    We are investigating induction of chicken cytochrome P450 genes by the sedative phenobarbital in chick embryo hepatocytes. The steady-state level of induced mRNA for the gene CYP2H1 is about 10-fold higher than that of a second gene, CYP2H2. Here, we show that a difference in drug-responsive enhancer activity does not underlie the differential response of these genes to phenobarbital since upstream enhancer regions are identical in these genes. The first 198 bp of CYP2H2 promoter sequence is identical to the CYP2H1 gene promoter, except that the functional HNF-3 binding site in the CYP2H1 promoter is replaced with a duplicated HNF-3 sequence in the CYP2H2 promoter. Transient expression analysis established that the promoter activity of the CYP2H2 gene was about ninefold lower than the CYP2H1 gene. Mutagenesis of either of the partially overlapping HNF-3 sites in the CYP2H2 gene substantially induced drug induction. Gel-shift analysis established that each of these HNF-3 sites bound HNF-3, most likely HNF-3beta. In-vitro footprint analysis demonstrated that all the identified sites in the CYP2H2 promoter bound protein except the duplicated HNF-3 region. However, protein binding was observed by in-vitro footprint analysis if either of the HNF-3 sites was mutated in the CYP2H2 promoter. Hence, duplication of the HNF-3 site in the CYP2H2 promoter does not allow binding of HNF-3 in the promoter context and may be predominantly, if not exclusively, responsible for the poor response of the CYP2H2 gene to phenobarbital.

    Title The Antiglucocorticoid Ru486 Inhibits Phenobarbital Induction of the Chicken Cyp2h1 Gene in Primary Hepatocytes.
    Date August 2001
    Journal Molecular Pharmacology

    The cytochrome P450 gene CYP2H1 is highly induced by phenobarbital in chick embryo hepatocytes. Recent studies have established that the orphan nuclear receptor CAR plays a critical role in the induction mechanism. Here, we show that a high concentration of the potent glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 almost completely blocks phenobarbital-induced accumulation of CYP2H1 mRNA in hepatocytes yet has no effect on basal expression. In marked contrast, CYP2H1 mRNA induced by the phenobarbital-type inducers glutethimide and 2-allylisopropylacetamide is not affected by RU486. RU486 inhibition is not mediated through the glucocorticoid or progesterone receptors. Transient transfection studies showed that RU486 does not repress through activation of the orphan receptor PXR and subsequent competition with CAR for binding to the upstream drug-responsive 556-base-pair enhancer. Additionally, none of the known functional transcription factor binding sites found in the enhancer region was a target of RU486 inhibition. Using an artificial construct containing multiple CAR binding sites, we also established that RU486 has no direct effect on the activity of exogenously expressed CAR. There is no evidence that phenobarbital binds to CAR; we propose that RU486 inhibits phenobarbital induction, either by interfering with a phenobarbital-dependent mechanism responsible for nuclear import of CAR or with the metabolism of phenobarbital to the true inducer. Whether a novel nuclear receptor that binds RU486 at high concentrations plays a role in the inhibitory action of RU486 is an interesting possibility.

    Title Lineage Allocation During Early Embryogenesis. Mapping of the Neural Primordia and Application to the Analysis of Mouse Mutants.
    Date July 2001
    Journal Methods in Molecular Biology (clifton, N.j.)

    The methods outlined in this chapter discuss a range of techniques that have been employed for lineage analysis studies of the neural primordia from the onset of gastrulation and during neurulation. As the mouse has been extensively mapped, lineage analysis during normal morphogenesis is well understood. Attention is now focused on the tissue interactions that are essential for gastrulation and neurulation to proceed normally. The key to understanding these tissue interactions lies in the study of mutant embryos where abnormal development of specific tissue types affects the processes of gastrulation and neurulation. Lineage analysis and tissue potency experiments on particular mutant embryos will provide insight into these essential tissue interactions. As the first step toward undertaking such analysis of the neural derivatives, we have outlined the mutant strains available and detailed a protocol for the introgression of the lacZ transgene onto the mutant background.

    Title The Node of the Mouse Embryo.
    Date November 2000
    Journal Current Biology : Cb
    Title The Morphogenetic Role of Midline Mesendoderm and Ectoderm in the Development of the Forebrain and the Midbrain of the Mouse Embryo.
    Date June 2000
    Journal Development (cambridge, England)

    The anterior midline tissue (AML) of the late gastrula mouse embryo comprises the axial mesendoderm and the ventral neuroectoderm of the prospective forebrain, midbrain and rostral hindbrain. In this study, we have investigated the morphogenetic role of defined segments of the AML by testing their inductive and patterning activity and by assessing the impact of their ablation on the patterning of the neural tube at the early-somite-stage. Both rostral and caudal segments of the AML were found to induce neural gene activity in the host tissue; however, the de novo gene activity did not show any regional characteristic that might be correlated with the segmental origin of the AML. Removal of the rostral AML that contains the prechordal plate resulted in a truncation of the head accompanied by the loss of several forebrain markers. However, the remaining tissues reconstituted Gsc and Shh activity and expressed the ventral forebrain marker Nkx2.1. Furthermore, analysis of Gsc-deficient embryos reveals that the morphogenetic function of the rostral AML requires Gsc activity. Removal of the caudal AML led to a complete loss of midline molecular markers anterior to the 4th somite. In addition, Nkx2.1 expression was not detected in the ventral neural tube. The maintenance and function of the rostral AML therefore require inductive signals emanating from the caudal AML. Our results point to a role for AML in the refinement of the anteroposterior patterning and morphogenesis of the brain.

    Title Exogenous Fgf-4 Can Suppress Anterior Development in the Mouse Embryo During Neurulation and Early Organogenesis.
    Date May 2000
    Journal Developmental Biology

    Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of peptide growth factors are widely expressed in the germ layer derivatives during gastrulation and early organogenesis of the mouse. We have investigated the effect of administering recombinant FGF-4 in the late-primitive streak stage embryo to test if the patterning of the body plan may be influenced by this growth factor. Shortly after FGF treatment the embryonic tissues up-regulated the expression of Brachyury and the RTK signaling regulator Spry2, suggesting that FGF signaling was activated as an immediate response to exogenous FGF. Concomitantly, Hesx1 expression was suppressed in the prospective anterior region of the embryo. After 24 h of in vitro development, embryos displayed a dosage-related suppression of forebrain morphogenesis, disruption of the midbrain-hindbrain partition, and inhibition of the differentiation of the embryonic mesoderm. Overall, development of the anterior-posterior axis in the late gastrula is sensitive to the delivery of exogenous FGF-4. The early response associated with the expression of Spry2 suggests that the later phenotype observed could be primarily related to an inhibition of the FGF signaling pathway.

    Title The Prothrombin Gene is Expressed in the Rat Kidney: Implications for Urolithiasis Research.
    Date February 2000
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs

    There is considerable interest in determining the role of prothrombin fragments, especially urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1), in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urinary calculi. This fragment is present in abundance in the matrix of CaOx crystals generated in human urine in vitro and has also been detected in human urinary stones containing calcium. More recently, prothrombin gene expression has been reported in the human kidney. However, studies examining the renal biosynthesis of prothrombin or perhaps only its fragments during experimental lithogenesis, and in consequence, the role of UPTF1 in stone formation, cannot be carried out in humans. The aim of this investigation therefore was to determine whether prothrombin gene expression is present in the rat kidney. Total RNA was isolated from the kidneys and livers of 12 rats. Using reverse transcriptase PCR, mRNAs corresponding to the thrombin and fragment 1 + 2 (F1+2) regions of prothrombin were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was also examined to determine whether the quality of the tissue mRNAs was adequate for analyses. The amplified products were identified by sequence analysis. All kidneys displayed evidence of expression of the thrombin and F1+2 domains of the prothrombin gene. Furthermore, the sequences of these PCR-derived products from kidney were identical to those from liver. This suggests that the prothrombins secreted by these two organs are identical. The fact that prothrombin biosynthesis occurs in both the human and rat kidney presents an opportunity for using established rat models of stone disease to evaluate the influence of lithogenic conditions on prothrombin gene expression, and the potential role of UPTF1 in vivo.

    Title Impact of Node Ablation on the Morphogenesis of the Body Axis and the Lateral Asymmetry of the Mouse Embryo During Early Organogenesis.
    Date July 1999
    Journal Developmental Biology

    The node of the mouse gastrula is the major source of the progenitor cells of the notochord, the floor plate, and the gut endoderm. The node may also play a morphogenetic role since it can induce a partial body axis following heterotopic transplantation. The impact of losing these progenitor cells and the morphogenetic activity on the development of the body axes was studied by the ablation of the node at late gastrulation. In the ablated embryo, an apparently intact anterior-posterior body axis with morphologically normal head folds, neural tube, and primitive streak developed during early organogenesis. Cell fate analysis revealed that the loss of the node elicits de novo recruitment of neural ectoderm and somitic mesoderm from the surrounding germ-layer tissues. This leads to the restoration of the neural tube and the paraxial mesoderm. However, the body axis of the embryo was foreshortened and somite formation was retarded. Histological and gene expression studies reveal that in most of the node-ablated embryos, the notochord in the trunk was either absent or interrupted, and the floor plate was absent in the ventral region of the reconstituted neural tube. The loss of the node did not affect the differentiation of the gut endoderm or the formation of the mid- and hindgut. In the node-ablated embryo, expression of the Pitx2 gene in the lateral plate mesoderm was no longer restricted to the left side but was found on both sides of the body or was completely absent from the lateral plate mesoderm. Therefore, the loss of the node results in the failure to delineate the laterality of the body axis. The node and its derivatives therefore play a critical role in the patterning of the ventral neural tube and lateral body axis but not of the anterior-posterior axis during early organogenesis.

    Title Analysis of a Phenobarbital-responsive Enhancer Sequence Located in the 5' Flanking Region of the Chicken Cyp2h1 Gene: Identification and Characterization of Functional Protein-binding Sites.
    Date February 1999
    Journal Molecular Pharmacology

    We previously identified in the chicken CYP2H1 gene an upstream enhancer domain (-5900/-1100) that responds to phenobarbital. Deletion and restriction enzyme analyses of this domain have now identified two separate enhancer regions that respond to phenobarbital (from -5900 to -4550 and from -1956 to -1400). We have focused here on the latter and in particular a resident 240-base pair (bp) restriction enzyme fragment that retains drug responsiveness. Using deletion analysis and in vitro DNase I footprinting, transcription factor binding sites have been located in the 240-bp fragment. The sites identified are an E-box-like element, a consensus hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 site, a CCAAT box motif, and a novel site. Mutagenesis demonstrated that each site contributed to enhancer activity, although there was a weaker contribution from the CCAAT box, and that no individual site was critical for responsiveness. In keeping with the tissue-restricted expression of the CYP2H1 gene, gel shift experiments established that the proteins binding to these enhancer sites are enriched in chicken liver, kidney, and small intestine. In vitro footprint experiments showed a stronger protection with liver nuclear extracts from drug-treated chickens compared with control extracts on the E-box-like element, the CCAAT box motif, and the novel binding site; however, the basis for this apparent increase in binding remains to be determined. The proteins binding to the 240-bp fragment are different from those recently reported to be required for the activity of the phenobarbital responsive enhancer domains of rodent CYP2 genes.

    Title Variegate Porphyria in South Africa, 1688-1996--new Developments in an Old Disease.
    Date September 1997
    Journal South African Medical Journal = Suid-afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde

    Variegate porphyria, an autosomal dominant inherited trait resulting in decreased activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate haem biosynthetic enzyme, is characterised clinically by photosensitive skin disease and a propensity to acute neurovisceral crises. The disease has an exceptionally high frequency in South Africa, owing to a founder effect. The specific mutation in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene sequence which represents this founder gene has been identified. Genetic diagnosis is therefore now possible in families in whom the gene defect is known. However, the exact nature and degree of activity of the porphyria can only be determined by detailed quantitative biochemical analysis of excreted porphyrins. The relative contributions of the acute attack and the skin disease to the total disease burden of patients with variegate porphyria is not static, and in South Africa there have been significant changes over the past 25 years, with fewer patients presenting with acute attacks, leaving a greater proportion to present with skin disease or to remain asymptomatic with the diagnosis being made in the laboratory. The most common precipitating cause of the acute attack of VP is administration of porphyrinogenic drugs. Specific suppression of haem synthesis with intravenous haem arginate is the most useful treatment of a moderate or severe acute attack. Although cutaneous lesions are limited to the sun-exposed areas, management of the skin disease of VP remains inadequate.

    Title A Low Frequency Ecori-rflp at the Ovine Protamine 1 (prm1) Locus.
    Date August 1993
    Journal Animal Genetics
    Title A Psti Rflp at the Ovine Elastin (eln) Locus.
    Date August 1993
    Journal Animal Genetics
    Title A Three-allele Psti Rflp at the Ovine Locus for Myosin I Heavy Chain-like Protein (m1hc).
    Date August 1993
    Journal Animal Genetics
    Title Polymorphism in an A- and T-rich Element in the Beta-haemoglobin Locus in Sheep.
    Date June 1993
    Journal Animal Genetics
    Title A Dinucleotide Repeat Polymorphism at the Corticotropin-releasing Factor Locus in Sheep.
    Date February 1993
    Journal Animal Genetics
    Title Temporal Characterization of the Functional Density of the Vasa Vasorum by Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography Maximum Intensity Projection Imaging.
    Journal Jacc. Cardiovascular Imaging

    We sought to determine whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) microangiography with maximum intensity projection (MIP) processing could temporally evaluate proliferation of the vasa vasorum (VV) in a model of mural hemorrhage.

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