Browse Health
Internist, Critical Care Specialist
29 years of experience
Accepting new patients
Video profile


Education ?

Medical School Score
Thomas Jefferson University (1983)

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Shanholtz is affiliated with 3 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • University Of Maryland Medical Center
    22 S Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201
    Top 25%
  • Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center
    10 N Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201
  • Veteran`s ADM
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Shanholtz has contributed to 9 publications.
    Title Fixed-dose Rasburicase 6 Mg for Hyperuricemia and Tumor Lysis Syndrome in High-risk Cancer Patients.
    Date January 2011
    Journal The Annals of Pharmacotherapy

    Rasburicase is indicated for the initial management of plasma uric acid levels in adults receiving anticancer therapy who are at risk for acute tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) and subsequent hyperuricemia. The labeled dose is 0.2 mg/kg/day administered intravenously over 30 minutes for up to 5 days. Our institutional adult guidelines recommend rasburicase 6 mg for uric acid levels >8 mg/dL in most adults with TLS, or 4-8 mg/dL in high-risk patients. Repeat dosing is indicated for uric acid levels >4 mg/dL determined ≥12 hours following the initial dose.

    Title The Characteristics and Prognostic Importance of Nt-probnp Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients.
    Date January 2008
    Journal The American Journal of Medicine

    BACKGROUND: There are limited data for prognostic and diagnostic use of natriuretic peptides in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We evaluate amino-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the medical ICU, specifically its correlation with noncardiac admission diagnosis and prognosis of critically ill patients. METHODS: NT-proBNP (pg/mL) was measured in 179 ICU patients without acute decompensated heart failure or acute coronary syndrome. Death during hospitalization (mortality), APACHE II score, laboratory data, echocardiograms, medical history, and demographics were assessed. NT-proBNP concentrations were compared with established cutoffs for congestive heart failure (>450 pg/mL for patients <50 years of age, >900 pg/mL for patients 50-70 years of age, and >1800 pg/mL for patients >70 years of age). Predictors of mortality and of NT-proBNP were analyzed by regression analysis. Tertiles were compared by analysis of variance and chi-squared test. RESULTS: NT-proBNP was elevated in these ICU patients (median 2139 pg/mL, 25th percentile 540 pg/mL, 75% percentile 7389 pg/mL). Severity of illness and renal dysfunction (APACHE II score and serum creatinine) increased with rising NT-proBNP. The incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, death, history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or congestive heart failure (all P <.05) increased with each tertile. Independent predictors of increased NT-proBNP were creatinine (P <.001), CAD (P <.001), APACHE II score (P <.05), and sepsis (P < or =.001). Overall hospital mortality was 26%, and log NT-proBNP (P <.05), APACHE II (P < or =.001), and CAD (P <.05) were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: For patients admitted to the ICU without decompensated heart failure or acute coronary syndrome, NT-proBNP concentrations are markedly elevated, especially in patients with sepsis. NT-proBNP strongly and independently predicts mortality. However, NT-proBNP should not be used to direct volume management in critically ill patients.

    Title Tidal Volume Delivery During High-frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in Adults with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Critical Care Medicine

    OBJECTIVE: a) Characterize how ventilator and patient variables affect tidal volume during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; and b) measure tidal volumes in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Research laboratory and medical intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Test lung and patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Using a previously validated hot wire anemometer placed in series with a Sensormedics 3100B high-frequency ventilator, an endotracheal tube, and a test lung, tidal volume was measured at different combinations of frequency (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 Hz), pressure amplitude (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 cm H2O), mean airway pressure (20, 30, and 40 cm H2O), test lung compliance (10, 30, and 50 mL/cm H2O), endotracheal tube internal diameter (6, 7, and 8 mm), bias flow (20, 30, and 40 L/min), and inspiratory/expiratory ratio (1:2 and 1:1). In patients, tidal volume was measured at baseline ventilator settings and at baseline frequency +/-2 Hz and baseline pressure amplitude +/-10 cm H2O. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Measured tidal volumes were 23-225 mL during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation of the test lung. A 2-Hz increase in frequency and a 10-cm H2O increase in pressure amplitude caused a 21.3% +/- 4.1% decrease and 21.4% +/- 3.4% increase in tidal volume, respectively. Decreasing endotracheal tube internal diameter from 8 mm to 7 mm and from 7 mm to 6 mm caused a 15.3% +/- 1.7% and 18.9% +/- 2.1% reduction in tidal volume, respectively. Increasing bias flow from 20 L/min to 30 L/min increased tidal volume by 11.2% +/- 3.9%. Further increases in bias flow, changes in compliance, and changes in mean airway pressure had little effect. Tidal volumes measured in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were 44-210 mL. A 2-Hz increase in frequency was associated with a 23.1% +/- 6.3% decrease in tidal volume. In contrast to the test lung data, a 10-cm H2O increase in pressure amplitude resulted in only a 5.6% +/- 4.5% increase in tidal volume. CONCLUSIONS: Tidal volumes are not uniformly small during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The primary determinant of tidal volume in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with the Sensormedics 3100B is frequency. Test lung findings suggest that endotracheal tube internal diameter is also an important determinant of tidal volume.

    Title Use of Single-dose Rasburicase in an Obese Female.
    Date October 2004
    Journal The Annals of Pharmacotherapy

    OBJECTIVE: To report the use of single-dose rasburicase in an obese patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 53-year-old obese African American woman weighing 136 kg (ideal body weight [IBW] 55 kg) with new-onset chronic myelomonocytic leukemia in leukocytic blast crisis was treated with hydroxyurea 5 g daily. In addition, she received allopurinol 300 mg daily for prevention of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). The following day, allopurinol was discontinued and rasburicase was administered at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of IBW for a serum uric acid level of 11.9 mg/dL. The patient's serum uric acid level decreased to 1.9 mg/dL 48 hours after a single dose. DISCUSSION: Rasburicase is indicated for the initial management of elevated plasma uric acid levels in patients with hematologic and solid tumor malignancies who are at risk for TLS. This case is unique because the patient received one dose of rasburicase followed by allopurinol rather than 5 daily doses of rasburicase. Additionally, the dose was based on IBW rather than actual body weight. Efficacy of this approach is apparent from the uric acid levels and the lack of hemodialysis requirements. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of rasburicase (based on IBW) followed by allopurinol can effectively prevent TLS based on serum uric acid concentration. This approach resulted in a substantial cost savings.

    Title Aggressive Control Measures for Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii and the Impact on Acquisition of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in a Medical Intensive Care Unit.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America

    The medical ICU implemented aggressive control measures following an outbreak of multidrug-resistant, clonal Acinetobacter baumannii. Multivariable regression analyses comparing acquisition (6 months preceding to 6 months during or following the outbreak) revealed decreased VRE and MRSA acquisition. Aggressive control measures can reduce VRE, and perhaps MRSA, transmission.

    Title Elitek-rasburicase: an Effective Means to Prevent and Treat Hyperuricemia Associated with Tumor Lysis Syndrome, a Meeting Report, Dallas, Texas, January 2002.
    Date May 2003
    Journal Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.k

    Renal precipitation of uric acid associated with tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a major complication in the management of leukemia, lymphoma, and other drug-sensitive cancers. Management of hyperuricema has historically consisted of administration of allopurinol, hydration, alkalinization to maintain pH between 7.0 and 7.3, and in some cases diuresis. Allopurinol, a xanthine analogue, blocks xanthine oxidase and formation of uric acid. Urate oxidase converts uric acid to allantoin, which is 5-10 times more soluble than uric acid. Homo sapiens cannot express urate oxidase because of a nonsense mutation. Urate oxidase was initially purified from Aspergillus flavus fungus. Treatment with this nonrecombinant product had been effective in preventing renal precipitation of uric acid in cancer patients, but was associated with a relatively high frequency of allergic reactions. This enzyme was recently cloned from A. flavus and is now manufactured as a recombinant protein. Clinical trials have shown this drug to be more effective than allopurinol for prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia in leukemia and lymphoma patients. This drug has been approved in Europe as well as the US and several clinical trials are in progress to further determine its clinical utility in other patient subsets. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss usefulness of recombinant urate oxidase, also known as rasburicase, Fasturtec, and Elitek, for the management of TLS in certain cancer patients.

    Title Pulmonary T Cell Repertoire in Patients with Graft-versus-host Disease Following Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
    Date July 2001
    Journal American Journal of Hematology

    Pulmonary inflammation is one of the risk factors associated with blood and marrow transplantation (BMT). To determine the potential role of T cells in pulmonary complications after transplantation, we analyzed the T-cell repertoire expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from eleven patients with graft-versus-host disease following BMT. A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify rearranged TCR transcripts in unfractionated, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. The relative expression of TCR variable (V) gene families and the diversity of junctional region lengths associated with different AV and BV gene families were analyzed. Nearly all TCR AV and BV gene families were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage cells from BMT recipients. Oligoclonal patterns of TCR junctional region lengths were observed in unfractionated, CD4+, and CD8+ bronchoalveolar T cells. The oligoclonal expansion of bronchoalveolar T cells in patients was confirmed by DNA sequencing. TCRV gene expression is almost completely restored in the lungs of BMT recipients as early as two weeks after transplantation. Increased oligoclonality among TCR gene families suggests either an incomplete restoration of TCR diversity or an antigen-driven expansion of T cells in the lungs of BMT recipients with graft-versus-host disease, not necessarily related to pulmonary infection.

    Title Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional Versus Reduced Tidal Volume Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients.
    Date September 1999
    Journal Critical Care Medicine

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and potential efficacy of a mechanical ventilation strategy designed to reduce stretch-induced lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Eight intensive care units in four teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: Fifty-two patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Traditional tidal volume patients: tidal volume 10-12 mL/kg ideal body weight, reduced if inspiratory plateau pressure was > 55 cm H2O (7.3 kPa). Small tidal volume patients: tidal volume 5-8 mL/kg ideal body weight, to keep plateau pressure < 30 cm H2O (4.0 kPa). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean tidal volumes during the first 5 days in traditional and small tidal volume patients were 10.2 and 7.3 mL/kg, respectively (p < .001), with mean plateau pressure = 30.6 and 24.9 cm H2O (3.3 kPa), respectively (p < .001). There were no significant differences in requirements for positive end-expiratory pressure or FIO2, fluid intakes/outputs, requirements for vasopressors, sedatives, or neuromuscular blocking agents, percentage of patients that achieved unassisted breathing, ventilator days, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced tidal volume strategy used in this study was safe. Failure to observe beneficial effects of small tidal volume ventilation treatment in important clinical outcome variables may have occurred because a) the sample size was too small to discern small treatment effects; b) the differences in tidal volumes and plateau pressures were modest; or c) reduced tidal volume ventilation is not beneficial.

    Title Rhombencephalitis Caused by Adenovirus: Mr Imaging Appearance.
    Date March 1999
    Journal Ajnr. American Journal of Neuroradiology

    Encephalitis is a rare manifestation of adenovirus infection. We report the MR imaging findings of a patient with rhombencephalitis caused by adenovirus. Imaging findings included T2 signal abnormalities in the brain stem and cerebellum with mild patchy enhancement and mass effect.

    Similar doctors nearby

    Dr. Anthony Harris

    Internal Medicine
    19 years experience
    Baltimore, MD

    Dr. Jeffrey Hasday

    Internal Medicine
    33 years experience
    Baltimore, MD

    Dr. Bernadette Siaton

    Internal Medicine
    6 years experience
    Baltimore, MD

    Dr. Robert Edelman

    Internal Medicine
    50 years experience
    Baltimore, MD

    Dr. Kathryn Robinett

    Internal Medicine
    8 years experience
    Baltimore, MD

    Dr. Bansari Gujar

    Internal Medicine
    12 years experience
    Baltimore, MD
    Search All Similar Doctors