Awards & Distinctions ?
American Board of Emergency Medicine
Dr. Heflin is affiliated with
Harris Continued Care Hospital
Texas Health Harris Methodist Hospital Azle
Texas Health Harris Methodist Hospital Southwest Fort Worth
Publications & Research
|Dr. Heflin has contributed to
||Heparin Reverses Anaphylactoid Shock in a Porcine Model.
||Annals of Emergency Medicine
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Heparin binds histamine and has been advocated as a therapy for anaphylactic and anaphylactoid shock. The efficacy of heparin in treating anaphylactoid shock is compared with therapy with diphenhydramine and epinephrine, as well as sham treatment with saline. METHODS: This controlled study of 9 anesthetized, intubated pigs induced shock with intravenous calcium ionophore A23187 (5 mg/kg), which is known to degranulate mast cells in vitro. Serum histamine levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Shock, defined as a greater than 20% decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, was treated with intravenous saline, epinephrine with diphenhydramine, or heparin. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum and analysis of variance, as appropriate. RESULTS: All pigs developed anaphylactoid shock after injection with A23187, as evidenced by hypotension, flushing, and an increase in plasma histamine. Mean arterial blood pressure fell from a mean of 73 (SD 10) mm Hg to 28 (SD 16) mm Hg after injection (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference in pressures 34 to 57 mm Hg). Mean serum histamine levels increased from 712 micromol/dL (SD 731) to 1,154 micromol/dL (SD 799) after injection (Z value -2.201; P=.0277; 95% CI of the difference -610 to -99). Both epinephrine with diphenhydramine and heparin but not saline reversed shock. CONCLUSION: A23187 induced anaphylactoid shock in all subjects. Therapy with intravenous epinephrine combined with diphenhydramine reversed shock. Heparin also rapidly reversed shock.