Neurological Surgeon, Neurologist (brain, nervous system), Psychiatrist
22 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Ttu Health Sciences Center
3601 4th St
Maedgen Area, Lubbock, TX 79430
806-743-4999
Locations and availability (3)

Education ?

Medical School
China Medical University (1988)
Foreign school

Affiliations ?

Dr. Wu is affiliated with 12 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Rhode Island Hospital
    593 Eddy St, Providence, RI 02903
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Covenant Medical Center
    3615 19th St, Lubbock, TX 79410
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • University Medical Center - Lubbock
    602 Indiana Ave, Lubbock, TX 79415
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Covenant Children's Hospital
    3610 21st St, Lubbock, TX 79410
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Covenant Hospital Plainview
    2601 Dimmitt Rd, Plainview, TX 79072
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island
    111 Brewster St, Pawtucket, RI 02860
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Lincoln County Medical Center
  • TX Tech Physicians Associates
  • Boston Medical Center
  • Out of State Hospital
  • Texas Tech U/University Medical Center
  • Covenant Healthcare Medical Center
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Wu has contributed to 77 publications.
    Title Severity Score for Predicting Pneumonia in Inhalation Injury Patients.
    Date May 2012
    Journal Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
    Excerpt

    Inhalation injuries contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in both children and adults with burns. Pneumonia is a major compromising factor in these patients. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the characteristics, impact factors, incidence, morbidity, and mortality of pneumonia in inhalation injuries. Furthermore, a severity score has been formulated to help predict the probability of developing pneumonia following inhalation injuries. A retrospective study was performed of 214 patients, treated for inhalation injuries from 1999 to 2009 at the Burn Center in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan. Patients' characteristics, length of hospitalization, total burn surface area, initial PaO2:FiO2 ratio, number of intubated days, bronchoscope grade, initial carboxyhemoglobin level (COHb) and mortality rate were recorded. A Student's t-test was used for comparison of inhalation injury patients with and without pneumonia and was also used for comparing a TBSA of >20% to those with a TBSA of ≤20% in patients with inhalation injury and pneumonia. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to create a severity score related to pneumonia. 129 patients with inhalation injury were included in the analysis. Overall, 38% (49/129) patients developed pneumonia. Pneumonia associated with inhalation injury occurred more often in patients with a TBSA>20% (P<0.05). The intubation days, bronchoscope grade and COHb level of pneumonia patients were significantly longer (P<0.05). Initial PaO2:FiO2 ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was significantly lower in patients with pneumonia (P<0.05). Mortality following pneumonia was increased sevenfold (P<0.05). Hospitalization days and intubation days were significantly longer in TBSA>20%. Logistic regression analysis was performed to find out the impact factors of pneumonia in inhalation injury patients and to set a severity score. Patients age >60 years, TBSA >20%, bronchoscope grade is 3 or 4, initial PaO2/FiO2≦300 and initial COHb level>10% showed a significant difference (P<0.05). The total severity scale was set at 5 points. Each impact factor was given one point and when the score ≥2 it means patients have high risk of development of pneumonia. This study had identified the significant risk factors for potential development of pneumonia in a group of inhalation injury patients. The impact of these risk factors should be validated in further prospective trials to improve outcome or at least reduce the incidence of the surrogate diagnosis of pneumonia.

    Title Age-related Loss of Calcium Buffering and Selective Neuronal Vulnerability in Alzheimer's Disease.
    Date March 2012
    Journal Acta Neuropathologica
    Excerpt

    The reasons for the selective vulnerability of distinct neuronal populations in neurodegenerative disorders are unknown. The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain are vulnerable to pathology and loss early in Alzheimer's disease and in a number of other neurodegenerative disorders of the elderly. In the primate, including man, these neurons are rich in the calcium buffer calbindin-D(28K). Here, we confirm that these neurons undergo a substantial loss of calbindin in the course of normal aging and report a further loss of calbindin in Alzheimer's disease both at the level of RNA and protein. Significantly, cholinergic neurons that had lost their calbindin in the course of normal aging were those that selectively degenerated in Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, calbindin-containing neurons were virtually resistant to the process of tangle formation, a hallmark of the disease. We conclude that the loss of calcium buffering capacity in these neurons and the resultant pathological increase in intracellular calcium are permissive to tangle formation and degeneration.

    Title Association Between Suicide Attempt and a Tri-allelic Functional Polymorphism in Serotonin Transporter Gene Promoter in Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia.
    Date March 2012
    Journal Neuroscience Letters
    Excerpt

    Mounting evidence supports the association between a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and suicidal behaviour. Recently, a novel variant of the 5-HTTLPR L allele was identified. The previously unknown L(G) allele produced similar levels of gene expression to the S allele and might have been misclassified as a "high-expression" allele in previous association studies. In this study, we aimed to compare the genotype distribution of the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in 168 Chinese patients with schizophrenia, including 60 suicide attempters and 108 non-suicide attempters. In our analysis, which used the L(A) dominant model, it was found that the L(A) allele carriers were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide (p=0.035). Further analysis showed this association existed only in male patients (p=0.012). A similar association between the L(A) allele and violent suicide attempt was also found (p=0.028). In addition, logistic regression confirmed our findings that male L(A) allele carriers were at a higher risk of suicide, although the lack of a significant association in females may reflect insufficient power due to small sample size. However, no association was found when we examined the traditional bi-allelic 5-HTTLPR. These findings differ from those reported in Caucasian subjects, where no associations have been reported. Different genetic backgrounds may give rise to different allelic distribution, causing differential effects on the expression of endophenotypes of suicide behaviours. Although the potential influence of multiple comparisons might weaken our findings, our study provides preliminary evidence for a potentially gender-specific role of a "high-expression" 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in susceptibility to suicide in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Title Metabolic Syndrome, Testosterone, and Cardiovascular Mortality in Men.
    Date January 2012
    Journal The Journal of Sexual Medicine
    Excerpt

    Interactions among testosterone, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and mortality risk in men remain to be elucidated.

    Title Parkinson's Disease with Dementia, Lewy-body Disorders and Alpha-synuclein: Recent Advances and a Case Report.
    Date December 2011
    Journal Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
    Excerpt

    The advance in research on the dementia syndrome associated with Parkinson's disease recently gains momentum in part because Parkinson's disease inevitably causes declined cognition and then lead to poor quality of life. More importantly, dementia of Lewy bodies, now known as the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, shares the common neuropathological hallmark with Parkinson's disease and yet exhibits a unique clinical syndrome. Recent genetic, neurochemical and neuropsychological experiments robustly confirm a link between dementia associated with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Meanwhile, controversial issues regarding diagnostic criteria and proper treatments remain unresolved. Here I review milestone research conclusions and report a typical case with pathological data in order to clarify different aspects of these two dementia disorders.

    Title Renal-related Biomarkers and Long-term Mortality in the Us Subjects with Different Coronary Risks.
    Date August 2011
    Journal Atherosclerosis
    Excerpt

    The objective was to evaluate the association of a panel of renal biomarkers with long-term mortalities.

    Title Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-6 Are Associated with Diastolic Heart Failure Through Downregulation of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Atpase.
    Date August 2011
    Journal Critical Care Medicine
    Excerpt

    The inflammatory process is associated with cardiac diastolic dysfunction, which has been demonstrated to be an independent prognostic marker for the mortality of critically ill patients. We investigated the association among inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6), diastolic heart failure, and the possible molecular mechanism.

    Title Bilateral Psoas Abscess Formation After Acupuncture.
    Date June 2011
    Journal The Journal of Emergency Medicine
    Title Cystatin C and Long-term Mortality Among Subjects with Normal Creatinine-based Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates: Nhanes Iii (third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).
    Date January 2011
    Journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology
    Excerpt

    The objective was to test the association of cystatin C (Cys-C) with long-term mortality risk in the subjects with normal creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR).

    Title Association of Low Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria with Peripheral Arterial Disease: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.
    Date June 2010
    Journal Atherosclerosis
    Excerpt

    Microalbuminuria may be an early sign of intra-renal vascular dysfunction and a marker of vascular risk in the general population as well as in high-risk individuals. However, the association between albuminuria and PAD has been demonstrated only in few small studies. The aim of current study is to evaluate the relative impact of albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate on the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in a nationally representative sample population. Data (ankle brachial index [ABI], urine albumin, fasting glucose, and glomerular filtration rate [GFR] estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD] Study equation) were collected on 7068 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004). PAD was defined as ABI <0.9 or >1.4. There was a trend towards an association between the presence of abnormal renal function (GFR<60mL/min/1.73m(2)) and PAD in the non-diabetic patients (OR of 1.43, 95% CI: 0.98-2.09; P=0.07) where as the presence of abnormal renal function was strongly associated PAD in the diabetic patients (OR of 2.3, 95% CI: 1.34-3.95; P=0.046). On the contrary, albuminuria was independently associated with PAD in the non-diabetic (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.38-2.52; P=0.0003) but not in the diabetic patients (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.68-1.73, P=0.7411). We concluded that albuminuria, independent of renal function, is strongly associated with PAD in non-diabetic subjects. As diabetes develops and HbA1c level increases, the predictive value of albuminuria gradually diminishes after adjustment for renal function.

    Title [spectrometric Study on the Interaction of Doxepin Hydrochloride and Fast Green and Its Application].
    Date May 2010
    Journal Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi = Guang Pu
    Excerpt

    The characteristics of resonance light scattering and absorption spectra of doxepin hydrochloride with fast green were investigated, and a new analytical method for doxepin hydrochloride was described. In the buffer solution of pH 4.0, doxepin hydrochloride can strengthen the signal of resonance light scattering of fast green. The effective factors, including the order of addition of the reagents, acidity and kinds of the buffers, and concentration of fast green were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the scattering peaks of the system are at 344 and 486 nm, while the maximum is at 344 nm. The enhanced intensity of RLS is proportional to the concentration of doxepin hydrochloried in the range of 8.75 x 10(-3)-4.88 x 10(-2) mg x mL(-1). The detection limit for doxepin hydrochloried is 1.72 x 10(-5) mg x mL(-1). The relative standard deviation obtained from eleven determinations for a 0.025 mg x mL(-1) standard solution of doxepin hydrochloried is 1.4%. The method was applied to the determination of doxepin hydrochloric in pharmaceutical preparations. The results were compared with those obtained by the reference method, and t-test showed no significant difference between the two methods.

    Title Coping Strategies of Hospitalized People with Psychiatric Disabilities in Taiwan.
    Date April 2010
    Journal The Psychiatric Quarterly
    Excerpt

    Research has found that people with psychiatric disabilities Taiwan tended to utilize passive and emotional-focused strategies to cope with their illness unlike Western studies. A self-reported questionnaire that incorporated categories: socio-demographic characteristics, the self-impact of illness, illness adaptation, and coping strategy scale was administrated to 140 persons with psychiatric disabilities routinely hospitalized over a long period of time to explore the strategies of coping with their mental disorders. Analysis of survey data found the sense of helplessness and the overall illness adaptation significantly impact negative emotion coping utilization. Those who felt highly impact by the illness, more sense of helplessness, less actively managing their illness, and more social support availability were more likely to use positive emotion as a coping strategy. The better overall adaption to the illness significantly impact procrastination and previous illness experience utilization. Only a positive coping strategy was found significantly to manage the illness.

    Title Demonstrating the Pharmacogenetic Effects of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Long-term Prognosis of Diastolic Heart Failure.
    Date April 2010
    Journal The Pharmacogenomics Journal
    Excerpt

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and pharmacogenetic interaction on the survival of the patients with diastolic heart failure (DHF). A total of 285 subjects with DHF confirmed by echocardiography were recruited in the period between 1995 and 2003. Baseline characteristics (age, sex, prior history, medication, and echocardiographic findings) and genetic polymorphisms (ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism; T174M, M235T, G-6A, A-20C, G-152A, and G-217A polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene; and A1166C polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R)) were collected and matched (by propensity score) in those who received and those who did not receive ACE inhibitors. The patients were followed up to 10 years. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to demonstrate the survival trend. The 85 patients who received ACE inhibitors and the other 85 patients who did not were found to have comparable baseline characteristics and polymorphism distribution. Prescription of ACE inhibitors was associated with a significant decrease in overall mortality (hazard ratio (HR), 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.24-0.83; P=0.01), and a lower rate of cardiovascular events at 4000 days (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32-0.90; P=0.02). In addition, ACE I/D gene D allele was associated with higher overall mortality as compared with the I allele (HR, 2.04; P=0.003). This effect was diminished in those who received ACE inhibitors. The use of ACE inhibitor was associated with a significant decrease in long-term mortality and cardiovascular events in the patients with DHF. Genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin system genes were also associated, but their effects could be modified by the use of ACE inhibitors.

    Title Increased Expression of Mineralocorticoid Receptor in Human Atrial Fibrillation and a Cellular Model of Atrial Fibrillation.
    Date March 2010
    Journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology
    Excerpt

    This study was designed to evaluate the status of steroidogenesis proteins and de novo synthesis of aldosterone in the atrium, and relationships of these factors to atrial fibrillation (AF).

    Title Human Parvovirus B19 Infection in Patients with Coronary Atherosclerosis.
    Date March 2010
    Journal Archives of Medical Research
    Excerpt

    The identification of possible pathogens for an infectious etiology of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is an expanding field. The present study was undertaken to explore the role of parvovirus B19, a potent infectious agent.

    Title Angiotensin Ii Does Not Influence Expression of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2 + Atpase in Atrial Myocytes.
    Date February 2010
    Journal Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System : Jraas
    Excerpt

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) is essential for the regulation of the intracellular calcium level in cardiomyocytes. Previous studies have found that angiotensin II (Ang II) decreased SERCA2 gene expression in ventricular myocytes. Alteration of SERCA activity is important in the mechanism of atrial fibrillation. The present study was undertaken to examine Ang II effects on atrial myocytes.

    Title Systemic Hypoxia Affects Exercise-mediated Antitumor Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells.
    Date February 2010
    Journal Journal of Applied Physiology (bethesda, Md. : 1985)
    Excerpt

    Natural killer cells (NKs) are important to the clearance of transformed cells. This investigation elucidates how systemic hypoxia influences mobilization of the NK subsets and cytotoxicity of NKs to nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPCs) during exercise. Sixteen sedentary men performed six distinct experimental tests in an air-conditioned normobaric hypoxia chamber: high-intensity exercise [HE; up to maximal O(2) consumption (Vo(2 max))] under 21% O(2); moderate-intensity exercise (ME; 50% Vo(2 max) for 30 min) under 12%, 15%, and 21% O(2); and breathing 12% and 15% O(2) for 30 min at rest. The results demonstrated that 21% O(2) HE, but not ME, increased cellular perforin/granzyme B/interferon-gamma levels in NKs and interferon-gamma concentration in NK-NPC coincubation, and also promoted capacity of NKs to bind to NPCs and NK-induced CD95 expression and phosphatidylserine exposure of NPCs. However, the HE simultaneously increased percentages of the replicative senescent (CD57(+) and CD28(-)) NKs and the NKs with inhibitory receptors (KLRG1(+)) that entered the bloodstream from peripheral tissues. Breathing 12% and 15% O(2) at rest did not influence mobilization of NK subsets and cytotoxicity of NKs to NPCs. Although both 12% and 15% O(2) ME increased NK count, perforin/granzyme B/interferon-gamma levels, NK-NPC binding, and NK-induced CD95 expression and apoptosis of NPC, only 12% O(2) ME increased percentages of the NKs with CD57(+)/CD28(-)/KLRG1(+) in blood. Therefore, we conclude that systemic hypoxic exposure affects redistribution of NK subsets and anti-NPC cytotoxicity of NKs during exercise in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, exposure to 12% O(2) promotes the NK cytotoxicity with mobilizing the replicative senescent/inhibitory NKs into the bloodstream during ME.

    Title A Propensity Score-based Case-control Study of Renin-angiotensin System Gene Polymorphisms and Diastolic Heart Failure.
    Date December 2009
    Journal Atherosclerosis
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin II plays an important role in diastolic heart failure (DHF). However, genetic studies of DHF are scarce in the literature. We hypothesized that RAS genes might be the susceptible genes for DHF and conducted a propensity score-based case-control study to prove this hypothesis. A total of 666 subjects (285 diagnosed with DHF confirmed by echocardiography and 381 without diastolic dysfunction) were recruited. Genotyped were: the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism; the T174M, M235T, G-6A, A-20C, G-152A and G-217A polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene; and the A1166C polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) gene. Propensity scores (PS) were used to find patients with and without DHF with equalized characteristics. We also assembled another set of PS matched groups for all characteristics except left ventricular mass (LVM) to detect the genetic association with DHF through the effect of left ventricular hypertrophy. PS matched 210 patients with DHF to 210 without. In a single-locus analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) for DHF were significant with the ACE DD genotype (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.13-1.49, permuted P=0.003) and the AT1R 1166 CC genotype (OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.52-4.45, permuted P<0.001). Significant gene-gene interaction between the two genes was also detected. However, the ACE gene effect was diminished if LVM was not controlled in the propensity scores. We concluded that genetic variants in the RAS genes may determine individual risk to develop DHF through different pathways. Concomitant presence of ACE DD and AT1R 1166 CC genotypes synergistically increased the predisposition to DHF.

    Title Type A Aortic Dissection Manifesting As Acute Myocardial Infarction: Still a Lesson to Learn.
    Date November 2009
    Journal Acta Cardiologica
    Excerpt

    Type A aortic dissection manifesting as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is relatively rare but could be catastrophic if the management is not appropriate. This study investigated the incidence, outcome and potential diagnostic pitfalls of patients with such manifestations, and proposes a useful diagnostic paradigm.

    Title Pheochromocytoma Presenting As Acute Myocarditis with Cardiogenic Shock in Two Cases.
    Date September 2009
    Journal Internal Medicine (tokyo, Japan)
    Excerpt

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-secreting tumor. The classic symptoms are headache, diaphoresis, and tachycardia with paroxysmal hypertension. Other less common cardio-vascular manifestations, such as arrhythmias, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, acute heart failure, and cardiogenic shock, have occasionally been reported. Here, we report two middle-aged men with acute myocarditis and cardiogenic shock, who needed an intra-aortic balloon pump and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation for life support. They were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma and underwent laparoscopic adrenectomy that restored cardiac function. These cases illustrate diagnostic and management considerations in pheochromocytoma complicated by acute myocarditis and cardiogenic shock.

    Title Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Intracardiac Extension.
    Date September 2009
    Journal Internal Medicine (tokyo, Japan)
    Excerpt

    Whereas uterine leiomyoma is a common woman disease, intravenous leiomyomatosis with intracaval and intracardiac complications is a rare condition. The initial presentation is dependent upon the severity of the intracardiac involvement, although complete surgery is the best treatment. The case of a 39-year-old woman is described here, with an initial presentation of dyspnea and right heart failure. Leiomyomatosis originating from the uterus and extending to the inferior vena cava and right atrium was diagnosed from various preoperative studies. The patient was resuscitated because of respiratory failure and severe right heart failure. However, she was operated successfully through a two-stage approach and remained well postoperatively. This case illustrates an intriguing presentation of intravenous leiomyomatosis and a curative surgical intervention even in critical condition.

    Title Genetic Polymorphisms of the Angiotensin Ii Type 1 Receptor Gene and Diastolic Heart Failure.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Journal of Hypertension
    Excerpt

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene polymorphisms and diastolic heart failure (DHF) in a case controlled study.

    Title Early Diagnosis of Parastomal Hernia.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Southern Medical Journal
    Title Renin-angiotensin System Gene Polymorphisms and Diastolic Heart Failure.
    Date February 2009
    Journal European Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    Diastolic heart failure (DHF) refers to an abnormality of diastolic distensibility, filling or relaxation of the left ventricle. The genetic study of DHF is scarce in the literature. The association of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and DHF are well known. We hypothesized that RAS genes might be the susceptible genes for DHF and conducted a case-control study to prove the hypothesis.

    Title Oxidation of Glutathione and Superoxide Generation by Inorganic and Organic Selenium Compounds.
    Date October 2008
    Journal Biofactors (oxford, England)
    Excerpt

    The carcinostatic activities of selenium (Se) compounds have been shown to be composition and concentration dependent. Several studies have indicated that the ratios between glutathione (GSH) and Se may play an important role in Se catalysis and toxicity. The present study examined the catalytic effect of three selenium compounds on GSH oxidation using lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) as an indirect measure of superoxide generation. Various GSH:Se ratios were assayed for the glutathione oxidase activity of selenite, selenocystamine and diselenodipropionic acid. CL emitted from the reaction of selenite with GSH increased more rapidly and was greater than those from the diselenides, but the diselenide CL reactions were sustainable. Both selenite- and diselenide-induced CL were markedly suppressed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Iodoacetic acid (IAc) effectively inhibited CL generated from selenite-, selenocystamine- and diselenodipropionic acid-catalyzed GSH oxidation. These results suggest that GSH oxidation catalyzed by selenite, and the diselenides selenocystamine and diselenodipropionic acid, generated the superoxide radical in which the CL was inhibited by SOD. Furthermore, CL inhibition by IAc suggests that the catalytic species producing superoxide were the GSSe(-) or RSe(-) anion. This redox chemistry may be responsible for selenite and organoselenium toxicity and apoptosis, making possible the design and synthesis of organoselenium-containing pharmaceuticals.

    Title Mild Cognitive Impairment, Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.
    Date July 2008
    Journal Medicine and Health, Rhode Island
    Title Cholinergic Neuronal and Axonal Abnormalities Are Present Early in Aging and in Alzheimer Disease.
    Date June 2008
    Journal Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
    Excerpt

    A large body of evidence indicates that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are selectively vulnerable to degeneration early in Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent studies, however, demonstrate reductions in cortical activity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase only in late stages of AD. To address this apparent contradiction, we compared abnormalities in magnocellular basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and their axons in nondemented young (<65 years; n = 6), nondemented old (>65 years; n = 7), pathologically mild (n = 5), and pathologically severe (n = 5) AD cases. Cholinergic axon abnormalities (i.e. thickened fibers and ballooned terminals) were evident in nondemented middle-aged cases, increased in nondemented old cases, and reduced in density in severe AD. This suggests that loss of cortical cholinergic axons in AD occurs preferentially in fibers with these abnormalities. Paired helical filament 1-immunoreactive pretangles and tangles were observed as early as the third decade prior to their appearance in entorhinal/perirhinal cortex; they were increased in mild and severe AD. These results indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neuron abnormalities are present very early in aging and in the course of AD. Therefore, despite the morphologic alterations, choline acetyltransferase activity, but not necessarily normal neuron functions, may be preserved.

    Title Functional Oligomers for the Control and Fixation of Spatial Organization in Nanoparticle Assemblies.
    Date April 2008
    Journal Journal of the American Chemical Society
    Excerpt

    Interactions in nanoparticle assemblies play an important role in modulating their interesting magnetic and optical properties. Controlling and fixing the distance between nanoparticles is therefore crucial to the development of next-generation nanodevices. Here, we show that the interparticle distance in two-dimensional assemblies can be quantitatively controlled by functionalizing the nanoparticles with short polymers containing one functional end group that binds to the nanoparticle. Carboxy-functional poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) ligands are attached to the nanoparticle surface by a simple ligand exchange process with the oleic acid synthesis ligands. The distance between nanoparticles is manipulated by adjusting either the number of PDMS ligands per molecule or their molecular weight. The use of PDMS ligands is unique in that they provide a means to permanently and robustly fix the spatial distribution of nanoparticles because PDMS is readily converted to silicon oxide by a simple UV/ozone treatment. The distance between nanoparticles can be designed a priori, as it is found to scale well with theoretical predictions for the thickness of the surface-bound polymer brush layer.

    Title Targeting to the Endoplasmic Reticulum Improves the Folding of Recombinant Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Protein Expression and Purification
    Excerpt

    Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that catalyzes the addition of telomeric repeats, TTAGGG in all vertebrates, to the ends of chromosomes. The lack of recombinant purified human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has hampered biochemical and structural studies. The primary problem in generating active recombinant hTERT appears to be protein folding, which may be due to the fact that telomerase is a multi-component ribonucleoprotein complex. When expressed in most heterologous systems, recombinant hTERT is largely insoluble. Here we describe a protein expression system using a baculovirus vector that can be used to prepare properly folded, enzymatically active, hTERT. In this system, the recombinant hTERT is directed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is rich in chaperones. This increases the expression of soluble recombinant hTERT, promoting proper folding using intrinsic ER chaperone proteins.

    Title Diagnosis of Hyperlipidemia and Treatment with a Statin in the Outpatient Stroke Clinic.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases : the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
    Excerpt

    The aim of this study was to assess a stroke clinic's performance in the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia and more specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of statins in patients with cerebrovascular disease not enrolled in a research study. The records of 370 consecutive patients seen at a stroke clinic over a 4-year period were reviewed, and information regarding neurologic diagnosis, lipid profile, and use and type of cholesterol-lowering medication was abstracted. Hyperlipidemia was defined as a total cholesterol level equal to or more than 200 mg/dL. Forty-eight patients meeting specific criteria were further analyzed to monitor the effects of statins. Cholesterol testing was obtained in 324 patients (88%) and 178 (55%) were hyperlipidemic, but only 86 (48%) patients received treatment. The mean cholesterol level of the 48 patients dropped from 246.2 mg/dL to 197.1 mg/dL (P < .0001) after the initiation of statin therapy, and significant reductions were present in subgroups with pretreatment levels of 200 to 249 mg/dL and 250 to 299 mg/dL. Of the 21 patients with repeated cholesterol testing more than 6 months after the first posttreatment test, only 11 (52%) maintained a level below 200 mg/dL. Effective control of hyperlipidemia can be achieved in patients with cerebrovascular disease, but not all are adequately tested or treated. Improved physician awareness and more effective health care delivery systems are needed.

    Title Altered Orientation of Active Site Residues in Variants of Human Ferrochelatase. Evidence for a Hydrogen Bond Network Involved in Catalysis.
    Date September 2007
    Journal Biochemistry
    Excerpt

    Ferrochelatase catalyzes the terminal step in heme biosynthesis, the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin to form protoheme IX. The crystal structures of human ferrochelatase both with and without the protoporphyrin substrate bound have been determined previously. The substrate-free enzyme has an open active site pocket, while in the substrate-bound enzyme, the active site pocket is closed around the porphyrin macrocycle and a number of active site residues have reoriented side chains. To understand how and why these structural changes occur, we have substituted three amino acid residues (H263, H341, and F337) whose side chains occupy different spatial positions in the substrate-free versus substrate-bound ferrochelatases. The catalytic and structural properties of ferrochelatases containing the amino acid substitutions H263C, H341C, and F337A were examined. It was found that in the H263C and H341C variants, but not the F337A variant enzymes, the side chains of N75, M76, R164, H263, F337, H341, and E343 are oriented in a fashion similar to what is found in ferrochelatase with the bound porphyrin substrate. However, all of the variant forms possess open active site pockets which are found in the structure of porphyrin-free ferrochelatase. Thus, while the interior walls of the active site pocket are remodeled in these variants, the exterior lips remain unaltered in position. One possible explanation for this collective reorganization of active site side chains is the presence of a hydrogen bond network among H263, H341, and E343. This network is disrupted in the variants by alteration of H263C or H341C. In the substrate-bound enzyme, the formation of a hydrogen bond between H263 and a pyrrole nitrogen results in disruption of the network. The possible role of this network in catalysis is discussed.

    Title The Pressure- and Temperature-induced Wetting Transitions in the Binary Water + Ethylene Glycol Monoisobutyl Ether Mixture.
    Date July 2007
    Journal The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
    Excerpt

    A homemade pendent drop/bubble tensiometer is applied to perform the surface/interfacial tension measurements for the binary water + ethylene glycol monoisobutyl ether (iso-C4E1) mixture over the temperature range from 25 to 150 degrees C and over the pressure range up to 100 bar. The symbol C(i)E(j) is the abbreviation of a nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol C(i)H(2i+1)(OCH2CH2)(j)OH. The wetting behavior of the iso-C4E1-rich phase at the surface of the aqueous phase is systematically examined according to the wetting coefficient determined from the experimental results of surface/interfacial tensions. It is found that the iso-C4E1-rich phase exhibits a sequence of wetting transitions, nonwetting --> partial wetting --> complete wetting, at the water surface in the water + iso-C4E1 system along with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the iso-C4E1-rich phase undergoes a wetting transition from partial wetting to nonwetting at the surface of the aqueous phase by increasing the system pressure at a fixed temperature near the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the closed-loop miscibility gap in the water + iso-C4E1 system.

    Title Observation of a Sequence of Wetting Transitions in the Binary Water+ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Mixture.
    Date July 2007
    Journal The Journal of Chemical Physics
    Excerpt

    A homemade pendant drop/bubble tensiometer was assembled and applied to perform the surface-interfacial tension measurements for the binary water+ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (C4E1) mixture over the temperature range from 50 to 128 degrees C at 10 bar. The symbol CiEj is the abbreviation of a nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol CiH2i+1(OCH2CH2)jOH. The wetting behavior of the C4E1-rich phase at the interface separating the gas and the aqueous phases was systematically examined according to the wetting coefficient calculated from the experimental results of surface/interfacial tensions. It was found that the C4E1-rich phase exhibits a sequence of wetting transitions, nonwetting-->partial wetting-->complete wetting, at the gas-water interface in the water+C4E1 system along with increasing the temperature, consistent with the conjecture of Kahlweit and Busse [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1339 (1989)]. In addition, the relationship of the mutual solubility and the interfacial tension of the interface separating the C4E1-rich phase and the aqueous phase is discussed.

    Title Wetting Behavior of Mixtures of Water and Nonionic Polyoxyethylene Alcohol.
    Date September 2006
    Journal Langmuir : the Acs Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
    Excerpt

    Five binary water + C4Ej mixtures, water + n-C4E0, water + 2-C4E0, water + iso-C4E0, water + n-C4E1, and water + iso-C4E1, were chosen to perform the surface/interfacial tension measurements over the experimental temperature range from 10 to 85 degrees C at the normal pressure by using a homemade pendent drop/bubble tensiometer. The symbol CiEj is the abbreviation of a nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol CiH(2i+1)(OCH2CH2)jOH. The wetting behavior of the CiEj-rich phase at the interface separating gas and the aqueous phase is systematically examined according to the wetting coefficient resulting from the experimental data of surface/interfacial tensions measurements. For those systems with a lower critical solution temperature, for example, water + n-C6E2, water + n-C4E1, and water + iso-C4E1, a wetting transition from partial wetting to nonwetting is always observed when the system is brought to close to its lower critical solution temperature. On the other hand, to start with a partial wetting CiEj-rich phase, a wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting is always observed when the system is driven to approach its upper critical solution temperature. The effect of hydrophobicity of CiEj on the wetting behavior of the CiEj-rich phase at the interface separating gas and the aqueous phase was carefully investigated by using five sets of mixtures: (1) water + n-C4E0, water + n-C5E0, and water + n-C6E0; (2) water + 2-C4E0 and water + 2-C5E0; (3) water + 2-C4E0 and water + n-C4E0; (4) water + n-C4E1, water + n-C5E1, and water + n-C6E1; (5) water + n-C4E0 and water + n-C4E1. The CiEj-rich phase would tend to drive away from complete wetting (or nonwetting) to partial wetting with an increase in the hydrophobicity of CiEj in the binary water + CiEj system. All the wetting behavior observed in the water + CiEj mixtures is consistent with the prediction of the critical point wetting theory of Cahn.

    Title Nonhydrogenated Cottonseed Oil Can Be Used As a Deep Fat Frying Medium to Reduce Trans-fatty Acid Content in French Fries.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Journal of the American Dietetic Association
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile, in particular trans-fatty acids, of french fries fried in nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as compared with french fries fried in partially hydrogenated canola oil and french fries fried in partially hydrogenated soybean oil. DESIGN: Cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated canola oil, and partially hydrogenated soybean oil were subjected to a temperature of 177 degrees C for 8 hours per day, and six batches of french fries were fried per day for 5 consecutive days. French fries were weighed before frying, cooked for 5 minutes, allowed to drain, and reweighed. Oil was not replenished and was filtered once per day. Both the oil and the french fries were evaluated to determine fatty acid profiles, trans-fatty acids, and crude fat. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A randomized block design with split plot was used to analyze the data collected. Least-squares difference was used as the means separation test. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between fries prepared in the three oil types for crude fat. Fatty acid profiles for the french fries remained stable. The french fries prepared in cottonseed oil were significantly lower in trans-fatty acids. The combined total of the trans-fatty acid content and saturated fatty acid content were lower in french fries prepared in cottonseed oil. CONCLUSIONS: Because deep fat frying remains a popular cooking technique, health professionals should educate the public and the food service industry on the benefits of using nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as an alternative to the commonly used hydrogenated oils.

    Title Copper Oxide Nanocrystals.
    Date December 2005
    Journal Journal of the American Chemical Society
    Excerpt

    It is well-known that inorganic nanocrystals are a benchmark model for nanotechnology, given that the tunability of optical properties and the stabilization of specific phases are uniquely possible at the nanoscale. Copper (I) oxide (Cu(2)O) is a metal oxide semiconductor with promising applications in solar energy conversion and catalysis. To understand the Cu/Cu(2)O/CuO system at the nanoscale, we have developed a method for preparing highly uniform monodisperse nanocrystals of Cu(2)O. The procedure also serves to demonstrate our development of a generalized method for the synthesis of transition metal oxide nanocrystals. Cu nanocrystals are initially formed and subsequently oxidized to form highly crystalline Cu(2)O. The volume change during phase transformation can induce crystal twinning. Absorption in the visible region of the spectrum gave evidence for the presence of a thin, epitaxial layer of CuO, which is blue-shifted, and appears to increase in energy as a function of decreasing particle size. XPS confirmed the thin layer of CuO, calculated to have a thickness of approximately 5 A. We note that the copper (I) oxide phase is surprisingly well-stabilized at this length scale.

    Title Apoptotic Signals Within the Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons in Alzheimer's Disease.
    Date November 2005
    Journal Experimental Neurology
    Excerpt

    A relatively early and substantial loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a constant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms that contribute to the selective vulnerability of these neurons are not fully delineated. In the present series of experiments, we determined the possible contribution of apoptotic processes and other pathologic cascades to the degeneration of the cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in AD. In contrast to neurons in the frontal cortex which showed prominent DNA fragmentation as detected by the TUNEL method, no DNA fragmentation was observed within the NBM in any of the AD or normal brains. Similarly, immunoreactivity for the apoptotic signals Fas, Fas-ligand, Bax, Bcl-x, caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 was absent from the NBM of AD and control brains. In contrast, a substantial subpopulation of cholinergic neurons within the NBM in AD displayed prominent immunoreactivity for the apoptotic signal Fas-associated death domain (FADD) in the form of tangles. FADD immunoreactivity was also present in dystrophic neurites. FADD-positive tangle-like structures were localized in neurons which contained immunoreactivity for the cholinergic marker choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. While many of the NBM cholinergic neurons in control brains contained immunoreactivity for the calcium binding protein calbindin-D28K (CB), the NBM neurons in AD displayed a substantial loss of CB immunoreactivity. Importantly, most of FADD-immunoreactive cholinergic neurons were devoid of CB immunoreactivity, and, conversely, most CB-positive cholinergic neurons had no FADD immunoreactivity. FADD immunoreactivity within the basal forebrain was colocalized with phosphorylated tau immunoreactive tangles and dystrophic neurites. In contrast, FADD immunoreactivity did not appear to be related to the primarily diffuse amyloid-beta deposits intermingled between cholinergic neurons in AD NBM. Finally, many CD68-positive microglia were observed surrounding the NBM cholinergic neurons in AD. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicate that, while the FADD apoptotic signaling pathway may be triggered within the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in AD, the apoptotic cascade is most likely aborted as no DNA fragmentation was detected and the executioner caspase-3 was not up-regulated within these neurons. The findings also suggest possible relationships between loss of CB, FADD expression and phosphorylation of tau within the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in AD.

    Title The Allele Interaction Between Apolipoprotein Epsilon2 and Epsilon4 in Taiwanese Alzheimer's Disease Patients.
    Date July 2005
    Journal Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
    Excerpt

    This study aimed to determine the impact of the present of apolipoprotein epsilon (Apoepsilon) 2 on the relationship between Apoepsilon4 and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Title Clinician Assessment of the Driving Competence of Patients with Dementia.
    Date June 2005
    Journal Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the validity and reliability of clinician ratings of the driving competence of patients with mild dementia. DESIGN: Observational study of a cross-section of drivers with mild dementia based on chart review by clinicians with varying types of expertise and experience. SETTING: Outpatient dementia clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty dementia subjects from a longitudinal study of driving and dementia. MEASUREMENTS: Each clinician reviewed information from the clinic charts and the first study visit. The clinician then rated the drivers as safe, marginal, or unsafe. A professional driving instructor compared these ratings with total driving scores on a standardized road test and categorical ratings of driving competence. Clinicians also completed a visual analog scale assessment of variables that led to their determinations of driving competence. RESULTS: Accuracy of clinician ratings ranged from 62% to 78% for the instructor's global rating of safe versus marginal or unsafe. In general, there was moderate accuracy and interrater reliability. Accuracy could have been improved in the least-accurate raters by greater attention to dementia duration and severity ratings, as well as less reliance on the history and physical examination. The most accurate predictors were clinicians specially trained in dementia assessment, who were not necessarily the most experienced in their years of clinical experience. CONCLUSION: Although a clinician may be able to identify many potentially hazardous drivers, accuracy is insufficient to suggest that a clinician's assessment alone is adequate to determine driving competence in those with mild dementia.

    Title Crystallization and Preliminary Crystallographic Data for the Augmenter of Liver Regeneration.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography
    Excerpt

    A new cellular growth factor termed augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) has been crystallized. ALR has been shown to have a proliferative effect on liver cells while at the same time producing an immunosuppressive effect on liver-resident natural killer cells and liver-resident mononuclear leukocytes. In addition, ALR appears to play an important role in the synthesis and stabilization of mitochondrial gene transcripts in actively regenerating cells. ALR crystals diffract to beyond 2 A resolution and belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with a = 125.1, b = 108.1 and c = 38.5 A. Based on four molecules per asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient is calculated to be 2.16 A(3) Da(-1) which corresponds to a solvent content of 43%.

    Title Crystals of Ligand-free Bovine Neurophysin Ii.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography
    Excerpt

    A modified neurophysin, des 1-6 bovine neurophysin II, has been crystallized in the absence of bound hormone or hormone analogue. These crystals represent the first crystals of ligand-free neurophysin, and are essential for understanding neurophysin-hormone recognition as well as hormone-induced neurophysin dimerization. The crystals diffract to beyond 1.8 A resolution, belong to space group P3(1)21 (or P3(2)21) with a = 48.86, c = 78.61 A, and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit.

    Title Mindfulness Meditation Training Combined with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Psychotherapy of an Elderly Patient.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Chang Gung Medical Journal
    Excerpt

    We present our experiences with an elderly patient with depression that was attributed to a surge of physical ailments who also had trauma-derived fear of having to undergo a tracheotomy. He refused pharmacotherapy and was offered intensive training in Mindfulness Meditation (MM) plus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy during the 2 weeks of hospitalization. This treatment combination had not been used previously. We suggest that EMDR eliminated his fear of surgery, whereas MM relieved his depression and attendant anxiety. However, the two techniques appeared to work synergistically. Following his discharge, he continued to practice MM, which prevented the recurrence of emotional distress, and even helped to reduce its causative physical symptoms. We offer an explanation for the success of our combined treatments and discuss the potential usefulness in specific psychotherapeutic situations. We also propose a place for MM within general geriatric care, and point out the reluctance to consider the therapeutic value of meditation.

    Title The Crystal Structure of Augmenter of Liver Regeneration: A Mammalian Fad-dependent Sulfhydryl Oxidase.
    Date January 2004
    Journal Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society
    Excerpt

    The crystal structure of recombinant rat augmenter of liver regeneration (ALRp) has been determined to 1.8 A. The protein is a homodimer, stabilized by extensive noncovalent interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, and possesses a noncovalently bound FAD in a motif previously found only in the related protein ERV2p. ALRp functions in vitro as a disulfide oxidase using dithiothreitol as reductant. Reduction of the flavin by DTT occurs under aerobic conditions resulting in a spectrum characteristic of a neutral semiquinone. This semiquinone is stable and is only fully reduced by addition of dithionite. Mutation of either of two cysteine residues that are located adjacent to the FAD results in inactivation of the oxidase activity. A comparison of ALRp with ERV2p is made that reveals a number of significant structural differences, which are related to the in vivo functions of these two proteins. Possible physiological roles of ALR are examined and a hypothesis that it may serve multiple roles is proposed.

    Title Pharmacotherapy of Dementia with Lewy Bodies.
    Date January 2004
    Journal Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
    Excerpt

    The syndrome of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterised by the clinical triad of fluctuating cognitive impairment, recurrent visual hallucinations and spontaneous motor features of Parkinsonism. In an attempt to define DLB as a distinct clinical syndrome separate from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) with dementia, a consensus workshop in 1995 established a new set of diagnostic criteria. Dementia that precedes or accompanies the onset of spontaneous (i.e., not neuroleptic-induced) Parkinsonism is termed DLB. In addition, fluctuations in alertness, cognition and function and visual hallucinations are emphasised and included as core features of DLB. The degree to which an individual patient exhibits cognitive impairment, behavioural problems and Parkinsonian features is variable. Therefore, treatment must be individualised. Although there are no officially approved drugs for DLB, limited experience from clinical trials, as well as past experience with the treatment of AD and PD patients, provide some basis for making drug choices. The cholinergic deficit seen in DLB makes cholinesterase inhibitor drugs the mainstay of treatment for cognitive impairment. This class of drugs has also shown therapeutic benefit in reducing hallucinations and other neuropsychiatric symptoms of the disease. Because of their relatively greater therapeutic window, cholinesterase inhibitors are also used as first-line therapy for the treatment of psychosis in DLB. Patients with DLB are extremely sensitive to the extrapyramidal side effects of neuroleptic medications. Thus, only atypical antipsychotic agents such as quetiapine, should be considered as alternative treatment for psychosis. Anxiety and depression are best treated with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, whereas REM sleep behaviour disorder may be treated with low dose clonazepam. Parkinsonism responds to dopaminergic agents; however, precipitation or aggravation of hallucinosis may occur. Levodopa is preferred over dopamine agonists due to its lower propensity to cause hallucinations and somnolence. As the diagnostic criteria for DLB become more refined and validated by postmortem studies, it is hoped that rigorous, well-designed trials will be performed, aimed at alleviating the primary target symptoms of dementia, psychosis and Parkinsonism.

    Title Selective Age-related Loss of Calbindin-d28k from Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons in the Common Marmoset (callithrix Jacchus).
    Date September 2003
    Journal Neuroscience
    Excerpt

    A significant number of the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain of the primate, but not the rodent brain contain the calcium binding protein calbindin-D28k (CB). Previous experiments in our laboratory have demonstrated a substantial age-related loss of CB from the human basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN). The present study investigated the possible age-related loss of CB from the BFCN in a non-human primate species, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Quantitative analysis of matching sections as well as unbiased stereological determination of neuronal number were used in 16 adult marmosets ranging in age between 2 and 15 years. No significant changes were observed in the number of choline acetyltransferase-positive BFCN when a group of young animals (< or =4 years) was compared with a 6-8-year-old group and a 9-15-year-old group. Similarly, no age-related changes were observed in Nissl-stained magnocellular basal forebrain (putatively cholinergic) neurons. In contrast, the BFCN of the two older groups of animals displayed a significant loss of CB. The age-related loss of CB occurred in all sectors of the BFCN, but was greatest in the anterior sector of this cell group. The CB loss was neurochemically specific since the BFCN in the older groups of animals continued to express other markers such as high and low affinity neurotrophin receptors. The age-related loss of CB from the marmoset BFCN was also regionally selective as CB positive neurons in other structures, such as the cerebral cortex and the striatum displayed no apparent age-related changes. These results indicate that the marmoset BFCN display a significant and selective age-related loss of CB reminiscent of that observed in the human. Therefore, the common marmoset represents an appropriate animal model in which the consequences of BFCN CB loss can be investigated in depth. Loss of CB from the aged BFCN is likely to reduce the capacity of these neurons to buffer intracellular calcium and to leave them vulnerable to insults which can result in increased calcium levels. The vulnerability of the CB-negative BFCN in the aged marmoset to various insults which disturb calcium homeostasis remains to be investigated.

    Title Loss of Calbindin-d28k from Aging Human Cholinergic Basal Forebrain: Relation to Plaques and Tangles.
    Date July 2003
    Journal Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
    Excerpt

    Reports from our laboratory have indicated a substantial and specific loss of the calcium binding protein calbindin-D28K (CB) from the human basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) in the course of normal aging. In the present set of experiments we determined the relationship between the age-related loss of CB and the presence and density of plaques and tangles in the brains of normal elderly. In 23 cases ranging in age from 20 to 93 years of age we observed plaques and tangles in the BFCN region and the cerebral cortex in a subset of cases. Plaques were seen in the basal forebrain in very few cases above 65 years. Plaque density in the basal forebrain and cortex displayed a significant negative correlation with the proportion of the BFCN, which contained CB immunoreactivity. However, the brains of 2 elderly cases that displayed a substantial loss of CB from the BFCN did not contain any plaques. Tangles were observed in the BFCN as early as 26 years of age. Only tangles in the entorhinal cortex showed a significant negative correlation with the loss of CB from the BFCN. It is likely that loss of CB from the BFCN and formation of plaques and tangles are part of general age-related processes that occur in parallel rather than being causally related.

    Title Penile Tumescence Assessment Used for a Diagnosis of Paraphilia: a Pedophilia Case Report.
    Date May 2003
    Journal Chang Gung Medical Journal
    Excerpt

    We report on the use of penile tumescence assessment to diagnose a paraphiliac client who was in denial about his problem. An 18-year-old male was accused of sexually assaulting a 4-year-old girl using physical restraint and vaginal penetration with a finger. During a psychiatric evaluation requested by the court, a comprehensive psychosexual assessment revealed that the subject was in denial about clarification of the paraphiliac experience. Penile tumescence under distinct visual stimulus was evaluated with electrobioimpedence volumetric assessment using child and adult female pictures in separate time frames. Both types of stimuli evoked arousal responses. However, child female stimuli demonstrated stronger responses than did adult female ones. Deviant sexual interest in children as well as a diagnosis of pedophilia was implied. Paraphiliac clients tend to be in denial toward psychosexual assessment which limits the interpretation of its results. Penile tumescence assessment may be more reliable than psychosexual assessment alone for detecting and diagnosing paraphilia. Further study is warranted in order to aid in more accurate diagnoses of paraphilia.

    Title Loss of Calbindin-d28k from Aging Human Cholinergic Basal Forebrain: Relation to Neuronal Loss.
    Date January 2003
    Journal The Journal of Comparative Neurology
    Excerpt

    Cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BFCN) are selectively vulnerable in neurodegenerative disorders of the elderly, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated age-related changes in the BFCN that may serve as a substrate for this vulnerability. We report a substantial and selective age-related loss of the calcium binding protein calbindin-D(28K) (CB) from the human BFCN. Unbiased stereological estimation indicated that, in individuals under age 65 years, 72% of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive BFCN contained CB immunoreactivity. In individuals over age 65 years, only 28% of the BFCN contained CB immunoreactivity, a dramatic loss of 61%. Similar results were obtained using neuronal counts from matching single- or double-stained sections in a larger cohort. The loss of CB immunoreactivity was neurochemically specific. No age-related changes were observed in the number of ChAT- or low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75(NTR))-immunoreactive profiles. The loss of CB was greatest in very old individuals, in whom a small loss of BFCN was observed. Furthermore, the loss of CB displayed the same pattern as the loss of BFCN in AD and was more substantial in the posterior compared with the anterior BFCN sector, suggesting a role for CB in the selective vulnerability of BFCN in AD. The depletion of CB from the BFCN is likely to deprive these neurons of the capacity to buffer high levels of intracellular Ca(2+) and thus to leave them vulnerable to pathological processes, such as those in neurodegenerative disorders, which can cause increased intracellular Ca(2+), thus leading to their degeneration.

    Title Amyloid-beta Deposits in the Cerebral Cortex of the Aged Common Marmoset (callithrix Jacchus): Incidence and Chemical Composition.
    Date July 2002
    Journal Acta Neuropathologica
    Excerpt

    The incidence, distribution and chemical composition of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide-positive deposits were investigated in the lower primate species common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). No A beta deposits were observed in the brains of 7 marmosets below 7 years of age. In 15 marmosets above 7 years, 60% displayed cortical A beta-immunoreactive plaques, 80% had A beta deposited in intracortical vessels and 87% displayed A beta deposits in meningeal vessels. The cerebral cortex of the oldest animal (15 years) contained a substantial density of deposits. A beta-immunoreactive plaques were found predominantly in association cortical zones followed by a lower density in paralimbic cortical areas. Deposits within vessels were most frequent in occipital cortex. A beta40 was found primarily in vascular deposits, while A beta42 was present in plaques. Approximately 20% of plaques and most vascular deposits displayed thioflavin S staining, indicative of the presence of fibrillar A beta. Varying proportions of A beta deposits contained acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase activities and apolipoprotein E and alpha1-antichymotrypsin immunoreactivity. A few plaques contained immunoreactivity for amyloid precursor protein in swollen neurites. However, no abnormally phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity was present in these neurites. Survival analysis in a colony of marmosets indicated that only 6% of animals can be expected to survive beyond 7 years of age. These results indicate that the aged marmoset brain displays A beta deposits with a distribution and chemical composition similar to those found in the human. These similarities suggest that the aged marmoset may be a useful lower primate model for the study of the pathological effects of A beta. However, the relatively small number of animals which can be expected to reach old age severely limits the utility of this species as a model of A beta deposition.

    Title Selective Cell Loss in Edinger-westphal in Asymptomatic Elders and Alzheimer's Patients.
    Date January 2002
    Journal Neurobiology of Aging
    Excerpt

    Exaggerated pupillary response to a low concentration of cholinergic antagonists has been suggested as an early marker for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). To examine the anatomic basis of this phenomenon, we determined possible neuropathological changes in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus, a midbrain neural center with a significant functional role in the control of pupil size. Stereologically determined neuronal numbers within the EW were counted in individuals with pathologically confirmed AD, control cases with no AD-type pathology, and subjects with AD pathology not meeting diagnostic criteria for AD. The EW of AD patients displayed a marked and striking neuronal loss when compared with controls. In contrast, the number of neurons in the somatic portion of the nucleus of the third cranial nerve (NCNIII) remained intact. The EW in brains from clinically normal individuals with evidence of early AD-type pathology also displayed a significant and selective loss of neurons. The magnitude of EW neuronal loss in the latter group was smaller than that observed in AD. These findings suggest that pupillary hypersensitivity in AD may be caused by abnormalities in the EW. Neuronal loss and pathology within the EW in a subpopulation of clinically silent controls with pathologic findings consistent with early-stage AD constitutes a possible explanation for the reported exaggerated pupil response in some normal elderly subjects.

    Title Human Ferrochelatase: Characterization of Substrate-iron Binding and Proton-abstracting Residues.
    Date December 2001
    Journal Biochemistry
    Excerpt

    The terminal step in heme biosynthesis, the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme, is catalyzed by the enzyme ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1). A number of highly conserved residues identified from the crystal structure of human ferrochelatase as being in the active site were examined by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutants Y123F, Y165F, Y191H, and R164L each had an increased K(m) for iron without an altered K(m) for porphyrin. The double mutant R164L/Y165F had a 6-fold increased K(m) for iron and a 10-fold decreased V(max). The double mutant Y123F/Y191F had low activity with an elevated K(m) for iron, and Y123F/Y165F had no measurable activity. The mutants H263A/C/N, D340N, E343Q, E343H, and E343K had no measurable enzyme activity, while E343D, E347Q, and H341C had decreased V(max)s without significant alteration of the K(m)s for either substrate. D340E had near-normal kinetic parameters, while D383A and H231A had increased K(m)s for iron. On the basis of these data and the crystal structure of human ferrochelatase, it is proposed that residues E343, H341, and D340 form a conduit from H263 in the active site to the protein exterior and function in proton extraction from the porphyrin macrocycle. The role of H263 as the porphyrin proton-accepting residue is central to catalysis since metalation only occurs in conjunction with proton abstraction. It is suggested that iron is transported from the exterior of the enzyme at D383/H231 via residues W227 and Y191 to the site of metalation at residues R164 and Y165 which are on the opposite side of the active site pocket from H263. This model should be general for mitochondrial membrane-associated eucaryotic ferrochelatases but may differ for bacterial ferrochelatases since the spatial orientation of the enzyme within prokaryotic cells may differ.

    Title Structures of an Unliganded Neurophysin and Its Vasopressin Complex: Implications for Binding and Allosteric Mechanisms.
    Date October 2001
    Journal Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society
    Excerpt

    The structures of des 1-6 bovine neurophysin-II in the unliganded state and as its complex with lysine vasopressin were determined crystallographically at resolutions of 2.4 A and 2.3 A, respectively. The structure of the protein component of the vasopressin complex was, with some local differences, similar to that determined earlier of the full-length protein complexed with oxytocin, but relatively large differences, probably intrinsic to the hormones, were observed between the structures of bound oxytocin and bound vasopressin at Gln 4. The structure of the unliganded protein is the first structure of an unliganded neurophysin. Comparison with the liganded state indicated significant binding-induced conformational changes that were the largest in the loop region comprising residues 50-58 and in the 7-10 region. A subtle binding-induced tightening of the subunit interface of the dimer also was shown, consistent with a role for interface changes in neurophysin allosteric mechanism, but one that is probably not predominant. Interface changes are suggested to be communicated from the binding site through the strands of beta-sheet that connect these two regions, in part with mediation by Gly 23. Comparison of unliganded and liganded states additionally reveals that the binding site for the hormone alpha-amino group is largely preformed and accessible in the unliganded state, suggesting that it represents the initial site of hormone protein recognition. The potential molecular basis for its thermodynamic contribution to binding is discussed.

    Title Clinical Characteristics of Outpatients at a Psycho-oncology Clinic in a Radiation Oncology Department.
    Date June 2001
    Journal Chang Gung Medical Journal
    Excerpt

    Psychosocial care in cancer medicine has become increasingly important. The first psychiatric consultation-liaison (C-L) outpatient clinic in Taiwan was established in a department of radiation oncology in a medical center in Oct. 1998.

    Title The 2.0 A Structure of Human Ferrochelatase, the Terminal Enzyme of Heme Biosynthesis.
    Date March 2001
    Journal Nature Structural Biology
    Excerpt

    Human ferrochelatase (E.C. 4.99.1.1) is a homodimeric (86 kDa) mitochondrial membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin to form heme. We have determined the 2.0 A structure from the single wavelength iron anomalous scattering signal. The enzyme contains two NO-sensitive and uniquely coordinated [2Fe-2S] clusters. Its membrane association is mediated in part by a 12-residue hydrophobic lip that also forms the entrance to the active site pocket. The positioning of highly conserved residues in the active site in conjunction with previous biochemical studies support a catalytic model that may have significance in explaining the enzymatic defects that lead to the human inherited disease erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    Title Ferrochelatase at the Millennium: Structures, Mechanisms and [2fe-2s] Clusters.
    Date February 2001
    Journal Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : Cmls
    Excerpt

    Ferrochelatase (E.C. 4.99.1.1, protoheme ferrolyase) catalyzes the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme (heme). In the past 2 years, the crystal structures of ferrochelatases from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and human have been determined. These structures along with years of biophysical and kinetic studies have led to a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of ferrochelatase. At present, the complete DNA sequences of 45 ferrochelatases from procaryotes and eucaryotes are available. These sequences along with direct protein studies reveal that ferrochelatases, while related, vary significantly in amino acid sequence, molecular size, subunit composition, solubility, and the presence or absence of nitric-oxide-sensitive [2Fe-2S] cluster.

    Title Concomitant Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and Lithium Intoxication in a Patient with Bipolar I Disorder: Case Report.
    Date January 2001
    Journal Chang Gung Medical Journal
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this report is to remind clinicians of the risk of the simultaneous occurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and lithium intoxication. A 39-year-old female with bipolar I disorder was admitted to our psychiatric ward due to relapse of a manic episode and a suicide attempt in which she had ingested 20 to 30 tablets of lithium (300 mg/tablet) 12 hours before admission. Except for intramuscular injection of 5 mg of haloperidol 30 minutes after admission, the patient received no antipsychotic drugs during her hospitalization. Six hours after admission, she began to show symptoms of NMS. Lithium intoxication was also found. Within a week, her condition had stabilized with no neurological complications or cognitive deficits noted during the following 4 months. Discussed in this case report are the risk factors of NMS found in this patient, drug interactions of lithium and antipsychotic agents as related to NMS, and problems in clinical management.

    Title Focal Pathology in the Edinger-westphal Nucleus Explains Pupillary Hypersensitivity in Alzheimer's Disease.
    Date January 2000
    Journal Acta Neuropathologica
    Excerpt

    Patients who suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a sub-population of community-dwelling elders show an exaggerated pupillary reaction to dilute tropicamide, a cholinergic antagonist. This finding may serve as an early diagnostic marker of AD. Here we report a likely pathological basis for this hypersensitive pupillary response. Our observations indicate that the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), a known center for the control of pupillary function, is a selective target of Alzheimer pathology early in the course of the disease. In all AD cases examined, the EW contained plaques and tangles. In contrast, the adjacent somatic portion of the oculomotor complex was virtually spared of pathology. Early pathology in the EW is likely to initiate a cascade of events that may give rise to pupillary hypersensitivity.

    Title Aging Renders the Brain Vulnerable to Amyloid Beta-protein Neurotoxicity.
    Date April 1999
    Journal Nature Medicine
    Excerpt

    The formation of fibrillar deposits of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A central question is whether Abeta plays a direct role in the neurodegenerative process in AD. The involvement of Abeta in the neurodegenerative process is suggested by the neurotoxicity of the fibrillar form of Abeta in vitro. However, mice transgenic for the Abeta precursor protein that develop amyloid deposits in the brain do not show the degree of neuronal loss or tau phosphorylation found in AD. Here we show that microinjection of plaque-equivalent concentrations of fibrillar, but not soluble, Abeta in the aged rhesus monkey cerebral cortex results in profound neuronal loss, tau phosphorylation and microglial proliferation. Fibrillar Abeta at plaque-equivalent concentrations is not toxic in the young adult rhesus brain. Abeta toxicity in vivo is also highly species-specific; toxicity is greater in aged rhesus monkeys than in aged marmoset monkeys, and is not significant in aged rats. These results suggest that Abeta neurotoxicity in vivo is a pathological response of the aging brain, which is most pronounced in higher order primates. Thus, longevity may contribute to the unique susceptibility of humans to Alzheimer's disease by rendering the brain vulnerable to Abeta neurotoxicity.

    Title Relationship Between Plaques, Tangles, and Loss of Cortical Cholinergic Fibers in Alzheimer Disease.
    Date June 1998
    Journal Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
    Excerpt

    Recent observations in our laboratory have indicated substantial and systematic regional variations in the loss of cortical cholinergic fibers in Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous attempts to study the relationship between cortical cholinergic loss and the density of cortical pathological lesions have resulted in conflicting findings. Furthermore, most reports have correlated density of plaques and tangles with the residual level of cholinergic innervation rather than its loss. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between loss of cholinergic axons and density of tangles and beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in various cortical areas of AD brains. Abeta deposits and tangles were observed throughout the cerebral cortex. Quantitative analysis revealed almost no correlation between loss of cholinergic fibers and the density of Abeta deposits. Qualitative observations revealed similar results when cored and neuritic plaques were considered separately. By contrast, cholinergic fiber loss displayed a significant correlation with the density of tangles (r = 0.52-0.79). However, in a few areas, such as the cingulate cortex, tangle density appeared to be unrelated to the loss of cholinergic fibers. These results indicate that cortical cholinergic denervation in AD is related to cytoskeletal pathology. However, the lack of a perfect relationship with cytoskeletal pathology implicates additional factors in the cholinergic pathology of AD.

    Title Age-related Loss of Calbindin from Human Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons.
    Date October 1997
    Journal Neuroreport
    Excerpt

    Loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) occurs in many age-related neurological diseases. Although age is the common risk factor in these disorders, no consistent age-related changes have been reported in the human BFCN. We investigated age-related alterations in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75LNGFR) and calbindin-D28k (CalBP) immunoreactivity in the human BFCN. No significant age-related changes were observed in ChAT or p75LNGFR immunoreactivity. By contrast, normal aging was accompanied by a selective, substantial and significant loss of CalBP immunoreactivity from the BFCN. Other CalBP-positive neurons were unchanged. Loss of the calcium buffering capacity conferred by CalBP may leave the BFCN vulnerable to damage in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Title Effect of Beef Tenderness on Consumer Satisfaction with Steaks Consumed in the Home and Restaurant.
    Date September 1996
    Journal Journal of Animal Science
    Excerpt

    Loin steaks were eaten by 67 consumers over a 15-wk period (n = 739 consumer observations) to determine the consumer acceptability of beef tenderness in the home and a "white table cloth" restaurant. Steaks were rated for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability on an 8-point scale. The acceptability levels for tenderness were established based on Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values, tenderness ratings, and a chisquare analysis of the judgment of tenderness and overall acceptability by the same consumers in both the home and restaurant. Results based only on observations from consumers in Lubbock, TX indicated that the beef industry should target production of beef steaks that have a Warner-Bratzler shear force value of 4.1 kg or less to ensure high levels (98%) of consumer acceptability. Results suggest that an acceptable level of beef tenderness for consumers can be determined and WBS values can be used as criteria for determining which steaks will be considered acceptably tender to consumers before distribution to retail outlets. The beef industry needs to conduct a nationwide research study to determine whether the results from this study will apply to all U.S. beef consumers.

    Title Restaurant Consumer Acceptance of Beef Loin Strip Steaks Tenderized with Calcium Chloride.
    Date July 1996
    Journal Journal of Animal Science
    Excerpt

    Beef strip loins from either the right or left side of 22 carcasses of Bos indicus-type steers were injected with 200 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution at 5% (wt/wt) to determine its effect on tenderness and other selected quality traits of steaks. Loins from opposite sides of the carcasses were untreated and served as the control. The steaks were evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavor intensity, tenderness acceptability, and overall acceptability by 62 restaurant consumers over a 6-wk period. The CaCl2 injection improved (P < .05) tenderness and flavor intensity ratings by the restaurant consumers. Tenderness acceptability and overall acceptability were improved 23 and 17%, respectively, by the CaCl2 injection. Flavor was not compromised by the CaCl2 injection. The CaCl2-treated steaks were rated superior(P < .05) for flavor compared to the control steaks. Restaurant consumers preferred the beef loin strip steaks injected with 200 mM CaCl2 at 5% (wt/wt). The results of this study are interpreted to indicate that, from a restaurant consumer perspective, CaCl2 injection is an acceptable means of making beef a more consistently tender product.

    Title Crystal Structure of the Neurophysin-oxytocin Complex.
    Date March 1996
    Journal Nature Structural Biology
    Excerpt

    The first crystal structure of the pituitary hormone oxytocin complexed with its carrier protein neurophysin has been determined and refined to 3.0 A resolution. The hormone-binding site is located at the end of a 3(10)-helix and involves residues from both domains of each monomer. Hormone residues Tyr 2, which is buried deep in the binding pocket, and Cys 1 have been confirmed as the key residues involved in neurophysin-hormone recognition. We have compared the bound oxytocin observed in the neurophysin-oxytocin complex, the X-ray structures of unbound oxytocin analogues and the NMR-derived structure for bound oxytocin. We find that while our structure is in agreement with the previous crystallographic findings, it differs from the NMR result with regard to how Tyr 2 of the hormone is recognized by neurophysin.

    Title Effects of Breed Type and Accelerated Fat Removal on Subprimal Yields and Carcass Values.
    Date September 1995
    Journal Journal of Animal Science
    Excerpt

    Nine Brown Swiss and nine English crossbred steers representing the industry standard were slaughtered to determine the effects of cattle type and hot fat removal on subprimal yields and carcass value. After dressing, cod fat, kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPHF), and subcutaneous fat thicker than .6 cm was removed from the right side of each carcass (HFT). The left side was not hot-fat trimmed (NFT). Both sides were fabricated into subprimal cuts with no more than .6 cm of subcutaneous fat. Carcass side values were adjusted to a 300-kg chilled carcass weight basis. All comparisons were made for the carcasses using a USDA Select quality grade end point. English crossbred steer carcasses had more (P < .05) subcutaneous fat on the loin and chuck and more (P < .05) total hot fat trim, when KPHF was not included, than Brown Swiss steers (P < .05). Brown Swiss steers had more (P < .05) KPHF. Hot-fat trimmed sides had higher (P < .05) percentage yields from the chuck, brisket, foreshank, rib, plate, round primal cuts, and most of the subprimal cuts than NFT sides, but the primal loin percentage was higher (P < .05) in the NFT sides. The total subprimal cuts yield was approximately 5% higher for the HFT sides than for the NFT sides, and the total fat trim during fabrication was more than 6% less. When the value of the sides was calculated from unadjusted weights, the NFT sides were approximately $26.50 more valuable than the HFT sides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Oblique Sliding Metatarsal Osteotomy for Pressure Metatarsalgia.
    Date January 1993
    Journal Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi = The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
    Excerpt

    The transverse arch of the foot is formed by metatarsals which heads lie in a straight line to endure most of the loading of the forefoot. Malalignment of one or more metatarsal heads will result in increased loading and produce local tender plantar callosity. The treatment of pressure metatarsalgia must aim for it's pathomechanic cause, that is, hyper-extension of metatarsophalangeal joint. We have modified the distal metatarsal osteotomy to treat 40 toes in 22 cases. Follow up for an average of 21.3 months (ranging from 18 months to 31 months) indicated 19 cases (86.4%) with satisfactory results. The 3 cases with unsatisfied results were all due to early removal of the pin. Maximum oblige sloping of the osteotomy makes the osteotomy slide more easily and ensures union. Intramedullary pinning and early weight bearing maintain the osteotomic alignment, prevent foot stiffness and allow the distal fragment telescopes to be adequately positioned to prevent over correction which leads to transfer lesion. Compared to other methods, modified metatarsal osteotomy is less invasive, preserves natural structure, is easily performed and easy cared for which leads to effective and stable results.

    Title Effects of Infused Glucose, Sodium and Potassium Chlorides and Polyphosphates on Palatability of Hot-boned Pork.
    Date January 1991
    Journal Journal of Animal Science
    Excerpt

    Longissimus muscle sections were excised from eight pork carcasses 1 h postmortem and sectioned into six .5-kg roasts to determine the effects of glucose, salt and polyphosphates (aqueous solution to 110% of fresh weight) on palatability of hot-boned pork. Treatments were hot-boned control (HB) with no infusion or infusions of 2% KCl and 3% of a 1:1 mixture of sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium pyrophosphate (PP) plus either 8% NaCl; 2% glucose (G) plus 6% NaCl; 6% G plus 2% NaCl; or 8% G. Another muscle section was chilled at 0 degrees C for 24 h on each carcass as a cold-processed control (CP). The roasts were frozen until cooked and evaluated by a sensory panel. The infused groups were more tender, juicy and salty and higher in moisture and ash but lower in protein content than either the CP or HB controls (P less than .05). The fat content of the infused groups was lower than of the HB control but was not different from that of the CP control. Either 2% NaCl plus 6% G or equal amounts (4%) of NaCl and G produced the most tender and juicy product. The substitution of 4% glucose for NaCl not only reduced the NaCl content of the infusion solution, but also improved the palatability of the meat. This substitution allows production of a hot-boned, lower-sodium precooked pork that is tender and juicy.

    Title Laser-induced Multiphoton Fluorescence of Hemoglobin.
    Date May 1989
    Journal Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
    Excerpt

    Hemoglobin (Hb) and other samples were irradiated by the 1064 nm nanosecond pulses of an Nd:YAG laser. At room temperature, we observed two red fluorescence bands, which resulted from the absorption of two 1064 nm photons in Hb, and measured the fluorescence emission spectra in the red spectral region for Hb and hematoporphyrin derivative. A red shift of the wavelength and a mirror image in the intensity of fluorescence emissions by two-photon excitation were observed. It is shown that the fluorescence of Hb originates from the heme group. In addition, we also observed fluorescence emission at 392 nm for Hb, which may be from its tryptophan groups.

    Title Recombination Between Buphthalmos and Albino Loci in the Rabbit.
    Date May 1974
    Journal The Journal of Heredity
    Title Time Character of Phase-conjugate Reconstructed Waves.
    Date
    Journal Optics Letters
    Excerpt

    The time dependence of phase-conjugate wave generation in liquids has been studied using four-wave mixing of picosecond laser pulses and different polarization configurations. Response and decay times of some possible physical processes contributing to the phase-conjugate wave generation have been measured.

    Title A Triglyceride-raising Apoa5 Genetic Variant is Negatively Associated with Obesity and Bmi in the Chinese Population.
    Date
    Journal Obesity (silver Spring, Md.)
    Excerpt

    Apolipoprotein A-V (apo A-V) exerts a potent triglyceride (TG)-lowering effect through enhanced intravascular TG-hydrolysis with increased uptake of TG-derived free fatty acids into muscle and adipose tissue. Genetic variants in the APOA5 gene were strongly associated with plasma TG concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine whether APOA5 genetic variation was associated with obesity. We genotyped the missense c.553 G>T polymorphism (p.G185C) in the APOA5 gene in 1,085 Chinese (333 obese subjects and 752 nonobese controls). We analyzed the association between the c.553 G>T polymorphism and obesity and related metabolic phenotypes. The T allele at the c.553 G>T polymorphism was associated with higher plasma TG concentrations. Each additional T allele was associated with an increased TG concentration of 53.5 mg/dl (95% confidence interval (CI) 29.6-76.0, P < 0.0001). However, the T allele was associated lower risk of obesity (odds ratio (OR), 0.48; 95% CI 0.32-0.73, P = 0.0004). Each additional copy of the T allele was associated with a BMI decrease of 0.73 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.26-1.16, P = 0.002), equivalent to 2.11 kg in a person 1.7 m tall. We may then conclude that the TG-raising APOA5 genetic variant was associated with a decrease in BMI and reduced risk of obesity in the Chinese population.

    Title Insulin Resistance in the Middle-aged Women with "tigerish Back and Bearish Waist".
    Date
    Journal Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
    Excerpt

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of fat distribution in predicting insulin resistance in peri- or post-menopausal women. The results demonstrated that insulin resistance increases with waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness but decreases with higher thigh circumflex in the peri- and post-menopausal women.

    Title Tachycardia of Atrial Myocytes Induces Collagen Expression in Atrial Fibroblasts Through Transforming Growth Factor {beta}1.
    Date
    Journal Cardiovascular Research
    Excerpt

    We investigated the molecular mechanism of rapid-depolarization-induced atrial fibrosis.

    Title Angiotensin Ii Induces Complex Fractionated Electrogram in a Cultured Atrial Myocyte Monolayer Mediated by Calcium and Sodium-calcium Exchanger.
    Date
    Journal Cell Calcium
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin II (AngII) has been implicated in the mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF). There may be calcium-dependent pro-fibrillatory effect of AngII on atrial myocytes. We used cultured confluent HL-1 atrial myocyte monolayer with spontaneously propagated depolarization to study direct pro-fibrillatory effect of AngII and its molecular mechanism. AngII stimulation induced fibrillatory-like complex electrogram and calcium wave propagation. AngII shortened action potential duration and augmented calcium transient, thus increasing electrochemical gradient of forward-mode sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) current and induced frequent irregular afterdepolarizations. AngII increased expression of sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX), further increasing calcium-membrane voltage coupling gain. The fibrillatory effect of AngII was attenuated by NCX blocker SEA0400 and NCX siRNA knockdown. AngII increased expression of L-type calcium channel and augmented calcium transient through PKC and CREB. The fibrillatory effect of AngII was also attenuated by PKC inhibitor chelerythrine and dominant negative form of CREB. In conclusions, AngII itself may electrically contribute to the mechanism of AF through increasing NCX expression and augmenting calcium transient, which is PKC and CREB dependent. Specific genetic knockdown of NCX attenuated calcium mediated afterdepolarization and complex electrogram.

    Title Polygenetic Regression Model of Renin-angiotensin System Genes and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in a Large Angiographic Population.
    Date
    Journal Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Polygenetic effect has rarely been addressed in the genetic studies of coronary artery disease (CAD). We used the largest and ethnically homogeneous angiographic cohort to analyze multilocus data in renin-angiotensin system genes, and provide an explicit demonstration of gene-gene interactions.

    Title Assessments of Inclinations of the Mandibular Fossa by Computed Tomography in an Asian Population.
    Date
    Journal Clinical Oral Investigations
    Excerpt

    This study aims to evaluate the inclinations of right and left sides the mandibular fossa in Asian population using computed tomography (CT) images and determine its effects according to the parameters of gender, age, and asymmetry. CT images of the heads of 198 Asian subjects [95 females aged 44.2 ± 20.7 years, range 11-88 years; and 103 males aged 44.5 ± 19.7 years, range 15-98 years] were selected. The following eight parameters characterizing the inclinations of the mandibular fossa were measured by medical imaging software: anterior and posterior inclinations on the left and right sides on a sagittal view, and medial and lateral inclinations on the left and right sides on a coronal view. The anterior inclination was significant steeper in males than in females on both the left and right sides. A moderate positive correlation was found between age and anterior inclinations on the left and right sides. None of the other parameters were significantly affected by age or gender. None of the parameters differed significantly between the right and left sides of the mandibular fossa in males, females, or all subjects. The anterior inclination of the mandibular fossa was affected by aging and gender becoming steeper in Asians males than females. Besides, there were no asymmetry in the right and left side inclinations of the mandibular fossa.

    Title [spectral Study on the Interaction of [cu(dppz)(l-ser)]+ Complex with Dna and Its Analytical Application].
    Date
    Journal Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi = Guang Pu
    Excerpt

    The characteristics of resonance light scattering (RLS), UV-visible absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra of [Cu(DPPZ)(L-Ser)]+ with DNA were studied and a RLS method for the determination of DNA was established. [Cu(DPPZ) (L-Ser)]+ could assemble on the surface of DNA through intercalation, and enhanced the RLS of DNA in the tris buffer of pH 7. 2. The maximum resonance light scattering peak appeared at 400 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of RLS was proportional to the concentration of DNA over the range of 0.42 - 4.2 ng x mL(-1), with a detection limit (3sigma/k) of 0.29 ng x mL(-1). The method was used for the determination of DNA samples with the recoveries between 97.8% and 106%.

    Title Significant Association of Rs13376333 in Kcnn3 on Chromosome 1q21 with Atrial Fibrillation in a Taiwanese Population.
    Date
    Journal Circulation Journal : Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
    Excerpt

    A recent study in individuals of European ancestry demonstrated a significant association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13376333 in potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 3 (KCNN3) on chromosome 1q21 with lone atrial fibrillation (AF), indicating a common genetic basis for AF. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this association between SNP rs13376333 and AF also exists in Taiwanese subjects.

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