Browse Health


Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Boston University (1990)
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Patients' Choice Award (2015)
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2014 - 2015)
On-Time Doctor Award (2015)
American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Sam is affiliated with 7 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - St. Paul
    5909 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    Top 25%
  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - Zale Lipshy
    5151 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    Top 25%
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
  • UT Southwestern Zale Lipshy Hospital
  • Harris Methodist - Springwood
    1608 Hospital Pkwy, Bedford, TX 76022
  • St Paul
  • UT Southwestern St Paul Hospital
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Sam has contributed to 24 publications.
    Title Geographic and Phenotypic Variation in Heartwood and Essential-oil Characters in Natural Populations of Santalum Austrocaledonicum in Vanuatu.
    Date December 2010
    Journal Chemistry & Biodiversity

    Phenotypic variation in heartwood and essential-oil characters of Santalum austrocaledonicum was assessed across eleven populations on seven islands of Vanuatu. Trees differed significantly in their percentage heartwood cross-sectional area and this varied independently of stem diameter. The concentrations of the four major essential-oil constituents (alpha-santalol, beta-santalol, (Z)-beta-curcumen-12-ol, and cis-nuciferol) of alcohol-extracted heartwood exhibited at least tenfold and continuous tree-to-tree variation. Commercially important components alpha- and beta-santalol found in individual trees ranged from 0.8-47% and 0-24.1%, respectively, across all populations, and significant (P<0.05) differences for each were found between individual populations. The Erromango population was unique in that the mean concentrations of its monocyclic ((Z)-beta-curcumen-12-ol and cis-nuciferol) sesquiterpenes exceeded those of its bi- and tricyclic (alpha- and beta-santalol) sesquiterpenes. Heartwood colour varied between trees and spanned 65 colour categories, but no identifiable relationships were found between heartwood colour and alpha- and beta-santalol, although a weak relationship was evident between colour saturation and total oil concentration. These results indicate that the heartwood colour is not a reliable predictive trait for oil quality. The results of this study highlight the knowledge gaps in fundamental understanding of heartwood biology in Santalum genus. The intraspecific variation in heartwood cross-sectional area, oil concentration, and oil quality traits is of considerable importance to the domestication of sandalwood and present opportunities for the development of highly superior S. austrocaledonicum cultivars that conform to the industry's International Standards used for S. album.

    Title Fiducial Markers Implanted During Prostate Brachytherapy for Guiding Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment

    Prostate movement imposes limits on safe dose-escalation with external beam radiation therapy. If the precise daily location of the prostate is known, dose escalation becomes more feasible. We have developed an approach to dose escalation using a combination of prostate brachytherapy followed by external beam radiation therapy in which fiducial markers are placed along with (125)I seeds during transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy. These markers serve to verify daily prostate location during the subsequent external beam radiotherapy. Prior to implementing this approach, preliminary studies were performed to test visibility of the markers. Three different (125)I seed models, as well as gold and silver marker seeds were placed within tissue-equivalent phantoms. Images were obtained with conventional x-rays (75-85 kV) and 6 MV photons from a linear accelerator. All (125)I seed models were clearly visible on conventional x-rays but none were seen with 6 MV photons. The gold markers were visible with both energies. The silver markers were visible with conventional x-rays and 6 MV x-rays, but not as clearly as the gold seeds at 6 MV. Subsequently, conventional x-rays, CT scans, and 6 MV port films were obtained in 29 patients in whom fiducial gold marker seeds were implanted into the prostate during (125)I prostate brachytherapy. To address the possibility of "seed migration" within the prostate, CT scans were repeated 5 weeks apart in 14 patients and relative positions of the gold seeds were evaluated. The repeated CT scans showed no change in intraprostatic gold marker location, suggesting minimal migration. The gold seeds were visible with conventional x-rays, CT, and 6 MV port films in all patients. During the course of external beam radiation therapy, the gold markers were visible on routine 6 MV port films and were seen in different locations from film to film suggesting prostate motion. Mean daily displacement was 4-5 mm in the anterior-posterior, and 4-5 mm in superior-inferior dimensions. Left-right displacement appeared less, averaging 2-3 mm. We conclude that implantation of gold marker seeds during prostate brachytherapy represents an easily implemented and practical means of prostate localization during subsequent image-guided external beam radiotherapy. With such markers, conformality of the external beam component can be confidently improved without expensive new equipment.

    Title Warfarin and Aspirin Use and the Predictors of Major Bleeding Complications in Atrial Fibrillation (the Framingham Heart Study).
    Date November 2004
    Journal The American Journal of Cardiology

    The Framingham Heart Study records of participants with atrial fibrillation (AF) during 1980 and 1994 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the prevalence of warfarin and aspirin use in AF. Anticoagulant use increased significantly in the 393 men and women (mean ages 72.5 and 79.0 years, respectively) who developed AF over the observation period: aspirin use increased from 14% to 39% in men and from 19% to 33% in women, and warfarin use increased from 10% to 39% in men and from 17% to 38% in women. There were no significant gender differences in anticoagulant use (p = 0.61), but participants using warfarin were younger. A total of 65 participants (17%) had major bleeding complications <or=5 years after initial AF. Age was not a significant predictor of bleeding.

    Title Prevalence of Female Sexual Dysfunction in Gynecologic and Urogynecologic Patients According to the International Consensus Classification.
    Date October 2003
    Journal Urology

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in an outpatient gynecologic and urogynecologic clinic using the current International Consensus Classification. METHODS: One hundred fifty-nine patients were asked to answer an anonymous survey about FSD. Patients in the gynecologic (group 1) and urogynecologic (group 2) clinics were compared. RESULTS: The mean age in group 1 was 37.8 years (range 20 to 76) and in group 2 was 55.7 years (range 18 to 82). The prevalence of FSD was 50% in group 1 and 48% in group 2; 86% of group 1 and 66% of group 2 patients had been sexually active within the past 2 years. The differences found in FSD according to the consensus panel classification achieved no significance. Of the 159 patients, 96% were not embarrassed by filling out this questionnaire about their sexual function. CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant difference in FSD was found between the younger and older patients seeking help in a gynecologic or urogynecologic outpatient clinic. Because of the high incidence of FSD, we recommend integrating the inquiry about female sexual health concerns into routine gynecologic care. The simple survey based on the International Consensus Conference Classification of FSD gives reliable results, and this systematic framework facilitates methodologic examination.

    Title Preoperative Orthostatic Dysfunction is Associated with an Increased Incidence of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.
    Date August 2002
    Journal Anesthesiology

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs frequently after gynecologic surgery. Because hemodynamic condition seems to be influential, women presenting with preoperative orthostatic dysregulation may have an increased risk for PONV. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between preoperative orthostatic dysregulation and the incidence of PONV. METHODS: In a prospective observer-blinded clinical trial, 200 women who were scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery underwent an orthostatic test on the day before surgery. Based on the orthostatic test results, women were stratified into orthostatic dysregulation (OR; systolic blood pressure decrease > 20 mmHg on standing up) and nonorthostatic dysregulation (NOR; systolic blood pressure decrease < 20 mmHg) groups. RESULTS: Forty-nine women were stratified to the OR group and 151 to the NOR group. Frequencies of PONV and vomiting during the study period were higher in the OR group compared with the NOR group (77.6% vs. 31.1% and 55.1 vs. 18.5%, respectively; all P < 0.001). Women with hypotension in their history showed a significantly higher frequency of PONV within 24 h (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Women presenting with orthostatic dysregulation and arterial hypotension in their history exhibit an increased risk of PONV.

    Title Pyometra Associated with Retained Products of Conception.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Title Enhanced Susceptibility to Cocaine- and Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizures in Prenatally Cocaine-treated Rats.
    Date May 2000
    Journal Neurotoxicology and Teratology

    We previously reported that prenatal cocaine exposure increased susceptibility to cocaine-induced seizures later in life. Here we examine whether this enhanced susceptibility to seizures generalizes to other chemoconvulsants, and whether postnatal cocaine treatment similarly increases susceptibility. Following prenatal cocaine treatment (40 mg/kg; E10-20), both male and female rats were more likely to seize to a dose of 30 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) at 2 months of age, although the severity of the seizures observed was increased only in females. Daily cocaine injections (10-20 mg/kg SC) during the first 10 days after birth also produced effects that were dependent on the sex of the animal. Postnatally cocaine-treated female rats showed no greater incidence of seizures in response to an acute high dose of cocaine, but did exhibit an increased susceptibility to cocaine-kindled seizures. Male, but not female, postnatally cocaine-treated rats were more susceptible to PTZ-induced seizures. The increased susceptibility to seizures induced by two different chemoconvulsants after prenatal cocaine treatment suggests that developmental cocaine exposure, particularly during the second trimester equivalent, alters the balance between excitation and inhibition in the brain.

    Title Could We Treat More Unruptured Ectopic Pregnancies with Intramuscular Methotrexate?
    Date February 2000
    Journal Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation

    The main reason for the restricted use of methotrexate in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy (EP) obviously is the fear of tubal rupture in patients with lower abdominal pain after the administration of methotrexate. Therefore, we wanted to find out if patient characteristics at first presentation, such as age, pretreatment beta-hCG level, adnexal mass as visualized by transvaginal ultrasonography, or history of prior EP, would identify patients at risk for tubal rupture if they were hemodynamically stable and showed no signs of peritoneal irritation. We examined whether more patients could have been treated medically with methotrexate, because tubal rupture was unforeseeable at first presentation and inclusion criteria for methotrexate treatment were fulfilled. From January 1996 to August 1998, 122 patients diagnosed as having EP were treated at the Gynecologic Department of the University Hospital of Vienna. Inclusion criteria for medical treatment with intramuscular methotrexate (50 mg/ m(2) body surface area) were (1) hemodynamic stability, (2) an unruptured ectopic mass < or = 5 cm at the greatest dimension demonstrated at transvaginal ultrasonography; (3) beta-hCG level < or = 5,000 mIU/ml; (4) no cardiac activity of the extrauterine embryo; (5) wish of future fertility, and (6) informed consent. Patients with hemodynamic instability, severe abdominal pain, an ectopic mass > or = 5 cm at the greatest dimension, beta-hCG levels > or = 5,000 mIU/ml, cardiac activity of the extrauterine embryo, and no wish of future fertility, or disagreement with methotrexate treatment, primarily underwent surgery. Despite the fact that none of the above patient characteristics at first presentation identified patients at risk for tubal rupture, only 60/122 patients (49%) actually underwent medical treatment whereas our inclusion criteria would have granted medical treatment in 101/122 patients (83%). We determined the actual and maximal possible percentages of patients with unruptured EP eligible for medical treatment of EP with intramuscular single-dose methotrexate 50 mg/m(2) body surface area. Our data show that tubal rupture in hemodynamically stable patients is not foreseeable and should not lead to a restricted use of medical treatment in patients preferring methotrexate.

    Title Value of Urethral Pressure Profilometry in the Female Incontinent Patient: a Prospective Trial with an 8-channel Urethral Catheter.
    Date December 1998
    Journal Urology

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the pressure profiles at different positions of the urethral circumference simultaneously. METHODS: Twenty-two women with symptoms of genuine stress incontinence underwent urogynecologic assessment and multichannel urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) at rest with a specially designed 8-channel urethral catheter with radial openings. RESULTS: The distribution pattern of maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) and functional urethral length (FUL) values were significantly different (P=0.004 and P=0.0004, respectively). Most of the highest MUCP values per patient were found between channels 2 and 4 (P=0.015); most of the greatest FUL values per patient were found between channels 3 and 4 (P=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: The data of our study substantiate asymmetric radial pressure distribution within the urethra and underline the necessity of cautious interpretation of results of conventional single-channel UPP, which might vary because of transducer orientation.

    Title Transurethral Injection of Silicone Microimplants for Intrinsic Urethral Sphincter Deficiency.
    Date September 1998
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term efficacy of transurethral injection of silicone microimplants in women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency. METHODS: During January 1995 and December 1996, 32 women (mean age 64.3 years, range 39-85 years) with type III stress incontinence (intrinsic sphincter deficiency) underwent transurethral injection of silicone microimplants under general anesthesia. Twenty-eight had undergone previous continence surgery. Subjective and urodynamic assessments were made at 6 and 12 months after injection to evaluate success and short-term effects. RESULTS: Objective and subjective success rates were 75% and 59% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Injections of silicone microimplants significantly increased maximum urethral closure pressure (maximum urethral pressure at rest: 34.40+/-16.46 cm H2O, 95% confidence interval [CI] 28.55, 40.25 versus 25.35+/-10.78 cm H2O, 95% CI 21.52, 29.18; P = .027). There were no complications after surgery up to 1 year. CONCLUSION: Transurethral silicone injections were effective in 60% of cases of intrinsic sphincter deficiency, although there was a time-dependent decrease.

    Title Present State of Diagnostics and Therapy in Female Urinary Incontinence.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the present state of urogynecological diagnostics, therapy and follow-up in the Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Austria. DESIGN: We sent questionnaires to all Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Austria. The anonymous questionnaire consisted of 25 multiple choice questions. It was possible to choose one ore more answers by ticking applicable boxes with the casual option to give some additional information in form of free text. RESULTS: Fifty-eight departments (58%) returned their questionnaires completely answered indicating interest in quality management in medicine. The most remarkable discrepancy was found between the interrogated people's estimation of the expressiveness of examination techniques and the actual use of such techniques. CONCLUSION: We regard the results of this survey as a basis for further quality management strategies in the field of urogynecology in Austria.

    Title The Plaque Acidogenic Response to Carbohydrates of Children from Three Ethnic Groups in South Africa.
    Date February 1998
    Journal International Dental Journal

    The plaque acidogenic response of children from three ethnic groups in South Africa to four different carbohydrates was investigated using the plaque sampling method. A total of 30, 12-year-old children, ten black, ten 'coloured' and ten white, completed this study. The foods tested were 10 per cent sucrose solution, maize porridge, strawberry flavoured yoghurt and banana. The blacks produced an intermediate plaque pH response to sucrose compared with the 'coloureds' and whites but the smallest response for the other carbohydrate challenges. It was concluded that a difference exists in the plaque acidogenic response to carbohydrate between the three ethnic groups and that this may in part account for differences in caries prevalences.

    Title Effect of Spinal Anaesthesia on the Lower Urinary Tract in Continent Women.
    Date February 1998
    Journal British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of spinal anaesthesia on the bladder neck position and the urethral closure function in the resting state and during clinical stress test in healthy, continent women. DESIGN: Controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vienna University Medical School. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen continent women, of which seven were nulliparous and seven parous, underwent minor gynaecological procedures under spinal anaesthesia. Urodynamics and ultrasound investigations were performed before and during spinal anaesthesia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in the bladder neck position and the urethral closure function before and during spinal anaesthesia. RESULTS: Bladder neck position was found to be lower and more posterior during spinal anaesthesia as compared with pre-operative assessment. The posterior urethrovesical angle increased significantly both at rest and during maximum straining. We observed a significant increase in bladder compliance, and all parameters of the urethral pressure profile decreased significantly. While none of the nulliparous women had a positive clinical stress test during spinal anaesthesia, 4/7 parous women demonstrated leakage (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Blockage of nerve supply to the pelvic floor muscles in continent women is associated with a significant loss of support of the bladder neck region confirming the theory of an active mechanism of muscular elements providing continence.

    Title Intrauterine Device Localization by Three-dimensional Transvaginal Sonography.
    Date December 1997
    Journal Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology : the Official Journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Our objective was to investigate the possible role of three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the visualization of an intrauterine device (IUD) for routine follow-up after insertion. A total of 96 women were examined after insertion of a TCu380A IUD. Three-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging was carried out using a special vaginal probe and a commercially available ultrasound machine at a mean interval of 22 days after insertion. Complete simultaneous imaging of all parts of the IUD was possible in 95% of cases. In the three-plane mode, all parts of the IUD could be visualized in 64% and in a further 30 cases this was possible only after volume rendering. In two women, incomplete opening of the two arms of the device was demonstrated. In one of these cases, the entire IUD was displaced into the cervical canal. In another case, an intrauterine pregnancy was found together with an IUD in the correct position. Three-dimensional ultrasound provides useful information on the location of the IUD following insertion. It enables imaging of the entire IUD, i.e. the shaft and the arms, simultaneously. Additionally, the examination time can be kept to a minimum with this new technique.

    Title Fallopian Tissue Sampling with a Cytobrush During Hysteroscopy: a New Approach for Detecting Tubal Infection.
    Date April 1997
    Journal Fertility and Sterility

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the transcervical approach for fallopian tissue sampling is a practicable and safe method to establish an etiologic diagnosis of salpingitis. DESIGN: Controlled clinical study. SETTING: Academic research environment. PATIENT(S): Twenty women with primary or secondary sterility undergoing hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. INTERVENTION(S): During hysteroscopy, fallopian tissue samples were obtained from the proximal parts of both tubes with a cytobrush inserted through the working channel of the hysteroscope. Diagnostic laparoscopy with assessment of tubal patency was performed in the same session. The specimens were split and used for chlamydial testing by both cell culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples were evaluated for the presence of antichlamydial antibodies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Practicability and safety of the method. RESULT(S): The sampling procedure was performed in all patients without complications. Adequate samples were obtained from both tubes in all 20 patients. The fallopian specimens showed evidence of chlamydial infection in one patient. CONCLUSION(S): Those data indicate that transcervical fallopian tissue sampling with a cytobrush is a reliable and safe technique.

    Title [recommendations of the Urogynecology Study Group on Ultrasound of the Lower Urinary Tract Within the Scope of Functional Urogynecologic Diagnosis]
    Date September 1996
    Journal Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
    Title [recommendations by the Urogynecology Working Group for Sonography of the Lower Urinary Tract Within the Scope of Urogynecologic Functional Diagnosis]
    Date July 1996
    Journal Ultraschall in Der Medizin (stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
    Title Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast: Extensive Intraductal Component Has No Impact on Lymph Node Involvement and Survival.
    Date February 1996
    Journal Anticancer Research

    The extensive intraductal component (EIC) in infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) was reported to be a predictor of local recurrence. We investigated the influence of this histopathological parameter on nodal status and overall survival. In 115 patients suffering from an IDC with tumor stage FIGO I and II, 35 were EIC positive. We did not find a correlation with the nodal status. The mean follow up was 73 (+/- 38) months. EIC showed no influence on overall survival. Based on our findings, the presence of EIC is not a criterion for therapeutic decisions in IDC.

    Title [urethrovesical Morphology in Continent Women in Spinal Anesthesia]
    Date January 1996
    Journal Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of spinal anesthesia on bladder neck position and a clinical stress test in continent women. METHODS: In a prospective investigation, 14 women underwent urodynamic, sonographic and clinical assessment during spinal anesthesia. Results were compared to those obtained immediately preoperatively in the same patient. RESULTS: During spinal anesthesia, the bladder neck was found to be located significantly lower and more posterior, and in 4/7 parous patients (0/7 nullipara) the clinical stress test was positive. CONCLUSION: These data provide additional evidence for the importance of neuromuscular function in the etiology of pelvic floor dysfunction and genuine stress incontinence.

    Title Differential Diagnosis of Detrusor Instability and Stress-incontinence by Patient History: the Gaudenz-incontinence-questionnaire Revisited.
    Date October 1995
    Journal Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the validity of the Gaudenz-Incontinence-Questionnaire in the differential diagnosis of genuine stress-incontinence and detrusor instability. DESIGN. Diagnoses based on questionnaire-results were compared to those following complete urogynecologic assessment including urodynamics in 1938 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. RESULTS. Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of stress-incontinence were 0.559 and 0.447, respectively, for detrusor instability 0.615 and 0.563, respectively. CONCLUSION. The low sensitivity and specificity of the test do not justify its use as a diagnostic tool in patients with urinary incontinence. These results show that the scores may be misleading in a large proportion of patients and should not therefore be the only determinant of diagnosis, nor should strategies be based on history alone.

    Title Microsurgical Treatment of Tubal Sterility Using the Co2 Laser: a Reasonable Alternative to Ivf in Cases of Tubal Sterility.
    Date August 1995
    Journal Journal of Gynecologic Surgery

    A retrospective analysis of women treated microsurgically using the CO2 laser in sterility treatment was performed. The aim of the study was to determine women's personal feeling about the procedure, prognostic factors, success rates, and complications. Included were 192 patients with tubal occlusions or pelvic adhesions treated by means of CO2 laser microsurgery between February 1984 and July 1992. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate women's procedure-related stress, extrauterine and intrauterine pregnancy rates, pregnancy complications, and postoperative complaints. In 75 cases, records and questionnaires contained sufficient data and were included for further analysis. Adhesiolysis alone, unilateral neosalpingostomy, bilateral neosalpingostomy, or new implantation was done in 7%, 52%, 33%, and 8%, respectively. In the range of 1-10, a medium degree procedure-related stress (mean 4.3, range 1-10) was expressed by the treated women. No surgery-related complications were observed. The overall pregnancy rate was 37.3%, and 10.7% were tubal pregnancies. In 26.7%, fertility surgery resulted in intrauterine pregnancies, and 21.3% of the treated women delivered living children. Three women had two consecutive pregnancies after surgery. Women with intrauterine pregnancy, extrauterine pregnancy, and no pregnancy had a mean age of 29.5 +/- 3.8, 27.3 +/- 5.3, and 32.3 +/- 4.2 years, respectively (p = NS). Mean duration of infertility before start of surgical treatment was 42.4 +/- 34.6, 41.6 +/- 25.8, and 48.8 +/- 33.2 months, respectively (p = NS). Intraabdominal instillation of streptokinase to prevent reformation of adhesions had no significant impact on tubal patency results or pregnancy rates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title [surgical Sterilization at the Vienna Ii. University Gynecologic Clinic 1984-1992]
    Date April 1994
    Journal Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
    Title Effects of Water and Saline Irrigation During Bone Cutting on Bone Healing.
    Date January 1985
    Journal International Journal of Oral Surgery

    The healing of standardized bony defects prepared in the mandibles of 24 vervet monkeys with a rotating bur uncooled, or cooled with saline or water, was studied. The experiment showed no difference in healing after 56 days irrespective of the coolant used or whether the bone was cut with or without a cooling agent.

    Title Pulpal Responses to Two Luting Cements.
    Date September 1983
    Journal The Journal of the Dental Association of South Africa = Die Tydskrif Van Die Tandheelkundige Vereniging Van Suid-afrika

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