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Dr. Rubin is affiliated with 1 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • Henry Ford Hospital
    2799 W Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202
    Top 25%
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Rubin has contributed to 7 publications.
    Title Netting Neutrophils Induce Endothelial Damage, Infiltrate Tissues, and Expose Immunostimulatory Molecules in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
    Date August 2011
    Journal Journal of Immunology (baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    An abnormal neutrophil subset has been identified in the PBMC fractions from lupus patients. We have proposed that these low-density granulocytes (LDGs) play an important role in lupus pathogenesis by damaging endothelial cells and synthesizing increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs. To directly establish LDGs as a distinct neutrophil subset, their gene array profiles were compared with those of autologous normal-density neutrophils and control neutrophils. LDGs significantly overexpress mRNA of various immunostimulatory bactericidal proteins and alarmins, relative to lupus and control neutrophils. In contrast, gene profiles of lupus normal-density neutrophils do not differ from those of controls. LDGs have heightened capacity to synthesize neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs), which display increased externalization of bactericidal, immunostimulatory proteins, and autoantigens, including LL-37, IL-17, and dsDNA. Through NETosis, LDGs have increased capacity to kill endothelial cells and to stimulate IFN-α synthesis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Affected skin and kidneys from lupus patients are infiltrated by netting neutrophils, which expose LL-37 and dsDNA. Tissue NETosis is associated with increased anti-dsDNA in sera. These results expand the potential pathogenic roles of aberrant lupus neutrophils and suggest that dysregulation of NET formation and its subsequent responses may play a prominent deleterious role.

    Title Intraoperative Pathologic Examination: Cost Effectiveness and Clinical Value in Patients with Cytologic Diagnosis of Cellular Follicular Thyroid Lesion.
    Date August 2007
    Journal Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association

    OBJECTIVE: Routine use of intraoperative pathologic examination (IOPE), including frozen section (FS) and scrape preparation cytology (SPC), during diagnostic thyroid lobectomy continues to be a source of controversy. We sought to better delineate the usefulness and cost-benefit ratio of IOPE in the context of cytologically diagnosed cellular follicular lesion (CFL) or follicular neoplasm (FN). DESIGN: Records of 205 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for cytologically diagnosed FN or CFL between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. IOPE results, patient demographics, and tumor characteristics were correlated to final histopathologic diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and costs of IOPE were calculated. MAIN OUTCOME: IOPE correctly identified 3 of 16 follicular carcinomas and 9 of 36 papillary carcinomas. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 23%, 99%, and 78%, respectively. On univariate analysis, malignancy risk among follicular nodules did not correlate with age, gender, or nodule size. On multivariate analysis, nodule size was predictive of malignancy (p < 0.05). Over the entire patient series, routine IOPE resulted in a net cost savings of $74,304.33. CONCLUSIONS: IOPE reduced costs and limited the number of completion thyroidectomies necessary. IOPE is specific, cost effective, and of minimal additional risk when performed routinely for patients with CFL or FN.

    Title Improvement of Glycemic Control, Triglycerides, and Hdl Cholesterol Levels with Muraglitazar, a Dual (alpha/gamma) Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Activator, in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Metformin Monotherapy: A Double-blind, Randomized, Pioglitazone-comparative Study.
    Date September 2006
    Journal Diabetes Care

    We sought to evaluate the effects of muraglitazar, a dual (alpha/gamma) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activator within the new glitazar class, on hyperglycemia and lipid abnormalities.

    Title Muraglitazar, a Dual (alpha/gamma) Ppar Activator: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, 24-week Monotherapy Trial in Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
    Date July 2006
    Journal Clinical Therapeutics

    BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) present a therapeutic target, and simultaneous activation of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma may provide improvements in glycemic control and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of muraglitazar, a dual (alpha/gamma) PPAR activator, in adult patients with type 2 diabetes whose disease was inadequately controlled by diet and exercise. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, 24-week monotherapy study in drug-naive, type 2 diabetes patients with inadequate glycemic control. Men and women aged 18 to 70 years with a body mass index < or =41 kg/m(2) and serum triglyceride levels < or =600 mg/dL were eligible for study participation. The study included double-blind and open-label treatment phases. Patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels > or =7.0% and < or =10.0% at screening were enrolled in the double-blind treatment phase. These patients received treatment with muraglitazar 2.5 mg, muraglitazar 5 mg, or placebo. Patients with HbA(1c) levels >10.0% and < or =12.0% who met all other study criteria were eligible for enrollment in a 24-week, open-label evaluation of muraglitazar 5 mg. The primary end point was the mean change from baseline in HbA(1c) levels after 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 340 patients (179 men, 161 women) participated in the double-blind treatment phase of the study. Patients had mean baseline HbA(1c) levels of 7.9% to 8.0%. Monotherapy with muraglitazar 2.5 and 5 mg significantly reduced HbA(1c) levels (-1.05% and -1.23%, respectively) compared with placebo (-0.32%; P < 0.001). At week 24, 58%, 72%, and 30% of the patients receiving muraglitazar 2.5 mg, muraglitazar 5 mg, and placebo, respectively, achieved the American Diabetes Association-recommended HbA(1c) goal of <7.0%. Fasting plasma glucose, free fatty acids, and fasting plasma insulin levels significantly decreased during muraglitazar treatment (P < 0.001), suggesting an increase in insulin sensitivity. Muraglitazar 2.5 and 5 mg provided improvements from baseline in triglyceride (-18% and -27%), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (10% and 16%), apolipoprotein B (-7% and -12%), and non-HDL cholesterol levels (-3% and -5%) (P < 0.05 vs placebo for each). In a parallel, open-label cohort of 109 drug-naive patients (56 men, 53 women; mean baseline HbA(1c) level, 10.6%), muraglitazar 5 mg decreased the overall mean HbA(1c) level from baseline by 2.62% (last observation carried forward) and by 3.49% in the 62 patients completing 24 weeks of study. Changes in lipid parameters during open-label treatment were similar to those observed during double-blind treatment. Muraglitazar was generally well tolerated. Edema-related adverse events of mild to moderate severity occurred in 8% to 11% of patients in all groups. Mean changes from baseline weight in the double-blind treatment groups were 1.1 kg for muraglitazar 2.5 mg, 2.1 kg for muraglitazar 5 mg, and -0.8 kg for placebo (P < 0.001); there was a mean 2.9-kg increase in the open-label muraglitazar 5-mg group. CONCLUSION: In this study, 24 weeks of treatment with muraglitazar 2.5 or 5 mg was an effective treatment option for these patients with type 2 diabetes whose disease was inadequately controlled with diet and exercise.

    Title Multicenter, Randomized, Double-masked, Parallel-group Assessment of Simultaneous Glipizide/metformin As Second-line Pharmacologic Treatment for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus That is Inadequately Controlled by a Sulfonylurea.
    Date August 2003
    Journal Clinical Therapeutics

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with inadequate long-term blood glucose control with sulfonylurea or metformin monotherapy require additional treatment. The synergistic effects of combining glipizide with metformin on glucose control may be realized by treating the primary effects of type 2 DM, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed therapy with glipizide/metformin combination tablets in patients with type 2 DM that is uncontrolled by at least half the maximum labeled daily dose of a sulfonylurea. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-masked, parallel-group, active-controlled study, patients were randomized to receive glipizide 30-mg, metformin 500-mg, or glipizide/metformin 5/500 mg tablets for 18 weeks (metformin and glipizide/metformin doses were titrated to achieve blood glucose control). Maximum total daily doses were glipizide 30 mg, metformin 2000 mg, and glipizide/ metformin 20/2000 mg. RESULTS: A total of 247 patients were included in the study. The mean (SD) age was 56.2 (10.1) years; 61.5% of patients were male; 70.0% were white, 15.8% were Hispanic/Latino, 13.0% were black, and 1.2% were Asian/Pacific Islanders. Patients were, on average, obese (mean [SD] body mass index, 31.3 [4.7] kg/m2), had moderate to severe hyperglycemia (mean [SD] glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], 8.7% [1.1]), and had a mean (SD) DM duration of 6.5 (4.9) years. Glipizide/ metformin tablets controlled the HbA1c level more effectively than did either glipizide or metformin monotherapies (mean treatment differences, in favor of glipizide/ metformin, of -1.06% and -0.98%, respectively, P < 0.001). At study end, an HbA1c level < 7.0% was achieved in approximately 4-fold more patients who were treated with glipizide/metformin (36.3%) compared with glipizide (8.9%) or metformin (9.9%) monotherapies. Glipizide/metformin tablets also reduced the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level and the 3-hour postprandial glucose area under the concentration-time curve more effectively than did either monotherapy, without increasing the fasting insulin level. The greater blood glucose control with glipizide/ metformin tablets was achieved at a mean daily dose of glipizide/metformin 17.5/1747 mg, compared with mean doses of glipizide 30.0 mg or metformin 1927 mg. Treatments were well tolerated, with a low incidence of symptoms of hypoglycemia evidenced by a fingerstick blood glucose measurement < or = 50 mg/dL in the combination group (12.6%); 1 patient discontinued the study treatment for this reason. No patient required medical assistance for hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Glipizide/metformin tablets were more effective than either glipizide or metformin monotherapy in controlling HbA1c and in reducing FPG compared with baseline in patients with blood glucose that was uncontrolled with previous sulfonylurea treatment. In addition, patients receiving glipizide/ metformin were more likely to achieve an HbA1c level < 7.0%. These results were consistent with the synergistic effects on insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Glipizide/metformin was well tolerated, with a low incidence of hypoglycemia.

    Title Obesity in Black Adolescent Girls: a Controlled Clinical Trial of Treatment by Diet, Behavior Modification, and Parental Support.
    Date March 1990
    Journal Pediatrics

    Recent findings indicate that nearly 50% of black American women are obese and that adolescence is a critical period for the development of their obesity. This study investigated the efficacy of a behavioral weight control program in 36 black female adolescents with a mean age of 14.0 years, weight of 95.0 kg, and height of 163.2 cm. All subjects participated in the same 16-week program but had different levels of parent participation: (1) child alone with no parent participation; (2) mother and child treated in the same session; and (3) mother and child treated in separate but concurrent session. At the end of the 16-week program, children in the three conditions lost 1.6, 3.7, and 3.1 kg, respectively. Differences among conditions were not statistically significant; however, a secondary analysis revealed that the greater the number of sessions attended by mothers, the greater their daughters' weight losses. Weight reduction was associated with significant improvements in body composition, serum total cholesterol concentrations, and psychological status. Results are discussed in terms of the need to improve the maintenance of weight loss in adolescents and to explore possible differences between black and white females in their preferred body types.

    Title Less Food, Less Hunger: Reports of Appetite and Symptoms in a Controlled Study of a Protein-sparing Modified Fast.
    Date November 1987
    Journal International Journal of Obesity

    This study compared reports of appetite and symptoms in 28 obese subjects randomly assigned to either a 500 calorie protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) or a 1200-kcal balanced diet. During the first comparison month, subjects consuming the PSMF lost significantly more weight and reported significantly less hunger than did subjects consuming the 1200 kcal diet. Similar results were obtained for the second month, but differences in hunger were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences between conditions in subjects' ratings of their preoccupation with eating or in their ratings of the acceptability or disruptiveness of their diets. PSMF subjects reported significantly greater problems with cold intolerance, constipation, dizziness, dry skin, and fatigue. These symptoms remitted completely, however, when PSMF subjects consumed a 1200-kcal balanced diet. There were no significant differences between conditions in subjects' reports of psychological functioning. Results are discussed in terms of the need for further research to identify the characteristics of PSMF which confer anorexia.

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