Neurological Surgeons
31 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Southfield
Michigan Head & Spine Institute
29275 Northwestern Hwy
Ste 100
Southfield, MI 48034
877-784-3667
Locations and availability (3)

Education ?

Medical School Score
Wayne State University (1979)
  • Currently 1 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
America's Top Physicians (2003, 2004), Fellow, American College of Surgeons
Fellow, American College of Surgeons
America's Top Physicians (2003, 2004)
Patients' Choice Award (2009 - 2011)
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2010)
Associations
American Board of Neurological Surgery
Congress of Neurological Surgeons

Affiliations ?

Dr. Michael is affiliated with 27 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Providence Hospital and Medical Center
    16001 W 9 Mile Rd, Southfield, MI 48075
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan
    261 Mack Ave, Detroit, MI 48201
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Beaumont Hospital,Troy
    44201 Dequindre Rd, Troy, MI 48085
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak
    3601 W 13 Mile Rd, Royal Oak, MI 48073
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • St. Mary Mercy Hospital
    36475 5 Mile Rd, Livonia, MI 48154
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • St. John Hospital & Medical Center
    22101 Moross Rd, Detroit, MI 48236
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • DMC - Sinai-Grace Hospital
    6071 W Outer Dr, Detroit, MI 48235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Mount Clemens Regional Medical Center
    1000 Harrington St, Mount Clemens, MI 48043
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Beaumont Hospital, Grosse Pointe
    468 Cadieux Rd, Grosse Pointe, MI 48230
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Harper University Hospital
    3990 John R St, Detroit, MI 48201
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • St John Detroit Riverview Hospital
    7733 E Jefferson Ave, Detroit, MI 48214
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Detroit Receiving Hospital & University Health Center
    4201 Saint Antoine St, Detroit, MI 48201
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Botsford Hospital
    28050 Grand River Ave, Farmington Hills, MI 48336
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • POH Medical Center
    50 N Perry St, Pontiac, MI 48342
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Grosse Pte
  • Royal Oak
  • Hutzel Hospital
  • Children's Hospital of Michigan
    3901 Beaubien St, Detroit, MI 48201
  • Mich. Orthopaedic Specialty Hospital
  • JVHL-Mt. Clemens Regional Medical Center-Hospital
  • Grosse Pte 3 Years
  • Harper Hospital
  • Royal Oak 3 Years
  • Detroit Receiving Hospital
  • HARPER UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL & HUTZEL WOMEN'S HOSPIT
  • Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
  • Hutzel Women's Hospital
    3980 John R St, Detroit, MI 48201
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Michael has contributed to 19 publications.
    Title Practical Approaches to Incidental Findings in Brain Imaging Research.
    Date February 2008
    Journal Neurology
    Excerpt

    A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clinical significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that investigators and institutional review boards must anticipate and articulate plans for handling incidental findings. Here we provide a detailed analysis of different approaches to the problem and evaluate their merits in the context of the goals and setting of the research and the involvement of neurologists, radiologists, and other physicians. Protecting subject welfare and privacy, as well as ensuring scientific integrity, are the highest priorities in making choices about how to handle incidental findings. Forethought and clarity will enable these goals without overburdening research conducted within or outside the medical setting.

    Title Ethics. Incidental Findings in Brain Imaging Research.
    Date February 2006
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Title Measurement of Free Fatty Acids in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke.
    Date November 2003
    Journal Brain Research
    Excerpt

    Free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (n=25) and in contemporary controls (n=73) were examined using HPLC. Concentrations of CSF FFAs from ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients obtained within 48 h of the insult were significantly greater than in control patients. Higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in CSF obtained within 48 h of insult were associated with significantly lower (P<0.05) admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores and worse outcome at the time of hospital discharge, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (P<0.01).

    Title Free Fatty Acids in Cerebrospinal Fluids from Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Date October 2003
    Journal Neuroscience Letters
    Excerpt

    Free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are recognized as markers of brain damage in animal studies. There is, however, relatively little information regarding FFA concentrations in human CSF in normal and pathological conditions. The present study examined FFA concentrations in CSF from 15 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and compared the data with values obtained from 73 contemporary controls. Concentrations of specific FFAs from TBI patients, obtained within 48 h of the insult were significantly greater than those in the control group (arachidonic, docosahexaenoic and myristic, P<0.001; oleic, palmitic, P<0.01; linoleic, P<0.05). Higher concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<0.001) and of arachidonic, myristic and palmitic acids measured individually in CSF (P<0.01) obtained 1 week after the insult were associated with a worse outcome at the time of hospital discharge using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. This preliminary investigation suggests that CSF FFA concentrations may be useful as a predictive marker of outcome following TBI.

    Title Chiari I Malformation Associated with Thoracic Epidural Cord Lesion: Case Report.
    Date September 2003
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Many spinal cord lesions have been described previously, in association with Chiari I lesions. The authors report a unique case of a 29-year-old patient with a Chiari I malformation and an upper thoracic epidural lesion causing headaches, dysphagia and Brown-Sequard syndrome. The patient underwent a suboccipital decompression as well as a thoracic laminectomy and resection of the epidural lesion. Pathologic analysis revealed that the thoracic lesion was fibro-adipose tissue. A review of the literature failed to show any other similar cases. We discuss the possible etiologies of this case.

    Title Free Fatty Acids in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Their Potential Role in Vasospasm: a Preliminary Observation.
    Date September 2002
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    OBJECT: The mechanisms leading to vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remain unclear. Accumulation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of free fatty acids (FFAs) may play a role in the development of vasospasm; however, in no previous study have concentrations of FFAs in CSF been examined after SAH. METHODS: We collected samples of CSF from 20 patients with SAH (18 cases of aneurysmal SAH and two cases of spontaneous cryptogenic SAH) and used a high-performance liquid chromatography assay to determine the FFA concentrations in these samples. We then compared these findings with FFA concentrations in the CSF of control patients. All FFA concentrations measured 24 hours after SAH were significantly greater than control concentrations (p < 0.01 for palmitic acid and < 0.001 for all other FFAs). All measured FFAs remained elevated for the first 48 hours after SAH (p < 0.05 for linoleic acid, p < 0.01 for palmitic acid, and p < 0.001 for the other FFAs). After 7 days, a second elevation in all FFAs was observed (p < 0.05 for linoleic acid, p < 0.01 for palmitic acid, and p < 0.001 for the other FFAs). Samples of CSF collected within 48 hours after SAH from patients in whom angiography and clinical examination confirmed the development of vasospasm after SAH were found to have significantly higher concentrations of arachidonic, linoleic, and palmitic acids than samples collected from patients in whom vasospasm did not develop (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Following SAH, all FFAs are initially elevated. A secondary elevation occurs between 8 and 10 days after SAH. This study provides preliminary evidence of FFA elevation following SAH and of a potential role for FFAs in SAH-induced vasospasm. A prospective study is warranted to determine if CSF concentrations of FFAs are predictive of vasospasm.

    Title Craniocerebral Missile Injuries.
    Date September 2001
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Gun shot wounds to the brain are among the most devastating causes of morbidity and mortality in the civilian population. The majority of the victims will not survive and for a great number of survivors life becomes an uphill battle with permanent deficits and complications. While the fundamental surgical care of these patients is essentially unchanged, our scientific understanding of the pathophysiological changes and the post-injury care of the victims has been evolving. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current clinical and laboratory advances in understanding and treating gun shot injuries to the brain.

    Title Infection Related to Intracranial Pressure Monitors in Adults: Analysis of Risk Factors and Antibiotic Prophylaxis.
    Date September 2000
    Journal Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Infection is a complication related to intracranial pressure monitoring devices. The timing, duration, and role of prophylactic antimicrobial agents against intracranial pressure monitor (ICPM) related infection have not previously been well defined. Risk factors and selection, duration, and timing of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with ICPMs were evaluated. METHODS: Records of all consecutive patients who underwent ICPM insertion between 1993 and 1996 were reviewed. Patients included were older than 12 years with an ICPM placed for at least 24 hours. Exclusion criteria consisted of ICPM placed before admission or documented CSF infection before or at the time of insertion. Standard criteria were applied to all patients for diagnosis of CSF infection. RESULTS: A total of 215 patients were included, 16 (7.4%) of whom developed CSF infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis for ICPM placement was administered to 63% of infected and 59% of non-infected patients. Vancomycin (60%) and cefazolin (34%) were used most often. Sixty per cent (6/16) of patients who developed infection and 45% (53/199) of those without CSF infection received their first antibiotic dose within the 2 hours before ICPM insertion. Risk factors for CSF infection included duration of monitoring greater than 5 days (RR 4.0 (1.3-11.9)); presence of ventriculostomy (RR 3.4 (1.0-10.7)); CSF leak (RR 6.3 (1.5-27.4)); concurrent systemic infection (RR 3.4 (1.2-9.5)); or serial ICPM (RR 4.9 (1. 7-13.8)). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of antibiotics to patients before or at the time of ICPM placement did not decrease the incidence of CSF infection. Patients found to be at greater risk for infection at our institution included duration of ICPM greater than 5 days, use of ventricular catheter, CSF leak, concurrent systemic infection, or serial ICPM.

    Title Adult Rhombencephalosynapsis. Case Report.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    Rhombencephalosynapsis (RS) is a relatively rare developmental disorder of the cerebellum in which the cerebellar hemispheres are fused across the midline without being separated by a cleft or the vermis. The condition may be associated with hydrocephalus and other intracranial and extracranial abnormalities. The authors report on the case of a symptomatic adult who was successfully treated with suboccipital decompression and duraplasty. A 39-year-old woman presented with intractable pain radiating from the thoracolumbar column to the occiput. A general examination yielded normal findings and a neurological examination revealed only subtle ataxia of tandem gait. The patient underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the results of which revealed an absent cerebellar vermis with fusion of the cerebellum and mild hydrocephalus. A cine-MR image obtained to evaluate her cerebrospinal fluid flow (CSF) revealed attenuated flow in the posterior fossa and cerebral aqueduct. Preoperative intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring demonstrated no elevation of ICP (mean 4.3 mm Hg). The patient consented to undergo suboccipital craniectomy and duraplasty. Despite an increase in postoperative ICP (mean 10.77 mm Hg; difference from preoperative level according to a t-test, p = 0.002), the patient experienced symptomatic relief, which has persisted for 3 years. One year postoperatively, a cine-MR image was obtained, which revealed improvement in the patient's CSF dynamics. The authors conclude that, although RS may cause altered flow in the adult, their patient has experienced symptomatic relief, suggesting that her pain was related to local pressure in the posterior fossa.

    Title Anticonvulsant Prophylaxis and Timing of Seizures After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Neurology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: There is no evidence that seizure prophylaxis is indicated after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study examines prophylactic antiepileptic drug (AED) prescription and the occurrence of seizures within a single university-affiliated institution. METHODS: The authors reviewed 95 SAH patient charts using standardized forms. Variables included prophylaxis duration, seizure incidence and timing, CT findings, AED adverse events, and 1-year patient follow-up. RESULTS: Prehospital seizures occurred in 17.9% (17/95) of patients; another 7.4% (7/95) had a questionable prehospital seizure. In-hospital seizures occurred in 4.1% (4/95) of patients, a mean of 14.5 +/- 13.7 days from ictus; three of these four patients were receiving an AED at the time of seizure. Inpatient AED were prescribed to 99% of the cohort for a median of 12 (range 1 to 68) days. Approximately 8% of the cohort had posthospital discharge seizures; this included the patients who had prehospital or in-hospital seizures, 50% of whom were receiving AED therapy at the time of the seizure. Adverse effects occurred in 4. 1%; none were serious. The thickness of cisternal clot was associated with having a seizure; no other clinical predictors were identified. Having a seizure at any time did not adversely affect outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In this SAH population, the majority of seizures happened before medical presentation. In-hospital seizures were rare and occurred more than 7 days postictus for patients receiving AED prophylaxis. The vast majority of putative clinical predictors did not help predict the occurrence of seizures; only the thickness of the cisternal clot was of value in predicting seizures. Patient selection for and the efficacy and timing of AED prophylaxis after SAH deserve prospective evaluation.

    Title The Relationship of Blunt Head Trauma, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, and Rupture of Pre-existing Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms.
    Date June 2000
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Patients with a history of closed head trauma and subarachnoid hemorrhage are uncommonly diagnosed with an intracranial saccular aneurysm. This study presents a group of patients in whom a pre-existing aneurysm was discovered during work-up for traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Without an accurate pre-trauma clinical history, it is difficult to define the relationship between trauma and the rupture of a pre-existing intracranial saccular aneurysm. We retrospectively reviewed 130 patients who presented to Detroit Receiving Hospital between 1993 and 1997 with a diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Of these 130 patients, 70 were spontaneous, and 60 had a history of trauma. Mechanisms of trauma include motor vehicle accident, assault, or fall from a height. Of the 60 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and a history of trauma, 51 (86%) did not undergo conventional four-vessel angiography, and had no further neurological sequelae. Nine patients (14%) had a suspicious quantity of blood within the basal cisterns or Sylvian fissure and had a four-vessel angiogram. Five patients (8%) were diagnosed with a saccular intracranial aneurysm, and all underwent surgical clipping of the aneurysm. We conclude that the majority of patients (92%), with post-traumatic SAH do not harbor intracranial aneurysms. However, during initial evaluation, a high level of suspicion must be entertained when post-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is encountered in the basal cisterns or Sylvian fissure, as 8% of our population were diagnosed with aneurysms.

    Title Post-traumatic Hydrocephalus.
    Date February 2000
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    The syndrome of post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) has been recognized since Dandy's report in 1914. The incidence of symptomatic PTH ranges from 0.7%-29%. If CT criteria of ventriculomegaly are used the incidence has been reported to be from 30%-86%. Differences in diagnostic criteria and classification have contributed to the variation in reported incidence. The diagnosis of PTH is established using a combination of clinical, imaging and physiologic data. Symptomatic PTH is to be distinguished from post-traumatic ventriculomegaly resulting from atrophy. Symptomatic PTH patients are likely to improve when treated by shunting. Ventriculomegaly secondary to atrophy is less likely to respond to shunting. A series of traumatic brain injury patients at Wayne State University has been followed since 1989. The overall incidence of shunt placement in this group is 3.65%. Future studies of PTH should be aimed at refining diagnostic classification and criteria. Analysis of a large PTH population may then identify alterable risk factors in the early post-traumatic brain injury period. Minimizing these factors will help prevent subsequent PTH and obviate the need for shunting.

    Title Incidence of Intracranial Bullet Fragment Migration.
    Date October 1999
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Migration of retained bullets or bullet fragments may present as a complication of gunshot wounds to the head. This phenomenon has been reported in cases of abscess formation or retained copper fragments. Management of such migratory fragments is controversial. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of fragment migration in a population of neurosurgical patients treated for gunshot wounds to the head. Two-hundred and thirteen cases treated at Detroit Receiving Hospital between 1985 and 1987 were reviewed. Each patient treated had initial and one week follow-up imaging studies. Nine cases of documented migratory intracranial bullet fragments were identified. Thus, the incidence in this population is 4.2%. The fragments in eight cases were composed of copper, and in the remaining case, lead. No case was associated with an abscess. Fragments in the anterior fossa were found to migrate towards the sella turcica, while those of the middle fossa and posterior hemispheres migrate towards the confluence of sinuses (Torcula Herophili). Fragment migration was documented as early as 36 h post-injury. Based on this study, we recommend serial imaging studies to look for migrating bullet fragments and surgical removal aided by intra-operative ultrasound to localize the fragment when possible.

    Title Patterns of Immediate Early Gene Mrna Expression Following Rodent and Human Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Date June 1999
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Cell stimulation which leads to degeneration triggers a prolonged wave of immediate early gene (IEG) transcription that correlates with neuronal demise. In order to determine the relevance of the prolonged IEG response to human traumatic brain injury, we analyzed IEG mRNA levels in brain tissue isolated following a controlled penetrating injury and an injection of the excitotoxin Quinolinic acid (QA), as well as from tissue recovered during routine neurosurgery for trauma. Total RNA was extracted from tissue and subjected to Northern analysis of IEG mRNAs (c-fos and zif/268). Both models produced rapid and prolonged waves of IEG transcription that appeared to correlate with the severity of injury. Increases in zif/268 mRNA were observed within 1 h with levels reaching their peak at 6 h following excitotoxic injury and 3 h following a controlled penetration. In general, human traumatic brain injury resulted in variable increases in IEG mRNA levels following traumatic injury with the largest IEG mRNA increases observed in tissue collected 0-10 h after injury. This post-injury time corresponds to the peak of the prolonged IEG response observed in rodents following excitotoxic injury. Comparisons were made in IEG response between rodent frontal cortex and human cortex, because the majority of the human tissue originated from the cerebral cortex. These results further support the hypothesis that prolonged IEG transcription serves as a marker of traumatic brain injury and may play a role in neurodegeneration and/or glial activation. Moreover, observations of similar IEG patterns of expression reinforces the importance of rodent models of brain injury providing useful information directly applicable to human brain injury.

    Title Cerebral Monitoring Devices: Analysis of Complications.
    Date January 1999
    Journal Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
    Excerpt

    The use of indwelling cerebral monitoring devices (ICMDs) is common in the intensive care of neurosurgical patients. ICMDs are used to measure and treat intracranial pressure (ICP), temperature, blood flow and the microchemical environment. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and infection are risks of ICMD use [4]. This study presents ICMD use at Detroit Receiving Hospital (DRH) from July 1993- March 1997. Analysis of complications associated with ICMD placement will test the hypothesis that complication rate depends upon type of ICMD used. A log of all patients having ICMDs at DRH has been kept since 1993. This log was used to identify complications of ICMD placement. Each case was reviewed and the following data obtained: diagnosis, patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Score, Glasgow Outcome Score, type of ICMD, number of ICMDs per patient, duration of implant and complication. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to compare samples of interest. The following number of ICMDs were placed: 274 ventriculostomies, 229 Camino intra parenchymal ICP monitors, and 33 other ICMDs. Complications in these 536 cases include 21 infections, 15 ICHs, 1 granuloma and 1 persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Complication was analyzed as a function of ICMD type using Chi-Square test for independence. The rate of infection and ICH was significantly higher in the ventriculostomy group (p = 0.0001). These results support the hypothesis that complications of ICMD use are due to the type of device implanted. The determinants of ICMD complication is undoubtedly multifactorial. The clinician must consider the complication rate related to a particular ICMD among other factors when choosing to place an ICMD.

    Title A Cohort Study of the Safety and Feasibility of Intraventricular Urokinase for Nonaneurysmal Spontaneous Intraventricular Hemorrhage.
    Date August 1998
    Journal Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small case series have reported potential benefit from thrombolysis after spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Our objective was to review our experience using intraventricular urokinase (UK) in treating selected patients with IVH. METHODS: Using medical records, we identified all patients who received ventriculostomies for CT-confirmed nonaneurysmal nontraumatic spontaneous IVH from December 1992 through November 1996. We reviewed charts and CT images and examined the data for associations with specific outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 40 patients, 18 treated with ventriculostomy alone and 22 receiving adjunctive intraventricular UK. The initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of the two groups were similar (P = 0.5). While there was a trend for patients with any intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) to receive UK (P = 0.07), the mean size of IPH in those who received ventriculostomy alone was larger than in those who received adjunctive UK (P = 0.002). There was lower mortality in the group treated with UK (31.8 versus 66.7%; P = 0.03), but there was only a trend toward an increase in favorable outcome (22.2% versus 36.4%; P = 0.3). Overall, the most significant association with outcome was neurological condition at presentation (GCS >5 versus < or = 5; P = 0.003). Receiving UK did not increase the occurrence of complications or hospital length of stay for survivors (P = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Intraventricular UK remains a safe and potentially beneficial intervention. While it appeared to lower mortality, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial is needed to explore whether the therapy can increase the incidence of favorable outcomes.

    Title Patterns of Heat-shock Protein 70 Biosynthesis Following Human Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Date August 1998
    Journal Journal of Neurotrauma
    Excerpt

    Heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) is activated upon cellular stress/injury and participates in the folding and intracellular transport of damaged proteins. The expression of hsp70 following CNS trauma has been speculated to be part of a cellular response which is involved in the repair of damaged proteins. In this study, we measured hsp70 mRNA and protein levels within human cerebral cortex subjected to traumatic brain injury. Specimens were obtained during routine neurosurgery for trauma and processed for Northern mRNA and Western protein analysis. The largest increase in hsp70 mRNA levels was detected in trauma tissue obtained 4-6 h following injury. By 24 h, hsp70 mRNA levels were similar to nontrauma comparison tissues. hsp70 protein expression exhibited its greatest increases at 12-20 h post-injury. Immunocytological techniques revealed hsp70 protein expression in cells with neuronal-like morphology at 12 h after injury. These results suggest a role for hsp70 in human cortex following TBI. Moreover, since the temporal induction pattern of hsp70 biosynthesis is similar to that reported in the rodent, our observations validate the importance of rodent brain injury models in providing useful information directly applicable to human brain injury.

    Title Heat-shock Protein 72 Expression in Excitotoxic Versus Penetrating Injuries of the Rodent Cerebral Cortex.
    Date August 1998
    Journal Journal of Neurotrauma
    Excerpt

    The induction of heat shock protein 72 (hsp72) has been described in various experimental models of brain injury. The present study examined hsp72 expression patterns within the rodent cerebral cortex in experimental paradigms designed to mimic two mechanisms of damage produced by penetration of the cerebral cortex: (1) tissue tearing from the missile track and (2) diffuse excitotoxicity during temporary cavitation and shock wave formation. Adult male Spaque-Dawley rats received controlled penetration (stab) or injection of the NMDA receptor excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QA), into the frontal cortex and were killed 1-24 h later. Tissue from the lesioned, sham-operated, or contralateral uninjected cortex was processed for Western and immunocytochemical analyses of hsp72 protein expression. By 12 h, both controlled penetration and excitotoxic brain injuries produced significant increases in hsp72 immunoreactivity, which decreased toward control levels at 24 h. However, the severity and regional distribution of hsp72 expression varied between the two models. Specifically, the controlled penetration injury produced many hsp72-expressing cells near the needle track, while immunoreactive cells within the QA-injected cortex were found in the periphery of the lesion site. Morphological assessment of brain sections subjected to dual-labeling procedures demonstrated that cells expressing hsp72 were primarily neuronal in both models of injury. These results suggest that although controlled penetration and diffuse excitotoxicity may induce similar temporal and cellular patterns of hsp72 expression, the spatial location of hsp72-immunoreactive cells may differ between the two models.

    Title Where's the Bullet? A Migration in Two Acts.
    Date November 1997
    Journal The Journal of Trauma

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