Urologists
43 years of experience

Strong
Strong Memorial Hospital
601 Elmwood Ave
Rochester, NY 14642
585-275-8762
Locations and availability (1)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Cornell University (1967)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Appointments
University Of Rochester School Of Medicine & Dentistry, Rochester, Ny (1994 - Present)
Suny At Buffalo School Of Medicine & Biomedical Science, Buffalo, Ny (2003 - Present)
Associations
American Board of Urology

Publications & Research

Dr. Parker has contributed to 118 publications.
Title Tibial Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: a Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Metal Interference Screw and Staples with a Centrally Placed Polyethylene Screw and Sheath.
Date January 2012
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

The use of hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has increased in popularity over recent years. However, concerns with the stability of graft fixation on the tibial side remain. Centrally placed interference screw/sheath implants have demonstrated promising results in biomechanical studies.

Title Articular Cartilage Changes in Patients with Osteoarthritis After Osteotomy.
Date August 2011
Journal The American Journal of Sports Medicine
Excerpt

High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a method used to treat medial compartmental osteoarthritis in the knee. The realignment of the knee changes the loading patterns within the joint and may allow for regeneration of articular cartilage. Magnetic resonance imaging methods can be used to assess the quality of the regenerated cartilage.

Title Metastatic Carcinoma of Prostate.
Date March 2011
Journal Urology
Excerpt

A case is reported of a seventy-seven-year-old man with an unusual soft tissue metastasis in the pelvis from carcinoma of the prostate.

Title Safety of Combined Use of Local Anesthetic Infiltration and Reinfusion Drains in Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Date December 2009
Journal The Journal of Arthroplasty
Excerpt

Injection of local anesthetic during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to aid postoperative pain relief. Reinfusion drains have also proven useful in decreasing allogenic blood transfusion. Combined use carries the risk of reinfusion of local anesthetic from drainage bag. We examined plasma ropivacaine concentrations from 20 patients undergoing TKA, who were treated with these 2 techniques. Samples were taken from a dedicated venous cannula and from the reinfusion drainage bag. The average amount of ropivacaine reinfused was 1.9 mg, a fraction of the injected dose (150 mg), and venous plasma concentrations reached peaks of 0.5 to 1.5 microg/mL, well below demonstrated levels of toxicity. Patients tolerated the treatment well, with no adverse outcomes. This study demonstrates the safety of combining these 2 techniques in TKA.

Title Getting Surgery Right is More Complex Than It Appears: a New Look is Needed at Aberrant Procedures.
Date December 2009
Journal Anz Journal of Surgery
Title The Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanning and Its Influence on Management Decisions in Knee Surgery.
Date July 2009
Journal Arthroscopy : the Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery : Official Publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association
Excerpt

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of articular knee pathology on the clinical management of patients presenting with joint line pain.

Title Isolated Rupture of the Lateral Collateral Ligament During Yoga Practice: a Case Report.
Date May 2009
Journal Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery (hong Kong)
Excerpt

We report a case of isolated rupture of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) of the knee while attempting to place the left foot behind the head during yoga practice. The 34-year-old man had discomfort of the lateral aspect of the knee particularly with varus strain. A magnetic resonance image revealed rupture of the LCL at the insertion onto the fibula. The patient had grade-II laxity of the LCL and was treated non-operatively. At the 12-month follow-up, grade-I laxity of the LCL remained clinically evident, but function was not impaired.

Title Identification of Metabolites in Human Hepatic Bile Using 800 Mhz 1h Nmr Spectroscopy, Hplc-nmr/ms and Uplc-ms.
Date March 2009
Journal Molecular Biosystems
Excerpt

The first application of high field NMR spectroscopy (800 MHz for (1)H observation) to human hepatic bile (as opposed to gall bladder bile) is reported. The bile sample used for detailed investigation was from a donor liver with mild fat infiltration, collected during organ retrieval prior to transplantation. In addition, to focus on the detection of bile acids in particular, a bile extract was analysed by 800 MHz (1)H NMR spectroscopy, HPLC-NMR/MS and UPLC-MS. In the whole bile sample, 40 compounds have been assigned with the aid of two-dimensional (1)H-(1)H TOCSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectra. These include phosphatidylcholine, 14 amino acids, 10 organic acids, 4 carbohydrates and polyols (glucose, glucuronate, glycerol and myo-inositol), choline, phosphocholine, betaine, trimethylamine-N-oxide and other small molecules. An initial NMR-based assessment of the concentration range of some key metabolites has been made. Some observed chemical shifts differ from expected database values, probably due to a difference in bulk diamagnetic susceptibility. The NMR spectra of the whole extract gave identification of the major bile acids (cholic, deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic), but the glycine and taurine conjugates of a given bile acid could not be distinguished. However, this was achieved by HPLC-NMR/MS, which enabled the separation and identification of ten conjugated bile acids with relative abundances varying from approximately 0.1% (taurolithocholic acid) to 34.0% (glycocholic acid), of which, only the five most abundant acids could be detected by NMR, including the isomers glycodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid, which are difficult to distinguish by conventional LC-MS analysis. In a separate experiment, the use of UPLC-MS allowed the detection and identification of 13 bile acids. This work has shown the complementary potential of NMR spectroscopy, MS and hyphenated NMR/MS for elucidating the complex metabolic profile of human hepatic bile. This will be useful baseline information in ongoing studies of liver excretory function and organ transplantation.

Title The Cgp7930 Analogue 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2-spiropentylpropyl)-phenol (bspp) Potentiates Baclofen Action at Gaba(b) Autoreceptors.
Date January 2009
Journal Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Excerpt

The pharmacological actions of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2-spiropentylpropyl)-phenol (BSPP), a putative presynaptic GABA(B) receptor modulator, were examined in electrically stimulated rat neocortical brain slices preloaded with [3H]-GABA or [3H]-glutamic acid. At 10 mmol/L, BSPP inhibited the release of [3H]-GABA in the presence of baclofen, but not that of [3H]-glutamic acid. This effect was sensitive to the GABA(B) receptor antagonist (+)-(S)-5,5-dimethylmorpholinyl-2-acetic acid (Sch 50911). Alone, BSPP had no effect on the release of [3H]-GABA or [3H]-glutamic acid. It is concluded that BSPP selectively potentiates the action of baclofen at GABA(B) autoreceptors, but not heteroreceptors and may be a useful ligand to discriminate between presynaptic GABA(B) receptor subtypes.

Title Posterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency: Biomechanical and Biological Consequences and the Outcomes of Conservative Treatment. A Systematic Review.
Date January 2009
Journal Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia
Excerpt

The objective of the study was to evaluate the biomechanical and biological consequences of posterior cruciate ligament deficiency, determine compensatory mechanisms and assess the efficacy of non-operative treatment. Medline, CINAHL, SPORTdiscus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched at 30th October 2006 for the terms "PCL" and "posterior cruciate ligament" both independently and including the terms "injury", "deficiency" and "insufficiency". Literature searches identified 598 potentially relevant articles, after exclusions there were 47 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 30 articles analyzing PCL deficiency and 17 studies on the outcomes for non-operative treatment. The authors reviewed all selected articles and abstracted data into predetermined tables depending upon classification. Studies indicate that posterior cruciate ligament deficiency results in posterior tibial translation with combined injuries displaying greater laxity. Results were inconsistent for rotational stability but deficiency increases joint contact pressure and may result in articular damage. A loss of proprioception occurs but the effect on strength and kinetics is inconclusive. There is a lack of evidence for compensatory muscle activity. Return to activity is possible for the majority of non-operatively treated grade I and II isolated injuries. Comparative analysis was not possible in many instances due to study design or experimental protocols. Further research is required to establish the compensatory mechanisms stabilizing the posterior cruciate ligament deficient knee and to investigate the outcomes for non-operatively treated patients.

Title Reliability of Bony Landmarks for Restoration of the Joint Line in Revision Knee Arthroplasty.
Date October 2008
Journal Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy : Official Journal of the Esska
Excerpt

The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of bone landmarks for restoring the joint line in revision knee arthroplasty. The relationship of the femoral epicondyles, the tibial tubercle (TT) and the fibular head (FH) to the joint line was measured on 200 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 100 females, 100 males), including assessment on intraobserver and interobserver reliability. MRI scans demonstrating chondral lesions and osteoarthritis were excluded, as were patients with immature skeletons or a history of previous knee surgery. Sequences in sagittal, coronal and axial planes were used as well as cross-referencing with the same computer software. In order to account for size differences between patients, each bony landmark measurement was converted to a ratio relative to the femoral or/and tibial width. We found a transepicondylar axis equal to 3.11 degrees (+/-1.9). The average distance from the epicondyles to the joint line was respectively 23 mm on the lateral side and 28 mm on the medial side. However there was a variation of distance from the epicondyles of the joint line up to 11 mm and a significative difference was found between male and female. We determined the distances from the tip of the FH and from the TT to the joint line. The joint line-FH distance averaged 14 mm (range 4.1-22.13) with no gender difference. The joint line-TT distance was averaged 22 mm (range 10.61-32.09). We determined an epicondylar ratio (distance from the lateral epicondyle to the joint line related to the femoral width). We found this ratio averaged 28% with no gender difference (P = 0.09). There is a large variation of bony landmarks depending on the size of the individual. Considering this findings, the FH is not a reliable guide for the joint line in revision surgery. Previous studies have measured the absolute values from various landmarks to the joint line. This study provides a significant advantage, in that the level of the joint line can be determined for each individual by using a ratio to account for gender and size differences.

Title Comparison of Isometric and Anatomic Reconstruction of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament: a Cadaveric Study.
Date July 2008
Journal Orthopedics
Excerpt

Recent surgical procedures designed to correct recurrent posttraumatic lateral patellar instability focus on reconstructing the medial patellofemoral ligament. This study evaluated and compared patellofemoral kinematics of isometric and anatomic medial patellofemoral ligament reconstructions. Using an infrared motion capture analysis system, patellar tracking was evaluated in the coronal plane in 6 cadaveric specimens. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using an isometric technique did not restore normal patellar tracking at any flexion angle; however, reconstruction using an anatomic technique restored statistically normal patellar tracking from maximal knee extension to 28 degrees of flexion. Neither technique was able to restore normal kinematics in deeper angles of knee flexion.

Title Patient Preparation for Intravenous Urography: Are We Practising Evidence-based Medicine?
Date March 2008
Journal Clinical Radiology
Excerpt

To identify the current practice of patient preparation prior to intravenous urography (IVU) in England and Wales.

Title Uptake and Release of [(3)h]gaba in Human Dental Pulp.
Date December 2007
Journal Archives of Oral Biology
Excerpt

The purpose of this study was to determine whether (a) an uptake system for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) exists in human dental pulp, (b) GABA can be released from nerves in this tissue, and (c) GABA(B) autoreceptors modulate release of this transmitter. Segments of vital pulp were incubated in [(3)H]GABA (0.1-10 microM) for up to 120 min, washed, and the retained [(3)H] extracted and assayed. Some tissues were treated with GABA uptake inhibitors (nipecotic acid or NO-711) prior to incubation. At concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 microM the uptake of [(3)H]GABA was saturated after 90 min of incubation. At 10 microM, at least two uptake compartments were apparent, and the amount of [(3)H]GABA retained was five-fold greater than 0.1 microM. The uptake inhibitors reduced [(3)H]GABA accumulation by more than 80%. In the release study, pulp was incubated in [(3)H]GABA (0.5 microM) for 90 min, and superfused with Krebs solution containing NO-711 (5 microM). Electrical stimulation increased the overflow of [(3)H]; a GABA(B) autoreceptor agonist (baclofen) inhibited, whilst an antagonist, Sch 50911, enhanced this release. The effects of baclofen were reversed by Sch 50911. These results imply that GABA can be taken up and bound firmly in compartments within human dental pulp, GABA can be released from isolated pulp segments by electrical stimulation, and this release is modulated by GABA(B) autoreceptors.

Title Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complicating Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Date May 2007
Journal Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery (hong Kong)
Excerpt

To compare the long-term outcome of patients diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome-type 1 (CRPS-1) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with those of uncomplicated TKA knees and preoperative osteoarthritic knees.

Title Osteotomy for the Early Varus Arthritic Knee.
Date March 2007
Journal Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
Excerpt

High tibial osteotomy is a well-established procedure for the management of medial compartment arthritis that is currently experiencing a resurgence in popularity. A number of techniques have been described, with the ultimate goal of obtaining appropriate alignment to provide pain relief and functional improvement over a long-term period. Appropriate patient selection and careful surgical technique is necessary to achieve these goals with a minimal risk of complication. Newer technology such as computer navigation promises to improve the overall accuracy of the procedure. The need for alignment correction in combination with ligament reconstruction and chondral resurfacing surgery will increase the indications for this procedure. This article discusses the techniques available for high tibial osteotomy, the results and relative advantages of each, and the appropriate surgical technique to achieve optimal results while minimizing complications.

Title Glycosaminoglycan Content of Knee Cartilage Following Posterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Demonstrated by Delayed Gadolinium-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dgemric). A Case Report.
Date January 2006
Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Title Spinal Cord Injuries in Australian Footballers 1997-2002.
Date October 2005
Journal The Medical Journal of Australia
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To review acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs) in all Australian codes of football (rugby union [RU], rugby league [RL], Australian Rules football [ARF] and soccer) for 1997-2002 and to compare data with those of a 1986-1996 survey. DESIGN: Retrospective review of hospital records, and structured interviews with injured players. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Patients admitted to any of the six Australian spinal cord injury units with a documented football-related ASCI over the period 1997-2002. OUTCOME MEASURES: Average annual incidence of ASCIs per 100,000 players in the different codes, final Frankel grading of injuries, and wheelchair status. RESULTS: Fifty-two footballers (45 adult men and seven schoolboys) suffered ASCIs between 1997 and 2002. The average annual incidence of ASCIs per 100,000 players was 3.2 for RU, 1.5 for RL, 0.5 for ARF and 0.2 for soccer. While there has been little change in incidence since the 1986-1996 survey, there has been a trend towards less severe injuries in RU and RL, but not in ARF. There have been no scrum injuries in RL since 1996, when the scrum stopped being contested. Seven injuries occurred in RU scrums, six at the moment of engagement of the opposing teams. The incidence of 2-on-1 and "gang" tackles (involving multiple tacklers) in RL is disturbing. Overall, 39% of injured players became permanently wheelchair-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: There continues to be good reason to revise the laws of scrum engagement in RU. The laws relating to multiple tacklers in RL should be examined. The insurance cover for injured players is grossly inadequate. The longstanding need for a registry of spinal cord injuries for all football codes regrettably remains unmet.

Title 3-chloro,4-methoxyfendiline is a Potent Gaba(b) Receptor Potentiator in Rat Neocortical Slices.
Date July 2005
Journal European Journal of Pharmacology
Excerpt

Using grease-gap recording from rat neocortical slices, the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen elicited reversible and concentration-dependent hyperpolarizing responses (EC50=18+/-2.3 microM). The hyperpolarizations were antagonised by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist Sch 50911 [(+)-(S)-5,5-dimethylmorpholinyl-2-acetic acid). (+)-N-1-(3-chloro-4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl-3,3-diphenylpropylamine (3-chloro,4-methoxyfendiline; 3-Cl,4-MeO-fendiline) reversibly potentiated baclofen-induced hyperpolarizing responses, which were reduced by Sch 50911, producing leftward shifts of the baclofen concentration-response curves, with a marked increase in the maximal hyperpolarization (EC50=2+/-0.5 microM). In slices preincubated with either [3H]GABA or [3H]glutamic acid, 3-Cl,4-MeO-fendiline (1 microM) potentiated the inhibitory effect of baclofen (2 microM) on the electrically evoked release of [3H]GABA and had a similar effect on the release of [3H]glutamic acid at a concentration of 0.5 microM, without affecting the basal release. These effects were blocked by Sch 50911 (10 microM). Our findings suggest that 3-Cl,4-MeO-fendiline is a potent potentiator of pre- and postsynaptic GABA(B) receptor-mediated functions.

Title Gabapentin Activates Presynaptic Gabab Heteroreceptors in Rat Cortical Slices.
Date April 2005
Journal European Journal of Pharmacology
Excerpt

In electrically stimulated rat neocortical brain slices preloaded with [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or [3H]glutamic acid, the pharmacological actions of 1-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexaneacetic acid (gabapentin, Gp) were compared with the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen (Bac) and (3-amino-2-(S)-hydroxypropyl)-methylphosphinic acid (CGP 44532). Gabapentin, baclofen and CGP 44532 all reduced the electrically stimulated release of [3H]glutamic acid (IC50=20 microM, 0.8 microM and 2 microM, respectively). These effects were sensitive to the GABAB receptor antagonists (+)-(S)-5,5 dimethylmorpholinyl-2-acetic acid (Sch 50911) or N-3-[[1-(S)-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino]-2-(S)-hydroxypropyl-P-(cyclo-hexylmethyl)-phosphinic acid (CGP 54626). By contrast, gabapentin was without effect on the release of [3H]GABA, whilst baclofen (IC50=8 microM) and CGP 44532 (IC50=1 microM) inhibited [3H]GABA release. It is concluded that gabapentin selectively activates presynaptic GABAB heteroreceptors, but not GABAB autoreceptors, and may be a useful ligand to discriminate between presynaptic GABAB receptor subtypes.

Title Short-term Black Tea Intake Modulates the Excretion of Urinary Mutagens in Rats Treated with 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (iq): Role of Cyp1a2 Upregulation.
Date February 2005
Journal Archives of Toxicology
Excerpt

Rats were exposed to black tea (2.5% w/v) as their sole drinking liquid for either 1 day or 1 month, while controls were maintained on water. After this treatment period, all animals received a single oral dose IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline), and urine was collected for 48 h. Mutagenic activity of the urine was determined in the Ames test in the presence and absence of an activation system. The excretion of direct-acting mutagens was markedly reduced following tea intake, and was more pronounced after the 1-day treatment. Similarly, both tea treatments suppressed the excretion of indirect-acting mutagens. Furthermore, both tea treatments induced hepatic CYP1A2 activity and expression, but cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity was only modestly induced in the group of animals receiving tea for 1 day, and only when DCNB (1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene) was used as substrate; glucuronosyl activity was elevated modestly only in the animals receiving the tea for a month. It is concluded that even short-term exposure to black tea is capable of influencing the metabolic fate of IQ, and this is most likely related to the upregulation of CYP1A2.

Title Radiographic Changes in the Patella Following Quadriceps Turndown for Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Date December 2004
Journal The Journal of Arthroplasty
Excerpt

Quadriceps turndown is a technique that may be used to enhance exposure of the tight total knee arthroplasty (TKA), particularly in the revision scenario. This technique does, however, compromise the vascularity of the patella, with avascular necrosis (AVN) being a possible sequela. A modified Coonse-Adams quadriceps turndown was performed in 29 revision TKAs in 27 patients. Immediate preoperative and sequential postoperative radiographs were analyzed for changes in the patella, including sclerosis, flattening, fracture, and fragmentation, as evidence of possible AVN, and clinical scores were collected prospectively. Eight patellae had such radiographic changes. Despite a lack of corresponding worsening in clinical outcome in these patients, quadriceps turndown is shown to have a high risk of subsequent changes consistent with patellar AVN, and should be avoided when other available techniques can achieve satisfactory exposure.

Title Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty with the Miller-galante Prosthesis.
Date October 2004
Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Excerpt

Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty has become a popular treatment alternative for osteoarthritis that is confined to the medial part of the knee. Excellent intermediate-term results recently have been reported in association with the Miller-Galante unicompartmental implant. The purpose of the present study was to report on our longer-term experience with the Miller-Galante medial unicompartmental knee implant.

Title Extensor Mechanism Failure Associated with Total Knee Arthroplasty: Prevention and Management.
Date November 2003
Journal The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Excerpt

Extensor mechanism complications are the most commonly reported reasons for revision surgery after total knee arthroplasty and are a frequent source of postoperative morbidity. Patellofemoral instability is the most commonly reported extensor mechanism complication and has multiple etiologies, including prosthetic malalignment and soft-tissue imbabalce. Patellar fracture or rupture of either the quadriceps or patellar tendon can cause catastrophic disruption of the extensor mechanism. Although some stable fractures can be successfully managed nonsurgically, displaced fractures or tendon rupture often lead to poor results. Other complications include patellar clunk and soft-tissue adhesions, prosthetic wear or loosening, and osteonecrosis. Increased understanding of implant alignment, rotation, and soft-tissue balance, as well as improved design of the trochlear groove of femoral implants and patellar components, has resulted in a decline in extensor mechanism complications. Appropriate prosthetic selection and meticulous surgical technique remain the keys to avoiding unsatisfactory results and revision surgery.

Title Uptake and Release of [3h]adenosine in Human Dental Pulp.
Date July 2003
Journal Archives of Oral Biology
Excerpt

The purpose of this study was to examine the uptake and release of adenosine in human dental pulp. Pulp was removed from extracted teeth and incubated in [3H]adenosine (0.02-3.2 micromol/l) for 30-90 min, washed for 30 min and the residual [3H]adenosine extracted and assayed. At 0.02 and 0.4 micromol/l the uptake was saturated after 30 min, whereas at 3.2 micromol/l it was not, even after 90 min. Destruction of the sympathetic nerves by 6-hydroxydopamine prior to incubation in [3H]adenosine (0.4 micromol/l) decreased the uptake of [3H] by 40%. Addition of S(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine (NBTG; 0.1 micromol/l), an inhibitor of adenosine uptake, blocked 90% of the uptake. Electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves following incubation of pulp in [3H]adenosine (0.4 micromol/l) increased the overflow of [3H] into the medium superfusing the tissue segments. NBTG (0.1 micromol/l) had no effect on this overflow, whereas denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine prior to incubation decreased the overflow by 85%. Although the contribution of post-junctional elements, such as smooth muscle, to this release was not determined it is proposed that most of the purine released was derived from sympathetic nerves.

Title Imaging in Prostate Cancer.
Date February 2003
Journal Clinical Radiology
Title Seasonal Variation in Myopia Progression and Ocular Elongation.
Date December 2002
Journal Optometry and Vision Science : Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Excerpt

To evaluate possible seasonal variations in myopia progression and ocular elongation in school children.

Title Comparative Activities of the Enantiomeric Gaba(b) Receptor Agonists Cgp 44532 and 44533 in Central and Peripheral Tissues.
Date February 2002
Journal European Journal of Pharmacology
Excerpt

In neocortical slices maintained in Mg(2+)-free Krebs medium, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(B)) receptor agonists baclofen, (3-amino-2(S)-hydroxypropyl)methylphosphinic acid (CGP 44532), and its (R)-enantiomer CGP 44533 depressed the frequency of spontaneous discharges in a concentration-dependent manner (EC(50)=10, 6.5, and 50 microM, respectively). These effects were reversibly antagonised by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist (+)-(S)-5,5 dimethylmorpholinyl-2-acetic acid (Sch 50911) (3, 10, and 30 microM) (average pA(2) value=6.0+/-0.2). In neocortical wedges, baclofen, CGP 44532 and CGP 44533 elicited concentration-dependent hyperpolarisations (the EC(50)s were 14, 7.5 and 16 microM, respectively) sensitive to Sch 50911 (1, 5, 10 microM) (average pA(2) value=6.0+/-0.1), whilst they also depressed ileal electrically elicited cholinergic twitch contractions (EC(50)=11, 7, and 50 microM) that were antagonised by Sch 50911 (average pA(2) value=6.0+/-0.1). In electrically stimulated brain slices preloaded with [3H]GABA, baclofen, CGP 44532 and CGP 44533 decreased [3H]GABA release (IC(50)=5, 0.45, and 10 microM); this effect was reversed by Sch 50911 (50 microM). It is concluded that CGP 44532 is a far more potent agonist at GABA(B) autoreceptors than at central or peripheral heteroreceptors.

Title The John Charnley Award: Three-dimensional Analysis of the Cement Mantle in Total Hip Arthroplasty.
Date January 2002
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

Cemented fixation of the femoral stem is the gold standard for patients older than 60 years. The importance of reliably achieving an adequate cement mantle has been shown in many studies. Currently, inspection and grading of plain radiographs is the accepted method for study of the cement mantle. However, the reliability of plain radiographs for this purpose has been questioned. In addition, the interobserver agreement of current grading systems has been shown to be limited. A new in vitro method of cement mantle analysis is described. Plastic replicas of six contemporary stems were implanted into femurs from cadavers. The specimens were imaged with a computed tomography scanner. Detailed, computer-assisted analysis of mantle thickness was done. Comparisons were made between designs. A subset was compared with standard radiographs. Plain radiographs overestimated thickness and underestimated the deficiencies. There was significant variability in the mantle produced by the different designs. Commonly used designs had deficiencies in their mantles by standard criteria despite proper surgical technique. The importance of being fully acquainted with the particular implant one uses is emphasized by these results. This is a valuable technique for investigation of the effects on the cement mantle of implant design, surgical technique, and patient anatomy.

Title Cgp 36216 is a Selective Antagonist at Gaba(b) Presynaptic Receptors in Rat Brain.
Date September 2001
Journal European Journal of Pharmacology
Excerpt

In rat neocortical preparations maintained in Mg(2+)-free Krebs medium, baclofen depressed the frequency of spontaneous discharges in a concentration-dependent manner (EC(50) = 6 microM), sensitive to (3-aminopropyl)ethylphosphinic acid (CGP 36216) (100, 300 and 500 microM) (pA(2) = 3.9 +/- 0.1). By contrast, CGP 36216, up to 1 mM, was ineffective in antagonising baclofen-induced hyperpolarisations, mediated through gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) postsynaptic receptors. In electrically stimulated brain slices preloaded with [3H]GABA, CGP 36216 increased [3H]GABA release (IC(50) = 43 microM), which was reversed by baclofen (20 microM). While CGP 36216 is ineffective at GABA(B) postsynaptic receptors, it is appreciably more active at presynaptic receptors.

Title Long-term Followup of Cementless Versus Hybrid Fixation for Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Date July 2001
Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Excerpt

In a prospective trial, 99 patients (100 knees) with osteoarthritis were randomized to either cementless or hybrid fixation of cruciate-retaining Miller-Galante-I total knee arthroplasties between January 1987 and December 1988. Thirty-one patients died during the study period and two additional patients were lost to followup, leaving 67 total knee arthroplasties for analysis. Thirty-nine patients underwent revision surgery at an average of 6.9 years postoperatively. The main reason for revision surgery was failure of metal-backed patellas with 25 knees revised at an average of 7.4 years, and the second most common reason was tibial polyethylene failure. Survival curves showed 60% survival at 14 years for all knees, and 85% survival at 14 years when failures for metal-backed patellas and infection were excluded, with no significant difference between the two groups. Failure of metal-backed patellas was significantly higher in the cementless group. Tibial polyethylene failure occurred in five of the hybrid group and none of the cementless group, but this was not a significant difference. Surviving prostheses were assessed at an average of 12.8 years (range, 11.5-13.5 years). Average clinical scores were 94.8 points preoperatively, and 143 points at the latest followup, with significantly higher scores in the hybrid group. Differences in outcome between the two groups were not sufficiently significant to recommend one method of fixation over another. With elimination of poor design features related to the patellofemoral articulation and thin tibial polyethylene, cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasties can yield good durable results, whether cementless or hybrid fixation is used.

Title Effect of Different Types of Medicaid Managed Care on Childhood Immunization Rates.
Date January 2001
Journal Evaluation & the Health Professions
Excerpt

Medicaid managed care can improve access to prevention services, such as immunization, for low-income children. The authors studied immunization rates for 7,356 children on Medicaid in three managed care programs: primary care case management (PCCM; n = 4,605), a voluntary HMO program (n = 851), and a mandatory HMO program (n = 1,900). Immunization rates (3:3:1 series) in PCCM (78%) exceeded rates in the voluntary HMO program (71%), which in turn exceeded those in the mandatory HMO program (67%). Adjusting for race, urban residence, and gender, compared to children in PCCM, children in the voluntary HMO program were less likely to complete the 3:3:1 series (OR = 0.75, CI = 0.63, 0.90), and children in the mandatory HMO program were even less likely to complete the series (OR = 0.59, CI = 0.51, 0.68). Results differed by individual HMOs. Monitoring of outcomes for all types of managed care by Medicaid agencies is imperative to assure better disease prevention for low-income children.

Title Failure of Presynaptic Purinoceptors to Modulate Noradrenaline Release from Sympathetic Nerves in Human Dental Pulp.
Date December 2000
Journal Archives of Oral Biology
Excerpt

The effects of putative presynaptic P1- and/or P2-purinoceptors on the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp were examined by testing the effects of agonists and an antagonist of these receptors on the stimulation-induced overflow of [(3)H]noradrenaline from tissue treated with desipramine (0.3 micromol/l) and preincubated with [(3)H]noradrenaline (0.6 micromol/l). The P1-purinoceptor agonists adenosine (1.0 mmol/l) and 2-chloroadenosine (0.01-1.0 mmol/l) and the antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl xanthine (1.0 micromol/l), and the P2-purinoceptor agonists ATP (0.1 mmol/l) and beta, gamma-methylene-ATP (0.01 mmol/l), did not modulate the release of noradrenaline. Adenosine was also without effect in dental pulp treated with the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine. It is concluded that presynaptic P1-purinoceptors and those P2-purinoceptors activated by adenine nucleotides are either not present on sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp or that they exert little or no effect on the release of noradrenaline.

Title Selective Coronary Angiography in Sheep.
Date October 2000
Journal Comparative Medicine
Title Pharmacological Re-evaluation of a Gaba(b) Receptor Antagonist Cgp 47332a in Rat Brain.
Date February 2000
Journal European Journal of Pharmacology
Excerpt

In rat neocortical slices maintained in Mg(2+)-free Krebs medium, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(B)) receptor agonist baclofen concentration-dependently depressed the frequency of spontaneous discharges (EC(50)=12 microM). This was reversibly antagonised by (R, S)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-propyl-P-n-butyl-phosphinic acid (CGP 47332A) (25, 100, 300 microM) which produced rightwards shifts of the baclofen concentration-response curves (pA(2) value=4.8+/-0.1). In electrically stimulated slices preloaded with [3H]GABA, CGP 47332A increased its release (EC(150)=100 microM) through antagonism of GABA(B) autoreceptors. Although CGP 47332A was some six times weaker on GABA(B) auto- than on heteroreceptors, yet its congener lacking the beta-hydroxy substituent displays equal potency in both binding (IC(50)=38 microM) and GABA(B) autoreceptor functional studies (EC(150)=38 microM) as previously reported [Froestl, W., Mickel, S.J. , Von Sprecher, G., Diel, P.J., Hall, R.G., Maier, L., Strub, D., Melillo, V., Baumann, P.A., Bernasconi, R., Gentsch, C., Hauser, K., Jaekel, J., Karlsson, G., Klebs, K., Maitre, L., Marescaux, C., Pozza, M.F., Schmutz, M., Steinmann, M.W., Van Riezen, H., Vassout, A., Mondadori, C., Olpe, H.R., Waldmeier, P.C., Bittiger, H., Phosphinic acid analogues of GABA: 2. Selective, orally active GABA(B) antagonists. J. Med. Chem. 38 (1995) 3313-3331.].

Title Inhibitory Effects of Adrenaline on the Release of Noradrenaline from Sympathetic Nerves in Human Dental Pulp.
Date August 1999
Journal Archives of Oral Biology
Excerpt

The effects of adrenaline on the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp in vitro were examined. Sympathetic nerves were stimulated at 5 Hz for 100 sec following incubation of pulp with [3H]noradrenaline (0.6 micromol/l). In the presence of desipramine (DMI, 0.3 micromol/l), adrenaline (0.1 and 1.0 micromol/l) inhibited the release of [3H]noradrenaline, an effect which was inhibited by the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (0.1 micromol/l) and by the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist UK 14,304 (0.1 micromol/l). The release of [3H]noradrenaline was unaffected by adrenaline (0.001 and 0.01 micromol/l) in the presence of DMI and DMI plus rauwolscine. Although presynaptic inhibitory alpha2- and facilitatory beta-adrenoceptors are present on sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp, these results imply that adrenaline activates only the inhibitory alpha2-receptors.

Title Management of Postkeratoplasty Astigmatism.
Date June 1999
Journal Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Excerpt

Many factors have led to the improved success rate for clear corneal grafts after penetrating keratoplasty. Unfortunately, postoperative corneal astigmatism commonly occurs and can produce significant visual impairment. Astigmatic correction may include spectacle correction or contact lenses, but if this fails, then surgical options are considered. Refractive surgical techniques such as suture removal or adjustment, relaxing incisions, wedge resections, and photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis can dramatically reduce postoperative astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty and lead to improved, functional vision. However, significant variability between results in individual patients can occur. So although general guidelines are useful, it is important to individualize and modify the planned surgery based on qualitative keratoscopy and corneal topography for the initial and subsequent astigmatic corrections.

Title Antagonism of Gaba(b) Receptors by Morpholino-2-acetic Acid Derivatives Sch 54679 and Sch 51324 in Rat Brain.
Date June 1999
Journal European Journal of Pharmacology
Excerpt

In rat neocortical slices maintained in Mg2+-free Krebs medium, baclofen depressed the rate of spontaneous discharges in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 4.5 microM). This depression was reversibly antagonised by 5-(S,R)-hydroxymethyl-5-methylmorpholinyl-2-(R,S)-acetic acid (Sch 54679) and 2-(R,S)-5-[spirocyclopentyl]-morpholinyl-acetic acid (Sch 51324) (respective pA2 values of 5.8+/-0.15 and 5.4+/-0.2). In electrically-stimulated slices preloaded with [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), Sch 54679 (EC50 = 3 microM) was 2.3 times more potent than Sch 51324 (EC50 = 7 microM) in increasing [3H]GABA release through antagonism of GABA(B) autoreceptors. These structurally novel analogues may be pharmacologically useful for elucidating GABA(B) receptor functions.

Title Determination of the Minimum Alveolar Concentration of Isoflurane in Llamas.
Date May 1999
Journal Veterinary Surgery : Vs
Excerpt

To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO) in llamas.

Title The Morpholino-acetic Acid Analogue Sch 50911 is a Selective Gaba(b) Receptor Antagonist in Rat Neocortical Slices.
Date April 1999
Journal European Journal of Pharmacology
Excerpt

The pharmacological properties of (+)-(S)-5,5-dimethylmorpholinyl-2-acetic acid (Sch 50911) were evaluated on GABA(B) receptors in rat neocortical slices. The GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen, produced a concentration-dependent depression of the frequency of spontaneous discharges in slices maintained in Mg2+-free Krebs medium with an EC50 of 6 microM, reversibly antagonised by Sch 50911 (5, 10 and 25 microM) with an apparent pA2 of 6.0 +/- 0.1. The (-) enantiomer Sch 50910 (500 microM) and the racemic des-methyl analogue Sch 48588 (500 microM) were inactive. In slices preloaded with [3H]GABA, Sch 50911 antagonised GABA(B) autoreceptors, increasing the electrically-stimulated 3H overflow in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 3 microM. The maximal effect (148 +/- 10.5%) was found at 10 microM, but at 50 microM the response was reduced to 67 +/- 19%. In contrast, evoked release was unaffected by Sch 50910 (100 microM) whilst Sch 48588 at 100 microM increased the overflow by 51.3 +/- 11.6%. In summary, Sch 50911 is a relatively potent antagonist of considerable potential in studies of GABA(B) receptor function.

Title Modulation by Presynaptic Beta-adrenoceptors of Noradrenaline Release from Sympathetic Nerves in Human Dental Pulp.
Date March 1999
Journal Archives of Oral Biology
Excerpt

This study was undertaken to test for the presence of presynaptic beta-adrenoceptors on sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp and, if present, to investigate the subtype. Pulp was excised from freshly extracted teeth, incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline (0.6 micromol/l) and subsequently superfused with Krebs solution. Sympathetic nerves were stimulated at 5 Hz for 100 sec. The non-specific beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline (1.0 micromol/l), and the selective beta2-agonist salbutamol (10 micromol/l) facilitated the release of [3H]-noradrenaline; isoprenaline, but not salbutamol, also facilitated this release in the presence of desipramine (DMI, 0.3 micromol/l), corticosterone (10 micromol/l) and rauwolscine (0.1 micromol/l). BRL 37344 (1.0 micromol/l), a beta3-agonist, had no effect on [3H]-noradrenaline release. The facilitatory effects of isoprenaline and salbutamol were inhibited by the non-specific beta-antagonist propranolol (1.0 micromol/l), while that of salbutamol was inhibited in the presence of ICI-188,551 (1.0 micromol/l), a selective beta2-antagonist, as well. The beta1-antagonist atenolol (1.0 micromol/l) potentiated the facilitatory effects of isoprenaline in the presence of DMI and corticosterone. Neither propranolol nor ICI-188,551 alone affected the release of [3H]-noradrenaline. These results establish the presence of presynaptic beta-adrenoceptors on sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp. It is suggested that they are of the beta2-subtype, although a greater range of agonists and antagonists needs to be used to clarify the nature of the the beta-adrenoceptors.

Title Evidence for Presynaptic Cholinergic Receptors in Sympathetic Nerves in Human Dental Pulp.
Date August 1998
Journal Archives of Oral Biology
Excerpt

The purpose of this study was to determine whether presynaptic cholinergic receptors are present in sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp. Pulp was incubated with [3H]noradrenaline (0.6 mumol/l) for 30 min and then superfused with Krebs' solution at 1.0 ml/min. Electrical stimulation (100 sec, 5 Hz) increased the overflow of [3H]noradrenaline into the superfusate. Carbachol (10 and 100 mumol/l), an agonist of muscarinic receptors, decreased the stimulation-induced (SI) overflow of 3H, an effect blocked by atropine but not hexamethonium. Carbachol, atropine and hexamethonium had no effect on the resting overflow. Nicotine (10 mumol/l) increased the resting overflow and inhibited the SI overflow, although the inhibition was variable. Cytisine, another agonist of nicotinic receptors, also increased the resting overflow, but did not affect the SI overflow. To ascertain whether the actions of nicotine and electrical stimulation were influenced by the release of nitric oxide (NO), the effects of an NO donor and two NO-synthase inhibitors were examined. With the exception of one of the NO-synthase inhibitors (L-NAME), the agents were without effect on the overflow of 3H in the absence or presence of nicotine. It was concluded that sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp possess (a) presynaptic muscarinic receptors that inhibit the SI release of noradrenaline, and (b) nicotinic receptors that evoke the release of noradrenaline and that inhibit the SI release of the transmitter. The results do not point to a significant role for NO in the effects of stimulation or nicotine on the overflow of 3H.

Title Differential Effects of Phosphonic Analogues of Gaba on Gaba(b) Autoreceptors in Rat Neocortical Slices.
Date July 1998
Journal Naunyn-schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Excerpt

The effects of five phosphonic derivatives of GABA on the release of [3H]-GABA from rat neocortical slices, preloaded with [3H]-GABA, were investigated. Phaclofen and 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid (4-ABPA) increased the overflow of [3H] evoked by electrical stimulation (2 Hz) in a concentration-dependent manner, with similar potencies (phaclofen EC50=0.3 mmol/l, 4-ABPA EC50=0.4 mmol/l). At 3 mmol/l, phaclofen increased the release of [3H]-GABA by 82.6+/-8.6%, and 4-ABPA increased the release by 81.3+/-9.0%. 2-Amino-ethylphosphonic acid (2-AEPA) increased the overflow of [3H] by 46.8+/-10.9% at the highest concentration tested (3 mmol/l). In contrast, the lower phosphonic homologue 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid (3-APPA), and 2-amino-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylphosphonic acid (2-CPEPA), a baclofen analogue, did not modify the stimulated overflow. These results suggest that phaclofen, 4-ABPA and 2-AEPA are antagonists at GABA(B) autoreceptors, the latter being the weakest antagonist, whilst neither 3-APPA nor 2-CPEPA are active at these receptors. Since phaclofen, 4-ABPA and 2-CPEPA are antagonists and 3-APPA a partial agonist/antagonist on GABA(B) heteroreceptors, the lack of effect of 3-APPA and 2-CPEPA on [3H]-GABA release in this study suggests that GABA(B) autoreceptors may be pharmacologically distinct from the heteroreceptors.

Title Horizontal Corneal Diameter and Its Implications for Implanting Sulcus-fixated Lenses.
Date December 1997
Journal Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Title Effects of Early Drinking and an Antisocial Orientation on the Alcohol Use of Young Russians.
Date March 1997
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

Drawing upon data from the Survey of Deviant Behavior Among Youth in the Moscow Region of Russia, this paper examines the effects of early drinking behavior and an antisocial orientation on the use of alcohol by young Russians. Using available data from the U.S. National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, the use of alcohol and the effects of early drinking among youth in the Moscow Region and the United States are compared. The analysis of the data from the two surveys indicates that a greater proportion of Russian youth began drinking by the age of 12 but that early drinking is associated with subsequent alcohol use among both Russian and American youth. Although there are no data on an antisocial orientation from the U.S. survey, there are such data from the Russian survey and an analysis of this data indicates that the greatest alcohol use is found among young Russians who began drinking by the age of 12 and who have an antisocial orientation.

Title Effects of Endolymphatic Duct Occlusion on the Structure and Function of the Endolymphatic Sac in the Adult Guinea Pig.
Date February 1996
Journal The Laryngoscope
Excerpt

The endolymphatic sac (ELS) has been shown to respond rapidly to sudden disruptions in fluid balance such as labyrinthectomy or systemic administration of hyperosmolar agents. The present study was designed to determine the ELS response to slower changes in fluid dynamics by occluding the endolymphatic duct (ELD), thereby interrupting the longitudinal flow of endolymph to the ELS. Morphologic studies and autoradiographic techniques were used to evaluate the effects of ELD obstruction on the structure and function of the ELS after 48 hours. There were no significant changes in cellular morphology and a slight decrease in the incorporation of radiolabeled glucose when compared with normal ELS cells. We conclude that it is rapid change in fluid balance that triggers the ELS response, which is not seen with disruption of longitudinal flow.

Title The Biology of Homosexuality: Sexual Orientation or Sexual Preference?
Date November 1995
Journal Journal of Homosexuality
Excerpt

This paper begins with a summary of the biological research on homosexuality that occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It then summarizes the treatment of this research chiefly by the print media. It then adumbrates the presuppositions about sexuality and gender upon which the reports were based. It is argued that the presuppositions, which are asserted without being examined, date back to the nineteenth century. They ignore the historical, sociocultural, and humanistic research of the last two decades that collectively comprise the field of gay, lesbian, and bisexual studies. The discussion of the issue of choice follows and it recognizes the various constraints on choice without eliminating it as an element of sexual expression. Finally, the paper sets forth a general conception of homosexuality that includes its psychological and socio-cultural dimensions along with the biological.

Title Sexual Expression: a Global Perspective.
Date November 1995
Journal Journal of Homosexuality
Excerpt

Current research into possible biological bases of sexual preference has failed to produce any conclusive evidence. These studies omit the influence of psychological and sociological factors on sexual expression. They conflate the individual with his or her behavior. An argument against the dichotomization of sexual expression on the basis of the individual's biological sex or that of his or her partners concludes this paper.

Title Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on Noradrenaline Metabolism Linked to Neuronal Uptake1 and Extraneuronal Uptake1 in Dental Pulp in Vitro.
Date March 1995
Journal Naunyn-schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Excerpt

The study was undertaken to determine the relative roles of neuronal and extraneuronal uptake1 in the metabolism of 3H-noradrenaline in human dental pulp. Rabbit dental pulp was used as a reference since it was already known that normetanephrine (NMN) formation in this tissue utilised extraneuronal uptake1. Slices of pulp were preincubated in the absence and presence of 6-hydroxydopamine (1.6 mmol/l, for 10 or 20 min at pH 4.5) and subsequently incubated with 3H-noradrenaline (0.18 mumol/l for 30 min at pH 7.4). The principal metabolites formed were normetanephrine in rabbit pulp and deaminated catechols (dihydroxymandelic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol) in human pulp. In both tissues 6-hydroxydopamine strongly inhibited formation of the deaminated catechols, but was without effect on normetanephrine formation. It is concluded that: i) in vitro 6-hydroxydopamine does not influence the metabolic process which is dependent on extraneuronal uptake1, namely normetanephrine formation in rabbit dental pulp, and ii) the deaminated catechols are largely neuronal in origin in human pulp. Attention is drawn to an unusual feature of the neuronal metabolism in human pulp, namely the appearance of dihydroxymandelic acid as the principal metabolite.

Title Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Sexual Risk-taking Among Young Adults.
Date October 1994
Journal Journal of Substance Abuse
Excerpt

Recent studies based on small convenience samples of men and women have found the use of alcohol and other drugs to be associated with unprotected sexual intercourse that places women at elevated risk for sexually transmitted diseases and unintended pregnancy. An analysis of data from a representative sample of 12,069 younger adults indicates that the use of alcohol and other drugs is related to sexual risk-taking among both men and women after controlling for age, education, family income, and other variables.

Title Antisocial Behavior, Family History, and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms.
Date August 1994
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of young adults, this study examines the effects of antisocial behavior on alcohol dependence among young men and women in the United States. An analysis of the data from the study indicates that there are effects of antisocial behavior and that these effects cannot be attributed to a lower social class family of origin or to a positive family history of alcoholism. The analysis also indicates that the strongest effects are found among young adults with both antisocial behavior and a positive family history.

Title Presynaptic Control of Noradrenaline Release from Sympathetic Nerves in Human Dental Pulp.
Date June 1994
Journal Archives of Oral Biology
Excerpt

This study was undertaken to determine whether release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp in vitro was modulated by presynaptic adrenoceptors and by dopamine receptors. Pulp was incubated for 30 min with 3H-noradrenaline (0.6 mumol/l) and then perfused continuously with Krebs solution. Field stimulation of the sympathetic nerves at 5 Hz increased the overflow of 3H into the perfusate three-to fourfold. The stimulation-induced overflow of 3H was abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.1 mumol/l) and under Ca(2+)-free conditions, indicating that the increased 3H was derived from nerves. The stimulation-induced overflow was inhibited by noradrenaline (0.1 and 1.0 mumol/l), the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 (0.1 mumol/l), dopamine (1.0 mumol/l) and the dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine (1.0 mumol/l). When the receptor agonists were noradrenaline or dopamine, desipramine (0.3 or 3.0 mumol/l) was present to prevent their uptake by the sympathetic nerves. Clonidine (1.0 mumol/l; tested at 2 Hz as well as 5 Hz) and the alpha 1-receptor agonist methoxamine (1.0 mumol/l) were without effect. The alpha 2-receptor antagonist/rauwolscine (0.1 mumol/l) prevented the inhibitory effects of noradrenaline and UK14,304, but had little effect on the inhibition produced by dopamine. Inhibition of the stimulation-induced overflow by apomorphine was prevented by the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mumol/l). The resting overflow of 3H was unaffected by any of the above agents except dopamine, which caused a small increase. It is concluded that the sympathetic nerves in human dental pulp possess inhibitory presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors and dopamine receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Title Metabolism of [3h]-noradrenaline in Human Dental Pulp in Vitro.
Date June 1994
Journal Archives of Oral Biology
Excerpt

Slices of pulp from human maxillary and mandibular molar and promolar teeth were incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline (0.2 mumol/l) for 30 min after which the [3H]-noradrenaline and [3H]-metabolites in the tissue and medium were assayed by column chromatography. The deaminated metabolites 3,4-dihydroxy phenyl glycol (DOPEG) and 3,4-dihydroxy mandelic acid (DOMA) constituted 81% of the metabolites formed. Cocaine, an inhibitor of uptake1, decreased the formation of DOPEG and DOMA as well as the accumulation of [3H]-noradrenaline. In contrast to findings in rabbit pulp, when the disposition of exogenous noradrenaline in human pulp was examined by monoamine fluorescence histochemistry there was no evidence of extraneuronal accumulation of noradrenaline by connective tissue cells. In further experiments, pulp that had been incubated in [3H]-noradrenaline (0.6 mumol/l) for 30 min and superfused for 200 min contained [3H]-noradrenaline (183 pmol/g) and [3H]-DOMA (89 pmol/g). The 3H that overflowed into the perfusate between 85 and 90 min consisted mainly of metabolites. Stimulation of the sympathetic nerves through field electrodes increased the overflow of [3H]-noradrenaline into the perfusate threefold without affecting the overflow of metabolites. The increase was much greater (eightfold) in the presence of an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist (rauwolscine; 0.1 mumol/l), plus inhibitors of uptake1 (desipramine; 0.3 mumol/l) and uptake 2 (corticosterone; 10 mumol/l). The results are interpreted as evidence that in human dental pulp the disposition of exogenous noradrenaline is determined largely by uptake by sympathetic nerves. After uptake, noradrenaline is deaminated by intraneuronal monoamine oxidase to DOPEG and DOMA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Title Evidence for Uptake2-mediated O-methylation of Noradrenaline in the Human Amnion Fl Cell-line.
Date July 1993
Journal Naunyn-schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Excerpt

The uptake and metabolism of 3H-noradrenaline has been examined in the FL cell-line derived originally from human amnion. Cell cultures metabolised 3H-noradrenaline (1.0 mumol/l) to 3H-normetanephrine and, to a lesser extent, to metabolites (not distinguished) of the O-methylated deaminated fraction; primary deaminated metabolites were not detected. 3H-normetanephrine formation a) was not saturable in the noradrenaline concentration range 0.2-150 mumol/l, b) was decreased to 20%-30% of control levels by uptake2 inhibitors (O-methylisoprenaline, 20 and 100 mumol/l; cimetidine, 10 mumol/l; hydrocortisone, 200 mumol/l) and c), was almost insensitive to uptake1 inhibitors (cocaine, 30 mumol/l; desipramine, 3 mumol/l). Uptake of noradrenaline was manifested after 30 minutes as a 6-fold increase in the cell content of the amine following inhibition of catechol-O-methyl transferase, either alone or in conjunction with inhibition of monoamine oxidase. Uptake was decreased maximally to 40% of control levels by O-methylisoprenaline. IC50 values for inhibition of the O-methylisoprenaline-sensitive component of uptake were (in mumol/l): corticosterone (0.3), papaverine (1.1), O-methylisoprenaline (3.0), cimetidine (6.0), (-)noradrenaline (460), and tetraethylammonium (2230). Except for the last agent, for which a comparative value is not available, the IC50's are in good agreement with those for inhibition of uptake2 in the Caki-1 cell-line reported by other investigators. The component of uptake resistant to O-methylisoprenaline was depressed by papaverine (a 50% decrease at 50 mumol/l), but was not affected by the other uptake2 inhibitors or by cocaine (30 mumol/l).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Title Family History, Alcohol Use and Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults in the United States.
Date January 1993
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

Drawing upon data from the National Longitudinal Survey of young adults, this paper examines the effects of family history of alcoholism and current alcohol use by the young adults. A multivariate analysis of the data from the study indicates that there are both main and interaction effects of family history and current alcohol use on dependence symptoms among the young adults.

Title Radiographic Differential Diagnosis of Petrous Apex Lesions.
Date December 1992
Journal The American Journal of Otology
Excerpt

As a consequence of improved diagnostic imaging modalities, otologists have encountered a steadily increasing number of petrous apex lesions in recent years. Contemporary imaging techniques not only provide precise anatomic localization of the lesion, but also are able to suggest specific tissue diagnoses in the majority of cases. Computed tomography (CT), by virtue of its sensitivity and low false-positive rate, is the screening examination of choice in a patient suspected of having a petrous apex lesion. Once a lesion is identified, it is often necessary to obtain a combination of CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography is important in the detection of osseous erosion as well as in the evaluation of the extent of pneumatization and marrow formation. It also provides important details about potential surgical routes to this relatively inaccessible region. Magnetic resonance imaging provides information about the composition of the lesion that cannot be readily discerned on CT scans. In the great majority of cases, it is capable of differentiating between petrous apicitis, cholesterol granuloma, osteomyelitis, cholesteatoma, and neoplasms such as schwannoma, meningioma, chondroma, and chordoma. In the interpretation of MRI scans, a familiarity with the typical appearance of the lesions that affect the petrous apex on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced images is essential. A combination of MRI and CT scanning is also necessary to evaluate normal anatomic variations, such as giant air cells and asymmetric bone marrow, which may at times, on MRI alone, simulate pathologic conditions.

Title Extraneuronal Uptake of Noradrenaline in Rabbit Dental Pulp: Evidence of Identity with Uptake1.
Date December 1992
Journal Naunyn-schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Excerpt

The extraneuronal removal and disposition of noradrenaline in rabbit dental pulp was examined in view of earlier evidence that the tissue possessed an extraneuronal uptake process resembling neuronal uptake1. Pulp, which had been depleted of sympathetic nerves by homolateral superior cervical ganglionectomy, was incubated in vitro with 3H-noradrenaline in low concentrations (0.025 or 0.18 mumol/l). When the metabolising enzymes (monoamine oxidase, catechol-O-methyl transferase) were active, 3H retention by the denervated pulp, as indicated by the 3H content after the tissue had been washed for 30 min following incubation with 3H-noradrenaline, was less than 3% of that of the innervated pulp. When the enzymes were inhibited, retention rose to approximately 30% of that of the innervated pulp. Analysis of the time course of the 3H efflux indicated that the 3H-noradrenaline in the denervated pulp had accumulated in a single compartment characterised by a t1/2 for efflux of several hours. Accumulation did not occur under Na(+)-free conditions, and was inhibited by desipramine (IC50 less than 0.03 mumol/l) and by substrates of neuronal uptake1. Mean IC50 values of the latter were very similar to those for inhibition of neuronal uptake1 and comprised (in mumol/l): (+)amphetamine (0.29), dopamine (0.31), tyramine (0.39), (-)noradrenaline (0.70), (-)adrenaline (1.50), 5-hydroxytryptamine (20) and bretylium (35). Uptake2 inhibitors were less active (O-methyl isoprenaline, IC50 = 60 mumol/l) than uptake1 inhibitors, or were without inhibitory effects at the concentrations tested (hydrocortisone, 210 mumol/l; 2-methoxy oestrone, 10 mumol/l).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Title Hyaluronan Synthesis by in Vitro Cultured Endolymphatic Sac Cells.
Date November 1992
Journal The American Journal of Otology
Excerpt

The endolymphatic sac (ELS) has been the subject of investigation for many years and yet its overall function remains unclear. It is believed mainly to be involved in the regulation of endolymph through fluid resorption and secretion of osmotically active substances. The present study was performed using in vitro cultured, fetal ELSs of 18 to 19 day gestational mice, to assess whether the ELS cells can synthesize the osmotically active polysaccharide, hyaluronan (HA). The ELS and portions of the membranous labyrinth were dissected from whole otocyst specimens and placed in 14C glucose-enhanced tissue culture media. A light microscopic (LM), autoradiographic study was performed to assess whether 14C glucose could be incorporated by the tissue into HA. Both the ELS cells and the adjacent cartilage demonstrated radiolabel incorporation within 4 hours of incubation in tissue culture medium, with increased radiolabel density in ELS cells after 24 hours of incubation. HA-specific hyaluronidase (HAase) resulted in removal of HAase-sensitive compounds in the ELS in both 4-hour and 24-hour cultured specimens when compared to adjacent cartilage cells (p = 0.001). Approximately 43 percent of the radiolabel was incorporated into HA in ELS specimens, as compared to a 22 percent HA synthesis in the adjacent cartilage tissue, suggesting preferential synthesis by ELS cells. The dissected murine otocysts demonstrate viability in vitro as measured by their ability to incorporate 14C glucose from tissue culture medium. Under these conditions the cultured ELS demonstrates an ability to synthesize HA. A theory of ELS function is proposed.

Title Changes in Hyaluronan Synthesis by in Vitro Cultured Endolymphatic Sac Cells.
Date November 1992
Journal The American Journal of Otology
Excerpt

The endolymphatic sac (ELS) has been implicated in the maintenance of endolymph volume and pressure in the membranous labyrinth through fluid resorption and secretion of osmotically active substances, known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To assess whether the ELS cells synthesize the GAG, hyaluronan (HA), and to further elucidate the secretory function of the ELS, a series of experiments were carried out on in vitro tissue-cultured, fetal murine ELSs. In phase 1 of the investigation, the ELSs that were attached to a small portion of the posterior labyrinth, were resected from whole otocyst specimens and studied in tissue culture. This model was chosen to determine whether a change in endolymph homeostasis affects ELS activity. Radiolabeled 14C glucose incorporation was used to evaluate HA synthesis by ELS cells when cultured in vitro. Approximately 43 percent of the incorporated 14C glucose radiolabel was digested by Streptomyces hyaluronidase (an HA-specific hyaluronidase), suggesting HA synthesis by sac cells. In phase 2 of our experiments, the ELSs were not resected from the otocysts. Instead, they were left attached to intact membranous labyrinths, and whole otocysts were cultured. Studies analogous to those of phase 1, assessing the ability of the ELS cells to incorporate 14C glucose into HA, were performed on these specimens. Streptomyces hyaluronidase treatment of these ELS specimens resulted in a reduction in the removal of radiolabel. Therefore, the ELS cells of intact otocysts incorporated less 14C glucose into HA when compared to the ELS cells of the resected specimens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Title Distribution of Extraneuronal Uptake1 in Reproductive Tissues: Studies on Cells in Culture.
Date July 1992
Journal Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum
Excerpt

Cultures of stromal cells from pregnant mouse uterus, and an FL cell line derived from human amnion, displayed significant capacities to O-methylate noradrenaline. O-methylation was inhibited in the stromal cells by uptake1-inhibitors, and in the FL cell line by uptake2 inhibitors. These findings are discussed in terms of the distribution and possible functional importance of catecholamine metabolising systems in the female reproductive system.

Title Alcohol Use and Dependence Among Employed Men and Women in the United States in 1988.
Date June 1992
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

This paper provides estimates of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence among employed men and women in the United States. Data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey indicate that the percentages of drinkers in white-collar occupations are higher than the percentages of drinkers in blue-collar occupations among both men and women; however, the men and women in blue-collar occupations who drink have a higher average daily consumption than drinkers in white-collar occupations. DSM-III-R criteria were used to classify respondents as alcohol-dependent. Consistent with an earlier survey of employed adults in Detroit, the prevalence of alcohol dependence is highest in certain blue-collar occupations (craftsmen, laborers, and service workers among men; machine operators, laborers, and service workers among women). Directions for further research on the occupational and drinking experiences of employed men and women are discussed.

Title Gender-role Attitudes, Job Competition and Alcohol Consumption Among Women and Men.
Date June 1992
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

Attempting to account for greater alcohol consumption among women, social scientists have argued that traditional gender roles and gender-role attitudes concerning the division of labor in the family have provided women with a moral or cultural protection against heavier drinking but that the "breakdown" of this protection has allowed for greater alcohol use. This paper assesses the breakdown argument using data from two representative samples: a sample of 12,069 young adults in the United States and a sample of 1,367 employed men and women in metropolitan Detroit. Our analysis indicates that among young women the nontraditional role of employment and nontraditional gender-role attitudes concerning responsibilities for household labor and child care are associated with greater alcohol consumption. However, among the employed, our analysis indicates that it is not nontraditional women and traditional men but rather traditional women and nontraditional men who have greater alcohol use--it is the women and men who believe that they have substantial obligations at home and who have intense competition at the workplace that consume a greater quantity of alcohol.

Title Hyaluronan Synthesis in the Adult Guinea Pig Endolymphatic Sac.
Date March 1992
Journal The Laryngoscope
Excerpt

The endolymphatic sac is believed to play a major role in membranous labyrinth homeostasis by controlling the volume of endolymph, removing debris, and participating in the immune response of the inner ear. The endolymphatic sac is postulated to absorb endolymph and to synthesize and secrete high-molecular-weight and osmotically active glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The present study examines the ability of in vitro adult guinea pig endolymphatic sac cells to synthesize complex proteins and polysaccharides. The intent is to characterize the nature of these compounds by studying carbon-14 (14C) glucose incorporation in tissue cultured endolymphatic sac specimens using autoradiographic and specific enzymatic digestion techniques. Our results suggest that sac cells can synthesize GAGs and proteins in vitro in proportionately larger amounts than surrounding connective tissue and dura. The principal GAG synthesized by the endolymphatic sac appears to be hyaluronan.

Title Specifying the Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Cognitive Loss: the Effects of Frequency of Consumption and Psychological Distress.
Date September 1991
Journal Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Excerpt

Previous research has found a relationship between increased quantity of alcohol usually consumed per drinking occasion and decreased sober cognitive performance. It has been suggested that the effects of quantity of alcohol consumed may be conditional upon the frequency of alcohol use and that decreased performance in social drinkers may be a consequence of psychological distress (i.e., anxiety and depression). An analysis of data from a representative sample of employed men and women in metropolitan Detroit indicates that the relation between quantity of alcohol consumed per occasion and abstraction performance is conditional upon the frequency of alcohol use but that the relationship cannot be accounted for by psychological distress.

Title Measurement of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Using Gated 99mtc-sestamibi Myocardial Planar Images: Comparison to Contrast Ventriculography.
Date August 1991
Journal Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal
Excerpt

Using the new myocardial perfusion agent 99mTc-sestamibi and multigated acquisition on a nuclear medicine gamma camera, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was derived in 13 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Cross-sectional activity profiles were used to measure the left ventricle from end-diastolic and end-systolic images. Several different geometric methods were then utilized to derive ejection fractions from the nuclear data. Comparison of the resultant ejection fractions to those obtained from contrast ventriculography showed significant correlation for all geometric methods (P less than 0.01, Sy X x = 6.2 to 9.6). We conclude that in patients with CAD one or more of these simple geometric methods can provide a useful estimate of the LVEF when performing 99mTc-sestamibi multigated myocardial perfusion imaging.

Title Alcoholic Beverage Type, Recall Period Effects and Functional Disability: Evidence from the 1983 Nhis.
Date July 1990
Journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Excerpt

To replicate a Canada Health Survey (CHS) study that found beer drinking was associated with lower morbidity, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 19,462 persons were used to examine associations between functional disability and beverage specific ethanol consumption. A functional disability index consisting of morbidity and symptom coping events reported for 2 weeks prior to the NHIS interview was constructed. Alcohol consumption was reported for the same period as disability (coincident recall), or for the 2 weeks prior to the respondent's last drink during the past year (antecedent recall). The analysis controlled for confounders using direct standardization and multiple logistic regression. The results of this investigation were not consistent with the CHS study. Former drinkers and antecedent recall drinkers reported greater disability rates than either non-drinkers or coincident recall drinkers. Antecedent recall drinkers exhibiting a preference for beer and wine were, respectively, 40 and 80 percent more likely to be disabled than non-drinkers. Further, this study found no evidence of a protective effect among any subgroup of drinkers. The finding of a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and alcohol recall period suggests that epidemiologic studies should give greater attention to the classification of drinker groups by proximity of alcohol consumption.

Title Inhibition by Cocaine of Noradrenaline Release from Sympathetic Nerves in the Rabbit Ear Artery.
Date March 1990
Journal Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Excerpt

1. Effects of cocaine on release of noradrenaline (NA) from sympathetic nerves were studied in the isolated perfused central artery of the rabbit ear. Indices of release were the vasoconstrictor response to nerve stimulation and stimulation-induced overflow of radioactivity after the nerves had been loaded with [3H]-NA. The overflow studies were carried out on phenoxybenzamine-treated arteries to eliminate the effect of cocaine on neuronal uptake. 2. Cocaine enhanced the constrictor responses of the artery to stimulation in concentrations of 3 and 30 mumols/l, but in higher concentrations (tested up to 300 mumols/l) the enhancement declined and was replaced by inhibition. Responses to extraluminal NA remained enhanced throughout the concentration range (tested up to 150 mumols/l). 3. In contrast, cocaine depressed the overflow of radioactivity, the effect being detectable in a concentration of 3 mumols/l (a decrease of 15%); the decrease was 40% at the highest concentration tested (90 mumols/l). 4. It is suggested that when assessed in terms of the vasoconstrictor response, inhibition of transmitter release by cocaine is masked by inhibition of neuronal uptake except in high concentrations of cocaine.

Title Attitudes of Victorian Dentists to Removable Partial Denture Prosthodontics: Treatment Planning.
Date March 1990
Journal Australian Dental Journal
Excerpt

A survey of the attitudes of dentists in Victoria to various aspects of the treatment planning phase of removable partial denture prosthodontics was undertaken. Data were analysed and compared with those obtained from an identical study in South Australia. Those Victorian dentists who graduated in the 1960s, those who worked in multiple-practitioner practices, or non-rural areas, and those who had an added interest in removable prosthodontics were more likely to stress the importance of a greater number of attributes than those who graduated in the 1950s or 1970s, or those who worked alone, in rural areas, or had no particular interest in the discipline. Results indicated also that Victorian dentists tended to place greater emphasis on many of the concepts embraced by the questions asked than their interstate colleagues. It is suggested that, in addition to formal education, intraprofessional relationships and interest in a discipline are factors which might influence the concepts and attitudes of general practitioners.

Title Investigation of Laryngeal Pathology: a Review of Diagnostic Techniques.
Date April 1989
Journal Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences
Title Localized Middle Ear Effusions: Three Unusual Acute Cases in Adults.
Date April 1989
Journal The Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Excerpt

Three cases of acute, non-suppurative otitis media in adults are described. They are unusual in that the effusion was confined to the upper middle ear, whilst the lower middle ear was aerated. The aetiology of such localized effusions, is probably related to the anatomy of the middle ear compartments, the mucosal folds forming them and the apertures allowing communication between them. The compartments are relatively constant and are a result of the embryological development of the middle ear. The localization of these effusions, demonstrates the segmental anatomy of the middle ear.

Title Alcohol-related Problems, Marital Disruption and Depressive Symptoms Among Adult Children of Alcohol Abusers in the United States.
Date November 1988
Journal Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Excerpt

Dependent problem drinking, marital disruption and depressive symptoms of sons and daughters of alcohol abusers are examined in a representative sample of 1,772 adults in the United States. Controlling for the sociodemographic characteristics of the adult sons and daughters in logistic regression analyses and for the alcohol-related problems (e.g., alcohol dependence) of the sons and daughters in the analyses of marital disruption and depressive symptoms, the results suggest that having parents who have been alcohol abusers places sons at risk for dependent problem drinking, both sons and daughters at risk for divorce or separation and daughters at risk for depressive symptomatology.

Title Alcohol Use and Depression Symptoms Among Female Nursing Students.
Date September 1988
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

A sample of 286 female nursing students responded to questions concerning drinking practices and symptoms of depression. After controlling for the possibly confounding effects of nursing student experiences (aspects of burnout such as depersonalization and social isolation) and the sociodemographic characteristics of the students, increased quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion was found to be associated with increased symptoms of depression in the sober state.

Title Pectoralis Major Flaps: Functional Aspects of the Repair of Oral and Oropharyngeal Resections.
Date September 1988
Journal The Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Excerpt

The use of pectoralis major flaps for reconstruction after oral and oropharyngeal resection in a series of seventeen patients is reported. The applications and complications are described. A post-operative assessment of speech, chewing and swallowing in ten of the patients is reported. The functional aspects of such surgery are discussed.

Title The Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Among Employed Men and Women.
Date June 1988
Journal Recent Developments in Alcoholism : an Official Publication of the American Medical Society on Alcoholism, the Research Society on Alcoholism, and the National Council on Alcoholism
Excerpt

This chapter examines the relationships between the workplace and the use and abuse of alcohol and discusses some methodological problems in studies that assess these relationships. In an analysis of data from a representative sample of employed men and women in metropolitan Detroit, we find that pressures of the job (job competition and time pressures) are related to the use of alcohol and that job pressures, less complex work with data, people, and things, and feelings of job stress are related to the abuse of alcohol. As we interpret the findings, alcohol is consumed as a means of coping with a stressful work environment whether that consumption is for tension reduction or for self-stimulation. Several alternative interpretations of the findings are addressed with other data from the Detroit study, and we suggest directions for further research on the working and drinking experiences of employed men and women.

Title A Survey of Removable Partial Denture Prosthodontics: Attitudes of Dentists to Treatment Planning.
Date March 1988
Journal Australian Dental Journal
Title An Endoscopic Silastic Keel for Anterior Glottic Webs.
Date January 1988
Journal The Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Excerpt

The use of a specially designed silastic keel endoscopically inserted into the larynx to prevent restenosis after division of anterior commisure webs of the larynx is described. The treatment of such webs is discussed.

Title Cocaine Inhibits Extraneuronal O-methylation of Exogenous Norepinephrine in Nasal and Oral Tissues of the Rabbit.
Date December 1987
Journal Life Sciences
Excerpt

Nasal mucosa (respiratory and olfactory) and lingual gingiva of the rabbit were depleted of their sympathetic nerves by superior cervical ganglionectomy. In the innervated nasal mucosa, exogenous tritiated norepinephrine (3H-NE) was metabolised mainly to tritiated 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol (3HDOPEG) and 3,4-dihydroxy mandelic acid (3HDOMA), whereas after denervation it was metabolised mainly to tritiated normetanephrine (3HNMN). In the denervated mucosa, cocaine (30 umol/1) inhibited 3HNMN formation by 50-60%. Cocaine also inhibited 3HNMN formation by 60% in the denervated lingual gingiva. It is concluded that the tissues metabolise 3H-NE via a cocaine-sensitive extraneuronal uptake and O-methylating system similar to that which has been shown to be present in dental pulp.

Title Intoxication and Self-orientations During Alcohol Use: an Empirical Assessment of the Relationship and of Its Determinants Among Employed Men and Women.
Date November 1987
Journal Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Excerpt

Analysis of data from a survey of employed adults in Detroit indicates that frequency of intoxication is associated with a masculine self-orientation among men and a feminine self-orientation among women during alcohol use. The study calls attention to the importance of fathers' drinking, life events, social class relations and a generalized alienation from self, work and society for understanding frequency of intoxication and masculine and feminine orientations during alcohol use. A path analysis suggests that the men and women who become intoxicated may regain a sense of self and relationships to others that they do not have in sober everyday life. Implications for future research on heavy drinking and self-orientations during alcohol use are discussed.

Title Alcohol-related Problems of Children of Heavy-drinking Parents.
Date November 1987
Journal Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Excerpt

Alcohol-related problems that are experienced by sons and daughters of heavy-drinking parents (either father or mother) are examined using data from a 1978 household sample of employed adults in metropolitan Detroit. Adult children with heavy-drinking parents were found to have a higher percentage of dependent problem drinking than those without heavy-drinking parents. Also, adult children with low status (blue-collar) occupations were found to have a higher percentage of dependent problem drinking than those with high status (white-collar) occupations. Although it was not possible to disentangle the genetic processes from the social processes in this study, the results support the hypothesis that having both heavy-drinking parents and low occupational status places sons and daughters at elevated risk for alcohol-related problems. Implications for future epidemiological studies are discussed.

Title Role of Sympathetic Nerves in the Metabolism of Exogenous Noradrenaline in Rabbit Gingival Tissue and Ear Artery.
Date July 1987
Journal The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science
Excerpt

Uptake and metabolism of 3H-noradrenaline 0.18 mumol/l was examined in rabbit gingival slices and ear artery segments. The tissues were incubated with the 3H-amine for 30 min. The artery accumulated approximately ten times more of the 3H-amine and generated four times more 3H-metabolites than the gingiva. In both tissues, chronic sympathetic denervation resulted in marked decreases in 3H-noradrenaline accumulation and deamination. An inhibitor of sympathetic neuronal uptake, cocaine 30 mumol/l, strongly inhibited the firmly-bound component of 3H-noradrenaline accumulation by the tissues and strongly decreased the accumulation of deaminated metabolites in the incubating medium. It is concluded that the sympathetic nerve terminals play an important role in the accumulation and deamination of noradrenaline in the gingiva and in the artery. Chronic sympathetic denervation resulted in increased 3H-normetanephrine (NMN) formation by the gingiva and the artery, indicating that in both tissues the noradrenaline was O-methylated at sites extraneuronal to the sympathetic nerves. Differences between the effects of cocaine in the gingiva and artery, with respect to 3H-NMN accumulation in the incubating medium, are interpreted as evidence that in the gingiva, but not in the artery, cocaine inhibits extraneuronal O-methylation, as well as neuronal uptake, of noradrenaline.

Title Alcohol Use and Depression Symptoms Among Employed Men and Women.
Date May 1987
Journal American Journal of Public Health
Excerpt

A representative sample of 1,367 employed men and women in Detroit responded to questions about drinking practices and symptoms of depression. After controlling for age, education, family income, marital status, medication use, fathers' drinking, and other variables, increased quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion was associated with increased depression symptoms in the sober state among men and women. Depression symptoms may be one of a group of not fully identified drug after-effect disorders involving psychological functioning.

Title Cocaine-sensitive O-methylation of Noradrenaline in Dental Pulp of the Rabbit: Comparison with the Rabbit Ear Artery.
Date May 1987
Journal Naunyn-schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Excerpt

Incisor pulp from the rabbit metabolises exogenous noradrenaline in concentrations between 0.12 and 1.2 mumol/l mainly to NMN. Effects of chronic sympathetic denervation indicated that in incisor pulp the NMN is extraneuronal in origin, and that DOPEG and DOMA formation, as well as a major part of the noradrenaline which accumulates in the tissue, are associated with the sympathetic nerves. NMN formation was unaffected by hydrocortisone 210 mumol/l, but was strongly inhibited by cocaine 30 mumol/l. These effects contrasted with those in the rabbit ear artery, where NMN formation was increased by cocaine 30 mumol/l and decreased by hydrocortisone 210 mumol/l. In COMT-inhibited denervated pulp, cocaine inhibited the accumulation of noradrenaline. Monoamine fluorescence histochemistry of pulp exposed to noradrenaline 50 mumol/l indicated that cocaine-sensitive uptake occurred in fibroblasts. It is concluded that O-methylation of noradrenaline in dental pulp involves prior uptake of the amine by a process resembling uptake1 but which is distinguished from uptake1 by its extraneuronal location.

Title Catecholamine Contents of Rabbit Gingiva and Dental Pulp.
Date May 1987
Journal The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science
Excerpt

The contents of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) in rabbit gingiva and dental pulp were approximately 15-fold greater than either adrenaline (A) or dopamine (DA). Whereas catecholamine contents of maxillary incisor pulps were similar to those in mandibular incisor pulps, variations existed between gingiva excised from different regions. Both reserpine pretreatment and chronic sympathetic denervation greatly decreased the NA contents. These findings support the view that NA is the sympathetic neurotransmitter in dental pulp and gingiva.

Title Syrup Formulations for Post-tonsillectomy Analgesia: a Double-blind Study Comparing Ibuprofen, Aspirin and Placebo.
Date October 1986
Journal The Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Excerpt

Post-tonsillectomy analgesia from ibuprofen, aspirin and placebo is compared in a double-blind study. The results are reported showing ibuprofen to have greater therapeutic benefit than placebo whereas aspirin did not. Methods of providing pain relief after tonsillectomy and the relative clinical merits of ibuprofen and aspirin are discussed.

Title Subluxation of the Atlanto-axial Joint.
Date November 1985
Journal The British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Excerpt

A case of post operative atlanto-axial dislocation is presented which was diagnosed on CT scan although the clinical signs and symptoms should have suggested the diagnosis. It is recommended that all patients who present with torticollis in the early post operative period should be considered to have C1-C2 dislocation and an orthopaedic opinion should be sought.

Title Effect of Prazosin on the Efflux of 3h-norepinephrine and Metabolites from the Intima and Adventitia of the Rabbit Ear Artery.
Date May 1985
Journal Blood Vessels
Excerpt

The spontaneous and stimulation-induced (SI) effluxes of 3H-norepinephrine (3H-NE) and its metabolites from the intimal and adventitial surfaces of perfused segments of rabbit ear arteries were determined; vessels were previously incubated with 3H-NE (0.6 microM). The total SI adventitial efflux of 3H was approximately 10-fold greater than the intimal efflux, contained a higher percentage of unchanged 3H-NE (48 vs. 12%) and a lower percentage of O-methylated metabolites (17 vs. 55%); there was little difference between the percentages of deaminated catechols (35 vs. 31%). Prazosin, at a concentration (0.24 microM) which prevented the arteries constricting during stimulation, had little effect on the composition of the SI effluxes; however, it caused 2- to 3-fold increases in the effluxes of 3H-NE and its metabolites into the lumen during the period of stimulation. This effect is attributed to the failure of the vessel wall to thicken during stimulation, thus facilitating diffusion of 3H-NE and its intraneuronally formed metabolites across the media. Prazosin decreased the percentage of unchanged 3H-NE and increased that of the deaminated catechols in the spontaneous efflux; these effects are attributed to a direct effect of prazosin on the intra-neuronal metabolism of 3H-NE.

Title The Impact of Fathers' Drinking on Cognitive Loss Among Social Drinkers.
Date April 1985
Journal Recent Developments in Alcoholism : an Official Publication of the American Medical Society on Alcoholism, the Research Society on Alcoholism, and the National Council on Alcoholism
Excerpt

This chapter examines cognitive loss in social drinkers. The question of concern is whether the relationship between increased levels of alcohol consumption and reduced sober cognitive performance is misspecified. In particular, does reduced abstraction performance in social drinkers result from parental heavy drinking rather than, as we have proposed, from social drinkers' current use of alcohol. Because offspring of alcoholics may be at high risk for cognitive deficits even in childhood, these deficits may be transmitted in alcoholic families. Thus, the relationship between increased drinking and sober cognitive loss might be eliminated if parental drinking is controlled. We report here, however, that the effects of current alcohol use on abstraction performance in a representative sample of employed men and women cannot be accounted for by fathers' drinking. Our findings indicate the need for further research on both the cognitive effects of parental drinking and current alcohol use.

Title The Use of Indicators of Financial Resources in the Health Sector.
Date March 1985
Journal World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel De Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales
Title Post-traumatic Stress: Study of Police Officers Involved in Shootings.
Date November 1984
Journal Psychological Reports
Title The Political and Administrative Context of Primary Health Care in the Third World.
Date June 1984
Journal Social Science & Medicine (1982)
Excerpt

Despite increasing knowledge about technical aspects of Primary Health Care (PHC), there has been as yet only limited research into political and administrative influences on the effectiveness of PHC programs. A three-stage model of the policy process is developed as a framework for organizing the relationships between elements of (1) the national political setting and PHC policy formulation; (2) the implementing agency and program administration; and (3) the community setting and service delivery. Drawing upon the literature on PHC and related programs, hypotheses are proposed for each of these stages as a basis for future study and practical application. Possible output indicators are suggested for each stage of the model. Several basic methodological issues must be addressed in the design of empirical research on political-administrative factors, including variable selection, identification of data sources, and choice of analytical approach. It is hoped that this review will encourage more systematic investigation in this area.

Title Alcohol Problems Among Employed Men and Women in Metropolitan Detroit.
Date February 1984
Journal Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Excerpt

A survey of employed adults in metropolitan Detroit showed that more men than women had alcohol problems but this was largely attributable to the higher percentage of alcohol-dependent drinkers among men. There was little difference between the percentages of men and women who could be identified as nondependent problem drinkers.

Title Alcohol Use and Cognitive Loss Among Employed Men and Women.
Date May 1983
Journal American Journal of Public Health
Excerpt

A representative sample of 1,367 employed men and women in Detroit responded to questions about their drinking practices and then completed a cognitive test which measures abstraction abilities. Abstraction, tested while respondents were sober, decreased significantly as reported quantity of alcohol usually consumed per drinking occasion increased. (Am J Public Health 1983; 73:521-526.)

Title Cognitive Patterns Resembling Premature Aging in Male Social Drinkers.
Date June 1982
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Title Ethnicity, Distilled Spirits Consumption and Mortality in Pennsylvania.
Date February 1982
Journal Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Title Status and Status Inconsistency of Parents on Alcohol Consumption of Teenage Children.
Date June 1981
Journal The International Journal of the Addictions
Excerpt

In a secondary analysis of data obtained from a national probability sample of junior and senior high school students, two hypotheses derived from previous research were tested. Significant support was found for the hypothesis that the educational and occupational status of working parents is inversely related to the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion by sons and daughters. The hypothesis that status inconsistency of working parents is positively associated with the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion by teenage children was found to be supported for sons only.

Title Sex Roles and Alcohol Consumption: a Research Note.
Date June 1980
Journal Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Title The Poverty of Health Data on the Aged in the 1980 Census.
Date April 1980
Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
Title Alcohol Problems and the Availability of Alcohol.
Date February 1980
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

This study assesses the statistical effects of the physical availability of alcohol as measured by the number of liquor store employees per 100,000 persons. Controlling for the effects of per capita income and urbanism, it is found that there are effects of physical availability on current tangible consequences but not on alcoholism rates or frequent heavy drinking.

Title Private Foundation Health Expenditures: a Survey Analysis.
Date January 1980
Journal Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Title Modification by Dipyrone (noramidopyrine Methanesulphonate) of Stone-induced Ureteric Hyperperistalsis in the Dog.
Date August 1979
Journal Urological Research
Excerpt

Implantation of a stone in the ureter of the dog by ureterotomy results in focal hyperperistalsis which is accentuated by administration of norepinephrine, and reduced by administration of phenoxybenzamine or isoproterenol. Administration of dipyrone reduces the hyperperistalsis, but this action does not appear to be that of either a beta-agonist of an alpha-antagonist.

Title The Prevention of Alcoholism: an Empirical Report on the Effects of Outlet Availability.
Date March 1979
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

Recent studies suggest that alcohol availability as measured by outlet rates is unrelated to per capita consumption or rates of alcoholism in the United States. Drawing from the same data bases, this article assesses the effects of outlet rates while controlling for the effects of per capita income, urbanism, and limitations by population on the number of sales outlets. The analysis discloses strong effects of outlet availability on per capita consumption and alcoholism rates in states that do not have restrictions on the number of outlets per unit of population.

Title The Distribution of Consumption Model of Prevention of Alcohol Problems. A Critical Assessment.
Date July 1978
Journal Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Excerpt

The conceptual framework and empirical basis of the distribution model are examined, and it is concluded that a more satisfactory model is required.

Title Status Inconsistency and Drinking Patterns Among Working Men and Women.
Date July 1978
Journal Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Excerpt

Previous research suggests that status inconsistents constitute a social category that is vulnerable to embarrassments and disappointments, since individuals who are of high status on one dimension and low status on another tend to respond to themselves in terms of the higher status, while other people tend to respond to them in terms of the lower one. This article extends this research to patterns of alcohol consumption and finds that status and status inconsistency are significantly associated with frequency of consumption and quantity consumed per occasion among certain groups of drinkers.

Title Endometrial Carcinoma of Prostatic Utricle with Osseous Metastases.
Date October 1976
Journal Urology
Excerpt

Endometrial carcinoma of the prostatic utricle is a rare pupillary prostatic tumor arising in the region of the prostatic urethra and verumontanum. Since the first description by Melicow and Pachter in 1967, 8 additional cases have been reported. This case is the tenth reported, and the first in which metastases to bone have been proved by biopsy. Transurethral resection of the tumor with postoperative radiation therapy to the prostatic region and metastases has resulted in clinical improvement. The importance of accurate diagnosis of this neoplasm is emphasized to avoid unnecessary delay in the appropriate choice of therapeutic modalities.

Title Electrolytic O-demethylation of Methoxycatecholamines.
Date September 1976
Journal The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science
Excerpt

Electrolysis of 3-methoxycatecholamines in physiological solutions resulted in the formation of the parent catecholamines and their oxidation products. Conversion occurred at the anode. Maximal catecholamine production occurred in the presence of ascorbic acid.

Title The Response to Oral Poliovaccine in Persons Aged 16-18 Years.
Date July 1976
Journal The Journal of Hygiene
Excerpt

Serum neutralizing antibodies to polioviruses were titrated in serum samples from 182 police cadets aged 16-18 years before and, in 168 of the cadets, 6 weeks after vaccination with a single dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV). Faecal excretion of poliovirus was also followed. Vaccination histories were obtained and confirmed whenever possible. Pre-vaccination antibody could not be detected against type 1 in 9-3% cadets, against type 2 in 2-7% and against type 3 in 7-7%. Absence of antibody to at least one virus type was found in 14-3% of the cadets. In 93 cadets in whom vaccination histories could be confirmed 40 had received only inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) previously; of these 23% lacked antibody to at least one virus type, and they had less intestinal immunity to a challenge dose of OPV than those previously given OPV. Only two of the cadets known to have had OPV were non-immune - both had received a single dose following full courses of IPV. However, cadets who had received OPV had their last dose of vaccine more recently (average 4-6 years) than those who had received only IPV (all 12 years or more). The serum antibody response to a single booster dose of OPV, and the faecal excretion of each type of virus after vaccination, showed an inverse relation to the corresponding pre-vaccination antibody concentration. A single dose of OPV did not reliably boost the immunity of those who possessed adequate immunity, and a failure to respond was also observed in a proportion of the cadets with no detectable antibody, mostly in the case of type 3 antibody and particularly if antibody to types 1 or 2 virus was also absent. No evidence was obtained that intestinal immunity could be expected in the absence of detectable circulating antibody. The reasons for the absence of a serological response to OPV in some subjects are discussed and consideration is given to the practical significance of the findings. It is suggested that reinforcement of polio immunity at school-leaving is important, particularly at the present time when many of those aged 16-18 years will have been vaccinated only with IPV. A single dose of OPV is not ideal for this purpose, not only because a small proportion of persons are liable to be left unprotected, but also because failure to produce a reliable boost in persons with adequate immunity at the time of vaccination gives rise to the possibility that they may become susceptible later in adult life.

Title Psychophysiology of Sociopathy: Electrocortical Measures.
Date March 1976
Journal Biological Psychology
Excerpt

The CNV, visual AEP and resting EEG were analyzed in sociopaths and controls matched for age and sex. Twenty-seven male sociopaths were selected by psychiatric interview and special rating scale, restricted to Shipley-Hartford IQs of 115-145 and separated into young (x = 20.5 yr) and older (x = 35.3 yr) age groups. Subjects participated in forewarned reaction-time tasks in which the imperative stimulus was either an innocuous or noxious tone that the subject escaped by pressing a response key. Sociopaths and controls did not differ in reaction time, vertex and occipital AEP amplitude or latency, and power spectral density of the EEG. Contrary to previous findings, there also were no significant differences between sociopaths and controls in overall CNV amplitude or topography. However, while most controls showed increased CNV amplitude in the noxious tone condition as compared to the innocuous tone condition, older sociopaths showed no change, or decreased amplitudes.

Title Plague: Rhodesia's First Recorded Outbreak.
Date October 1975
Journal The Central African Journal of Medicine
Title Varicocele and Renal Tumor on Right Side.
Date July 1975
Journal Urology
Title Histochemical Analysis of the Diffusion of Noradrenaline Across the Artery Wall.
Date July 1974
Journal The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science
Title Mouthguards in Australian Sport.
Date January 1973
Journal Australian Dental Journal
Title Response of the Lung to Six to 12 Hours of 100 Per Cent Oxygen Inhalation in Normal Man.
Date October 1970
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Title Congenital Asymmetry: Report of 10 Cases with Associated Developmental Abnormalities.
Date December 1969
Journal Pediatrics
Title Bioelectric Properties of the Tooth.
Date December 1969
Journal Journal of Dental Research
Title Clinical Trial of an Oral Adhesive Paste.
Date September 1968
Journal Australian Dental Journal
Title A Simplified Method for Preoperative Evaluation of Renal Tubular Function.
Date June 1968
Journal Annals of Surgery
Title First Example of Hepatocyte Transplantation to Alleviate Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency, Monitored by Nmr-based Metabonomics.
Date
Journal Bioanalysis
Excerpt

We demonstrate the effective use of NMR spectroscopic profiles of urine and plasma from the first successful use of hepatocyte transplantation as a bridge to auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation in a child antenatally diagnosed with severe ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. In this single-patient study, NMR profiles indicated that the disrupted urea cycle could be normalized by hepatocyte cell infusion and this was confirmed using orthogonal partial least-squares-based chemometrics. However, despite dietary manipulations and adminstration of ammonia scavengers, the desired reduction in plasma ammonia was not consistently achieved between sessions of hepatocyte transplantation due to episodes of sepsis. A subsequent liver transplant corrected the metabolic abnormalities. The use of metabolic profiling has been shown to be a promising method for evaluating the efficacy of cell infusions and has demonstrated the capability for the early detection of response to therapy in real time, an approach that may be of use in wider clinical settings.


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