Ophthalmologists
20 years of experience

Accepting new patients
University Area
Alaska Native Medical Center, Phs
4315 Diplomacy Dr
Anchorage, AK 99508
907-729-3970
Locations and availability (1)

Education ?

Medical School
Tulane University (1990)

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Academy of Ophthalmology

Publications & Research

Dr. Chamberlain has contributed to 28 publications.
Title Giant Cell Arteritis in Alaska Natives.
Date March 2009
Journal Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Excerpt

To investigate the incidence of biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis in the Native population of Alaska.

Title Corneal Perforation and Delayed Anterior Chamber Collapse from a Devil's Club Thorn.
Date September 2008
Journal Cornea
Excerpt

PURPOSE: To report the corneal perforation and delayed collapse of the anterior chamber caused by the thorn from a devil's club plant. METHODS: An 8-year-old Alaska Native girl was struck in the eye with the stalk and leaves of a devil's club plant. Although 3 thorns from the plant were found to be lodged superficially in the corneal stroma, 1 was deeply embedded to the level of Descemet's membrane. The thorn was surrounded by a stromal infiltrate. Four days after the injury, the patient suffered a sudden collapse of the anterior chamber after the deeply embedded thorn became dislodged. RESULTS: The corneal wound was sutured, and the patient had an uneventful postoperative course. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests that devil's club corneal injuries should be examined daily after the initial injury. The anterior chamber may suddenly collapse after a deeply embedded thorn becomes dislodged.

Title Effects of Dietary Amino Acid Balance on the Response of Dairy Cows to an Increase of Milking Frequency from Twice to Three Times Daily.
Date December 2003
Journal Journal of Dairy Science
Excerpt

An experiment was conducted to examine how the response of dairy cows to a change from twice to three times-daily milking is affected by deficiencies in the dietary supplies of three amino acids, His, Met, and Lys. Six cows were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 14-d periods. The three dietary treatments were: grass silage and a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal as the sole protein supplement; the same silage-cereal diet supplying similar amounts of metabolizable and rumen-undegradable protein but with additional amounts of His, Met, and Lys in the form of fish meal; and the fish meal diet with additional metabolizable energy in the form of an additional 2 kg/d of sugar beet pulp. Within each of these dietary treatments, the cows were milked twice and three times daily, making a total of six treatments. When cows were given the feather meal diet, even though dietary metabolizable energy was in considerable excess, a deficiency of specific amino acids prevented any increase in milk yield in response to increasing the frequency of milking from twice to three times daily. In contrast, when cows consumed a similar level of excess metabolizable energy and a similar level of rumen-undegradable protein for which the protein was of better amino acid balance (fish meal), the increased frequency of milking led to increased yield of milk and milk protein.

Title Effects of Amino Acid Nutrition on the Responses of Dairy Cows to Milking More Frequently with or Without Injection of Growth Hormone.
Date September 2003
Journal Journal of Dairy Science
Excerpt

The influence of amino acid nutrition on the response to milking more frequently, with or without injection of growth hormone, was examined in eight dairy cows in two 4 x 4 Latin squares with 28-d periods. The four treatments were a diet adequate in amino acids with or without injection of growth hormone and a diet inadequate in amino acids with or without injection of growth hormone. For all four treatments, during the last 14 d of each period, one half of the mammary gland was milked three times a day (3x), while the other half remained on twice-daily milking (2x). Both diets were based on grass silage given ad libitum and 4 kg/d of sugar beet pulp together with a supplement containing either fish meal (adequate diet) or feather meal (inadequate diet) as the only protein feeds. The diet containing feather meal is known to be deficient in His, Met, and Lys. On the fish meal diet, the cows responded positively to growth hormone and to milking more frequently and the responses to both treatments were additive. On the feather meal diet, however, even though injection of growth hormone increased the yield of milk protein by around 10%, milking more frequently did not affect milk production. It is concluded that milking more frequently has a weaker effect on the partitioning of amino acid use between body and udder than does growth hormone treatment.

Title Effects of Changes in Dietary Amino Acid Balance on Milk Yield and Mammary Function in Dairy Cows.
Date June 2003
Journal Journal of Dairy Science
Excerpt

Two experiments were conducted to determine whether longer-term deficiencies in the supply of limiting amino acids would be accompanied by a decline in mammary function (total DNA, cell proliferation rate and activities of key enzymes), and whether this would adversely affect the cow's ability to respond to a return to a nutritionally adequate diet. The first experiment was performed in early/mid lactation, and the second, using the same cows, was carried out in mid/late lactation. A control group of six cows were given a grass silage-cereal diet containing fish meal as the sole protein supplement (amino acid adequate) throughout the experiments, whereas another group of six cows in treatment received the control diet for 2 wk (lactation wk 5 and 6) and then were changed to a diet in which the fish meal was replaced by an equivalent amount of protein as feather meal (amino acid deficient) for 6 wk before returning to the fish meal diet for 4 wk (Experiment 1). After a rest period of 5 wk, the experimental procedure was repeated (Experiment 2). Although there was a fall in milk yield as lactation advanced, leading to lower milk yields in Experiment 2, the marked difference in milk yield between treatments was similar for the two stages of lactation (21% vs 16% in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively). In both experiments, the marked fall of milk yield in cows given the feather meal diet was completely recovered by a return to the fish meal diet. Despite the markedly lower milk yield with the amino acid-deficient diet, however, there was no clear evidence of corresponding changes in measurements of mammary function.

Title Responses of Milk Production to the Intravenous Infusion of Amino Acids in Dairy Cows Given Diets of Grass Silage and Cereal-based Supplements.
Date December 2001
Journal Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Excerpt

Three experiments were carried out to examine responses of milk production to the intravenous infusion of amino acids in dairy cows given diets of grass silage and supplements based on barley, with or without added soyabean meal and ranging in crude protein content from 16 to 19% in dry matter. Particular attention was given to histidine, administered alone or in combination with methionine, lysine and tryptophan. Responses of milk protein secretion to infusion of histidine were seen only when the diet contained a supplement of barley alone. When soyabean meal was included, there were no responses of milk production to infusion of any of the infused amino acids. Calculations suggested that, although histidine remained first-limiting when soya was included in the diet, any response to infusion of histidine was blocked by the rapidly emerging deficiency of another amino acid, probably leucine. The results confirm that, for diets based on grass silage and supplements of cereal only, histidine is first-limiting such that increases of milk protein secretion can be obtained in response to infusion of histidine alone. In assessing the practical significance of this finding, it should be remembered that greater responses in the yield of milk protein can probably be obtained by substituting 1 kg of soyabean meal for 1 kg of cereal, which is likely to be an easier and cheaper option.

Title Effects of Intravenous Infusion of Amino Acids and Glucose on the Yield and Concentration of Milk Protein in Dairy Cows.
Date August 2001
Journal The Journal of Dairy Research
Excerpt

To test the hypothesis that the availability of glucose or its precursors can influence the response of milk protein concentration to the intravenous infusion of amino acids, five cows were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design with period lengths of 7 d. The five treatments were the basal diet of grass silage ad lib. plus 5 kg/d of a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal (Basal); Basal plus 4 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (4H); Basal plus 8 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (SH); and these two amino acid mixtures together with 600 g/d of gluctose (4HG and 8HG respectively). Earlier experiments with this basal diet had shown that histidine was first-limiting for secretion of milk protein, followed by methionine and lysine. The yield of milk protein was increased progressively with the amount of histidine infused. The efficiency of transfer of histidine into milk protein was 0.42 for the 4H and 4HG and 0.35 for the 8H and 8HG treatments, and the concentration of milk protein was increased over Basal by all infusion treatments. However, milk protein concentrations were higher, and lactose concentrations in the milk were lower, in the absence of added glucose. Concentrations of insulin in blood plasma were not affected by treatment. It is concluded that, with the treatments without added glucose, a shortage of glucose prevented an increase in lactose secretion, and hence limited the increase in milk yield, leading to an increased concentration of protein in the milk.

Title Effects of Intra-abomasal Infusion of Beta-casomorphins on Circulating Concentrations of Hyperglycaemic Insulin and Glucose in Dairy Cows.
Date January 2001
Journal Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Excerpt

The effects of intra-abomasal infusion of a mixture of -casomorphins on circulating concentrations of insulin and glucose prestimulated by either abomasal (experiment 1) or intravenous (experiment 2) glucose were studied using non-lactating dairy cows. In both experiments, bolus infusion of 240 mg of a mixture of three beta-casomorphins (beta-casomorphin-4-amide, -5 and -7) was given via an abomasal infusion line. The beta-casomorphins significantly lowered the responses of serum insulin to both abomasal and intravenous glucose infusions (P<0.05). However, the beta-casomorphins did not significantly affect circulating glucose concentrations. The insulinopenic action of the beta-casomorphins is consistent with the action of somatostatin-28 (SS-28) as judged from the effects of SS-28 on the insulin secretion when administered intravenously in experiment 1.

Title The Lactational Responses of Dairy Cows to Amount of Feed and to the Source of Carbohydrate Energy.
Date September 1996
Journal Journal of Dairy Science
Excerpt

An experiment was designed to test whether responses to variation in plane of nutrition conformed to a linear model or to a diminishing response curve model and to examine the influence of type of energy-yielding nutrient used in the ration on the response. Lactating Friesian cows (n = 18; mean, 126 DIM) were used in a Latin square experiment with three 4-wk periods. Diets consisted of hay and concentrates 40:60 (wt/wt, DM basis). The concentrates were based on grain, sugar beet pulp, or an equal mixture of the two. Each cow was offered low, medium, or high amounts of feed within the Latin squares, and feed type was compared between squares. The high amount was sufficient to maintain current body state and predicted final milk yield. Medium and low amounts were set to 1.5 and 3.0 kg of DM/d lower than the high amount, respectively. The source of dietary energy did not affect performance or response to amount of feed. The amount of feed had a highly significant linear effect on milk yield. The time taken for responses to a change in amount of feed to stabilize was 1 wk; milk yield did not reach a plateau but declined at a constant rate for the remaining 3 wk of the period. The rate of decline was significantly affected by amount of feed.

Title Effects of Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate on the Concentrations of Ammonia and Insulin in Peripheral Blood of Cows Receiving an Intraruminal Infusion of Urea.
Date March 1996
Journal The Journal of Dairy Research
Excerpt

To test the hypothesis that propionate can reduce hepatic capacity to detoxify ammonia, effects of the inclusion of propionate in intraruminal infusions of urea on the concentrations of ammonia, other metabolites and insulin in peripheral blood were investigated in two experiments with non-lactating dairy cows. Both experiments were of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four animals, four treatments and four experimental periods of 7 d; feed was given in two equal meals each day, all intraruminal infusions were given for 1 h at the time of the morning feed, and propionic acid was partly neutralized with NaOH. In Expt 1, the treatments were a basal diet of pelleted lucerne and chopped hay alone or with the following infusions (g/d): urea 80, propionic acid 350, urea 80 plus propionic acid 350. The inclusion of propionate in the urea infusion markedly increased (P < 0.001) the concentration of ammonia in plasma compared with infusion of urea alone. Moreover, the inclusion of urea with the propionate infusion abolished (P < 0.01) the increase in blood insulin level seen with the infusion of propionate alone. In Expt 2, less severe treatments were imposed, the aim being to reproduce metabolic loads of propionate and ammonia that might be expected from a diet of high-protein grass silage rich in lactic acid. The treatments were a basal diet of grass silage alone or with the following infusions (g/d): NaCl 145, NaCl 145 plus urea 50, propionic acid 200, urea 50 plus propionic acid 200. Effects were less pronounced than in Expt 1 but, in the period immediately after infusion, similar effects were seen. It is concluded that propionate-ammonia interactions may have potentially important effects on milk production especially for diets with high proportions of grass silage containing high levels of protein and lactic acid.

Title Effects of Abomasal Infusions of Sodium Caseinate and of Casein Hydrolysates Varying in the Relative Proportions of Peptides and Free Amino Acids on Milk Production in Dairy Cows.
Date December 1995
Journal The Journal of Dairy Research
Excerpt

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that responses of milk production to the abomasal infusion of casein or hydrolysates of casein can be influenced by the proportion of peptide-bound amino acids in the infusate. Eight lactating cows were used in two Latin square experiments with period lengths of 10 d. In Expt 1, the four cows were at a late stage of lactation and the four treatments were a basal diet of silage and a barley-soya supplement alone or with infusions into the abomasum of 180 g/d of sodium caseinate, an enzymic hydrolysate of casein or an acid hydrolysate of casein; all treatments supplied equivalent amounts of all the amino acids, this being achieved by addition of free amino acids as required. As infused, the three treatments contained 89 (caseinate), 40 (enzymic hydrolysate) and 15 (acid hydrolysate) % of their amino acids as peptides. The increase of milk production in response to infusion was small and there were no significant differences between the infusion treatments. In Expt 2, the cows received a basal diet of grass silage and a supplement containing feather meal as the main source of protein. Treatments were the basal diet alone and with three infusion treatments as in Expt 1, except that the amount infused was 230 g/d. The response to infusion was greater in this experiment, there were significant differences between infusions and the yield of milk protein with the infusion treatments was linearly related (P = 0.001) to the proportion of peptide-bound amino acids in the infusate. Moreover, there was a close inverse relation (P = 0.007) between the proportion of peptide-bound amino acids in the infusate and the concentration of total peptide-bound amino acids in blood plasma.

Title Effects of Abomasal Infusions of Sodium Caseinate, a Hydrolysate of Casein or a Corresponding Mixture of Free Amino Acids on Milk Yield and Composition in Dairy Cows.
Date June 1995
Journal The Journal of Dairy Research
Excerpt

The effects of the form in which amino acids are presented to the abomasum on the milk production of dairy cows receiving a basal diet of grass silage and a barley-based supplement were examined in two experiments. Effects of abomasal infusions of sodium caseinate were compared with the effects of corresponding levels of either an enzymic hydrolysate of casein (Expt 1) or a corresponding mixture of free amino acids (FAA; Expt 2). In Expt 1, although the yield of protein in milk increased progressively with each level of infusion, the yields of protein were greater for the caseinate than for the hydrolysate. Again, in Expt 2, for milk protein yield, sodium caseinate was superior to FAA at the lower level of infusion. In both experiments, the hydrolysate and FAA treatments were associated with higher concentrations of fat in the milk. There were indications of differences in the pattern of secretion of glucagon between the caseinate and FAA treatments. It is concluded that the differences between treatments relate either to the kinetics of absorption of amino acid residues or to the action of bioactive peptides released during digestion of casein.

Title The Effects of Abomasal Infusions of Casein or Soya-bean-protein Isolate on the Milk Production of Dairy Cows in Mid-lactation.
Date April 1993
Journal The British Journal of Nutrition
Excerpt

The effects of abomasal infusion of casein or soya-bean-protein isolate (SPI) on milk production were investigated in four Friesian cows in mid-lactation receiving a basal diet of grass silage and barley which supplied energy and protein considerably in excess of requirements for milk production by conventional rationing standards. Three levels of infusion were used for each protein source, the corresponding doses being isonitrogenous for each of the proteins: 100, 220 and 330 g/d for casein and 115, 230 and 345 g/d for SPI. Casein produced much greater effects on the yield of milk and milk constituents than did SPI. On the highest dose of casein, milk yield was increased by 3.5 kg/d, fat output by 15% and protein output by 36%; corresponding values for the highest dose of SPI were 1.6 kg/d, 12% and 13% respectively. Increases in the yield of milk-protein were linear for casein but for SPI there was no increase beyond the first level of infusion. It was calculated that casein infusion had a marked effect on the utilization of energy: the increases in milk production could be explained either by a channelling of an extra 12 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/d away from body tissue synthesis and into milk synthesis or by an increase in the efficiency of utilization of ME for lactation from 0.50 on the basal diet to 0.58; the measurements made did not allow the two mechanisms to be clearly differentiated.

Title The Effects of Intraruminal Infusions of Urea on the Voluntary Intake and Milk Production of Cows Receiving Grass Silage Diets.
Date February 1991
Journal The Journal of Dairy Research
Excerpt

Responses of dairy cows given silage diets to the intraruminal infusion of urea in progressively increasing doses were studied in four experiments, two with non-lactating cows and two with lactating cows. No clinical symptoms of NH3 toxicity were observed in any of the experiments. When urea was infused continuously, silage intake was depressed (P less than 0.05) when the total supply of N exceeded the equivalent of 250 g crude protein (CP)/kg DM in the total diet. However, when the urea load was administered twice daily, as opposed to continuously, intake depression (P less than 0.05) occurred at the equivalent of 170 g CP/kg DM. At the higher doses of urea, concentrations of NH3 in peripheral blood increased and were accompanied by increased concentrations of glucose and reduced levels of insulin in plasma. In general, responses of milk production followed those of silage intake but there was evidence of greater proportional reductions in the yield of lactose relative to that of fat and protein. It is concluded that the voluntary intake of high-protein silages may be depressed by factors associated with high rates of absorption of NH3 from the rumen.

Title The Effect of Supplemental Methionine and Inorganic Sulphate on the Ruminal Digestion of Grass Silage in Sheep.
Date September 1983
Journal Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Title Effect of Intravenous Supplements of L-methionine on Milk Yield and Composition in Cows Given Silage-cereal Diets.
Date July 1982
Journal The Journal of Dairy Research
Excerpt

Eight cows in mid lactation and receiving a diet of perennial ryegrass silage and barley (70:30 on a DM basis) were given intravenous supplements of L-methionine (8 g/d). The methionine treatment had no significant effect on milk yield, protein content or lactose content, but increased milk fat content and yield by approximately 10% (P less than 0.05).

Title Silage.
Date January 1981
Journal The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Title The Nutritive Value of Silages. Digestion of Organic Matter, Gross Energy and Carbohydrate Constituents in the Rumen and Intestines of Sheep Receiving Diets of Grass Silage or Grass Silage and Barley.
Date December 1980
Journal The British Journal of Nutrition
Excerpt

1. Two experiments were conducted to study the digestion of organic matter, gross energy and carbohydrate constituents in the rumen, small intestine and caecum and colon of sheep given grass silage diets. Three silages made from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with formic acid as an additive were used. One was made from first-harvest grass in the spring and the others from regrowth grass cut from a single sward in either early autumn or late autumn. Expt 1 involved a comparison between the spring silage given alone or supplemented with barley (silage:barley, 4:1 dry matter (DM) basis). Expt 2 involved a comparison between the early-cut and late-cut autumn silages. 2. In Expt 1, supplementation of the silage with barley resulted in a non-significant (P > 0.05) reduction in the proportion of digestible energy (DE) and digestible organic matter digested in the rumen and an increase in the proportions digested in the small intestine. There were also pronounced effects of barley on ruminal cellulolysis and the proportion of digestible cellulose broken down in the rumen was reduced (P < 0.05) from 0.90 to 0.77. There was an increased passage of alpha-linked glucose polymers to the duodenum but even with the supplemented diet 0.91 of the dietary polymers were digested in the rumen. The molar proportion of propionic acid in the rumen tended to be reduced and there were increases in the proportions of butyric acid (P < 0.01) and acetic acid. 3. Expt 2, the digestibility of organic matter, gross energy and cellulose in the early-cut silage was higher (P < 0.01) than in the late-cut silage but there were no significant (P < 0.05) differences between silages in sites of digestion of these constituents. However, the molar proportion of acetic acid in the rumen was higher (P < 0.01) and the molar proportion of propionic acid was lower (P < 0.01) with the late-cut silage than the early-cut silage. 4. The results are discussed in relation to the voluntary intake and utilization of high-digestibility silages.

Title The Nutritive Value of Silages. Digestion of Nitrogenous Constituents in Sheep Receiving Diets of Grass Silage and Grass Silage and Barley.
Date December 1980
Journal The British Journal of Nutrition
Excerpt

1. Two experiments were conducted to study the digestion of nitrogenous constituents in the rumen, small intestine and caecum and colon of sheep given diets of grass silage or grass silage and barley. Three silages were used. One was made from first-harvest grass in the spring and the other from regrowth grass cut in either early autumn or late autumn. All were of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and were preserved with formic acid. 2. Expt 1 involved a comparison between the spring silage given alone (644 g dry matter (DM)/d) and the spring silage supplemented with barley (151 g DM/d). The intakes (g/d) of total nitrogen for the silage diet and for the supplemented diet were 14.89 and 17.36. Corresponding values (g/d) for N passage were 15.55 and 18.53 (P < 0.01) and the duodenum, 6.01 and 7.09 at the ileum and 5.06 and 5.52 in the faeces. The barley supplement had no significant (P < 0.05) effect on rumen ammonia-N concentration. 3. Expt 2 involved a comparison between the two autumn-cut silages each offered at a level of feeding of approximately 700 g DM/d. The intakes (g/d) of total N for the early-cut silage and for the late-cut silage were 21.67 and 15.62 respectively. Corresponding values (g/d) for N passage were 17.10 and 16.96 at the duodenum, 6.65 and 6.80 at the ileum and 4.5 and 5.22 in the faeces. The concentration of NH3-N in the rumen was significantly (P < 0.001) higher with the early-cut silage than with the late-cut silage. 4. In both experiments the rates of bacterial crude protein (N x 6.25) synthesis in the rumen, estimated using alpha, epsilon-diaminopimelic acid as a marker, were low, 142 and 161 g crude protein/kg organic matter apparently digested in the rumen for the spring silage and the spring silage and barley diets respectively, and 68 and 103 g crude protein/kg organic matter apparently digested in the rumen for the early-cut autumn silage and the late-cut autumn silage respectively. For all diets there was a relatively low contribution of bacterial crude protein to the duodenal passage of crude protein and the amounts of individual amino acids ingested in the diets had a marked influence on the amino acids passing to the duodenum and as a consequence on the mixture of amino acids taken up from the small intestine. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the nutritive value of silage N for ruminants.

Title The Effects of Urea and Artificial Saliva on Rumen Bacterial Protein Synthesis in Sheep Receiving a High-cereal Diet.
Date December 1980
Journal Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Title The Effect of Intraruminal Infusions of Propionic Acid on Milk Composition in Cows Given Silage Diets.
Date October 1980
Journal The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Title Rumen Fermentation Pattern and Protozoal Counts in Sheep Given Silage and Silage and Barley Diets.
Date October 1980
Journal The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Title The Effect of the Concentration and Type of Protein in the Diet on Milk Secretion and Nitrogen Retention in the Goat.
Date October 1980
Journal The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Title Prospective Laboratory Methods for Estimating the Susceptibility of Feed Proteins to Microbial Breakdown in the Rumen.
Date April 1980
Journal The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Title Ruminal Nitrogen Metabolism and the Passage of Amino Acids to the Duodenum in Sheep Receiving Diets Containing Hay and Concentrates in Various Proportions.
Date January 1980
Journal Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Title The Digestion of Dietary Protein and Synthesis of Bacterial Protein in the Rumen in Sheep Given Silages Prepared with the Addition of Formic Acid.
Date December 1978
Journal The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Title Efficiency of Bacterial Protein Synthesis in the Rumen of Sheep Receiving a Diet of Sugar Beet Pulp and Barley.
Date July 1976
Journal Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Title Proceedings: The Influence of the Composition of the Diet on the Digestion of Organic Matter and Nitrogen in Sheep Receiving Diets Containing Hay, Barley and Flaked Maize.
Date June 1975
Journal The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

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