13907 W Camino Del Sol
Ste 101
Sun City West, AZ 85375
Locations and availability (2)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
State University of New York at Buffalo
  • Currently 3 of 4 apples
Top 50%

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Urological Association

Affiliations ?

Dr. Kaplan is affiliated with 3 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations



  • John C Lincoln Hospital - Deer Valley
    19829 N 27th Ave, Phoenix, AZ 85027
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • West Valley Hospital Medical Center
    13677 W McDowell Rd, Goodyear, AZ 85395
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Arrowhead Community
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Kaplan has contributed to 16 publications.
    Title Cadmium Down-regulates Expression of Xiap at the Post-transcriptional Level in Prostate Cancer Cells Through an Nf-kappab-independent, Proteasome-mediated Mechanism.
    Date December 2010
    Journal Molecular Cancer

    Cadmium has been classified as a human carcinogen, affecting health through occupational and environmental exposure. Cadmium has a long biological half-life (>25 years), due to the flat kinetics of its excretion. The prostate is one of the organs with highest levels of cadmium accumulation. Importantly, patients with prostate cancer appear to have higher levels of cadmium both in the circulation and in prostatic tissues.

    Title Evaluation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in a High-risk Screening Population.
    Date March 2010
    Journal Bju International

    Study Type - Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b.

    Title Organo-iodine Formation in Soils and Aquifer Sediments at Ambient Concentrations.
    Date November 2009
    Journal Environmental Science & Technology

    One of the key risk drivers at radioactive waste disposal facilities is radioiodine, especially 129I. As iodine mobility varies greatly with iodine speciation, experiments with 129I-contaminated aquifer sediments from the Savannah River Site located in Aiken, SC, were carried out to test iodine interactions with soils and aquifer sediments. Using tracer 125I- and stable 127I- additions, it was shown that such interactions were highly dependent on I- concentrations added to sediment suspensions, contact time with the sediment, and organic carbon (OC) content, resulting in an empirical particle-water partition coefficient (Kd) that was an inverse power function of the added I- concentration. However, Kd values of organically bound 127I were 3 orders of magnitude higher than those determined after 1-2 weeks of tracer equilibration, approaching those of OC. Under ambient conditions, organo-iodine (OI) was a major fraction (67%) of the total iodine in the dissolved phase and by implication of the particulate phase. As the total concentration of amended I- increased, the fraction of detectable dissolved OI decreased. This trend, attributed to OC becoming the limiting factor in the aquifer sediment explains why at elevated I-concentrations OI is often not detected.

    Title Residual Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy: a Study of Radical Cystoprostatectomy Specimens.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Urology

    The incidence of histologic prostate cancer (CaP) after definitive radiation therapy (RT) for localized disease is rarely quantitated. We investigated the relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and histologically residual CaP after definitive RT in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) for unrelated indications.

    Title Arsenite Disrupts Mitosis and Induces Apoptosis in Sv40-transformed Human Skin Fibroblasts.
    Date May 2002
    Journal Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

    Chronic ingestion of arsenite-contaminated drinking water causes skin, bladder, and liver cancer. The mechanism of arsenite-induced carcinogenesis is unknown. Arsenite is known to disrupt mitosis and to delay transit through M phase in normal diploid fibroblasts. SV40-transformed human fibroblasts were observed to be hypersensitive to the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of NaAsO(2) compared with normal diploid fibroblasts in concentration-response experiments. Five to 20 microM NaAsO(2) induced cytostasis in cycling normal diploid fibroblasts but not overt lethality in quiescent normal diploid fibroblasts. High concentrations of arsenite were overtly lethal in both cycling and quiescent cells. The IC50 for cycling SV40-transformed fibroblasts was 3.8 and 4.8 microM for the SV40-transformed lines GM4429 and GM0637, respectively, whereas, in cycling normal diploid fibroblasts (GM0024), the IC50 was 24.7 microM. Microscopic examination of NaAsO(2)-treated SV40-transformed fibroblasts suggested a concentration-dependent accumulation of cells in mitosis undergoing apoptosis. Treatment of SV40-transformed fibroblasts with 0-10 microM NaAsO(2) caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, accumulation of cells having G2/M DNA contents, and increases in the mitotic index. Phase microscopy, annexin V binding, and electron microscopy demonstrated that arrested mitotic cells underwent apoptosis. These results indicate that SV40-transformation sensitizes cells to arsenite-induced mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis in the mitotic cells.

    Title Identification and Characterization of New Human Medium Reiteration Frequency Repeats.
    Date May 1993
    Journal Nucleic Acids Research

    We report nine new families of human medium reiteration frequency interspersed repetitive elements (MER elements). They were identified by computer-assisted analyses. Six of them were independently confirmed as repetitive families by DNA-DNA hybridization, and the number of elements for each of these families was estimated by plaque hybridization assay. The involvement of some of the reported MER elements in genetic rearrangements is demonstrated.

    Title Medium Reiteration Frequency Repetitive Sequences in the Human Genome.
    Date October 1991
    Journal Nucleic Acids Research

    Fourteen novel medium reiteration frequency (MER) families were found, in the human genome, by using two different methods. Repetition frequencies per haploid human genome were estimated for each of these families as well as for six previously described MER DNA families. By these measurements, the families were found to contain variable numbers of elements, ranging from 200 to 10,000 copies per haploid human genome.

    Title Novel Short Interspersed Repeat in Human Dna.
    Date April 1990
    Journal Nucleic Acids Research
    Title Sentinel Health Events Surveillance in Diabetes. Deaths Among Persons Under Age 45 with Diabetes.
    Date January 1989
    Journal Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

    The pilot study for a sentinel health events surveillance system for deaths among persons under age 45 with diabetes was conducted in six states in 1984 and 1985. Two hundred and thirty-three events were identified. Information from death certificates, physicians, and families revealed that 22% died from acute complications of diabetes and 53% from chronic complications. Blood pressure measurement and urinalysis testing had been performed in the last year for almost all of the decedents, but other preventive practices were reported less frequently. Hypertension was present in 57% and of those, was not controlled in 73%. Forty-four percent were cigarette smokers at the time of death. Agreement between physicians and families was generally higher for clinical conditions than for care practices. This surveillance system appears to yield information about the health care of persons with diabetes not readily available from other sources, although modifications may be necessary before implementation.

    Title Full Length Cdna Sequence for Bovine High Mobility Group 1 (hmg1) Protein.
    Date January 1989
    Journal Nucleic Acids Research
    Title Complete Sequence and Structure of the Gene for Human Adenosine Deaminase.
    Date April 1987
    Journal Biochemistry

    The nucleotide sequence of the human adenosine deaminase gene was determined. The gene was isolated in a series of overlapping lambda phage clones containing human germ line DNA. A total of 36,741 base pairs were sequenced, including 32,040 base pairs from the transcription initiation site to the polyadenylation site, 3935 base pairs of 5'-flanking DNA, and 766 base pairs of 3'-flanking DNA. The gene contains 12 exons separated by 11 introns. The exons range in size from 62 to 325 base pairs while the introns are 76-15 166 base pairs in size. The area sequenced contains 23 copies of Alu repetitive DNA and a single copy of an "O" family repeat. All but one of these repeat sequences are located in the first three introns or the 5'-flanking region. The apparent promoter region of the gene lacks the "TATA" and "CAAT" sequences often found in eucaryotic promoters and is extremely G/C rich. Contained within this region are areas homologous to other G/C-rich promoters, including six decanucleotide sequences that are highly homologous to sequences identified as functional binding sites for transcription factor Sp1.

    Title Reaction of the Antitumor Antibiotic Cc-1065 with Dna. Location of the Site of Thermally Induced Strand Breakage and Analysis of Dna Sequence Specificity.
    Date March 1986
    Journal Biochemistry

    CC-1065 is a unique antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces zelensis. The potent cytotoxic effects of this drug are thought to be due to its ability to form a covalent adduct with DNA through N3 of adenine. Thermal treatment of CC-1065-DNA adducts leads to DNA strand breakage. We have shown that the CC-1065 structural modification of DNA that leads to DNA strand breakage is related to the primary alkylation site on DNA. The thermally induced DNA strand breakage occurs between the deoxyribose at the adenine covalent binding site and the phosphate on the 3' side. No residual modification of DNA is detected on the opposite strand around the CC-1065 lesion. Using the early promoter element of SV40 DNA as a target, we have examined the DNA sequence specificity of CC-1065. A consensus sequence analysis of CC-1065 binding sites on DNA reveals two distinct classes of sequences for which CC-1065 is highly specific, i.e., 5'PuNTTA and 5'AAAAA. The orientation of the DNA sequence specificity relative to the covalent binding site provides a basis for predicting the polarity of drug binding in the minor groove. Stereo drawings of the CC-1065-DNA adduct are proposed that are predictive of features of the CC-1065-DNA adduct elucidated in this investigation.

    Title Variation in the Inhibition of Restriction Enzyme Cleavage of Lambda Phage Dna Produced by Two Covalent Binding Antitumor Agents: Anthramycin and Mitomycin C.
    Date March 1983
    Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
    Title Altered Physiochemical Properties of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid-mitomycin C Complex. Evidence for the Conformational Change in Deoxyribonucleic Acid.
    Date October 1982
    Journal Biochemistry

    Binding of the antibiotic mitomycin C to sonicated calf thymus DNA results in increased viscosity and an unaltered sedimentation constant of DNA. Flow dichroism measurements of the mitomycin C-DNA complex indicate that the 310-nm absorbance vector of the chromophore of the bound drug is oriented at approximately 57.2 degrees relative to the helix axis. A conclusion drawn from these results is that mitomycin C does not intercalate between base pairs, but rather, it is bound in one of the grooves. Binding of mitomycin C causes a number of changes which are DNA size dependent: (1) increased viscosity of sonicated, decreased viscosity of nonsonicate DNA; (2) unaltered sedimentation rate of sonicated, increased rate of nonsonicated DNA; (3) reduced electrophoretic mobility of nonsonicated DNA; (4) electron microscopic appearance of sonicated DNA-mitomycin complexes which is similar to that of control, while nonsonicated DNA complexes which display highly coiled, looped structures not seen in control nonsonicated DNA. These size-dependent effects are interpreted as indicative of conformational distortion of DNA at rare intervals, caused by a minor fraction of total bound mitomycin. The parallel used of sonicated and nonsonicated DNA as probes for certain effects of drug binding may be useful for detecting this type of phenomenon in general.

    Title Anthramycin Binding to Deoxyribonucleic Acid-mitomycin C Complexes. Evidence for Drug-induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Conformational Change and Cooperativity in Mitomycin C Binding.
    Date April 1982
    Journal Biochemistry

    Anthramycin and mitomycin C (MC) are two DNA reactive drugs, which bind covalently to GC pairs producing different effects on DNA: anthramycin stiffening and MC distorsion. This paper describes experiments in which we have used anthramycin as a probe to sense quantitatively the effects on DNA of MC binding. Saturation binding experiments show that both anthramycin and MC partially inhibit the binding of the other drug to DNA (maximum inhibition by MC and anthramycin, 22.4% and 19.7%, respectively) but by a mechanism other than direct site exclusion. This suggests that MC binds in the major groove of DNA, since anthramycin is known to bind in the minor groove. An abrupt reduction in the binding of anthramycin to DNA-MC complexes occurs between MC binding ratios of 0.030 and 0.035, which parallels and probably results from sudden intensification of a MC-induced DNA conformational change occurring between these binding ratios. Dialysis measurements indicate that anthramycin is very possibly binding at sites distant from MC sites and suggest a clustering of closely bound MC chromophores resulting from possible cooperative binding. S1 nuclease digest experiments demonstrate an initial enhancement of nuclease activity in DNA-MC complexes, the magnitude of which correlates well with the reduction of anthramycin binding, relative to the degree of MC binding. The enhanced nuclease activity in these complexes indicates regions of exposed DNA or helix base distortion which is related to or is the result of conformational change.

    Title Pyrrol[1,4]benzodiazepine Antibiotics. Proposed Structures and Characteristics of the in Vitro Deoxyribonucleic Acid Adducts of Anthramycin, Tomaymycin, Sibiromycin, and Neothramycins A and B.
    Date July 1981
    Journal Biochemistry

    The pyrrol[1,4]benzodiazepine antibiotics anthramycin, tomaymycin, sibiromycin, and neothramycins A and B are potent antitumor agents that bind to DNA in a unique manner, resulting in some unusual biological consequences. This paper describes results on which the points of covalent linkage between the drugs (carbinolamine carbon atom) and DNA (N-2 of guanine) are deduced, as well as Corey-Pauling-Koltun (CPK) models for the various drug-DNA adducts. Predictions based upon these CPK models have been tested, and the results are reported in this paper. These tested experimental predictions include (1) instability of the drug-DNA adducts to denaturation of DNA, (2) saturation binding limits, (3) effect of drug binding on the structure of DNA, (4) lack of unwinding and in vitro strand breakage of closed-circular supercoiled simian virus 40 (SV-40) DNA, (5) sensitivity of the secondary structure of DNA to drug binding, (6) hydrodynamic properties of the drug-DNA adducts, (7) hydrogen bonding of the 9-phenolic proton in anthramycin to DNA, (8) structure-activity relationships, and (9) biological consequences of DNA damage, including cumulative damage and slow excision repair, double-strain breaks in DNA in repair-proficient cells, and the selective inhibition of H-strand DNA synthesis in mitochondria. The results are completely in accord with our postulated space-filling models.

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