advertisement
Browse Health
Family Practitioner, Primary Care Doctor
30 years of experience
Accepting new patients
Video profile

Credentials

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
The University of Texas Southwestern (1982)
  •  
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Patients' Choice 5th Anniversary Award (2015)
Patients' Choice Award (2008 - 2009, 2011 - 2015)
Compassionate Doctor Award - 5 Year Honoree (2015)
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2011 - 2015)

Affiliations ?

Dr. Turner is affiliated with 3 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations

Score

Rankings

  • Medical City Dallas Hospital
    7777 Forest Ln, Dallas, TX 75230
    •  
    Top 25%
  • North Central Medical Center
    4500 Medical Center Dr, McKinney, TX 75069
    •  
    Top 50%
  • Medical City Hospital
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Turner has contributed to 153 publications.
    Title Hidden Superlattice in Tl2(sc6h4s) and Tl2(sec6h4se) Solved from Powder X-ray Diffraction.
    Date November 2011
    Journal Acta Crystallographica. Section B, Structural Science
    Excerpt

    The crystal structures of the isostructural title compounds poly[(μ-benzene-1,4-dithiolato)dithallium], Tl(2)(SC(6)H(4)S), and poly[(μ-benzene-1,4-diselenolato)dithallium], Tl(2)(SeC(6)H(4)Se), were solved by simulated annealing from high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Rietveld refinements of an initial structure with one formula unit per triclinic cell gave satisfactory agreement with the data, but led to a structure with impossibly close non-bonded contacts. A disordered model was proposed to alleviate this problem, but an alternative supercell structure leads to slightly improved agreement with the data. The isostructural superlattice structures were confirmed for both compounds through additional data collection, with substantially better counting statistics, which revealed the presence of very weak superlattice peaks not previously seen. Overall, each structure contains Tl-S or Tl-Se two-dimensional networks, connected by phenylene bridges. The sulfur (or selenium) coordination sphere around each thallium is a highly distorted square pyramid or a 'see-saw' shape, depending upon how many Tl-S or Tl-Se interactions are considered to be bonds. In addition, the two compounds contain pairs of Tl(I) ions that interact through a closed-shell 'thallophilic' interaction: in the sulfur compound there are two inequivalent pairs of Tl atoms with Tl-Tl distances of 3.49 and 3.58 Å, while in the selenium compound those Tl-Tl interactions are at 3.54 and 3.63 Å.

    Title Duration of Antigen Availability Influences the Expansion and Memory Differentiation of T Cells.
    Date October 2011
    Journal Journal of Immunology (baltimore, Md. : 1950)
    Excerpt

    The initial engagement of the TCR through interaction with cognate peptide-MHC is a requisite for T cell activation and confers Ag specificity. Although this is a key event in T cell activation, the duration of these interactions may affect the proliferative capacity and differentiation of the activated cells. In this study, we developed a system to evaluate the temporal requirements for antigenic stimulation during an immune response in vivo. Using Abs that target specific Ags in the context of MHC, we were able to manipulate the duration of Ag availability to both CD4 and CD8 T cells during an active infection. During the primary immune response, the magnitude of the CD4 and CD8 T cell response was dependent on the duration of Ag availability. Both CD4 and CD8 T cells required sustained antigenic stimulation for maximal expansion. Memory cell differentiation was also dependent on the duration of Ag exposure, albeit to a lesser extent. However, memory development did not correlate with the magnitude of the primary response, suggesting that the requirements for continued expansion of T cells and memory differentiation are distinct. Finally, a shortened period of Ag exposure was sufficient to achieve optimal expansion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells during a recall response. It was also revealed that limiting exposure to Ag late during the response may enhance the CD4 T cell memory pool. Collectively, these data indicated that Ag remains a critical component of the T cell response after the initial APC-T cell interaction.

    Title Tpi 1020, a Novel Anti-inflammatory, Nitric Oxide Donating Compound, Potentiates the Bronchodilator Effects of Salbutamol in Conscious Guinea-pigs.
    Date January 2011
    Journal European Journal of Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    Inhaled corticosteroids are regularly co-administered with beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. This study evaluates in conscious guinea-pigs the bronchodilator effect, alone or combined with salbutamol, of TPI 1020, a novel anti-inflammatory corticosteroid and nitric oxide (NO) donor derived from budesonide. Guinea-pigs received inhaled histamine (3 mM) and specific airway conductance (sG(aw)) measured. Responses to histamine were measured before and on the next day 15 min after a 15 min inhalation of vehicle, salbutamol, TPI 1020, budesonide, the NO-donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), or combinations of these drugs. Salbutamol and TPI 1020 caused concentration-dependent bronchodilatation measured as inhibition of histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. TPI 1020-induced bronchodilatation was blocked by the guanylyl cyclise inhibitor, ODQ, indicating cGMP-dependence through released NO. While salbutamol at 80 microM did not exert significant bronchodilatation, significant inhibitions were observed when co-administered with TPI 1020, 0.11 and 0.33 mM. The combined effects of TPI 1020 and salbutamol lasted significantly longer than either drug alone. Inhaled budesonide was a weak bronchodilator and when co-administered with salbutamol there was enhanced bronchodilatation. Addition of the NO-donor, SNAP (0.1 mM), to the budesonide/salbutamol combination, also improved the inhibition of histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. This study has shown that TPI 1020 potentiates the bronchodilator activity of salbutamol, and their combination lasted longer than either drug administered individually. Both the corticosteroid and NO-releasing activities of TPI 1020 appear to be required for the potentiation of salbutamol. Combination of TPI 1020 with a beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist may therefore be useful against acute bronchoconstriction episodes in asthma, and may offer an opportunity for reducing doses of inhaled beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists.

    Title Posh is an Intracellular Signal Transducer for the Axon Outgrowth Inhibitor Nogo66.
    Date October 2010
    Journal The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
    Excerpt

    Myelin-derived inhibitors limit axon outgrowth and plasticity during development and in the adult mammalian CNS. Nogo66, a functional domain of the myelin-derived inhibitor NogoA, signals through the PirB receptor to inhibit axon outgrowth. The signaling pathway mobilized by Nogo66 engagement of PirB is not well understood. We identify a critical role for the scaffold protein Plenty of SH3s (POSH) in relaying process outgrowth inhibition downstream of Nogo66 and PirB. Blocking the function of POSH, or two POSH-associated proteins, leucine zipper kinase (LZK) and Shroom3, with RNAi in cortical neurons leads to release from myelin and Nogo66 inhibition. We also observed autocrine inhibition of process outgrowth by NogoA, and suppression analysis with the POSH-associated kinase LZK demonstrated that LZK operates downstream of NogoA and PirB in a POSH-dependent manner. In addition, cerebellar granule neurons with an RNAi-mediated knockdown in POSH function were refractory to the inhibitory action of Nogo66, indicating that a POSH-dependent mechanism operates to inhibit axon outgrowth in different types of CNS neurons. These studies delineate an intracellular signaling pathway for process outgrowth inhibition by Nogo66, comprised of NogoA, PirB, POSH, LZK, and Shroom3, and implicate the POSH complex as a potential therapeutic target to enhance axon outgrowth and plasticity in the injured CNS.

    Title Direct Transcriptional Induction of Gadd45gamma by Ascl1 During Neuronal Differentiation.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
    Excerpt

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Ascl1 plays a critical role in the intrinsic genetic program responsible for neuronal differentiation. Here, we describe a novel model system of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells with doxycycline-inducible expression of Ascl1. Microarray hybridization and real-time PCR showed that these cells demonstrated increased expression of many neuronal proteins in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, the gene encoding the cell cycle regulator Gadd45gamma was increased earliest and to the greatest extent following Ascl1 induction. Here, we provide the first evidence identifying Gadd45gamma as a direct transcriptional target of Ascl1. Transactivation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified two E-box consensus sites within the Gadd45gamma promoter necessary for Ascl1 regulation, and demonstrated that Ascl1 is bound to this region within the Gadd45gamma promoter. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of Gadd45gamma itself is sufficient to initiate some aspects of neuronal differentiation independent of Ascl1.

    Title Energy Turnover in Relation to Slowing of Contractile Properties During Fatiguing Contractions of the Human Anterior Tibialis Muscle.
    Date December 2009
    Journal The Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Slowing and loss of muscle power are major factors limiting physical performance but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The slowing might be a consequence of slow detachment of cross bridges and, if this were the case, then a reduction in the ATP cost of an isometric contraction would be expected as the muscle fatigued. The human anterior tibialis muscle was stimulated repeatedly under ischaemic conditions at 50 Hz for 1.6 s with a 50% duty cycle and muscle metabolites measured by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Over the course of 20 contractions the half-time of relaxation increased from 36.5 +/- 0.09 ms (mean +/- s.e.m.) to 113 +/- 17 ms and isometric force was reduced to 63 +/- 3% of the initial value. ATP turnover was determined from the change in high energy phosphates and lactate production, the latter estimated from the change of intracellular pH. ATP turnover over the first three contractions was 2.45 +/- 0.09 mM s(1) and decreased to 1.8 +/- 0.06 mm s(1) over the last five tetani. However, when this latter value was normalised for the decrease in isometric force, it became 2.56 +/- 0.3 mM s(1), which is the same as the turnover of the fresh muscle. The data suggest that the rate of cross bridge detachment is unaffected by fatigue and are consistent the suggestion that it is the rate of attachment which is slowed rather than the rate of detachment. The present results focus attention on stages in the cross bridge cycle concerned with attachment and the transition from low to high force states that may be influenced by metabolic changes in the fatiguing muscle.

    Title Relationship Between Protein Stabilization and Protein Rigidification Induced by Mannosylglycerate.
    Date November 2009
    Journal Journal of Molecular Biology
    Excerpt

    Understanding protein stabilization by small organic compounds is a topic of great practical importance. The effect of mannosylglycerate, a charged compatible solute typical of thermophilic microorganisms, on a variant of staphylococcal nuclease was investigated using several NMR spectroscopy methods. No structural changes were apparent from the chemical shifts of amide protons. Measurements of (15)N relaxation and model-free analysis, water-amide saturation transfer (phase-modulated CLEAN chemical exchange), and hydrogen/deuterium exchange rates provided a detailed picture of the effects of mannosylglycerate on the backbone dynamics and time-averaged structure of this protein. The widest movements of the protein backbone were significantly constrained in the presence of mannosylglycerate, as indicated by the average 5-fold decrease of the hydrogen/deuterium exchange rates, but the effect on the millisecond timescale was small. At high frequencies, internal motions of staphylococcal nuclease were progressively restricted with increasing concentrations of mannosylglycerate or reduced temperature, while the opposite effect was observed with urea (a destabilizing solute). The order parameters showed a strong correlation with the changes in the T(m) values induced by different solutes, determined by differential scanning calorimetry. These data show that mannosylglycerate caused a generalised reduction of backbone motions and demonstrate a correlation between protein stabilization and protein rigidification.

    Title Modulation of Internal Model Formation During Force Field-induced Motor Learning by Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Primary Motor Cortex.
    Date September 2009
    Journal The Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Human subjects can quickly adapt and maintain performance of arm reaching when experiencing novel physical environments such as robot-induced velocity-dependent force fields. Using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) this study showed that the primary motor cortex may play a role in motor adaptation of this sort. Subjects performed arm reaching movement trials in three phases: in a null force field (baseline), in a velocity-dependent force field (adaptation; 25 N s m(-1)) and once again in a null force field (de-adaptation). Active or sham tDCS was directed to the motor cortex representation of biceps brachii muscle during the adaptation phase of the motor learning protocol. During the adaptation phase, the global error in arm reaching (summed error from an ideal trajectory) was similar in both tDCS conditions. However, active tDCS induced a significantly greater global reaching (overshoot) error during the early stage of de-adaptation compared to the sham tDCS condition. The overshoot error may be representative of the development of a greater predictive movement to overcome the expected imposed force. An estimate of the predictive, initial movement trajectory (signed error in the first 150 ms of movement) was significantly augmented during the adaptation phase with active tDCS compared to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this increase was linearly related to the change of the overshoot summed error in the de-adaptation process. Together the results suggest that anodal tDCS augments the development of an internal model of the novel adapted movement and suggests that the primary motor cortex is involved in adaptation of reaching movements of healthy human subjects.

    Title Tuning of Functional Heme Reduction Potentials in Shewanella Fumarate Reductases.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Excerpt

    The fumarate reductases from S. frigidimarina NCIMB400 and S. oneidensis MR-1 are soluble and monomeric enzymes located in the periplasm of these bacteria. These proteins display two redox active domains, one containing four c-type hemes and another containing FAD at the catalytic site. This arrangement of single-electron redox co-factors leading to multiple-electron active sites is widespread in respiratory enzymes. To investigate the properties that allow a chain of single-electron co-factors to sustain the activity of a multi-electron catalytic site, redox titrations followed by NMR and visible spectroscopies were applied to determine the microscopic thermodynamic parameters of the hemes. The results show that the redox behaviour of these fumarate reductases is similar and dominated by a strong interaction between hemes II and III. This interaction facilitates a sequential transfer of two electrons from the heme domain to FAD via heme IV.

    Title The Solution Structure of a Tetraheme Cytochrome from Shewanella Frigidimarina Reveals a Novel Family Structural Motif.
    Date December 2008
    Journal Biochemistry
    Excerpt

    The bacteria belonging to the genus Shewanella are facultative anaerobes that utilize a variety of terminal electron acceptors which includes soluble and insoluble metal oxides. The tetraheme c-type cytochrome isolated during anaerobic growth of Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB400 ( Sfc) contains 86 residues and is involved in the Fe(III) reduction pathways. Although the functional properties of Sfc redox centers are quite well described, no structures are available for this protein. In this work, we report the solution structure of the reduced form of Sfc. The overall fold is completely different from those of the tetraheme cytochromes c 3 and instead has similarities with the tetraheme cytochrome recently isolated from Shewanella oneidensis ( Soc). Comparison of the tetraheme cytochromes from Shewanella shows a considerable diversity in their primary structure and heme reduction potentials, yet they have highly conserved heme geometry, as is the case for the family of tetraheme cytochromes isolated from Desulfovibrio spp.

    Title Microrna Mir-124 Regulates Neurite Outgrowth During Neuronal Differentiation.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Experimental Cell Research
    Excerpt

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs with diverse regulatory roles. The miR-124 miRNA is expressed in neurons in the developing and adult nervous system. Here we show that overexpression of miR-124 in differentiating mouse P19 cells promotes neurite outgrowth, while blocking miR-124 function delays neurite outgrowth and decreases acetylated alpha-tubulin. Altered neurite outgrowth also was observed in mouse primary cortical neurons when miR-124 expression was increased, or when miR-124 function was blocked. In uncommitted P19 cells, miR-124 expression led to disruption of actin filaments and stabilization of microtubules. Expression of miR-124 also decreased Cdc42 protein and affected the subcellular localization of Rac1, suggesting that miR-124 may act in part via alterations to members of the Rho GTPase family. Furthermore, constitutively active Cdc42 or Rac1 attenuated neurite outgrowth promoted by miR-124. To obtain a broader perspective, we identified mRNAs downregulated by miR-124 in P19 cells using microarrays. mRNAs for proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation were enriched among mRNAs downregulated by miR-124. A miR-124 variant with an additional 5' base failed to promote neurite outgrowth and downregulated substantially different mRNAs. These results indicate that miR-124 contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth during neuronal differentiation, possibly by regulation of the cytoskeleton.

    Title Spinal Serotonin Receptor Activation Modulates the Exercise Ventilatory Response with Increased Dead Space in Goats.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
    Excerpt

    Small increases in respiratory dead space (VD) augment the exercise ventilatory response by a serotonin-dependent mechanism known as short-term modulation (STM). We tested the hypotheses that the relevant serotonin receptors for STM are in the spinal cord, and are of the 5-HT2-receptor subtype. After preparing adult female goats with a mid-thoracic (T6-T8) subarachnoid catheter, ventilation and arterial blood gases were measured at rest and during treadmill exercise (4.8 km/h; 5% grade) with and without an increased VD (0.2-0.3 L). Measurements were made before and after spinal or intravenous administration of a broad-spectrum serotonin receptor antagonist (methysergide, 1-2mg total) and a selective 5-HT2-receptor antagonist (ketanserin, 5-12 mg total). Although spinal methysergide had no effect on the exercise ventilatory response in control conditions, the augmented response with increased VD was impaired, allowing Pa(CO)(2) to increase from rest to exercise. Spinal methysergide diminished both mean inspiratory flow and frequency responses to exercise with increased VD. Spinal ketanserin impaired Pa(CO)(2) regulation with increased VD, although its ventilatory effects were less clear. Intrathecal dye injections indicated CSF drug distribution was caudal to the upper cervical spinal cord and intravenous drugs at the same total dose did not affect STM. We conclude that spinal 5-HT2 receptors modulate the exercise ventilatory response with increased VD in goats.

    Title Electrical Percutaneous Tibial Stimulation Modulates Within-a-breath Respiratory Drive in Man.
    Date July 2008
    Journal Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
    Excerpt

    A sharp intake of breath followed by a strong vocalisation is widely observed in response to acute pain although its function and mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of percutaneous (overlying the tibial bone) electrical stimulation delivered early (20-30% of inspiratory time) during inspiration (INSP) or expiration (EXP) (20-30% of expiratory time) at sensory intensities at (100%), above (125%) and below (50% and 75%) the pre-determined pain threshold (PT), upon within-a-breath respiratory parameters (via pneumotachography). All INSP stimulation intensities provoked significant inspiratory time shortening thereby elevating mean inspiratory flow. Tidal volume, but not peak flow was increased in response to 100% PT and 125% PT stimulation (vs. PRE). Shortening and increased tidal volume combined to evoke significant mean inspiratory airflow increments. In contrast, EXP stimulation failed to evoke any effect. Thus, our study provides evidence of a within-a-breath inspiratory-specific, augmentory response to noxious stimulation.

    Title The Lactate Dehydrogenases Encoded by the Ldh and Ldhb Genes in Lactococcus Lactis Exhibit Distinct Regulation and Catalytic Properties - Comparative Modeling to Probe the Molecular Basis.
    Date January 2008
    Journal The Febs Journal
    Excerpt

    Lactococcus lactis FI9078, a construct carrying a disruption of the ldh gene, converted approximately 90% of glucose into lactic acid, like the parental strain MG1363. This unexpected lactate dehydrogenase activity was purified, and ldhB was identified as the gene encoding this protein. The activation of ldhB was explained by the insertion of an IS905-like element that created a hybrid promoter in the intergenic region upstream of ldhB. The biochemical and kinetic properties of this alternative lactate dehydrogenase (LDHB) were compared to those of the ldh-encoded enzyme (LDH), purified from the parental strain. In contrast to LDH, the affinity of LDHB for NADH and the activation constant for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate were strongly dependent on pH. The activation constant increased 700-fold, whereas the K(m) for NADH increased more than 10-fold, in the pH range 5.5-7.2. The two enzymes also exhibited different pH profiles for maximal activity. Moreover, inorganic phosphate acted as a strong activator of LDHB. The impact of replacing LDH by LDHB on the physiology of L. lactis was assessed by monitoring the evolution of the pools of glycolytic intermediates and cofactors during the metabolism of glucose by in vivo NMR. Structural analysis by comparative modeling of the two proteins showed that LDH has a slightly larger negative charge than LDHB and a greater concentration of positive charges at the interface between monomers. The calculated pH titration curves of the catalytic histidine residues explain why LDH maintains its activity at low pH as compared to LDHB, the histidines in LDH showing larger pH titration ranges.

    Title Semiconducting Lead-sulfur-organic Network Solids.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Journal of the American Chemical Society
    Excerpt

    The reactions of Pb(OAc)2 with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetrathiol, 1,4-benzenedithiol, and benzenehexathiol in ethylenediamine yield bright yellow [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n, orange-red [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n, and brown [Pb3C6S6]n, respectively. The structures of [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n and [Pb3C6S6]n were solved by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, while the structure of [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n was solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The bonding in [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n indicates the presence of "molecular" units, while in [Pb3C6S6]n, the bonding most resembles that in an inorganic solid such as PbS. The differences in bonding are reflected in the optical and electrical properties of the materials; [Pb3C6S6]n is a semiconductor.

    Title Analysis of Microrna Expression by in Situ Hybridization with Rna Oligonucleotide Probes.
    Date November 2007
    Journal Methods (san Diego, Calif.)
    Excerpt

    In situ hybridization is an important tool for analyzing gene expression and developing hypotheses about gene functions. The discovery of hundreds of microRNA (miRNA) genes in animals has provided new challenges for analyzing gene expression and functions. The small size of the mature miRNAs ( approximately 20-24 nucleotides in length) presents difficulties for conventional in situ hybridization methods. However, we have described a modified in situ hybridization method for detection of mammalian miRNAs in tissue sections, based upon the use of RNA oligonucleotide probes in combination with highly specific wash conditions. Here, we present detailed procedures for detection of miRNAs in tissue sections or cultured cells. The methods described can utilize either nonradioactive hapten-conjugated probes that are detected by enzyme-coupled antibodies, or radioactively labeled probes that are detected by autoradiography. The ability to visualize miRNA expression patterns in tissue sections provides an additional tool for the analyses of miRNA expression and function. In addition, the use of radioactively labeled probes should facilitate quantitative analyses of changes in miRNA gene expression.

    Title Regulation of Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 Gene Expression by a Bipartite Re-1 Silencer of Transcription/neuron Restrictive Silencing Factor (rest/nrsf) Binding Motif.
    Date October 2007
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in raphe serotonin biosynthesis, and polymorphisms of TPH2 are implicated in vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. Dynamic transcription regulation of TPH2 may underlie differences in vulnerability. We identified a transcription element in the TPH2 promoter that resembles the binding motif for RE-1 silencer of transcription (REST; also known as NRSF) transcription factor. REST limits tissue expression of non-neuronal genes through a canonical 21-bp motif called the NRSE (neuron-restrictive silencing element). The NRSE in TPH2 is a novel bipartite variant interrupted by a 6-base insertion. We confirmed that this bipartite NRSE permits transcriptional repression by REST identical to canonical NRSE in rat C6-glioma cells. Synthetic permutations of the motif revealed considerable flexibility in the juxtaposition of the two halves of bipartite NRSE. Computational analysis revealed many bipartite NRSE variants conserved between mouse and human genomes. A subgroup of these was found to bind REST by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Messenger RNAs for TPH2 and potassium channel H6, another gene with a bipartite NRSE, were up-regulated by dominant-negative REST in C6-glioma cells. These findings, which indicate that TPH2 expression is part of the developmental program regulated by REST and suggest that many previously unrecognized genes may be regulated by REST through the novel motif, have implications for the mechanism of REST action.

    Title Thermodynamic and Kinetic Characterisation of Individual Haems in Multicentre Cytochromes C3.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Excerpt

    The characterisation of individual centres in multihaem proteins is difficult due to the similarities in the redox and spectroscopic properties of the centres. NMR has been used successfully to distinguish redox centres and allow the determination of the microscopic thermodynamic parameters in several multihaem cytochromes c(3) isolated from different sulphate-reducing bacteria. In this article we show that it is also possible to discriminate the kinetic properties of individual centres in multihaem proteins, if the complete microscopic thermodynamic characterisation is available and the system displays fast intramolecular equilibration in the time scale of the kinetic experiment. The deconvolution of the kinetic traces using a model of thermodynamic control provides a reference rate constant for each haem that does not depend on driving force and can be related to structural factors. The thermodynamic characterisation of three tetrahaem cytochromes and their kinetics of reduction by sodium dithionite are reported in this paper. Thermodynamic and kinetic data were fitted simultaneously to a model to obtain microscopic reduction potentials, haem-haem and haem-proton interacting potentials, and reference rate constants for the haems. The kinetic information obtained for these cytochromes and recently published data for other multihaem cytochromes is discussed with respect to the structural factors that determine the reference rates. The accessibility for the reducing agent seems to play an important role in controlling the kinetic rates, although is clearly not the only factor.

    Title Functional Properties of Type I and Type Ii Cytochromes C3 from Desulfovibrio Africanus.
    Date April 2007
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Excerpt

    Type I cytochrome c(3) is a key protein in the bioenergetic metabolism of Desulfovibrio spp., mediating electron transfer between periplasmic hydrogenase and multihaem cytochromes associated with membrane bound complexes, such as type II cytochrome c(3). This work presents the NMR assignment of the haem substituents in type I cytochrome c(3) isolated from Desulfovibrio africanus and the thermodynamic and kinetic characterisation of type I and type II cytochromes c(3) belonging to the same organism. It is shown that the redox properties of the two proteins allow electrons to be transferred between them in the physiologically relevant direction with the release of energised protons close to the membrane where they can be used by the ATP synthase.

    Title Persistent Antigen Presentation After Acute Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Journal of Virology
    Excerpt

    Long-term antigen expression is believed to play an important role in modulation of T-cell responses to chronic virus infections. However, recent studies suggest that immune responses may occur late after apparently acute infections. We have now analyzed the CD8 T-cell response to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which is thought to cause to an infection characterized by rapid virus clearance by innate and adaptive immune system components. Unexpectedly, virus-encoded antigen was detectable more than 6 weeks after intranasal VSV infection in both draining and nondraining lymph nodes by adoptively transferred CD8 T cells. Infection with Listeria monocytogenes expressing the same antigen did not result in prolonged antigen presentation. Weeks after VSV infection, discrete T-cell clustering with dendritic cells within the lymph node was observed after transfer of antigen-specific CD8 T cells. Moreover, memory CD8 T cells as defined by phenotype and function were generated from naïve CD8 T cells entering the response late after infection. These findings suggested that protracted antigen presentation after an apparently acute virus infection may contribute to an ongoing antiviral immune response.

    Title Detection of Mammalian Microrna Expression by in Situ Hybridization with Rna Oligonucleotides.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
    Excerpt

    We have developed an in situ hybridization procedure for the detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tissue sections from mouse embryos and adult organs. The method uses highly specific washing conditions for RNA oligonucleotide probes conjugated to a fluorescein hapten. We show that this method detects predominantly mature miRNAs rather than the miRNA precursors or primary transcripts. We have determined expression patterns for several miRNAs expressed in the developing and adult nervous system, including miR-124a, miR-9, miR-92, and miR-204. Whereas miR-124a is expressed in neurons, miR-9 is expressed in neural progenitors and some neurons, and miR-204 is expressed in the choroid plexus, retinal pigment epithelium, and ciliary body. miR-204 is located in an intron of the TRPM3 gene, and the TRPM3 mRNA is coexpressed with miR-204 in the choroid plexus. We also find that primary transcripts for miR-124a and miR-9 genes are expressed in patterns similar to their respective mature miRNAs. The ability to visualize expression of specific miRNAs in embryos and tissues should aid studies on miRNA function.

    Title Residual Antigen Presentation After Influenza Virus Infection Affects Cd8 T Cell Activation and Migration.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Immunity
    Excerpt

    Activated virus-specific CD8 T cells remain in the lung airways for several months after influenza virus infection. We show that maintenance of this cell population is dependent upon the route of infection and prolonged presentation of viral antigen in the draining lymph nodes (DLN) of the respiratory tract. The local effects on T cell migration have been examined. We show retention of virus-specific CD8 T cells in the mediastinal lymph node (MLN) and continuing recruitment of blood-borne migrants into the lung airways during antigen presentation. These data show that antigen that is retained after pulmonary influenza virus infection controls the migratory pattern and activation state of virus-specific CD8 T cells near the site of virus amplification.

    Title Structural Evidence for a Proton Transfer Pathway Coupled with Haem Reduction of Cytochrome C" from Methylophilus Methylotrophus.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : Jbic : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The crystal structures of the oxidized and reduced forms of cytochrome c" from Methylophilus methylotrophus were solved from X-ray synchrotron data to atomic resolution. The overall fold of the molecule in the two redox states is very similar and is comparable to that of the oxygen-binding protein from the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. However, significant modifications occur near the haem group, in particular the detachment from axial binding of His95 observed upon reduction as well as the adoption of different conformations of some protonatable residues that form a possible proton path from the haem pocket to the protein surface. These changes are associated with the previously well characterized redox-Bohr behaviour of this protein. Furthermore they provide a model for one of the presently proposed mechanisms of proton translocation in the much more complex protein cytochrome c oxidase.

    Title Solution Structures of Tetrahaem Ferricytochrome C3 from Desulfovibrio Vulgaris (hildenborough) and Its K45q Mutant: the Molecular Basis of Cooperativity.
    Date April 2006
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Excerpt

    The NMR structure of the oxidised wild-type cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was determined in solution. Using a newly developed methodology, NMR data from the K45Q mutant was then grafted onto data from the wild-type protein to determine the structure in the region of the mutation. The structural origins of the redox-Bohr effect and haem-haem cooperativities are discussed with respect to the redox-related conformational changes observed in solution.

    Title Polycistronic Rna Polymerase Ii Expression Vectors for Rna Interference Based on Bic/mir-155.
    Date April 2006
    Journal Nucleic Acids Research
    Excerpt

    Vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a valuable tool for analysis of gene function. We have developed new RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNAi, designated SIBR vectors, based upon the non-coding RNA BIC. BIC contains the miR-155 microRNA (miRNA) precursor, and we find that expression of a short region of the third exon of mouse BIC is sufficient to produce miR-155 in mammalian cells. The SIBR vectors use a modified miR-155 precursor stem-loop and flanking BIC sequences to express synthetic miRNAs complementary to target RNAs. Like RNA polymerase III driven short hairpin RNA vectors, the SIBR vectors efficiently reduce target mRNA and protein expression. The synthetic miRNAs can be expressed from an intron, allowing coexpression of a marker or other protein with the miRNAs. In addition, intronic expression of a synthetic miRNA from a two intron vector enhances RNAi. A SIBR vector can express two different miRNAs from a single transcript for effective inhibition of two different target mRNAs. Furthermore, at least eight tandem copies of a synthetic miRNA can be expressed in a polycistronic transcript to increase the inhibition of a target RNA. The SIBR vectors are flexible tools for a variety of RNAi applications.

    Title Regulation of Fak Ser-722 Phosphorylation and Kinase Activity by Gsk3 and Pp1 During Cell Spreading and Migration.
    Date January 2006
    Journal The Biochemical Journal
    Excerpt

    In addition to tyrosine sites, FAK (focal adhesion kinase) is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues. In the present study, the regulation of two of these sites, Ser-722 (S1) and Ser-911 (S4), was investigated. Phosphorylation of S1 (but not S4) decreased in resuspended cells, and recovered during spreading on fibronectin, indicating adhesion-dependent regulation. GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3) inhibitors decreased S1 phosphorylation, and siRNA (short interfering RNA) silencing indicated further the involvement of GSK3beta. Furthermore, GSK3beta was found to become activated during cell spreading on fibronectin, and to physically associate with FAK. S1 phosphorylation was observed to decrease in wounded cell monolayers, while GSK3beta underwent inactivation and later was observed to increase to the original level within 24 h. Direct phosphorylation of S1, requiring pre-phosphorylation of Ser-726 in the +4 position, was demonstrated using purified GSK3 and a synthetic peptide containing FAK residues 714-730. An inhibitory role for S1 phosphorylation in FAK signalling was indicated by findings that both alanine substitution for S1 and dephosphorylation of S1 by PP1 (serine/threonine protein phosphatase type-1) resulted in an increase in FAK kinase activity; likewise, this role was also shown by cell treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor LiCl. The inhibitory role was confirmed by the finding that cells expressing FAK with alanine substitution for S1 displayed improved cell spreading and faster migration in wound-healing and trans-well assays. Finally, the finding that S1 phosphorylation increased in cells treated with the PP1 inhibitor okadaic acid indicated targeting of this site by PP1. These results indicate an additional mechanism for regulation of FAK activity during cell spreading and migration, involving Ser-722 phosphorylation modulated through the competing actions of GSK3beta and PP1.

    Title Binding of Ligands Originates Small Perturbations on the Microscopic Thermodynamic Properties of a Multicentre Redox Protein.
    Date July 2005
    Journal The Febs Journal
    Excerpt

    NMR and visible spectroscopy coupled to redox measurements were used to determine the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the four haems in cytochrome c3 under conditions in which the protein was bound to ligands, the small anion phosphate and the protein rubredoxin with the iron in the active site replaced by zinc. Comparison of these results with data for the isolated cytochrome shows that binding of ligands causes only small changes in the reduction potentials of the haems and their pairwise interactions, and also that the redox-sensitive acid-base centre responsible for the redox-Bohr effect is essentially unaffected. Although neither of the ligands tested is a physiological partner of cytochrome c3, the small changes observed for the thermodynamic properties of cytochrome c3 bound to these ligands vs. the unbound state, indicate that the thermodynamic properties measured for the isolated protein are relevant for a physiological interpretation of the role of this cytochrome in the bioenergetic metabolism of Desulfovibrio.

    Title Use of Short Hairpin Rna Expression Vectors to Study Mammalian Neural Development.
    Date April 2005
    Journal Methods in Enzymology
    Excerpt

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cells has become a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. Here we discuss the use of DNA vectors to produce short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and inhibit gene expression in mammalian neural progenitors and neurons. Protocols are presented for introducing shRNA vectors into mouse P19 cells differentiated as neurons in vitro and for electroporation of shRNA vectors into primary neural progenitors from the embryonic mouse dorsal telencephalon (prospective cerebral cortex). Transfected primary cortical progenitors can be differentiated in vitro either in dissociated culture or organotypic slice culture. The use of shRNA vectors for RNAi provides a versatile approach to understand gene function during mammalian neural development.

    Title Structural Determinants of Protein Stabilization by Solutes. The Important of the Hairpin Loop in Rubredoxins.
    Date March 2005
    Journal The Febs Journal
    Excerpt

    Despite their high sequence homology, rubredoxins from Desulfovibrio gigas and D. desulfuricans are stabilized to very different extents by compatible solutes such as diglycerol phosphate, the major osmolyte in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus[Lamosa P, Burke A, Peist R, Huber R, Liu M Y, Silva G, Rodrigues-Pousada C, LeGall J, Maycock C and Santos H (2000) Appl Environ Microbiol66, 1974-1979]. The principal structural difference between these two proteins is the absence of the hairpin loop in the rubredoxin from D. desulfuricans. Therefore, mutants of D. gigas rubredoxin bearing deletions in the loop region were constructed to investigate the importance of this structural feature on protein intrinsic stability, as well as on its capacity to undergo stabilization by compatible solutes. The three-dimensional structure of the mutant bearing the largest deletion, Delta17/29, was determined by 1H-NMR, demonstrating that, despite the drastic deletion, the main structural features were preserved. The dependence of the NH chemical shifts on temperature and solute concentration (diglycerol phosphate or mannosylglycerate) provide evidence of subtle conformational changes induced by the solute. The kinetic stability (as assessed from the absorption decay at 494 nm) of six mutant rubredoxins was determined at 90 degrees C and the stabilizing effect exerted by both solutes was assessed. The extent of protection conferred by each solute was highly dependent on the specific mutant examined: while the half-life for iron release in the wild-type D. gigas rubredoxin increased threefold in the presence of 0.1 M diglycerol phosphate, mutant Delta23/29 was destabilized. This study provides evidence for solute-induced compaction of the protein structure and occurrence of weak, specific interactions with the protein surface. The relevance of these findings to our understanding of the molecular basis for protein stabilization is discussed.

    Title Redox Behaviour of the Haem Domain of Flavocytochrome C3 from Shewanella Frigidimarina Probed by Nmr.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    Flavocytochrome c3 from Shewanella frigidimarina (fcc3) is a tetrahaem periplasmic protein of 64 kDa with fumarate reductase activity. This work reports the first example of NMR techniques applied to the assignment of the thermodynamic order of oxidation of the four individual haems for such large protein, expanding its applicability to a wide range of proteins. NMR data from partially and fully oxidised samples of fcc3 and a mutated protein with an axial ligand of haem IV replaced by alanine were compared with calculated chemical shifts, allowing the structural assignment of the signals and the unequivocal determination of the order of oxidation of the haems. As oxidation progresses the fcc3 haem domain is polarised, with haems I and II much more oxidised than haems III and IV, haem IV being the most reduced. Thus, during catalysis as an electron is taken by the flavin adenosine dinucleotide from haem IV, haem III is eager to re-reduce haem IV, allowing the transfer of two electrons to the active site.

    Title Proton-assisted Two-electron Transfer in Natural Variants of Tetraheme Cytochromes from Desulfomicrobium Sp.
    Date January 2005
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The tetraheme cytochrome c3 isolated from Desulfomicrobium baculatum (DSM 1743)(Dsmb) was cloned, and the sequence analysis showed that this cytochrome differs in just three amino acid residues from the cytochrome c3 isolated from Desulfomicrobium norvegicum (Dsmn): (DsmnXXDsmb) Thr-37 --> Ser, Val-45 --> Ala, and Phe-88 --> Tyr. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of cytochrome c3 from Dsmb, showing that it is very similar to the published structure of cytochrome c3 from Dsmn. A detailed thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of these two tetraheme cytochromes c3 was performed by using NMR and visible spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the network of cooperativities between the redox and protonic centers is consistent with a synergetic process to stimulate the hydrogen uptake activity of hydrogenase. This is achieved by increasing the affinity of the cytochrome for protons through binding electrons and, reciprocally, by favoring a concerted two-electron transfer assisted by the binding of proton(s). The data were analyzed within the framework of the differences in the primary and tertiary structures of the two proteins, showing that residue 88, close to heme I, is the main cause for the differences in the microscopic thermodynamic parameters obtained for these two cytochromes c3. This comparison reveals how replacement of a single amino acid can tune the functional properties of energy-transducing proteins, so that they can be optimized to suit the bioenergetic constraints of specific habitats.

    Title Neuromuscular and Biomechanical Coupling in Human Cycling: Modulation of Cutaneous Reflex Responses to Sural Nerve Stimulation.
    Date January 2005
    Journal Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
    Excerpt

    This study tested the hypothesis that the modulation of cutaneous reflexes during human cycling would be dependent on muscle biomechanical function and phase of leg movement. The coupling between neuromuscular (electromyographic, EMG), kinetic and kinematic responses to brief innocuous (75% of the pain threshold PnT) and noxious (125% PnT) sural nerve stimulation were studied. Stimuli were delivered pseudorandomly at eight equidistant (45 degrees) positions of the crank cycle. Peak ipsilateral middle latency EMG reflex responses were calculated between 70 and 130 ms post stimulus in Biceps Femoris (BF), Rectus Femoris (RF), Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Soleus (SOL). Peak torque, knee and ankle joint angle changes were calculated between 140 and 220 ms post stimulus to quantify net kinetic and kinematic reflex modulation. Reflex responses were predominately suppressive during early activation of all muscles and facilitatory during BF and TA muscle inactivation. EMG reflex responses in monoarticular lower leg muscles TA and SOL were well correlated with ankle angle in dorsi/plantaflexion, whereas the correlation between reflex modulation in biarticular upper leg muscles (BF and RF) and knee angle changes in flexion/extension was weaker. Stimulation provoked significant ankle eversion over the whole crank cycle for both stimulus intensities, which was correlated with TA and BF EMG reflex responses. Torque modulation followed EMG and kinematic changes in a movement phase-dependent manner. Reflex magnitude was stimulation intensity-dependent. Supplementary nociceptive activation may contribute for this increase. We conclude that sural nerve stimulation during human cycling evokes distinct reflex responses in muscles operating around the knee (BF and RF) and the ankle (TA and SOL). These reflexes are modulated in a phase-dependent manner depending on muscle biomechanical function to generate energy for limb and crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle. This modulation contributed to a specific adaptation of joint motion and force production in order to maintain task performance.

    Title Distance Dependence of Interactions Between Charged Centres in Proteins with Common Structural Features.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    Data collected for interactions among redox centres, and interactions between redox centres and acid-base residues in a family of small multihaem cytochromes are analysed. The distance dependent attenuation of the interactions between non-surface charges, for separations that range from 8 to 23 angstroms, can be described by a simple function derived from the Debye-Huckel formalism, fit to 9.5 and 7.6 as values for the relative dielectric constant and Debye length, respectively. However, there is considerable scatter in the data despite the structural similarities among the proteins, which is discussed in the framework of using such simple models in predicting properties of novel proteins.

    Title The Amplitude of the Slow Component of Oxygen Uptake is Related to Muscle Contractile Properties.
    Date October 2004
    Journal European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Excerpt

    During constant-load exercise above the lactate threshold, oxygen-uptake kinetics deviate from the pattern seen below the threshold, with an additional, delayed component superimposed on the monoexponential pattern. It was hypothesised that this slow component is due to the progressive recruitment of type II muscle fibres. Oxygen uptake was measured for six male power athletes (group P) and six male endurance athletes (group E) during constant-load knee extension exercise tests in order to determine slow component amplitude. In addition, an electrical stimulation protocol was employed in order to assess the functional contractile profile and fatiguability of the knee extensors. The amplitude of the slow component during exercise was significantly ( P<0.05) greater in group P than in group E when expressed as an absolute value [mean (SEM)=77 (17) ml min(-1) and 24 (16) ml min(-1)] and when normalised to end-exercise oxygen uptake, VO(2) [8.2 (0.5)% and 2.6 (1.8)%]. Group differences were observed for percentage force loss during the electrical stimulation protocol [50.0 (3.4)% and 31.5 (3.7)% for groups P and E, respectively], increase in relaxation time from start to end of the fatigue test [87.9 (15.5)% and 31.1 (11.9)%], and relaxation time for fresh muscle [32.4 (1.0) ms and 40.6 (2.1) ms]. These contractile parameters may indicate a higher proportion of type II fibres in group P compared with group E. These experiments have shown evidence of a relationship between the amplitude of the slow component and muscle contractile properties, indicating that the origin of the slow component may lie in the pattern of different muscle fibre types.

    Title Evidence for an Extensive Collagen Type Iii Proximal Domain in the Rat Femur. Ii. Expansion with Exercise.
    Date February 2004
    Journal Bone
    Excerpt

    Exercise in youth may affect bone "quality" as well as quantity. Using the rat model, 1.5-month-old females were divided into four weight-matched groups, exercised short-term (6 weeks, E(s), n = 20) and long-term (14 weeks, E(L), n = 10) by access to monitored running wheels, and corresponding "sedentary" controls (S(S) short-term, n = 20; S(L) long-term, n = 10). Femora were either plastic-embedded or fresh-frozen. Transverse histological slices, 100 microm thick, were cut midshaft, while similar cryosections, 8 microm thick, were prepared from the same site and also coronal to the femoral neck region. An image analyser measured femoral neck and midshaft microarchitecture, while immunostaining localized collagen type III-rich fibres (CIII, an index of Sharpey fibre insertions) and osteopontin-rich osteons (OPN, an index of remodelling). Exercise increased cortical bone (proximal width +18%, midshaft area +7%). It also raised cancellous bone volume (+25%) by trabecular thickening (+30%) with more intraosseous vascularity and new trabecular interconnections (node-terminus ratio, +57%; trabecular pattern factor, -147%; marrow star volume. -48%). In the cortex a prominent discrete subperiosteal domain became wider (+50% midshaft) with exercise and contained more numerous (+15%) CIII-stained fibres. In contrast the encircled inner bone developed more numerous (+14%) OPN-rich osteons. It is concluded that short-term voluntary exercise augments both cortical and cancellous microarchitecture. It also alters protein composition, such that expanding arrays of Sharpey's fibres within a circumferential proximal domain (Part I) interconnect more powerfully with the musculature and interface more robustly with the core bone that in response becomes more vascular and biodynamic, providing further insight into how muscle mass may be skeletally translated.

    Title Protein Stabilization by Compatible Solutes. Effect of Diglycerol Phosphate on the Dynamics of Desulfovibrio Gigas Rubredoxin Studied by Nmr.
    Date January 2004
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    Heteronuclear NMR relaxation measurements and hydrogen exchange data have been used to characterize protein dynamics in the presence or absence of stabilizing solutes from hyperthermophiles. Rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas was selected as a model protein and the effect of diglycerol phosphate on its dynamic behaviour was studied. The presence of 100 mM diglycerol phosphate induces a fourfold increase in the half-life for thermal denaturation of D. gigas rubredoxin. A model-free analysis of the protein backbone relaxation parameters shows an average increase of generalized order parameters of 0.015 reflecting a small overall reduction in mobility of fast-scale motions. Hydrogen exchange data acquired over a temperature span of 20 degrees C yielded thermodynamic parameters for the structural opening reactions that allow for the exchange. This shows that the closed form of the protein is stabilized by an additional 1.6 kJ x mol(-1) in the presence of the solute. The results seem to indicate that the stabilizing effect is due mainly to a reduction in mobility of the slower, larger-scale motions within the protein structure with an associated increase in the enthalpy of interactions.

    Title Long Term Modulation of the Leg Exercise Ventilatory Response is Not Elicited by Hypercapnic Arm Exercise.
    Date November 2003
    Journal Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
    Excerpt

    The aim of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that long-term modulation (LTM) of the exercise ventilatory response, evidenced as an augmentation in minute ventilation (V(I)) and tidal volume (VT) during the early phase of exercise, is only evident when the muscle groups recruited are the same during testing and during hypercapnic exercise conditioning. Measurements of cardiorespiratory variables were made at rest and during leg cycling (fH=107+/-5) exercise in eight male subjects, 1 week before and 1 h after conditioning. Conditioning involved either: (a) ten trials of arm cranking exercise (V(I)=29.0+/-4.4), or (b) ten trials of arm cranking exercise paired with external respiratory dead space (1400 ml; V(I)=57.3+/-6.5). Neither arm conditioning paradigm evoked any of the modulatory responses described in previous studies. We, therefore, conclude that the general upregulation of the spinal respiratory motoneuron pool excitability after conditioning (the "final common pathway" hypothesis), may be inadequate to fully explain the underlying mechanisms of LTM of ventilation in humans.

    Title Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Cytochrome C" from the Obligate Methylotroph Methylophilus Methylotrophus.
    Date October 2003
    Journal Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography
    Excerpt

    Cytochrome c" from the obligate methylotroph Methylophilus methylotrophus is a 15 kDa monohaem protein which has a c-type haem covalently linked to the protein chain. Two histidine residues are the axial ligands of the Fe atom in the oxidized form. This cytochrome is one of the few known haem proteins which undergoes a change of spin state of the Fe atom upon reduction, with the detachment of an axial histidine ligand. Initial crystallization conditions involved the utilization of cadmium chloride as an additive and resulted in highly mosaic crystals with poor diffraction properties. Optimization of the crystallization conditions was achieved by slowing the nucleation process utilizing agarose gels and viscous additives such as PEG, ethylene glycol and glycerol. Addition of glycerol to the crystallization buffer produced crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction, with a reduced solvent content and mosaicity, which diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.19 A using synchrotron radiation. The crystals obtained under these conditions were employed for structure solution using the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method at the Fe K edge.

    Title Simultaneous Inhibition of Gsk3alpha and Gsk3beta Using Hairpin Sirna Expression Vectors.
    Date September 2003
    Journal Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
    Excerpt

    Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can mediate sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression in mammalian cells. We and others have recently developed expression vector-based systems for synthesizing siRNAs or hairpin siRNAs in mammalian cells. Expression vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) effectively suppresses expression of target genes and is likely to be a powerful tool for analysis of gene function. Here we compare inhibition by vectors expressing hairpin siRNA designs either with different loop sequences connecting the two siRNA strands, or with duplex regions of different lengths. Our results suggest that lengthening the 19-nucleotide duplex region of a relatively ineffective hairpin siRNA can increase inhibition, but increasing the length of an effective 19-nt hairpin siRNA does not increase inhibition. We also demonstrate that hairpin siRNA vectors can be used to inhibit two target genes simultaneously. We have targeted glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha (GSK-3alpha) and GSK-3beta, two related kinases involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes and also implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Inhibition of either GSK-3alpha or GSK-3beta by transfection of hairpin siRNA vectors leads to elevated expression of the GSK-3 target beta-catenin, whereas inhibition of both kinases further increases beta-catenin expression. Our results suggest that vector-based siRNA inhibition may be useful for dissecting the functional roles of GSK-3alpha and GSK-3beta in somatic cells. The ability to inhibit two or more genes simultaneously with hairpin siRNA expression vectors should facilitate studies of gene function in mammalian cells.

    Title Akt Regulates Basic Helix-loop-helix Transcription Factor-coactivator Complex Formation and Activity During Neuronal Differentiation.
    Date July 2003
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
    Excerpt

    Neural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors regulate neurogenesis in vertebrates. Signaling by peptide growth factors also plays critical roles in regulating neuronal differentiation and survival. Many peptide growth factors activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and subsequently the Akt kinases, raising the possibility that Akt may impact bHLH protein function during neurogenesis. Here we demonstrate that reducing expression of endogenous Akt1 and Akt2 by RNA interference (RNAi) reduces neuron generation in P19 cells transfected with a neural bHLH expression vector. The reduction in neuron generation from decreased Akt expression is not solely due to decreased cell survival, since addition of the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK rescues cell death associated with loss of Akt function but does not restore neuron formation. This result indicates that Akt1 and Akt2 have additional functions during neuronal differentiation that are separable from neuronal survival. We show that activated Akt1 enhances complex formation between bHLH proteins and the transcriptional coactivator p300. Activated Akt1 also significantly augments the transcriptional activity of the bHLH protein neurogenin 3 in complex with the coactivators p300 or CBP. In addition, inhibition of endogenous Akt activity by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 abolishes transcriptional cooperativity between the bHLH proteins and p300. We propose that Akt regulates the assembly and activity of bHLH-coactivator complexes to promote neuronal differentiation.

    Title Prolonged Muscle Vibration Reduces Maximal Voluntary Knee Extension Performance in Both the Ipsilateral and the Contralateral Limb in Man.
    Date July 2003
    Journal European Journal of Applied Physiology
    Excerpt

    Previous studies have shown that prolonged vibration of the rectus femoris decreases maximal voluntary knee extension performance in the ipsilateral leg. In the present study, measurements of maximal voluntary isometric knee extension contractions with the ipsilateral (right) leg and the contralateral (left) leg were made immediately before and after vibration treatment. Significant reductions in maximal force and maximum rate of force generation occurred in both the ipsilateral and contralateral legs following 30 minutes of continuous vibration at both 30 Hz and 120 Hz, with 30 Hz causing the greatest ipsilateral effects. However, although the level of neural activation (iEMG) of the vibrated muscle (right rectus femoris) was reduced following 30 Hz vibration ( P=0.026), there were no significant changes occurring in a synergistic muscle (right vastus lateralis) or in either contralateral muscle. It was concluded that muscle vibration may act through spinal reflex pathways to influence the homonymous motoneuron pool. The effects on contralateral force but not specific muscle iEMG suggest an effect on heteronymous motoneuron pools or an effect acting on central descending drive to contralateral muscles. These findings may have implications for the rehabilitation of patients with an immobilised limb.

    Title Predicting Toxicity of Tall Larkspur (delphinium Barbeyi): Measurement of the Variation in Alkaloid Concentration Among Plants and Among Years.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Journal of Chemical Ecology
    Excerpt

    Tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) is the principal mountain larkspur responsible for the majority of cattle deaths on mountain rangelands in western Colorado and central and southern Utah in the United States. Ten plants in each of two tall larkspur populations in the mountains near Ferron and Salina, Utah, were marked, and single stalks were harvested periodically through the growing season for 4 yr. Toxic alkaloid concentration [alkaloids containing the N-(methylsuccimimido)-anthranilik ester group] was determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Individual larkspur plants varied in alkaloid concentrations, especially in early growth (14-38 mg/g). As the concentration declined over the growing season, variation among plants also declined. There were yearly differences in alkaloid concentration among individual plants (P < 0.01) and populations (P < 0.001), even after accounting for differences in phenological growth between years. Variables such as precipitation, temperature, days since snow melt, growing degree days (sum of mean temperature each day from snow melt), and plant height and weight were all considered in a Mallows Cp multiple regression selection procedure to predict alkaloid concentration. The mixed model procedure in SAS adjusted the regression equation for locations and years. Growing degree days was the best single predictor of alkaloid levels: In y = (3.581 - 0.00423 GDD), R2 = 0.85. Internal validation of this equation within individual years and locations from which the equation was developed, produced correlations between observed versus predicted values ranging from r = 0.73 to 0.93. External validations on nine other larkspur populations produced correlations ranging from r = 0.76 to 0.99. This predictive equation can provide a tool for ranchers and land managers to make management decisions of when to graze cattle in larkspur areas.

    Title Thermodynamic Characterization of a Tetrahaem Cytochrome Isolated from a Facultative Aerobic Bacterium, Shewanella Frigidimarina: a Putative Redox Model for Flavocytochrome C3.
    Date April 2003
    Journal The Biochemical Journal
    Excerpt

    The facultative aerobic bacterium Shewanella frigidimarina produces a small c-type tetrahaem cytochrome (86 residues) under anaerobic growth conditions. This protein is involved in the respiration of iron and shares 42% sequence identity with the N-terminal domain of a soluble flavocytochrome, isolated from the periplasm of the same bacterium, which also contains four c -type haem groups. The thermodynamic properties of the redox centres and of an ionizable centre in the tetrahaem cytochrome were determined using NMR and visible spectroscopy techniques. This is the first detailed thermodynamic study performed on a tetrahaem cytochrome isolated from a facultative aerobic bacterium and reveals that this protein presents unique features. The redox centres have negative and different redox potentials, which are modulated by redox interactions between the four haems (covering a range of 8-56 mV) and by redox-Bohr interactions between the haems and an ionizable centre (-4 to -36 mV) located in close proximity to haem III. All of the interactions between the five centres are clearly dominated by electrostatic effects and the microscopic reduction potential of haem III is the one most affected by the oxidation of the other haems and by the protonation state of the molecule. Altogether, this study indicates that the tetrahaem cytochrome isolated from S. frigidimarina (Sfc) has the thermodynamic properties to work as an electron wire between its redox partners. Considering the high degree of sequence identity between Sfc and the cytochrome domain of flavocytochrome c(3), the structural similarities of the haem core, and that the macroscopic potentials are also identical, the results obtained in this work are rationalized in order to put forward a putative redox model for flavocytochrome c(3).

    Title Structure-function Relationship in Type Ii Cytochrome C(3) from Desulfovibrio Africanus: a Novel Function in a Familiar Heme Core.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : Jbic : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
    Excerpt

    NMR and visible spectroscopy were used to characterize the type II tetraheme cytochrome c(3) isolated from the periplasmic space of Desulfovibrio africanus, a sulfate-reducing bacterium. Although structurally similar to other cytochromes c(3), this protein displays distinct functional properties. Proton NMR signals from the four hemes were assigned to the structure in the ferri- and ferrocytochromes using two-dimensional NMR experiments. The thermodynamic parameters of the hemes and of an acid-base center in the type II cytochrome c(3) were determined using NMR and visible spectroscopies. The thermodynamic features indicate that electrostatic effects dominate all of the interactions between the centers and no positive cooperativity between hemes is observed. The redox-Bohr effect in this protein is associated with the acid-base equilibrium of a propionate of heme II instead of propionate 13 of heme I as is the case for all of the type I cytochromes c(3). These novel functional properties are analyzed together with the redox-linked structural differences reported in the literature and reveal a mechanistic basis for type II cytochromes c(3) having a physiological function that is different from that of type I cytochromes c(3).

    Title A Highly Enantioselective Receptor for N-protected Glutamate and Anomalous Solvent-dependent Binding Properties.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Angewandte Chemie (international Ed. in English)
    Title Thermodynamic and Kinetic Characterization of Trihaem Cytochrome C3 from Desulfuromonas Acetoxidans.
    Date January 2003
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    Trihaem cytochrome c3 (also known as cytochrome c551.5 and cytochrome c7) is isolated from the periplasmic space of Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, a sulfur-reducing bacterium. Thermodynamic and kinetic data for the trihaem cytochrome c3 are presented and discussed in the context of the possible physiological implications of its functional properties with respect to the natural habitat of D. acetoxidans, namely as a symbiont with green sulfur bacteria working as a mini-sulfuretum. The thermodynamic properties were determined through the fit of redox titration data, followed by NMR and visible spectroscopy, to a model of four functional centres that describes the network of cooperativities between the three haems and one protolytic centre. The kinetics of trihaem cytochrome c3 reduction by sodium dithionite were studied using the stopped-flow technique and the data were fitted to a kinetic model that makes use of the thermodynamic properties to obtain the rate constants of the individual haems. This analysis indicates that the electrons enter the cytochrome mainly via haem I. The reduction potentials of the haems in this cytochrome show little variation with pH within the physiological range, and the kinetic studies show that the rates of reduction are also independent of pH in the range studied. Thus, although the trihaem cytochrome c3 is readily reduced by hydrogenases from Desulfovibrio sp. and its haem core is similar to that of the homologous tetrahaem cytochromes c3, its physico-chemical properties are quite different, which suggests that these multihaem cytochromes with similar structures perform different functions.

    Title Different Regional Effects of Voluntary Exercise on the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Rat Ventricular Myocytes.
    Date January 2003
    Journal The Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Short-term (6 weeks) voluntary wheel running exercise in young female rats that were in an active growth phase resulted in whole-heart hypertrophy and myocyte concentric hypertrophy, when compared to sedentary controls. The cross-sectional area of ventricular myocytes from trained rats was significantly greater than for those isolated from sedentary rats, with the greatest change in morphology seen in sub-endocardial cells. There was no statistically significant effect of training on cell shortening in the absence of external mechanical loading, in [Ca2+](i) transients, or in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity (assessed during re-lengthening following tetanic stimulation). Under the external mechanical load of carbon fibres, absolute force developed in myocytes from trained rats was significantly greater than in those from sedentary rats. This suggests that increased myocyte cross-sectional area is a major contractile adaptation to exercise in this model. Training did not alter the passive mechanical properties of myocytes or the relative distribution of titin isomers, which was exclusively of the short, N2B form. However, training did increase the steepness of the active tension-sarcomere length relationship, suggesting an exercise-induced modulation of the Frank-Starling mechanism. This effect would be expected to enhance cardiac contractility. Training lengthened the action potential duration of sub-epicardial myocytes, reducing the transmural gradient in action potential duration. This observation may be important in understanding the cellular causes of T-wave abnormalities found in the electrocardiograms of some athletes. Our study shows that voluntary exercise modulates the morphological, mechanical and electrical properties of cardiac myocytes, and that this modulation is dependent upon the regional origin of the myocytes.

    Title Determination of the Orientation of the Axial Ligands and of the Magnetic Properties of the Haems in the Tetrahaem Ferricytochrome from Shewanella Frigidimarina.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    The unambiguous assignment of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals of the alpha-substituents of the haems in the tetrahaem cytochrome isolated from Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB400, was made using a combination of homonuclear and heteronuclear experiments. The paramagnetic (13)C shifts of the nuclei directly bound to the porphyrin of each haem group were analysed in the framework of a model for the haem electronic structure. The analysis yields g-tensors for each haem, which allowed the assignment of some electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals to specific haems, and the orientation of the magnetic axes relative to each haem to be established. The orientation of the axial ligands of the haems was determined semi-empirically from the NMR data, and the structural results were compared with those of the homologous tetrahaem cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 showing significant similarities between the two proteins.

    Title Associative Conditioning of the Exercise Ventilatory Response in Humans.
    Date November 2002
    Journal Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
    Excerpt

    Repeated hypercapnic exercise augmented the ventilatory response to subsequent trials of exercise alone in running goats and in humans performing arm exercise, suggesting a form of associative conditioning or 'long-term modulation' had taken place. These studies did not include 'control' single stimulus conditioning paradigms. This study demonstrated that ten repeated trials of familiar leg bicycling exercise with dead-space induced hypercapnia also elicited similar significant increases in inspired ventilation (+ 22%; P < 0.009) and tidal volume (VT; + 255 +/- 73 ml(BTPS); mean +/- S.E.M.; P = 0.004) within the first 20 sec of subsequent exercise only trials. Long-term modulation of the early ventilatory response to cycling was not fully replicated by ten trials of 'control' paradigms involving either repeated exercise alone or resting dead space alone. This study thus demonstrated that long term modulation of the early ventilatory response exercise was due to an explicit effect of associative conditioning and not simply sensitisation to repeated trials of a single stimulus.

    Title Expiratory Resistive Loaded Breathing in Humans Increases Fluctuations of Force Production in Submaximal Isometric Quadriceps Contractions.
    Date October 2002
    Journal Neuroscience Letters
    Excerpt

    This study demonstrated that expiratory resistive loading (ERL) induced an increase in force fluctuation during a unilateral, submaximal isometric contraction of the non-dominant left vastus lateralis (VL), but did not effect force fluctuation during complex bilateral contractions. The increase in force fluctuation in the unilateral left VL contraction during ERL was not accompanied by alterations of average force production, motor unit activation (median power frequency) or airflow rate when compared to the bilateral contraction. Inspiratory RL (IRL) did not significantly affect force fluctuation in unilateral or bilateral contractions. The results concur with previous reports of ERL, but not IRL, effecting VL function and suggest that patients with obstructive diseases may also be vulnerable to reduced fine motor control.

    Title Thermodynamic Control of Electron Transfer Rates in Multicentre Redox Proteins.
    Date June 2002
    Journal Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology
    Excerpt

    In the analysis of kinetic data from multicentre redox proteins, it is essential to distinguish between the observable macroscopic rate constants and the structurally relevant microscopic properties. This distinction is complicated by the existence of interactions between centres. The problem is illustrated by the case of two interacting redox centres and generalised for the analysis of stopped-flow kinetic data for the reduction of cytochrome c(3), in which four redox centres and at least one proteolytic centre are mutually interacting. It is shown that fast intramolecular electron transfer, which is typical of many multicentre redox proteins, and, where present, fast proton exchange, ensure that only N rate constants can be measured for a protein with N redox centres. The equations that relate the observable macroscopic rate constants to the microscopic rate constants of individual centres depend on a set of parameters that can be approximated by using the Marcus theory of electron transfer together with a set of reasonable assumptions. The results are tested by fitting experimental data for the reduction of cytochrome c(3) by sodium dithionite, including its pH dependence.

    Title Rna Interference by Expression of Short-interfering Rnas and Hairpin Rnas in Mammalian Cells.
    Date June 2002
    Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Excerpt

    Duplexes of 21-nt RNAs, known as short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), efficiently inhibit gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi) when introduced into mammalian cells. We show that siRNAs can be synthesized by in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase, providing an economical alternative to chemical synthesis of siRNAs. By using this method, we show that short hairpin siRNAs can function like siRNA duplexes to inhibit gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Further, we find that hairpin siRNAs or siRNAs expressed from an RNA polymerase III vector based on the mouse U6 RNA promoter can effectively inhibit gene expression in mammalian cells. U6-driven hairpin siRNAs dramatically reduced the expression of a neuron-specific beta-tubulin protein during the neuronal differentiation of mouse P19 cells, demonstrating that this approach should be useful for studies of differentiation and neurogenesis. We also observe that mismatches within hairpin siRNAs can increase the strand selectivity of a hairpin siRNA, which may reduce self-targeting of vectors expressing siRNAs. Use of hairpin siRNA expression vectors for RNAi should provide a rapid and versatile method for assessing gene function in mammalian cells, and may have applications in gene therapy.

    Title Nmr Structure of Desulfovibrio Gigas Rubredoxin: a Model for Studying Protein Stabilization by Compatible Solutes.
    Date May 2002
    Journal Extremophiles : Life Under Extreme Conditions
    Excerpt

    Rubredoxins are small, soluble proteins that display a wide variation in thermostability, despite having a high degree of sequence similarity They also vary in the extent to which they are stabilized by solutes such as diglycerol phosphate. Hence, they provide excellent models for studying the mechanisms of thermostabilization. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be used to investigate interactions between molecules, as well as subtle changes in conformation in solution, and also provides a means to measure protein stability. The assignment of the proton NMR spectrum of the zinc rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas is presented, together with its structure in solution. The stabilizing effect of diglycerol phosphate on rubredoxin is demonstrated and assessed by determining selected amide proton exchange rates; diglycerol phosphate at 100 mM concentration caused an additional structural stabilization of 1.2 +/-0.4 kJ/mol. The pattern of effects on the exchange rates is discussed in relation to the protein structure.

    Title Notch Signaling Can Inhibit Xath5 Function in the Neural Plate and Developing Retina.
    Date May 2002
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
    Excerpt

    Neuronal differentiation is regulated by both positive and negative regulatory factors; however, precisely how these factors interact to regulate retinogenesis is still unclear. We have examined the ability of the Notch pathway to modulate the function of the basic helix-loop-helix factor Xath5. Overexpression of Xath5 by RNA injection into cleavage-stage blastomeres promotes ectopic neurogenesis at neural plate stages and ganglion cell differentiation in the developing retina. We found that these activities of Xath5 could be inhibited by coexpression of activated Notch. Notch inhibition of Xath5 function was reversed by coexpression with the zinc finger protein X-MyT1. The Notch effector enhancer-of-split related 1 (ESR1) also blocked Xath5 activity but efficient inhibition by ESR1 required the DNA binding basic domain and the conserved WRPW motif. In addition, ESR1 inhibited the ability of Xath5 to directly activate the expression of XBrn3d, a transcription factor involved in retinal ganglion cell development. Xath5 could upregulate expression of X-Delta-1, ESR1, and ESR3, suggesting that Xath5 participates in a regulatory loop with the Notch pathway.

    Title Cooperativity Between Electrons and Protons in a Monomeric Cytochrome C(3): the Importance of Mechano-chemical Coupling for Energy Transduction.
    Date April 2002
    Journal Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology
    Excerpt

    To fully understand the structural bases for the mechanisms of biological energy transduction, it is essential to determine the microscopic thermodynamic parameters which describe the properties of each centre involved in the reactions, as well as its interactions with the others. These interactions between centres can then be interpreted in the light of structural features of the proteins. Redox titrations of cytochrome c(3) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 followed by NMR and visible spectroscopy were analysed by using an equilibrium thermodynamic model. The network of homotropic and heterotropic cooperativities results in the coupled transfer of electrons and protons under physiological conditions. The microscopic characterisation allows the identification of several pairs of centres for which there are clear conformational (non-Coulombic) contributions to their coupling energies, thus establishing the existence of localised redox- and acid-base-linked structural modifications in the protein (mechano-chemical coupling). The modulation of interactions between centres observed for this cytochrome may be an important general phenomenon and is discussed in the framework of its physiological function and of the current focus of energy transduction research.

    Title Vertebrate Hairy and Enhancer of Split Related Proteins: Transcriptional Repressors Regulating Cellular Differentiation and Embryonic Patterning.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Oncogene
    Excerpt

    The basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of DNA-binding transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes in both invertebrates and vertebrates. One family of bHLH transcriptional repressors is related to the Drosophila hairy and Enhancer-of-split proteins. These repressors contain a tandem arrangement of the bHLH domain and an adjacent sequence known as the Orange domain, so we refer to these proteins as bHLH-Orange or bHLH-O proteins. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the existence of four bHLH-O subfamilies, with distinct, evolutionarily conserved features. A principal function of bHLH-O proteins is to bind to specific DNA sequences and recruit transcriptional corepressors to inhibit target gene expression. However, it is likely that bHLH-O proteins repress transcription by additional mechanisms as well. Many vertebrate bHLH-O proteins are effectors of the Notch signaling pathway, and bHLH-O proteins are involved in regulating neurogenesis, vasculogenesis, mesoderm segmentation, myogenesis, and T lymphocyte development. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of action and biological roles for the vertebrate bHLH-O proteins, as well as some of the unresolved questions about the functions and regulation of these proteins during development and in human disease.

    Title Replacement of the Methionine Axial Ligand in Cytochrome C(550) by a Lysine: Effects on the Haem Electronic Structure.
    Date February 2002
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    The prosthetic group of low-spin haem proteins is an iron porphyrin with two axial ligands, typically histidine, methionine or lysine. Determining the geometry of the axial ligands is an important step in structural characterisation, particularly in the paramagnetic oxidised forms. This work extends earlier studies of the hyperfine nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts of haem substituents in bis-His and His-Met cytochromes to His-Lys co-ordination in the M100K mutant of Paracoccus versutus cytochrome c(550). The electronic structure of the His-Lys haem is shown to be similar to that produced by His-cyanide co-ordination, such that NMR can be used to determine the geometry of the His ligand.

    Title Solution Structure of the Megf/tgfalpha44-50 Chimeric Growth Factor.
    Date January 2002
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The solution structure of the growth factor chimera mEGF/TGFalpha44-50 has been determined using an extended version of the dyana procedure for calculating structures from NMR data. The backbone fold and preferred orientation of the domains of the chimera are similar to those found in previous studies of EGF structures, and several H-bonds used as input constraints in those studies were found independently in the chimera. This shows that the modified activity of the chimera does not result from a major structural change. However, the improved precision of the structure presented here allows the origin of some unusual chemical shifts found in all of these compounds to be explained, as well as the results obtained from some site-specific mutants. Further studies of the properties of this chimeric growth factor should help to elucidate the mechanism(s) of hetero- and homodimerization of the c-erbB receptors.

    Title Conformational Component in the Coupled Transfer of Multiple Electrons and Protons in a Monomeric Tetraheme Cytochrome.
    Date December 2001
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Cell metabolism relies on energy transduction usually performed by complex membrane-spanning proteins that couple different chemical processes, e.g. electron and proton transfer in proton-pumps. There is great interest in determining at the molecular level the structural details that control these energy transduction events, particularly those involving multiple electrons and protons, because tight control is required to avoid the production of dangerous reactive intermediates. Tetraheme cytochrome c(3) is a small soluble and monomeric protein that performs a central step in the bioenergetic metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria, termed "proton-thrusting," linking the oxidation of molecular hydrogen with the reduction of sulfate. The mechano-chemical coupling involved in the transfer of multiple electrons and protons in cytochrome c(3) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 is described using results derived from the microscopic thermodynamic characterization of the redox and acid-base centers involved, crystallographic studies in the oxidized and reduced states of the cytochrome, and theoretical studies of the redox and acid-base transitions. This proton-assisted two-electron step involves very small, localized structural changes that are sufficient to generate the complex network of functional cooperativities leading to energy transduction, while using molecular mechanisms distinct from those established for other Desulfovibrio sp. cytochromes from the same structural family.

    Title Molecular Targets of Vertebrate Segmentation: Two Mechanisms Control Segmental Expression of Xenopus Hairy2 During Somite Formation.
    Date December 2001
    Journal Developmental Cell
    Excerpt

    Vertebrate hairy genes are expressed in patterns thought to be readouts of a "segmentation clock" in the presomitic mesoderm. Here we use transgenic Xenopus embryos to show that two types of regulatory elements are required to reconstitute the segmental pattern of Xenopus hairy2. The first is a promoter element containing two binding sites for Xenopus Su(H), a transcriptional activator of Notch target genes. The second is a short sequence in the hairy2 3' untranslated region (UTR), which most likely functions posttranscriptionally to modulate hairy2 RNA levels. 3' UTRs of other hairy-related, segmentally expressed genes can substitute for that of hairy2. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism regulating the segmental patterns of Notch target genes and suggest that vertebrate segmentation requires the intersection of two regulatory pathways.

    Title Effect of Hydrogen-bond Networks in Controlling Reduction Potentials in Desulfovibrio Vulgaris (hildenborough) Cytochrome C3 Probed by Site-specific Mutagenesis.
    Date October 2001
    Journal Biochemistry
    Excerpt

    Cytochromes C3 isolated from Desulfovibrio spp. are periplasmic proteins that play a central role in energy transduction by coupling the transfer of electrons and protons from hydrogenase. Comparison between the oxidized and reduced structures of cytochrome C3 isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) show that the residue threonine 24, located in the vicinity of heme III, reorients between these two states [Messias, A. C., Kastrau, D. H. W., Costa, H. S., LeGall, J., Turner, D. L., Santos, H., and Xavier, A. V. (1998) J. Mol. Biol. 281, 719-739]. Threonine 24 was replaced with valine by site-directed mutagenesis to elucidate its effect on the redox properties of the protein. The NMR spectra of the mutated protein are very similar to those of the wild type, showing that the general folding and heme core architecture are not affected by the mutation. However, thermodynamic analysis of the mutated cytochrome reveals a large alteration in the microscopic reduction potential of heme III (75 and 106 mV for the protonated forms of the fully reduced and oxidized states, respectively). The redox interactions involving this heme are also modified, while the remaining heme-heme interactions and the redox-Bohr interactions are less strongly affected. Hence, the order of oxidation of the hemes in the mutated cytochrome is different from that in the wild type, and it has a higher overall affinity for electrons. This is consistent with the replacement of threonine 24 by valine preventing the formation of a network of hydrogen bonds, which stabilizes the oxidized state. The mutated protein is unable to perform a concerted two-electron step between the intermediate oxidation stages, 1 and 3, which can occur in the wild-type protein. Thus, replacing a single residue unbalances the global network of cooperativities tuned to control thermodynamically the directionality of the stepwise electron transfer and may affect the functionality of the protein.

    Title Regional Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Cell Size and Contraction-frequency Responses in Rat Cardiac Myocytes.
    Date May 2001
    Journal The Journal of Experimental Biology
    Excerpt

    A model of voluntary exercise, in which rats are given free access to a running wheel over a 14-week period, led to left ventricular hypertrophy. To test whether the hypertrophic response to exercise was uniformly distributed across the ventricular wall, single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the sub-epicardium (EPI) and sub-endocardium (ENDO) of exercised rats and from sedentary rats for comparison. Cellular hypertrophy (approximately 20 % greater cell volume) was seen in ENDO cells from exercised animals, but no significant changes were observed in EPI cells when compared with sedentary controls. This regional effect of exercise may be a response to transmural changes in ventricular wall stress and/or strain. Cell contraction was measured as cell shortening in ENDO and EPI cells at stimulation frequencies between 1 and 9 Hz at 37 degrees C. Exercise training had no effect on cell shortening. Positive and negative contraction-frequency relationships (CFRs) were found in both EPI and ENDO cells between 1 and 5 Hz; at higher frequencies (5-9 Hz), all myocytes displayed a negative CFR. The CFR of a myocyte was, therefore, independent of regional origin and unaffected by exercise. These results suggest that, in vivo, the rat heart displays a negative CFR. We conclude that increased cell size may be a more important adaptive response to exercise than a modification of excitation-contraction coupling.

    Title Solution Structure of Methylophilus Methylotrophus Cytochrome C": Insights into the Structural Basis of Haem-ligand Detachment.
    Date May 2001
    Journal Journal of Molecular Biology
    Excerpt

    Cytochrome c" from Methylophilus methylotrophus is a monohaem protein with 124 amino acid residues. The iron has two histidine ligands in the oxidised form, one of which detaches and picks up a proton when the protein is reduced. Thus, both forms are paramagnetic. The structure of the oxidised form in solution, determined from NMR data is presented. The family of structures has an average backbone rmsd value of 0.53 A, and a heavy atom rmsd value of 0.95 A, within a target function range of 32 %. This structure is related to class I cytochromes with an additional helix at the N terminus. The haem-binding site occurs in a domain essentially lacking secondary structure motifs and the axial histidinyl residues were found in an unusual near perpendicular orientation. Moreover, a disulfide bridge is present, an uncommon structural feature among c-type cytochromes. The disulfide bridge, linking cysteine residues 96 and 104, forms a loop that confers rigidity and is essential to the detachment of the axial histidine (His95) as demonstrated by chemical disruption of the S-S bond. A route for protonation of the distal histidine involving haem propionate 17 is proposed and discussed in the light of available models for complex membrane proton pumps.

    Title Nmr Structure of the Haem Core of a Novel Tetrahaem Cytochrome Isolated from Shewanella Frigidimarina: Identification of the Haem-specific Axial Ligands and Order of Oxidation.
    Date April 2001
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    The tetrahaem cytochrome isolated during anaerobic growth of Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB400 is a small protein (86 residues) involved in electron transfer to Fe(III), which can be used as a terminal respiratory oxidant by this bacterium. A 3D solution structure model of the reduced form of the cytochrome has been determined using NMR data in order to determine the relative orientation of the haems. The haem core architecture of S. frigidimarina tetrahaem cytochrome differs from that found in all small tetrahaem cytochromes c(3) so far isolated from strict anaerobes, but has some similarity to the N-terminal cytochrome domain of flavocytochrome c(3) isolated from the same bacterium. NMR signals obtained for the four haems of S. frigidimarina tetrahaem cytochrome at all stages of oxidation were cross-assigned to the solution structure using the complete network of chemical exchange connectivities. Thus, the order in which each haem in the structure becomes oxidised was determined.

    Title High Yield of Methylophilus Methylotrophus Cytochrome C by Coexpression with Cytochrome C Maturation Gene Cluster from Escherichia Coli.
    Date January 2001
    Journal Protein Expression and Purification
    Excerpt

    Heterologous expression of c-type cytochromes in the periplasm of Escherichia coli often results in low soluble product yield, apoprotein formation, or protein degradation. We have expressed cytochrome c from Methylophilus methylotrophus in E. coli by coexpression of the gene encoding the cytochrome (cycA) with the host-specific cytochrome c maturation elements, within the ccmA-H gene cluster. Aerobic cultures produced up to 10 mg holoprotein per liter after induction with IPTG. In the absence of the maturation factors E. coli failed to produce a stable haem protein. Cytochrome c" isolated from the natural host was compared with the recombinant protein. No structural differences were detected using SDS-PAGE, UV-Visible spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The success in expressing the mature cytochrome c in E. coli allows the engineering of the cycA gene by site-directed mutagenesis thereby providing an ideal method for producing mutant protein for studying the structure/function relationship.

    Title Correlation of Empirical Magnetic Susceptibility Tensors and Structure in Low-spin Haem Proteins.
    Date October 2000
    Journal European Biophysics Journal : Ebj
    Excerpt

    Experimental magnetic susceptibility tensors are reported for eight haems c with bis-His coordination. These data, obtained by fitting the dipolar shifts of backbone protons in the tetrahaem cytochromes c(3) from Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. gigas, are analysed together with published values for other haem proteins. The x and y axes are found to rotate in the opposite sense to the axial ligands and are also counter-rotated with respect to the frontier molecular orbitals of the haem. The magnetic z-axis is close to the normal to the haem plane in each case. The magnitudes of the magnetic anisotropies are used to derive crystal field parameters and the rhombic splitting, V, is correlated with the dihedral angle between the axial ligands. Hence, it is apparent that the axial ligands are the dominant factor in determining the variation in magnetic properties between haems, and it is confirmed that "high g(max)" EPR signals are a reliable indicator of near-perpendicular ligands. These results are in full agreement with the analysis of non-Curie effects and electronic structure in the His-Met coordinated cytochromes c and C(551). Collectively, they show that the orientations of axial ligands to the haem may be estimated from single-crystal EPR data, from (13)C NMR shifts of the haem substituents, or from NMR dipolar shifts of the polypeptide.

    Title Obtaining Ligand Geometries from Paramagnetic Shifts in Low-spin Haem Proteins.
    Date October 2000
    Journal Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : Jbic : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Previously, the theoretical relationship between paramagnetic chemical shifts and the axial ligands in low-spin haem proteins has been tested extensively in haems b and c with His, Met, and cyanide ligands. Variations in the electronic structure of the haem and the magnetic susceptibility tensors have been shown to depend primarily on the axial ligand geometry, and the shifts of haem substituents have been used to obtain the first structural information for several cytochromes. Recently, the database of assigned spectra for bis-His haems has been extended sufficiently for an empirical equation to be produced for treating 1H NMR data from haem methyl groups at 298 K. However, the database used contains large systematic deviations and the form of the equation leads to systematic errors in the ligand geometries. This article describes the link with the semi-empirical methods used previously and provides a set of corrected empirical parameters as well as an improved equation. The possibilities for generalising the empirical method to account for ligands other than His and temperatures other than 298 K are discussed.

    Title Structural Basis for the Network of Functional Cooperativities in Cytochrome C(3) from Desulfovibrio Gigas: Solution Structures of the Oxidised and Reduced States.
    Date May 2000
    Journal Journal of Molecular Biology
    Excerpt

    Cytochrome c(3) is a 14 kDa tetrahaem protein that plays a central role in the bioenergetic metabolism of Desulfovibrio spp. This involves an energy transduction mechanism made possible by a complex network of functional cooperativities between redox and redox/protolytic centres (the redox-Bohr effect), which enables cytochrome c(3) to work as a proton activator. The three-dimensional structures of the oxidised and reduced Desulfovibrio gigas cytochrome c(3) in solution were solved using 2D (1)H-NMR data. The reduced protein structures were calculated using INDYANA, an extended version of DYANA that allows automatic calibration of NOE data. The oxidised protein structure, which includes four paramagnetic centres, was solved using the program PARADYANA, which also includes the structural paramagnetic parameters. In this case, initial structures were used to correct the upper and lower volume restraints for paramagnetic leakage, and angle restraints derived from (13)C Fermi contact shifts of haem moiety substituents were used for the axial histidine ligands. Despite the reduction of the NOE intensities by paramagnetic relaxation, the final family of structures is of similar precision and accuracy to that obtained for the reduced form. Comparison of the two structures shows that, although the global folds of the two families of structures are similar, significant localised differences occur upon change of redox state, some of which could not be detected by comparison with the X-ray structure of the oxidised state: (1) there is a redox-linked concerted rearrangement of Lys80 and Lys90 that results in the stabilisation of haem moieties II and III when both molecules are oxidised or both are reduced, in agreement with the previously measured positive redox cooperativity between these two haem moieties. This cooperativity regulates electron transfer, enabling a two-electron step adapted to the function of cytochromes c(3) as the coupling partner of hydrogenase; and (2) the movement of haem I propionate 13 towards the interior of the protein upon reduction explains the positive redox-Bohr effect, establishing the structural basis for the redox-linked proton activation mechanism necessary for energy conservation, driving ATP synthesis.

    Title Generation of Neurons by Transient Expression of Neural Bhlh Proteins in Mammalian Cells.
    Date March 2000
    Journal Development (cambridge, England)
    Excerpt

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are known to function during mammalian neurogenesis. Here we show that transient transfection of vectors expressing neuroD2, MASH1, ngn1 or related neural bHLH proteins, with their putative dimerization partner E12, can convert mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells into differentiated neurons. Transfected cells express numerous neuron-specific proteins, adopt a neuronal morphology and are electrically excitable. Thus, the expression of neural bHLH proteins is sufficient to confer a neuronal fate on uncommitted mammalian cells. Neuronal differentiation of transfected cells is preceded by elevated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) and cell cycle withdrawal. This demonstrates that the bHLH proteins can link neuronal differentiation to withdrawal from the cell cycle, possibly by activating the expression of p27(Kip1). The ability to generate mammalian neurons by transient expression of neural bHLH proteins should create new opportunities for studying neurogenesis and devising neural repair strategies.

    Title Solution Structure of Plantaricin C, a Novel Lantibiotic.
    Date October 1999
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    Plantaricin C, a bacteriocin produced by a Lactobacillus plantarum strain of dairy origin, is a lantibiotic. One dehydroalanine, one lanthionine and three beta-methyl-lanthionine residues were found in its 27 amino acid sequence. The plantaricin C structure has two parts: the first comprises the six NH2-terminal residues, four of which are lysines, which confer a strong positive charge to this stretch. The amino acids in positions 7 and 27 form the lanthionine bridge, giving a globular conformation to the rest of the molecule. The beta-methyl-lanthionine bridges are established between residues 12-15, 13-18 and 23-26. This central region has a charge distribution compatible with an amphipathic alpha-helix, through which plantaricin C would become inserted into the membrane matrix of sensitive organisms, provoking the opening of pores and leakage of the cytoplasmic content.

    Title Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia After Treatment with Campath 1h in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia.
    Date September 1999
    Journal British Journal of Haematology
    Title Successful Treatment of Candidal Osteomyelitis with Fluconazole Following Failure with Liposomal Amphotericin B.
    Date June 1999
    Journal The Journal of Infection
    Excerpt

    A case of multiple relapses of Candida albicans infection of deep tissues is described. Treatment was complicated by renal impairment, but therapy with a liposomal amphotericin product failed to eradicate the third recurrence which subsequently resolved after protracted exposure to oral fluconazole.

    Title Symmetry and Phase-selected Nmr Spectra of Liquid Crystalline Samples.
    Date January 1999
    Journal Journal of Magnetic Resonance (san Diego, Calif. : 1997)
    Excerpt

    It is demonstrated that the NMR spectra of liquid crystalline samples can be simplified by using multiple quantum filtering. In a system of N spin-12 nuclei, the N or (N-1)-multiple quantum filtered spectra (NQF or (N-1)QF) contain lines which originate only from transitions among the eigenstates belonging to the highest symmetry class of the spin permutation group. In addition the NQF spectra are divided further into two sets of lines which differ in phase by 180 degrees. A method for simulating and analysing multiple quantum filtered spectra is described, with examples from molecules with up to eight interacting spins.

    Title Functional and Mechanistic Studies of Cytochrome C3 from Desulfovibrio Gigas: Thermodynamics of a "proton Thruster".
    Date December 1998
    Journal Biochemistry
    Excerpt

    Nuclear magnetic resonance and visible spectroscopies were used to determine the thermodynamic parameters of the four hemes in cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio gigas at 298 and 277 K and to investigate the mechanism of electron/proton energy transduction. Data obtained in the pH range from 5 to 9 were analyzed according to a model in which the hemes interact with each other (redox cooperativities) and with an ionizable center (redox-Bohr cooperativities). The results obtained at the two temperatures allow the deconvolution of the entropic contribution to the free energy of the four hemes, to the acid-base equilibrium of the ionizable center, and to the network of cooperativities among the five centers. The redox potentials of the hemes are modulated by the enthalpic contribution to the free energy, and evidence for the participation of the propionates of heme I in the redox-Bohr effect is presented. The network of interactions between the centers in this protein facilitates the concerted transfer of electrons and protons, in agreement with the "proton thruster" mechanism proposed for electronic to protonic energy transduction by cytochromes c3.

    Title Solution Structure of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris (hildenborough) Ferrocytochrome C3: Structural Basis for Functional Cooperativity.
    Date September 1998
    Journal Journal of Molecular Biology
    Excerpt

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris cytochrome c3 is a 14 kDa tetrahaem cytochrome that plays a central role in energy transduction. The three-dimensional structure of the ferrocytochrome at pH 8.5 was solved through two-dimensional 1H-NMR. The structures were calculated using a large amount of experimental information, which includes upper and lower distance limits as well as dihedral angle restraints. The analysis allows for fast-flipping aromatic residues and flexibility in the haem plane. The structure was determined using 2289 upper and 2390 lower distance limits, 63 restricted ranges for the phi torsion angle, 88 stereospecific assignments out of the 118 stereopairs with non-degenerate chemical shifts (74.6%), and 115 out of the 184 nuclear Overhauser effects to fast-flipping aromatic residues (62.5%), which were pseudo-stereospecifically assigned to one or the other side of the ring. The calculated NMR structures are very well defined, with an average root-mean-square deviation value relative to the mean coordinates of 0.35 A for the backbone atoms and 0.70 A for all heavy-atoms. Comparison of the NMR structures of the ferrocytochrome at pH 8.5 with the available X-ray structure of the ferricytochrome at pH 5.5 reveals that the general fold of the molecule is very similar, but that there are some distinct differences. Calculation of ring current shifts for the residues with significantly different conformations confirms that the NMR structures represent better its solution structure in the reduced form. Some of the localised differences, such as a reorientation of Thr24, are thought to be state-dependent changes that involve alterations in hydrogen bond networks. An important rearrangement in the vicinity of the propionate groups of haem I and involving the covalent linkage of haem II suggests that this is the critical region for the functional cooperativities of this protein.

    Title Determination of Solution Structures of Paramagnetic Proteins by Nmr.
    Date September 1998
    Journal European Biophysics Journal : Ebj
    Excerpt

    Standard procedures for using nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) between protons to generate structures for diamagnetic proteins in solution from NMR data may be supplemented by using dipolar shifts if the protein is paramagnetic. This is advantageous since the electron -nuclear dipolar coupling provides relatively long-range geometric information with respect to the paramagnetic centre which complements the short-range distance constraints NOEs. Several different strategies have been developed to date, but none of these attempts to combine data from NOEs and dipolar shifts in the initial stages of structure calculation or to determine three dimensional protein structures together with their magnetic properties. This work shows that the magnetic and atomic structures are highly correlated and that it is important to have additional constraints both to provide starting parameters for the magnetic properties and to improve the definition of the best fit. Useful parameters can be obtained for haem proteins from Fermi contact shifts; this approach is compared with a new method based on the analysis of dipolar shifts in haem methyl groups with respect to data from horse and tuna ferricytochromes c. The methods developed for using data from NOEs and dipolar shifts have been incorporated in a new computer program, PARADYANA, which is demonstrated in application to a model data set for the sequence of the haem octapeptide known as microperoxidase-8.

    Title In Vitro Chemosensitivity of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia to Purine Analogues--correlation with Clinical Course.
    Date August 1998
    Journal Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.k
    Excerpt

    Samples from 51 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients (42 typical, nine atypical) were assessed for in vitro response to fludarabine and cladribine (2-CdA) using the flow cytometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) assay. No difference was demonstrated between the in vitro response of typical and atypical CLL and previous treatment did not result in a more apoptosis resistant phenotype. The assay could not distinguish those patients who required subsequent treatment from those whose disease remained stable, and universal cross-resistance/sensitivity to the two purine analogues was demonstrated. The assay's potential for use in the rapid assessment of in vivo response to purine analogue therapy in CLL was limited; correctly predicting the clinical outcome of 10/12 patients to treatment but failing to predict progression in two p53 deficient patients. The level of bcl-2 in the clonal lymphocytes did not influence the in vitro, spontaneous or drug-induced, apoptosis.

    Title Effects of Endurance Training on Oxidative Capacity and Structural Composition of Human Arm and Leg Muscles.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Acta Physiologica Scandinavica
    Excerpt

    Six healthy subjects performed endurance training of the same duration with legs and arms consecutively. Performance and muscle structure were measured before and after training in lower and upper limbs. Training induced similar increases in maximal oxygen consumption (6 +/- 1 vs. 7 +/- 2 mL min-1 kg-1: legs vs. arms, P > 0.05) and mitochondrial volume in leg and arm muscles (42 +/- 12 vs. 31 +/- 11%: legs vs. arms, P > 0.05). The gain in mitochondrial volume after training was achieved solely by increasing the fraction of mitochondria (+40 +/- 11%, P < 0.05) in the same muscle volume (+2 +/- 2%, P > 0.05) in the legs. In contrast, increased muscle volume (+14 +/- 3%, P < 0.05), in addition to a tendency for an increase in mitochondrial fraction (+16 +/- 11%, P > 0.05), occurred in the arms after training. Thus, similar improvements in muscle oxidative capacity in upper and lower limbs were brought about by different mechanisms. It is suggested that due to infrequent use and a lack of load-bearing function, arm muscle volume is underdeveloped in untrained, sedentary or detrained/injured subjects and that the mode of endurance training used in this study is sufficient to enlarge arm muscle volume as well as aerobic capacity.

    Title Modulation of Ventilatory Control During Exercise.
    Date February 1998
    Journal Respiration Physiology
    Excerpt

    The control of ventilatory responses to mild or moderate dynamic exercise has been the subject of considerable debate for over a century. The prevailing view has been that the ventilatory response to exercise is stereotypical and rather unmalleable. However, paradigms involving novel associations of stimulus inputs have been shown to modulate breathing in short and longer time scales. The scope of this review includes examples of modified ventilatory responses to exercise which have been investigated in terms of neural mechanisms. An attempt to synthesise the available data into a model of neuromodulation is presented.

    Title Paramagnetic Nmr Shifts in Cyanoferricytochrome C. Investigation of Thermal Stability and Deviations from Curie Law Behaviour.
    Date December 1997
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Excerpt

    The paramagnetic shifts of 13C nuclei positioned alpha to the haem in cyanoferricytochrome c are reported and analysed in terms of molecular orbitals based on D4h symmetry with a rhombic perturbation. The temperature dependence of the Fermi contact and dipolar shifts of the haem and axial histidine ligand show deviations from Curie Law behaviour which are explained by a Boltzmann distribution between partially filled 3e(pi) molecular orbitals and the ground and first excited state Kramers doublets. The comprehensive explanation of the temperature dependence of the paramagnetic shifts leads to the conclusion that there is no detectable temperature dependence of the haem orientation or that of the His ligand orientation. This work also provides evidence for the role of the axial His ligand in determining the orientation of the magnetic z-axis.

    Title Ph Dependence of Structural and Functional Properties of Oxidized Cytochrome C" from Methylophilus Methylotrophus.
    Date October 1997
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Cytochrome c" from Methylophilus methylotrophus is an unusual monoheme protein that undergoes a major redox-linked change in the heme arrangement: one of the two axial histidines bound to the iron in the oxidized form is detached upon reduction and a proton is taken up. The kinetics of reduction by sodium dithionite and the spectroscopic properties of the oxidized cytochrome c" have been investigated over the pH range between 1.4 and 10.0. The rate of reduction displays proton-linked transitions of pKa congruent with 5.5 and 2.4, and a spectroscopic transition with a pKa congruent with 2.4 is also observed. The protein displays a complete reversibility after exposure to low pH, and both electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopic properties suggest that the transition at lower pH brings about a drastic change in the heme coordination geometry. Circular dichroism spectra indicate that over the same proton-linked transition, the protein undergoes a marked decrease (approximately 60%) of the alpha-helical content toward a random coil arrangement, which is recovered upon increasing the ionic strength. The structural change at low pH is linked to a concerted two-proton transition, suggesting the detachment and protonation of axial histidine(s). Such kinetic and spectroscopic features along with the remarkable capacity of this protein to recover its native structure after exposure to extremely low pH values makes it a promising model for studying folding processes and stability in heme proteins.

    Title Long-term Facilitation of Ventilation Following Repeated Hypoxic Episodes in Awake Goats.
    Date May 1997
    Journal The Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    1. This study tested two hypotheses: (1) that episodic hypoxia elicits long-term facilitation (LTF) in respiratory neurons that is manifest as an increase in ventilation in awake goats; and (2) that LTF causes complex changes in respiratory pattern which are responsible for the increase in ventilation. 2. Each goat participated in two protocols. In the first, inspired gas mixtures were alternated between isocapnic normoxia and hypoxia (arterial partial pressure of oxygen, Pa,O2 = 47 mmHg) for ten cycles. Each hypoxic episode lasted 3 min and normoxic intervals were 5 min. Ventilatory variables were measured during the last minute of each episode and periodically for up to 1 h following the last hypoxic episode. The second, sham protocol was undertaken at least 2 weeks later and was identical to the first, except that isocapnic hypoxia was replaced with normoxia. 3. Inspired ventilation (VI) increased during the first isocapnic hypoxic episode and reached progressively higher levels in subsequent hypoxic episodes. VI also increased progressively among normoxic intervals, such that by the tenth normoxic interval, it had increased 68% relative to the comparable sham value (P < 0.05). Respiratory frequency (FR), tidal volume and mean inspiratory flow all contributed to the augmented VI during both isocapnic normoxia and hypoxia. The increase in VI lasted up to 40 min after the final hypoxic episode, with an increased FR making the greatest contribution. The persistent increase in VI strongly suggests that episodic hypoxia elicits LTF in respiratory neurons in the awake goat. Complex changes in respiratory pattern underpin the ventilatory manifestation of LTF.

    Title Use of Paramagnetic Nmr Probes for Structural Analysis in Cytochrome C3 from Desulfovibrio Vulgaris.
    Date May 1997
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The dipolar field generated by each of the four haems in the tetrahaem ferricytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) (c3DvH) is determined by means of a novel procedure. In this method the 13C chemical shifts of the nuclei directly bound to the haems are used to determine the in-plane orientations of the rhombic perturbation in each of the four haems with respect to a model of molecular orbitals of e(g) symmetry which are subject to a rhombic perturbation [Turner, D. L., Salgueiro, C. A., Schenkels, P., LeGall, J. & Xavier, A. V. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1246, 24-281. These orientations, together with the components of the magnetic susceptibility tensors obtained from the EPR g values and the crystal structure of c3DvH, can be used to calculate the dipolar shifts induced by each haem throughout the protein. Thus the observed 13C paramagnetic shifts of the c3DvH haem substituents were fitted considering both the pseudocontact and contact shifts of each haem simultaneously. The dipolar shifts calculated by this method were tested against the observed dipolar shifts for some amino acid residues strategically placed in the protein and also for the haem propionate groups. The effect of considering the calculated dipolar extrinsic shifts on the behaviour of the chemical shifts of the haem methyl groups in the intermediate stages of oxidation at different pH values was also analysed. The several tests applied to the calculated dipolar shifts have shown that the method is extremely useful for predicting chemical shifts as an aid to complete proton assignment, and to add further constraints in the refinement of solution structures of paramagnetic proteins and hence to probe subtle structural rearrangements around the haem pocket.

    Title The Xenopus Homolog of Drosophila Suppressor of Hairless Mediates Notch Signaling During Primary Neurogenesis.
    Date March 1997
    Journal Development (cambridge, England)
    Excerpt

    The X-Notch-1 receptor, and its putative ligand, X-Delta-1, are thought to mediate an inhibitory cell-cell interaction, called lateral inhibition, that limits the number of primary neurons that form in Xenopus embryos. The expression of Xenopus ESR-1, a gene related to Drosophila Enhancer of split, appears to be induced by Notch signaling during this process. To determine how the activation of X-Notch-1 induces ESR-1 expression and regulates primary neurogenesis, we isolated the Xenopus homolog of Suppressor of Hairless (X-Su(H)), a component of the Notch signaling pathway in Drosophila. Using animal cap assays, we show that X-Su(H) induces ESR-1 expression, perhaps directly, when modified by the addition of ankyrin repeats. Using a DNA binding mutant of X-Su(H), we show that X-Su(H) activity is required for induction of ESR-1. Finally, expression of the DNA binding mutant in embryos leads to a neurogenic phenotype as well as increased expression of both X-Delta-1 and XNGNR1, a proneural gene expressed during primary neurogenesis. These results suggest that activation of X-Su(H) is a key step in the Notch signaling pathway during primary neurogenesis in Xenopus embryos.

    Title Assignment of the Ligand Geometry and Redox Potentials of the Trihaem Ferricytochrome C3 from Desulfuromonas Acetoxidans.
    Date March 1997
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    Cytochrome c551.5 is a trihaem cytochrome of the cytochrome c3 family isolated from Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Although several X-ray structures are available for tetrahaem cytochromes of this family, there is no X-ray structure for trihaem cytochromes. Cytochrome C551.5 was studied in the oxidized form by means of two-dimensional NMR. The pattern of observed interhaem NOESY connectivities is in agreement with the haem core structure previously determined by NMR for the reduced protein [Coutinho, I. B., Turner, D. L., Liu, M. Y., LeGall, J. & Xavier, A. V. (1996) J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 1, 305-311]. The similarities found between the haem core structure and the amino acid sequence of cytochrome c551.5 and those of tetrahaem cytochromes c3 allows each of the haems to be specifically assigned in the polypeptide sequence, and the attribution of the midpoint redox potentials to the individual haems. This also allows individual redox potentials to be assigned to each haem in the NMR spectrum. The paramagnetic shifts of the 13C resonances of the haem substituents were analyzed in terms of pi molecular orbitals with perturbed D4h symmetry. The parameters of this analysis have been shown to be controlled by the orientation of the axial ligands in several other bis-His-coordinated haems and hence the ligand geometry was deduced for cytochrome C551.5. The structural analogy between the relative haem plane orientations in cytochrome c551.5 and the tetrahaem cytochromes c3 is found to extend to the axial ligands with the largest differences being in the vicinity of the deleted fourth haem, using the numbering of cytochrome c3 haems.

    Title The Notch Pathway: Democracy and Aristocracy in the Selection of Cell Fate.
    Date March 1997
    Journal Current Opinion in Neurobiology
    Excerpt

    Major advances in the past two years have increased our understanding of the molecular components of the Notch signal-transduction pathway in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Recent studies have begun to address the interaction of other signaling pathways with the Notch pathway. Of particular interest is the integration of signals from the Wingless pathway and from asymmetrically segregating determinants such as numb. Molecular models for Notch-mediated cell-fate selection within groups of developmentally equivalent cells are presented.

    Title Nmr Studies of Cooperativity in the Tetrahaem Cytochrome C3 from Desulfovibrio Vulgaris.
    Date January 1997
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The thermodynamic properties of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) tetrahaem cytochrome c3 (Dvc3) are rationalised by a model which involves both homotropic (e-/e-) and heterotropic (e-/H+) cooperativity. The paramagnetic shifts of a methyl group from each haem of the Dvc3 have been determined in each stage of oxidation at several pH values by means of two-dimensional exchange NMR. The thermodynamic parameters are obtained by fitting the model to the NMR data and to redox titrations followed by visible spectroscopy. They show significant positive cooperativity between two of the haems whereas the remaining interactions appear to be largely electrostatic in origin. These parameters imply that the protein undergoes a proton-assisted two-electron transfer which can be used for energy transduction. Comparison with the crystal structure together with measurement of the kinetics of proton exchange suggest that the pH dependence is mediated by a charged residue(s) readily acessible to the solvent and close to haem I.

    Title Analysis of the Paramagnetic Shifts of Haem Carbon Resonances in Bovine Ferricytochrome B5.
    Date October 1996
    Journal European Biophysics Journal : Ebj
    Excerpt

    Recently published chemical shifts for haem 13C nuclei in bovine ferricytochrome b5 (Lee KB, Kweon J, Park H (1995) Assignment of hyperfine-shifted heme carbon resonances in ferricytochrome b5. FEBS Lett. 367:77-80) are analysed in terms of haem molecular orbitals with perturbed D4h symmetry. Since a crystal structure of this protein is available, together with extensive 1H assignments both in the oxidised and reduced forms, the paramagnetic shifts can be separated into dipolar and Fermi contact contributions by using an empirical magnetic susceptibility tensor. The results are compared with the orientation of the tensor and the geometry of the haem ligands. This comparison casts doubt on one of the 13C assignments and demonstrates that the asymmetry of the haem electronic structure is dominated by the influence of both of the His ligands. The 13C chemical shifts of two haem methyl groups in the minor form of the protein, in which the haem is approximately rotated by 180 degrees about its 5CH-15CH axis, are also evaluated.

    Title Structural and Functional Characterization of Cytochrome C3 from D. Desulfuricans Atcc 27774 by 1h-nmr.
    Date September 1996
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    Cooperativity between redox and protonation centres is known to be crucial for the function of complex proteins, but it is often difficult to describe in terms of thermodynamic parameters. Cytochrome c3 is a good model for these studies since, while retaining the overall complexity of larger systems, it is suitable for detailed crystallographic and spectroscopic studies. Assignment of the haem substituent NMR resonances, together with NMR redox titrations of cytochrome c3 from D. desulfuricans ATCC 27774, was used to correlate relative redox potentials to specific haems in the structure: haem II approximately equal to haem I < haem IV < haem III. This order is different from that determined for the homologous proteins studied and in disagreement with that previously reported for this cytochrome (Morais, J., Palma, N., Frazäo, C., Caldeira, J., LeGall, J., Moura, I., Moura, J.J.G. and Carrondo, M.A. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 12830-12841).

    Title Hypoxic Exercise Does Not Elicit Long-term Modulation of the Normoxic Exercise Ventilatory Response in Goats.
    Date June 1996
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Title The Metabolic Costs of Different Types of Contractile Activity of the Human Adductor Pollicis Muscle.
    Date March 1996
    Journal The Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    1. The metabolic costs and physiological consequences of shortening contractions of a human muscle working in situ have been compared with those of the muscle maintaining a continuous isometric contraction and when performing repeated brief isometric contractions. 2. After a total of 10 s stimulation, the shortening and intermittent brief isometric protocols had very similar effects, causing a 30% loss of force and a threefold increase in the half-time of relaxation. This was in contrast to the continuous isometric contraction protocol where there was less than 10% loss of force or slowing of relaxation. 3. The ATP cost over the first 5 s of the continuous isometric protocol was 27 mmol (l intracellular water)-1 while for the shortening and repeated brief isometric protocols the costs were 48 and 46 mmol (l intracellular water)-1, respectively. 4. The results show that shortening and repeated brief isometric contractions are considerably more energetically demanding, and hence more fatiguing, than sustained isometric contractions.

    Title Cold Acclimation and Endurance Training in Guinea Pigs: Changes in Daily and Maximal Metabolism.
    Date March 1996
    Journal Respiration Physiology
    Excerpt

    The physiological effects of training or cold acclimation on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max) and average daily metabolic rate (VO2,dav) of a small mammal, the guinea pig, are described. Young male guinea pigs were assigned to three experimental groups; control, endurance trained (70% VO2,max) or cold acclimated (5-7 degrees C) for six weeks. Measurements of VO2,max and VO2,dav were made before and after the treatments. VO2,max increased significantly in cold acclimated (+29%) and endurance trained (+23%) animals and was achieved at a higher maximal running speed compared to post-treatment controls. Maximal blood lactate concentration was significantly higher in cold acclimated compared to endurance trained animals. Endurance trained animals had a reduced VO2,dav compared to control animals, whereas cold acclimation raised VO2,dav in the cold as expected, but also at room temperature. All three groups showed a daily pattern in metabolic rate (night > day). In conclusion, both endurance training and cold acclimation lead to enhanced VO2,max and changes in resting oxygen consumption throughout the day.

    Title Cold Acclimation and Endurance Training in Guinea Pigs: Changes in Lung, Muscle and Brown Fat Tissue.
    Date March 1996
    Journal Respiration Physiology
    Excerpt

    The effects of an intermittent high intensity stimulus (running) or a chronic low intensity stimulus (cold acclimation) of oxidative metabolism on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max), lung O2 diffusing capacity (DLO2) and skeletal muscle as well as fat tissue mitochondrial content in growing guinea pigs are described. Young male guinea pigs were assigned to three experimental groups (n = 5): control (C), endurance trained (T; at 70% VO2max) or cold acclimated (CA; 5-7 degrees C) for six weeks. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the experimental period and tissue for morphometric analysis of the lung, muscle and interscapular fat was sampled. T and CA animals significantly increased weight specific VO2max by 23% and 29%, respectively. Despite a significant increase in absolute lung volume in T (+10%) and in weight specific lung volume in CA (+20%) neither absolute nor weight specific DLO2 was significantly affected by the experimental treatments. In trained animals the total volume of mitochondria remained unchanged in samples representative for the entire musculature but was significantly increased in M. vastus intermedius (+72%). Intramyocellular lipids increased significantly both in M. vastus intermedius (+244%) as well as in the whole body musculature (+164%). Cold acclimation increased the mitochondrial content of the interscapular fat pad by approximately 20-fold but had no effect on total mitochondrial volume in muscle. We conclude that the increase in oxygen demand resulting from exercise training or from cold acclimation could be accomodated by the existing lung diffusing capacity and did not induce a global change of oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle tissue in growing guinea pigs. Exercise training caused oxidative capacity to increase only in a locomotor muscle activated during running whereas cold acclimation greatly increased interscapular fat tissue oxidative capacity.

    Title Specificity for the Hairy/enhancer of Split Basic Helix-loop-helix (bhlh) Proteins Maps Outside the Bhlh Domain and Suggests Two Separable Modes of Transcriptional Repression.
    Date January 1996
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
    Excerpt

    The Hairy/Enhancer of split/Deadpan family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins function as transcriptional repressors. We have examined the mechanisms of repression used by the Hairy and E(SPL) proteins by assaying the antagonism between wild-type or altered Hairy/E(SPL) and Scute bHLH proteins during sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster. Domain swapping and mutagenesis of the Hairy and E(SPL) proteins show that three evolutionarily conserved domains are required for their function: the bHLH, Orange, and WRPW domains. However, the suppression of Scute activity by Hairy does not require the WRPW domain. We show that the Orange domain is an important functional domain that confers specificity among members of the Hairy/E(SPL) family. In addition, we show that a Xenopus Hairy homology conserves not only Hairy's structure but also its biological activity in our assays. We propose that transcriptional repression by the Hairy/E(SPL) family of bHLH proteins involves two separable mechanisms: repression of specific transcriptional activators, such as Scute, through the bHLH and Orange domains and repression of other activators via interaction of the C-terminal WRPW motif with corepressors, such as the Groucho protein.

    Title Determination of Haem Electronic Structure in Cytochrome B5 and Metcyanomyoglobin.
    Date November 1995
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The paramagnetic shifts of 13C nuclei positioned alpha to the haems in the A and B forms of rat cytochrome b5 and in metcyanomyoglobin have been analysed in terms of molecular orbitals based on D4h symmetry with a rhombic perturbation. The contribution to the 13C shifts from pseudocontact interactions is calculated from parameters obtained for a metal-centred dipolar shift tensor by fitting 1H shifts. The effect of electron delocalisation onto the vinyl groups of these haems b is separated with reference to the shifts of the vinyl beta carbons. In each case, it was found that the orientation of the magnetic axes in the plane of the haem is rotated away from the iron-nitrogen vectors in the opposite sense to the rotation of the rhombic perturbation and the molecular orbitals. The orientation of the orbitals is closely aligned with the normal to the single His ligand in metcyanomyoglobin, and with the average of the two normals in the bis-His cytochrome b5. It is concluded that the in-plane anisotropy of haems b is dominated by the orientation of the axial ligands in a similar manner to that in haems c and that the approximations used are weakened, but not invalidated, by the presence of partially conjugated vinyl groups.

    Title Constrained Peptide Analogues of Transforming Growth Factor-alpha Residues Cysteine 21-32 Are Mitogenically Active. Use of Proline Mimetics to Enhance Biological Potency.
    Date October 1995
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Two proline mimetics, the enantiomers of 2-aza-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, have been incorporated in place of Pro30 into synthetic peptides based on the B-loop beta-sheet sequence of human transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) (residues Cys21-Cys32). The peptides were further modified by inclusion of an N-terminal phenylalanine and constrained by formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond. While no mitogenic response was observed in the parental NR6 cell line, the peptides stimulated DNA synthesis in NR6/HER cells (NR6 fibroblasts transfected with the human epidermal growth factor receptor). Induction of DNA synthesis was dose dependent, with EC50 values in the range 130-330 microM; in the presence of low doses of TGF-alpha, the mitogenic effect of the peptides was additive, up to the plateau response achieved by maximal doses of TGF-alpha alone. These effects are consistent with the peptides acting via the same mechanism as TGF-alpha. Analysis of the structure of the peptides by NMR indicated that the presence of the mimetics significantly increased the propensity of the peptidyl-proline bond to adopt the cis conformation. These data confirm the role of the beta-sheet in receptor activation, and emphasize the importance of presentation of peptides in an appropriate conformation for recognition.

    Title The Conformation of the Monensin-a-sodium Complex in Solution Determined from Self-consistent Noe Distance Constraints.
    Date September 1995
    Journal Journal of Magnetic Resonance. Series B
    Excerpt

    The structure of the monensin-A-sodium complex in solution in chloroform is determined by means of NOESY experiments and distance-geometry calculations. The information extracted from the NOESY spectra is maximized by estimating errors on cross-peak intensities (D.L. Turner, J. Magn. Reson. A 107, 239 (1994)) which are used in defining upper and lower distance constraints and also for weighting when calculating distance scaling factors. The resulting structure is closely similar to that found in the crystal, with deviations which fall within the range found for different crystal forms.

    Title Nmr Studies and Redox Titration of the Tetraheme Cytochrome C3 from Desulfomicrobium Baculatum. Identification of the Low-potential Heme.
    Date August 1995
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The tetraheme cytochromes c3 isolated from two strains of Desulfomicrobium baculatum were studied by monitoring the spectral changes undergone during redox titrations followed by 1H NMR. The evolution of the three-protein intensity signals at low field allowed the partial identification of the heme methyl resonances in the spectrum of the fully oxidized state. The chemical shift variation shown by the protons of the aromatic sidechains as well as of the substituents of the higher-potential heme HIII [Coutinho, I. B., Turner, D. L., LeGall, J. & Xavier, A. V. (1993) Biochem. J. 294, 899-908] yielded the assignment of the lower midpoint redox potential to heme HII in the three-dimensional structure. This cross-assignment is achieved by comparing the chemical shifts of the resonances in the spectra obtained at intermediate oxidation levels with the pseudocontact shifts predicted to arise from the three lower-potential hemes. The cross-assignment for the cytochromes from these two strains is different from that of the cytochromes from Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas.

    Title Conversion of Xenopus Ectoderm into Neurons by Neurod, a Basic Helix-loop-helix Protein.
    Date June 1995
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are instrumental in determining cell type during development. A bHLH protein, termed NeuroD, for neurogenic differentiation, has now been identified as a differentiation factor for neurogenesis because (i) it is expressed transiently in a subset of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems at the time of their terminal differentiation into mature neurons and (ii) ectopic expression of neuroD in Xenopus embryos causes premature differentiation of neuronal precursors. Furthermore, neuroD can convert presumptive epidermal cells into neurons and also act as a neuronal determination gene. However, unlike another previously identified proneural gene (XASH-3), neuroD seems competent to bypass the normal inhibitory influences that usually prevent neurogenesis in ventral and lateral ectoderm and is capable of converting most of the embryonic ectoderm into neurons. The data suggest that neuroD may participate in the terminal differentiation step during vertebrate neuronal development.

    Title Determination of Haem Electronic Structure in His-met Cytochromes C by 13c-nmr. The Effect of the Axial Ligands.
    Date March 1995
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The assignment of 13C resonances of nuclei alpha to the haem in horse ferricytochrome c is completed and the Fermi contact shifts are evaluated at 30 degrees C and 50 degrees C using empirical magnetic susceptibility tensors to correct for dipolar interactions. The Fermi contact shifts are fitted to a model of molecular orbitals of eg symmetry, which are subject to a rhombic perturbation. A similar analysis is performed using published data for Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c551. The relationship between the orientation of the effective g tensor and that of the rhombic perturbation in these proteins is shown to agree with theoretical predictions. A comparison between the orientation of the rhombic perturbations and the crystal structures of horse cytochrome c and P. aeruginosa cytochrome c551 reveals that the orientation of the histidine and methionine axial ligands dominates the rhombic perturbation and that the two ligands have approximately equal influence. The magnitude of the perturbation shows that the orientation of the axial ligands has little effect on the haem redox potential. However, the relationship that is established between the magnetic susceptibility tensor, the partially filled haem molecular orbitals, and the orientation of the haem ligands offers a new source of precise structural information.

    Title Carbon-13 Nmr Studies of the Influence of Axial Ligand Orientation on Haem Electronic Structure.
    Date February 1995
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Excerpt

    Three-quarters of the carbon-13 resonances of nuclei attached to the four haems of Desulfovibrio vulgaris ferricytochrome c3 are assigned. Preliminary analysis of their Fermi contact interactions shows that the shifts are directly related to the orientation of both of the axial histidine ligands in each case and the approach can therefore be used to obtain structural information in other cytochromes with bis-histidinyl coordination. The implications for the control of redox potential in cytochromes are discussed.

    Title Expression of Achaete-scute Homolog 3 in Xenopus Embryos Converts Ectodermal Cells to a Neural Fate.
    Date November 1994
    Journal Genes & Development
    Excerpt

    In Drosophila, the proneural genes of the achaete-scute complex encode transcriptional activators that can commit cells to a neural fate. We have isolated cDNAs for two Xenopus achaete-scute homologs, ASH3a and ASH3b, which are expressed in a subset of central nervous system (CNS) neuroblasts during early neurogenesis. After expressing either ASH3 protein in developing Xenopus embryos, we find enlargement of the CNS at the expense of adjacent non-neural ectoderm. Analysis of molecular markers for neural, epidermal, and neural crest cells indicates that CNS expansion occurs as early as neural plate formation. ASH3-dependent CNS enlargement appears to require neural induction, as it does not occur in animal cap explants. Inhibition of DNA synthesis shows that additional CNS tissue does not depend on cell division--rather it reflects conversion of prospective neural crest and epidermal cells to a neural fate. The differentiation of the early forming primary neurons also seems to be prevented by ASH3 expression. This may be secondary to the observed activation of Xotch transcription by ASH3.

    Title Expression, Biotinylation and Purification of a Biotin-domain Peptide from the Biotin Carboxy Carrier Protein of Escherichia Coli Acetyl-coa Carboxylase.
    Date October 1994
    Journal The Biochemical Journal
    Excerpt

    A protein segment consisting of the C-terminal 87 residues of the biotin carboxy carrier protein from Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase was overexpressed in E. coli. The expressed biotin-domain peptide can be fully biotinylated by coexpression with a plasmid that overproduces E. coli biotin ligase. The extent of biotinylation was limited in vivo, but could be taken to completion in cell lysates on addition of ATP and biotin. We used the coexpression of biotin ligase and acceptor protein to label the biotin-domain peptide in vitro with [3H]biotin, which greatly facilitated development of a purification procedure. The apo (unbiotinylated) form of the protein was prepared by induction of biotin-domain expression in a strain lacking the biotin-ligase-overproduction plasmid. The apo domain could be separated from the biotinylated protein by ion-exchange chromatography or non-denaturing PAGE, and was converted into the biotinylated form of the peptide on addition of purified biotin ligase. The identify of the purified biotin-domain peptide was confirmed by N-terminal sequence analysis, amino acid analysis and m.s. The domain was readily produced and purified in sufficient quantities for n.m.r. structural analysis.

    Title Homotropic and Heterotropic Cooperativity in the Tetrahaem Cytochrome C3 from Desulfovibrio Vulgaris.
    Date October 1994
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Excerpt

    The thermodynamic parameters which govern the homotropic (e-/e-) and heterotropic (e-/H+) cooperativity in the tetrahaem cytochrome c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) were determined, using the paramagnetic shifts of haem methyl groups in the NMR spectra of intermediate oxidized states at different pH levels. A model is put forward to explain how the network of positive and negative cooperativities between the four haems and acid/base group(s) enables the protein to achieve a proton-assisted 2e- step.

    Title An Unusual Conformation of the Methionine Haem Ligand in Cytochrome Cl Established by Two-dimensional 1h-nmr.
    Date September 1994
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    A complete relaxation-matrix analysis of NOESY cross-peak intensities was used to determine the conformation of the methionine ligand to the haem group in two ferrocytochromes cL from Methylophilus methylotrophus and Methylobacterium extorquens, including the configuration at the sulphur. The conformation of the axial methionine is of a type reported only for the cytochromes c5 from Pseudomonas mendocina and Azotobacter vinelandii. Although the conformation of the methionine is unusual, the paramagnetic shifts of the haem methyl proton resonances in the oxidized proteins indicate that the electronic structure of the haem groups is similar to that found in the mitochondrial type of cytochrome c.

    Title Two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Paramagnetic Metalloproteins.
    Date January 1994
    Journal Methods in Enzymology
    Title Characterization of the Structure and Redox Behaviour of Cytochrome C3 from Desulfovibrio Baculatus by 1h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance Spectroscopy.
    Date October 1993
    Journal The Biochemical Journal
    Excerpt

    Complete assignment of the aromatic and haem proton resonances in the cytochromes c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio baculatus strains (Norway 4, DSM 1741) and (DSM 1743) was achieved using one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. Nuclear Overhauser enhancements observed between haem and aromatic resonances and between resonances due to different haems, together with the ring-current contributions to the chemical shifts of haem resonances, support the argument that the haem core architecture is conserved in the various cytochromes c3, and that the X-ray structure of the D. baculatus cytochrome c3 is erroneous. The relative orientation of the haems for both cytochromes was determined directly from n.m.r. data. The n.m.r. structures have a resolution of approximately 0.25 nm and are found to be in close agreement with the X-ray structure from D. vulgaris cytochrome c3. The proton assignments were used to relate the highest potential to a specific haem in the three-dimensional structure by monitoring the chemical-shift variation of several haem resonances throughout redox titrations followed by 1H n.m.r. The haem with highest redox potential is not the same as that in other cytochromes c3.

    Title Structural Studies on Desulfovibrio Gigas Cytochrome C3 by Two-dimensional 1h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance Spectroscopy.
    Date October 1993
    Journal The Biochemical Journal
    Excerpt

    Several aromatic amino acid residues and haem resonances in the fully reduced form of Desulfovibrio gigas cytochrome c3 are assigned, using two-dimensional 1H n.m.r., on the basis of the interactions between the protons of the aromatic amino acids and the haem protons as well as the intrahaem distances known from the X-ray structure [Kissinger (1989) Ph.D. Thesis, Washington State University]. The interhaem interactions observed in the n.m.r. spectra are in full agreement with the D. gigas X-ray structure and also with the n.m.r. data from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) [Turner, Salgueiro, LeGall and Xavier (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 210, 931-936]. The good correlation between the calculated ring-current shifts and the observed chemical shifts strongly supports the present assignments. Observation of the two-dimensional nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement spectra of the protein in the reduced, intermediate and fully oxidized stages led to the ordering of the haems in terms of their midpoint redox potentials and their identification in the X-ray structure. The first haem to oxidize is haem I, followed by haems II, III and IV, numbered according to the Cys ligand positions in the amino acid sequences [Mathews (1985) Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 54, 1-56]. Although the haem core architecture is the same for the different Desulfovibrio cytochromes c3, the order of redox potentials is different.

    Title Characterization of the Haem Environment in Methylophilus Methylotrophus Ferricytochrome C" by 1h-nmr.
    Date September 1993
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    Two-dimensional NMR techniques have been used to assign proton resonances in the haem cavity of Methylophilus methylotrophus cytochrome c", a monohaem protein with bis-histidinyl ligation which has been shown to couple electron and proton transfer. All the assignments were made directly for the oxidized paramagnetic form of the cytochrome. Nearly all of the haem protons (90%) and the protons of both axial ligands have been assigned; the side-chain protons from four other residues in the haem pocket have also been identified. The data indicate a highly symmetric unpaired-electron distribution in the haem group, which agrees with a perpendicular orientation of the axial imidazole planes. The two haem propionate groups have contrasting degrees of exposure to the solvent, with the propionate group at position 13 being highly exposed. To obtain information on the dynamics of the haem environment, measurements of the 1H/2H-exchange rates of amide protons located in the haem cavity were performed. The two faces of the haem are found to differ markedly with respect to water accessibility. All of this information, together with additional protein sequencing data, indicates that His52 remains attached upon reduction and that the redox-linked protonation occurs via a channel running through the haem cleft on the opposite face.

    Title Limitations to Vo2max in Humans After Blood Retransfusion.
    Date September 1993
    Journal Respiration Physiology
    Excerpt

    Seven young, healthy male subjects performed maximal exercise on a cycloergometer with central venous and arterial catheters, before and after autologous retransfusion of red blood cells. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), blood gas composition and haemodynamic variables were measured, in order to test the hypothesis of monofactorial vs. polyfactorial VO2max limitation. Autologous blood retransfusion led to significant increases in haemoglobin concentration and consequently arterial oxygen concentration during maximal exercise, while maximal cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume were not significantly changed. The relationship between maximal oxygen delivery (cardiac output.arterial oxygen concentration; (Q.CaO2)max and maximal oxygen consumption in this study was VO2max (L.min-1) = 0.02 + 0.64.(Q.CaO2)max (L.min-1), the slope being significantly less than unity. These results suggest that (Q.CaO2)max plays but a fractional role in limiting VO2max, in agreement with recent models concerning the resistance to oxygen flow in the respiratory system (di Prampero and Ferretti, Respir. Physiol. 80: 113-128, 1990). The relative increase in VO2max after blood retransfusion matched the relative increase in 'aerobic performance', measured as the maximal power output that could be maintained aerobically for 30 min. Furthermore, the increase in maximal power output (15 +/- 3 watts) could account for almost all of the extra oxygen consumption. This match suggests that there is an inability to fully utilize muscle oxidative capacity in the normocythaemic state.

    Title 1h- and 13c-nmr Investigation of Redox-state-dependent and Temperature-dependent Conformation Changes in Horse Cytochrome C.
    Date March 1993
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The redox-state dependent changes in chemical shift, which have been measured for almost 100 CHn groups in the 13C-NMR spectra of horse cytochrome c [Santos, H., and Turner, D. L. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 721-728], have been used to investigate the nature of the redox-related change in conformation. Apart from the haem and its axial ligands, the shifts are found to be dominated by the electron-nuclear dipolar coupling in the oxidised form, as was the case in 1H-NMR studies. These pseudocontact shifts are well described by using an empirically determined magnetic susceptibility tensor in conjunction with atomic coordinates for the horse cytochrome c. The groups which fit least well are located in the vicinity of Trp59. Comparison between 1H and 13C shifts and their temperature dependence shows that the differences from expectation based on a single structure for both oxidation states are caused largely by changes in the diamagnetic contribution to the chemical shifts. Since these are different for 1H and 13C resonances they indicate, independently from crystal structure data, some redox-related movement of the protein under the haem. The significance of these results for understanding electron transfer pathways is discussed. Finally, the temperature dependence of the pseudocontact shifts in the range 30-50 degrees C is shown to be anomalous. Approximately half of the anomalous effect may be attributed to Zeeman mixing of the electronic wavefunctions with a spin-orbit coupling constant lambda = 241 cm-1, while the other half is attributed to thermal expansion of the protein.

    Title Evaluation of 13c and 1h Fermi Contact Shifts in Horse Cytochrome C. The Origin of the Anti-curie Effect.
    Date March 1993
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    Many ferricytochromes c exhibit a peculiar effect in which the 1H chemical shifts of the haem methyl groups appear in pairs and, although the paramagnetic shifts of the two groups with the larger shifts decrease with temperature, those of the pair with the smaller shifts actually increase. Recent NMR studies [Santos, H. and Turner, D. L. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 721-728] gave 1H and 13C assignments for most of the haem substituents and the axial ligands in horse cytochrome c at 30 degrees C and 50 degrees C in both oxidation states. These data are used together with an empirically determined magnetic susceptibility tensor to evaluate the Fermi contact contribution to the paramagnetic shift and hence map the delocalization of the unpaired electron. The anti-Curie effect is explained by a Boltzmann distribution between partially filled porphyrin 3e(pi) molecular orbitals with an energy difference of 3 kJ/mol. The fact that the energy gap is small with respect to the energy of binding to the electron transfer partners calls into question the significance of the asymmetry of the electron distribution in the electron transfer process.

    Title Pitfalls in Assigning Heme Axial Coordination by Epr. C-type Cytochromes with Atypical Met-his Ligation.
    Date March 1993
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    Different monohemic c-type cytochromes were analyzed by visible, EPR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. While the visible and NMR data show unambiguously that the heme iron has a Met-His heme axial coordination, the EPR data indicate an axial ligand field typical of that for a bis-histidinyl ligation. The validity of the widely used EPR methods for the determination of the heme iron axial coordination, based on the crystal field parameters (tetragonality and rhombicity), is questioned.

    Title Structural Studies of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris Ferrocytochrome C3 by Two-dimensional Nmr.
    Date February 1993
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    Two-dimensional NMR has been used to make specific assignments for the four haems in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) ferrocytochrome c3 and to determine their haem core architecture. The NMR signals from the haem protons were assigned according to type using two-dimensional NMR experiments which led to four sets of signals, one for each of the haems. Specific assignments were obtained by calculating the ring current shifts which arise from other haems and aromatic residues. Observation of interhaem NOEs confirmed the assignments and established that the relative orientation of the haems is identical to that found in the crystal structure of D. vulgaris (Miyazaki F.) ferricytochrome c3. Assignments were also made for all the aromatic residues except for the haem ligands and F20, which is shifted under the main envelope of signals. The NOEs observed between these aromatic protons and haem protons confirm the similarity between the structures in solution and in the crystal. The assignments reported here are the basis for the cross-assignments of the four microscopic haem redox potentials to specific haems in the protein structure [Salgueiro, C. A., Turner, D. L., Santos, H., LeGall, J. and Xavier, A. V. (1992) FEBS Lett., in the press]

    Title Regulation of Perfusive O2 Transport During Exercise in Humans: Effects of Changes in Haemoglobin Concentration.
    Date February 1993
    Journal The Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    1. Recently it was suggested that submaximal cardiac output (Q) could vary in response to changes in arterial O2 concentration (Ca,O2), so that arterial O2 delivery (Qa,O2 = Q x Ca,O2, in ml min-1) is kept constant. 2. This hypothesis was tested on eight healthy male subjects, at rest and during exercise (50, 100 and 150 W) in three conditions: normaemia (N), after 6 weeks of endurance training (T), and 2 days after subsequent autologous blood reinfusion (P). 3. Measured variables were oxygen consumption (VO2), by open circuit method, Q, by a CO2 rebreathing method, and haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), by a photometric method. Ca,O2 was calculated as the product of [Hb], arterial O2 saturation (0.97), and the O2 binding coefficient. 4. [Hb] and thus Ca,O2 increased by 2.6% (T vs. N) and subsequently by further 5.8% (P vs. T). VO2 and Qa,O2 were linear functions of power (w), both relationships being unaffected by changes in Ca,O2. As a consequence, the linear Q vs. VO2 relationships were shifted downward as Ca,O2 increased. 5. The VO2 vs. w and the Qa,O2 vs. w relationships had the same slope. Therefore, the difference between Qa,O2 (w) and VO2 (w), equal to O2 flow in mixed venous blood (Qv,O2), was constant. 6. In conclusion, the tested hypothesis was supported by the present results. The observed constancy of Qv,O2 suggested that Qv,O2 may play a key role in regulating the cardiovascular response to exercise.

    Title Assignment of the Redox Potentials to the Four Haems in Desulfovibrio Vulgaris Cytochrome C3 by 2d-nmr.
    Date January 1993
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    Using 2D-NMR the four haems of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) cytochrome c3 within the X-ray structure were fully cross assigned according to their redox potential. The strategy used was based on a complete network of chemical exchange connectivities between the NMR signals obtained for all oxidation levels to the corresponding ones in the fully reduced spectrum [1992, Eur. J. Biochem., in press]. This unequivocal cross-assignment disagrees with earlier results obtained for the similar protein from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki F.).

    Title Revision of the Haem-core Architecture in the Tetraheam Cytochrome C3 from Desulfovibrio Baculatus by Two-dimensional 1h Nmr.
    Date November 1992
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The haem-core architecture in cytochrome c3 isolated from Desulfovibrio baculatus (Norway 4) was probed using two-dimensional 1H NMR. Interhaem connectivities detected in NOE spectroscopy experiments performed at short mixing times are incompatible with the structure of the protein determined by X-ray crystallography, but agree instead with the haem arrangement found in cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki). These experiments show unequivocally that the relative orientation of the four haems in the two proteins is the same and does not involve the 180 degrees rotation of haems I and IV indicated in the X-ray structure determined for the cytochrome c3 from D. baculatus (Norway 4).

    Title Involvement of a Labile Axial Histidine in Coupling Electron and Proton Transfer in Methylophilus Methylotrophus Cytochrome C''.
    Date October 1992
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    Methylophilus methylotrophus cytochrome c'' is an unusual monohaem protein (15 kDa) undergoing a redox-linked spin-state transition [Santos, H. & Turner, D. L. (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 954, 277-286]. The midpoint redox potential of cytochrome c" was measured over the pH range 4-10. The pH dependence of the midpoint redox potential was interpreted in terms of a model that considers the redox-state dependence of the ionization of two distinct and non-interacting protonated groups in the protein. This analysis led to the following pKa values within the pH range studied: pKa10 = 6.4, pKa1r = 5.4 and pKa2r = 8.1. Proton-NMR spectroscopy was used to assist the characterization of the two ionizing groups responsible for the observed redox-Bohr effect: the group ionizing with a lower pKar was assigned to a haem propionic acid substituent and the other to the axial histidine ligand which becomes detached upon reduction, which has a pKa0 too low to be measured. It is shown that M. methylotrophus cytochrome c" is able to couple electron and proton transfer in the physiological pH range through a mechanism involving reversible change in the haem-iron coordination. Possible implications for the physiological role of the protein are discussed.

    Title Structure Determination of a Novel Cyclic Phosphocompound Isolated from Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans.
    Date August 1992
    Journal The Biochemical Journal
    Excerpt

    The structure of a novel diphosphodiester compound recently detected in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans cells [Santos, Fareleira, Pedregal, LeGall & Xavier (1991) Eur. J. Biochem. 201, 283-287] was fully elucidated using a combination of n.m.r. techniques in aqueous and in methanolic solutions. The novel metabolite was identified as 3-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutane-1,3-cyclic bisphosphate, and the minimum energy conformation is presented. The two chiral centres have the relative configuration RS.

    Title 13c and Proton Nmr Studies of Horse Cytochrome C. Systematic Assignment of Methyl and Methine Resonances in Both Oxidation States.
    Date July 1992
    Journal European Journal of Biochemistry / Febs
    Excerpt

    The CHn groups in the aliphatic side chains of horse cytochrome c have been characterized according to the chemical shifts of both 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR signals, their temperature dependence and the number of attached protons, n. The primary assignments of resonances from the 55 side-chain methyl and the 27 methine groups were obtained directly for the oxidised and the reduced forms. Specific assignments of the 13C resonances were obtained through shift-correlation experiments and comparison with earlier 1H-NMR studies, by further measurements of proton-proton interactions, or by elimination. Comparison of the paramagnetic shifts of carbon and protons indicates a small redox-related change of conformation in the vicinity of Trp59 and a significant expansion of the protein over 30-50 degrees C.

    Title Site-directed Mutagenesis of the C-terminal Portion of Reovirus Protein Sigma 1: Evidence for a Conformation-dependent Receptor Binding Domain.
    Date January 1992
    Journal Virology
    Excerpt

    Oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify the type 3 (T3) reovirus cell attachment protein sigma 1 at residues located in the three regions (designated C, D, and E in the C-terminal one-third of sigma 1) that are highly conserved between the three reovirus serotypes. Of the eight residues targeted for mutagenesis, five (one in region C, and two each in regions D, and E) are conserved among all three proteins. Wild-type (wt) and mutant sigma 1 forms were synthesized in an vitro transcription/translation system and subjected to structural and functional analysis. None of the mutations affected the ability of sigma 1 to form trimers. However, mutation (all representing drastic changes) in any of the five triply conserved residues (Tyr326, Asn369, Phe370, Tyr450, and Pro451) caused a complete or partial abrogation of sigma 1 cell binding function, whereas mutation in any of the other three residues (Ser325, Ser327, and Asp365) had no adverse effect. The structural integrity of the mutant proteins was then probed using trypsin, chymotrypsin, and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-sigma 1 antibody. In all cases, the loss of cell binding function was associated with a drastic conformational change in the C-terminal globular head of sigma 1. These results suggest that conserved residues in the three highly conserved regions in the C-terminal portion of sigma 1 play important structural and functional roles and are involved in proper head folding and generation of a conformation-dependent receptor binding domain.

    Title Cardiovascular and Respiratory Control Mechanisms During Exercise: an Integrated View.
    Date January 1992
    Journal The Journal of Experimental Biology
    Excerpt

    Exercise can impose an immense stress upon many physiological systems throughout the body. In order that exercise performance may be optimally maintained, it is essential that a profound and complex series of responses is coordinated and controlled. The primary site for coordination is the central nervous system, whereas control mechanisms (both feedback loops and feedforward activation) involve complex sensory information, often in the form of neural coding but also in the form of blood-borne chemical signals, a number of levels of peripheral and central integration and, finally, the efferent branches of the nervous system coursing via sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves to target sites of action. The neurohumoral control of the cardiorespiratory responses to exercise has received intense attention for over two decades and some particularly important steps forward in its understanding have occurred within the last 10 years. The initial fast increase (phase 1) in cardiovascular and ventilatory flow parameters are brought about by neurally mediated muscle mechanoreceptor feedback reflexes and a feedforward 'central motor command'. The blood pressure operating point is also raised by a combination of these two neural mechanisms. Fine control of the matching of cardiac output to ventilation may occur by means of a feedforward ventilatory control of cardiac origin. During the slower phase of adjustment (phase 2), the neurally mediated mechanisms are augmented by a cohort of humorally mediated feedback reflexes involving muscle and vascular chemoreceptors as well as being supported by central neural reverberation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Synthesis, Conformational Properties, and Antibody Recognition of Peptides Containing Beta-turn Mimetics Based on Alpha-alkylproline Derivatives.
    Date August 1991
    Journal Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Peptide recognition by monoclonal antibodies may provide a useful model for drug development, in particular to test the effects of conformational restriction on ligand binding. We have tested the influence of novel peptide mimetics upon conformation and binding affinity for the case of monoclonal antibodies raised to a peptide antigen which displays a preference for a beta-turn conformation in aqueous solution. Two monoclonals were isolated that recognized the peptide Ac-Tyr-Pro-Tyr-Asp-Val-Pro-Asp-Tyr-Ala specifically at the beta-turn formed by Tyr-Pro-Tyr-Asp. Peptide analogues were then synthesized containing mimetics designed to stabilize this conformation. One, analogue (3), contained a spirocyclic gamma-lactam bridge between the alpha-position of proline-2 and the N atom of tyrosine-3, while another (2) contained (S)-alpha-methylproline at position 2. NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggest that both analogues adopt reverse-turn conformations stabilized relative to that in the native sequence. For the (S)-alpha-methylproline analogue binding to both monoclonal antibodies was substantially improved, compared with the native antigen, whereas the gamma-lactam analogue (3) was not recognized by either antibody. Quantitative equilibrium ultrafiltration binding assays showed that the affinities of the (S)-alpha-methylproline analogue (2) for the two antibodies were improved over those measured with the native antigen by -2.3 and -0.65 kcal/mol. The origins of these free energy differences cannot be explained wholly on the basis of presumed extra hydrophobic contacts between the new methyl substituent and the antigen binding sites. We propose that the increased conformational stability of the analogue plays a decisive role, implying that the reverse turn detected in the native antigen, possibly a type-I turn, is important for recognition by the two antibodies.

    Title Cytochrome C'' Isolated from Methylophilus Methylotrophus. An Example of Bis-histidine-co-ordinated Fe3+ Haem, with Near-perpendicular Orientation of the Ligands.
    Date October 1990
    Journal The Biochemical Journal
    Excerpt

    Cytochrome c'' (Methylophilus methylotrophus) is a soluble protein, Mr 15,000, possessing one haem which is high-spin in the reduced state but switches to a low-spin form on oxidation. Low-temperature electron-paramagnetic-resonance spectroscopy of the oxidized state shows a low-spin signal at gz = 3.65 with a folded line-shape typical of a haem of low rhombicity, and the near-infrared magnetic-circular-dichroism (m.c.d.) spectra reveal an unusually intense (delta epsilon = 400 M-1.cm-1 at 5 T, 4.2 K) charge-transfer band at 1560 nm, establishing that the oxidized haem is co-ordinated by two His residues in a near-perpendicular orientation. This conformation is well established for transmembrane b cytochromes, but this appears to be the first example in a water-soluble cytochrome. The low-temperature m.c.d. spectra of the reduced form of the protein confirms that the haem contains a high-spin Fe2+ ligated by one His residue. The redox-linked spin-state change releases a His group. Since this residue is likely to bind a proton at pH values less than 6.5, this cytochrome may provide a useful model of a molecular mechanism of a redox-linked proton uptake and release process.

    Title An Approach to Understanding Conformational Mobility in Peptides and Proteins.
    Date August 1990
    Journal Biochemical Pharmacology
    Title Lineage-independent Determination of Cell Type in the Embryonic Mouse Retina.
    Date August 1990
    Journal Neuron
    Excerpt

    We previously used a retroviral vector to mark clones in the postnatal rodent retina and showed that at least two types of neurons and Müller glia can arise from a common progenitor. Here we describe the use of exo utero surgery to introduce a marker retrovirus into the proliferative zone of the retinas of embryonic day 13 and 14 mice. Analysis of marked clones in the resulting adult retinas shows that almost all progenitor cells that continued mitosis were multipotential and that a single progenitor can generate most retinal cell types. The size of marked clones indicates that retinal cells do not employ a stem cell mode of division, but instead, both daughter cells of a progenitor can continue to divide. These results suggest that cell type determination in the rodent retina is independent of lineage. We propose a model for the generation of retinal cell types in which the cessation of mitosis and cell type determination are independent events, controlled by environmental interactions.

    Title The Protein Id: a Negative Regulator of Helix-loop-helix Dna Binding Proteins.
    Date May 1990
    Journal Cell
    Excerpt

    We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein, Id. Id is missing the basic region adjacent to the HLH domain that is essential for specific DNA binding in another HLH protein, MyoD. An in vitro translation product of Id can associate specifically with at least three HLH proteins (MyoD, E12, and E47) and attenuate their ability to bind DNA as homodimeric or heterodimeric complexes. Id is expressed at varying levels in all cell lines tested. In three cell lines that can be induced to undergo terminal differentiation, Id RNA levels decrease upon induction. Transfection experiments indicate that over-expression of Id inhibits the trans-activation of the muscle creatine kinase enhancer by MyoD. Based on these findings, we propose that HLH proteins lacking a basic region may negatively regulate other HLH proteins through the formation of nonfunctional heterodimeric complexes.

    Title Effect of Training on Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Aerobic Capacity of Locomotory Muscles in Tufted Ducks, Aythya Fuligula.
    Date October 1988
    Journal The Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    1. The effects of artificial swim training on maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate, as well as on the capillarity and oxidative capacity of locomotory muscles, have been studied in the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula. 2. The artificial training programme resulted in a 27% increase in maximal oxygen consumption, mainly as a result of an increase in muscle capillarity (20% increase in capillary/fibre ratio). In addition, activity of an oxidative enzyme, citrate synthase, increased (by 42%) and there was a significant transformation of fibre types in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. 3. Altering the duration and nature of the training stimulus, for example flying and diving, can bring about different degrees of muscular adaptation, particularly in oxidative capacity.

    Title The Aerobic Capacity of Locomotory Muscles in the Tufted Duck, Aythya Fuligula.
    Date July 1988
    Journal The Journal of Experimental Biology
    Excerpt

    The locomotory muscles of the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula (L.), were analysed for mass, aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities, fibre-type proportions, capillarity, mitochondrial and myoglobin content. The estimated aerobic capacity of the muscles correlated well with the muscles' maximal oxygen uptake both when measured during swimming and when predicted for steady-state flight. The results suggest that exercise performance in birds cannot be predicted purely on the basis of muscle mass (see Butler & Woakes, 1985); the specific enzyme complement of each muscle must also be taken into account. The delivery of oxygen to mitochondria is facilitated by the dense capillarity and high myoglobin content of the muscles.

    Title 31p Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurement of Free Erythrocyte Magnesium Concentration in Man and Its Relation to Blood Pressure.
    Date July 1988
    Journal Clinical Science (london, England : 1979)
    Excerpt

    1. 31P n.m.r. spectroscopy was used to measure the dissociation constant of MgATP under simulated intracellular conditions and to measure erythrocyte free magnesium concentration. 2. In a group of 40 subjects, the relationship between erythrocyte free magnesium and blood pressure, age and sex was examined by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. 3. A weak positive association was found between erythrocyte free magnesium and mean blood pressure. This association was lost in a multivariate regression analysis including both age and sex. 4. No significant relationship was found between erythrocyte free magnesium and age, sex, family history of hypertension or use of the combined oral contraceptive pill in the sample studied.

    Title Regional Distribution of Blood Flow During Swimming in the Tufted Duck (aythya Fuligula).
    Date July 1988
    Journal The Journal of Experimental Biology
    Excerpt

    The distribution of blood flow to a number of organs and tissues of the tufted duck was determined (by the microsphere technique) before and while the birds were swimming at close to their maximum sustainable velocity (i.e. at 0.69 +/- 0.01 ms-1). During swimming, oxygen uptake was twice the pre-exercise value. Cardiac output increased by 70%, there was no significant change in arterial blood pressure and total systemic conductance increased by 44%. There were no significant changes in blood flow to the brain, liver, adrenal glands, spleen and respiratory muscles. Not surprisingly, there were increases in blood flow to the heart (30% increase) and to the muscles of the hindlimbs (to 3.1 times the pre-exercise value). Significant reductions in flow occurred to various parts of the gastrointestinal tract (although not to the gastrointestinal tract as a whole), to the pancreas and to the pectoralis muscles. In the case of the flight musculature as a whole, the reduction was to approximately 40% of the values in the ducks before exercise. Thus, despite the fact that cardiac output was some three times lower than it would have been during flight, there was a clear redistribution of blood away from some visceral organs and inactive muscles during surface swimming in the tufted duck. This lends support to the suggestion that blood is selectively directed to the legs, as well as to the brain and central nervous system (CNS) and away from the visceral organs and inactive muscles during voluntary diving in these birds.

    Title Proton Nmr Studies of Horse Ferricytochrome C. Completion of the Assignment of the Well Resolved Hyperfine Shifted Resonances.
    Date January 1988
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    1H NMR saturation transfer and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurements have been used together with two-dimensional spectra to complete the assignment of the well resolved hyperfine shifted resonances in the spectrum of horse ferricytochrome c and obtain their shifts in the reduced protein. New assignments include the beta-CH2 protons of Met-80, both ring protons of His-18, and the alpha-CH2 of Gly-29 and delta-CH2 of Pro-30, which resonate surprisingly far upfield despite the absence of any Fermi contact contribution to the shift.

    Title Thiamine, Thiaminase and Transketolase Levels in Goats with and Without Polioencephalomalacia.
    Date September 1987
    Journal Australian Veterinary Journal
    Title A Common Progenitor for Neurons and Glia Persists in Rat Retina Late in Development.
    Date August 1987
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to mark cell lineages in vivo in the postnatal rat retina. Labelled clones contained up to three different cell types: three types of neurons or two types of neurons and a Müller glial cell. This indicates that a single retinal progenitor can generate remarkably diverse cell types near the end of development.

    Title 13c and Proton Nmr Studies of Horse Cytochrome C. Assignment and Temperature Dependence of Methyl Resonances.
    Date February 1986
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    The 13C and proton chemical shifts of the 55 methyl groups of horse cytochrome c have been determined over a range of temperatures both in the diamagnetic ferrocytochrome and in the paramagnetic ferricytochrome. Specific assignments of many proton resonances have been published previously and all of the remaining methyl proton resonances are now specifically assigned. The corresponding 13C assignments follow directly, including those of contact shifted 13C resonances which are reported for the first time.

    Title 13c-nmr Studies of Horse Ferrocytochrome C. Assignment and Temperature Dependence of Methyl Resonances.
    Date July 1985
    Journal Febs Letters
    Excerpt

    The 13C and proton chemical shifts of 53 of the 55 methyl resonances of horse ferrocytochrome c have been determined by editing natural abundance 13C spectra according to the number of attached protons, observing the temperature dependence of the chemical shifts, and correlating 13C and proton chemical shifts in two-dimensional spectra. Previous assignments of proton shifts allow 16 of the 13C resonances to be assigned firmly.

    Title The Therapeutic Community: a Critical Reappraisal.
    Date December 1982
    Journal Hospital & Community Psychiatry
    Excerpt

    Any new concept or movement can be understood only when considered in light of the sociopolitical context in which it emerges. The authors critically assess the concept of the therapeutic community in such terms. They assert that the therapeutic community should be viewed as a protest movement itself, or as part of a greater protest against the dehumanizing conditions of mental hospitals in the early 20th century. As a protest movement it has achieved significant success. However, the author say, its therapeutic value has yet to be conclusively demonstrated and its practicability is also highly questionable. The authors suggest that the therapeutic community should be reassessed in light of changed social conditions, and a new and more pragmatic approach to organizing psychiatric hospitals be formulated.

    Title A Biomechanical Study of Lateral Ankle Sprains in Basketball.
    Date January 1980
    Journal Journal of the American Podiatry Association
    Title Metabolites of Estradiol-17beta and Estradiol-17beta-3-benzoate in Bovine Tissues.
    Date November 1977
    Journal Journal of Animal Science
    Title Anticoagulant Activity of Glycol Analogs of Phosphatidylserine.
    Date January 1973
    Journal Lipids
    Title The Synthesis of Phosphatidylethanolamine and Phosphatidylserine Containing Acetylenic or Cyclopropane Fatty Acids and the Activity of These Phosphatides in Blood Coagulation.
    Date February 1971
    Journal Lipids
    Title Hyaluronate-peptide Linkage Group.
    Date December 1969
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Title Isolation of Unknown Sugar Acid from Vitreous Humor Hyaluronic Acid.
    Date October 1969
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Title Isolation of Arabinose-containing Hyaluronate Peptides and Xylose-containing Chondroitin Sulfate Peptides from Protease-digested Brain Tissue.
    Date September 1967
    Journal Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
    Title Total Synthesis of Unsaturated Phosphatidylserine Using the N-4-chlorobutyroyl Protecting Group.
    Date August 1967
    Journal Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
    Title Radiometric Ages of Kodiak Seamount and Giacomini Guyot, Gulf of Alaska: Implications for Circum-pacific Tectonics.
    Date
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    Kodiak Seamount and Giacomini Guyot have been dated at 22.6 +/- 1.1 and 19.9 +/- 1.0 [2sigma (standard deviation)] x 10(6) years, respectively. Concordant whole-rock and plagioclase potassium-argon dates and fission-track apatite ages demonstrate that significant quantities of excess radiogenic (40)Ar are not present in the dated samples. These seamounts are the northwesternmost edifices of the Pratt-Welker chain, which cuts obliquely across magnetic anomaly patterns in an older northeastern Pacific sea floor. The older of the two dated seamounts is in the Aleutian Trench, apparently about to be subducted. If one assumes that seamounts are generated by plate motion over a fixed hot spot in the mantle, a Pacific-plate motion of 6.6 centimeters per year during early Miocene time may be calculated.

    Title Keynesian Theory.
    Date
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Title The Total Synthesis of Dilinoleoylphosphatidylserine and Its Activity in Blood Clotting Systems.
    Date
    Journal Lipids
    Excerpt

    A total synthesis ofDL: -phosphatidyl-(dilinoleoyl)-L: -serine was achieved by the acylation of the barium salt of the phthalimidomethyl ester of glycerophosphoryl-N: -anisyloxycarbonyl-L: -serine. The dilinoleoyl intermediate was treated with hydrazine to remove the phthalimidomethyl group and with hydrogen chloride to remove the anisyloxycarbonyl protecting group. The resulting phosphatidylserine was purified by Rouser's methods, solubilized, and tested for biological activity in the antithromboplastin, recalcification, and Hicks-Pitney tests. It was found to have about the same anticoagulant activity as beef brain phosphatidylserine and hence was more active than the less unsaturated phosphatidylserine synthesized earlier.

    Title The Total Synthesis of Phosphatidyl(dioleoyl)hydroxy-l-proline and Its Activity in Blood-clotting Systems.
    Date
    Journal Lipids
    Excerpt

    The phthalimidomethyl ester ofN-anisyloxycarbonyl-hydroxy-L: -proline was combined with phosphorus oxychloride andrac-1,2-diolein. The diolein was made by large-scale preparative application of the method of Krabisch and Borgström (1). The protected phosphatide, obtained by the phosphorylation reaction, was stripped of its protective groups under mild conditions. The phosphatidyl(dioleoyl)-hydroxy-L: -proline was purified by TEAE cellulose (acetate) chromatography, as developed by Rouser (6), also by silicic acid chromatography. Aqueous dispersions of the material were tested for anticoagulant activity in the antithrom-boplastin test and the Hicks-Pitney test. The new phosphatide had about one-tenth of the activity of beef brain phosphatidylserine.

    Title An Unsaturated Phosphonic Acid Analogue of Phosphatidylethanolamine and Its Activity in Blood-clotting Systems.
    Date
    Journal Lipids
    Excerpt

    An unsaturated phosphonolipid analogous to phosphatidylethanolamine,rac-dioleoylglyceryl(2-aminoethyl)phosphonate, was synthesized by a general method introduced by Baer for similar saturated substances. An improvement was made in the preparation of the phthalimidoethyl-phosphonic acid precursor.The phosphonolipid was purified by DEAE cellulose and silicic acid chromatography. It was tested by comparison with synthetic phosphatidyl (dioleoyl) ethanolamine and phosphatidyl(dilinoleoyl) ethanolamine in the Hicks-Pitney test and in a test for prothrombin conversion by using purified blood coagulation factors. In both tests it had more acceleratory activity than the synthetic phosphatidylethanolamines.

    Title The Scaffold Protein Posh Regulates Axon Outgrowth.
    Date
    Journal Molecular Biology of the Cell
    Excerpt

    Monitoring Editor: Paul Forscher How scaffold proteins integrate signaling pathways with cytoskeletal components to drive axon outgrowth is not well understood. We report here that the multi-domain scaffold protein POSH (Plenty of SH3s) regulates axon outgrowth. Reduction of POSH function by RNA interference (RNAi) enhances axon outgrowth in differentiating mouse primary cortical neurons and in neurons derived from mouse P19 cells, suggesting POSH negatively regulates axon outgrowth. Complementation analysis reveals a requirement for the third SH3 domain of POSH, and we find that the actomyosin regulatory protein Shroom3 interacts with this domain of POSH. Inhibition of Shroom3 expression by RNAi leads to increased process lengths, as observed for POSH RNAi, suggesting that POSH and Shroom function together to inhibit process outgrowth. Complementation analysis and interference of protein function by dominant negative approaches suggest that Shroom3 recruits Rho kinase (ROCK) to inhibit process outgrowth. Further, inhibition of myosin II function reverses the POSH or Shroom3 RNAi phenotype, indicating a role for myosin II regulation as a target of the POSH-Shroom complex. Collectively, these results suggest that the molecular scaffold protein POSH assembles an inhibitory complex that links to the actin-myosin network to regulate neuronal process outgrowth.

    Title Cadmium and Zinc Thiolate and Selenolate Metal-organic Frameworks.
    Date
    Journal Dalton Transactions (cambridge, England : 2003)
    Excerpt

    Metal-organic frameworks based on metal-sulfur or metal-selenium bonds are relatively rare; herein we describe the synthesis and structural characterization of several examples, including, for example, [Cd(en)(3)][Cd(SC(6)H(4)S)(2)], which contains the anionic two-dimensional square-grid network [Cd(SC(6)H(4)S)(2)](n)(2n-).

    Title Redox Linked Conformational Changes in Cytochrome C(3) from Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans Atcc 27774.
    Date
    Journal Biochemistry
    Excerpt

    Cytochrome c(3) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 appears to be capable of receiving two protons and two electrons from hydrogenase for transport to the membrane, and converting electronic energy into proton motive force. Detailed studies of the mechanism require control both of the redox state and of the protonation state of the protein; hence, structure determination of the protein in solution by NMR is the preferred method. This work compares the structures of the protonated protein in the fully oxidized and fully reduced states as a first step toward elucidating the pH-dependent and redox-state-dependent conformational changes that drive the energy transduction. These high-resolution structures revealed significant localized differences upon change of redox state, even though the global folds of the two families of structures are similar. There are concerted redox-linked motions within the protein that bring E61 and K75 closer to heme II in the oxidized form. This is consistent with an electrostatically driven movement that may provide an important contribution to the previously measured positive cooperativity between hemes I and II. No significant conformational changes were observed that might be related to redox-Bohr effects; the families of structures represent mainly protonated forms, and therefore, pH dependence should not play a major role in the observed structural rearrangements.

    Similar doctors nearby

    Dr. Bruce Whitehead

    Family Medicine
    22 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Niti Randhawa

    Family Medicine
    16 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Stanley Wu

    Family Medicine
    16 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Pilar Bescos

    Family Medicine
    26 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Bennett Gardner

    Emergency Medicine
    32 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Aneeta Goomar

    Family Medicine
    15 years experience
    Dallas, TX
    Search All Similar Doctors