Browse Health


Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Michigan State University (2000) *
Top 50%
* This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

Awards & Distinctions ?

Castle Connolly Top Doctors: New York Metro Area™ (2015)
Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2013)
Patients' Choice 5th Anniversary Award (2012 - 2015)
Patients' Choice Award (2008 - 2015)
Compassionate Doctor Award - 5 Year Honoree (2015)
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2011 - 2015)
Top 10 Doctor - State (2014)
New York
Plastic Surgeon
Top 10 Doctor - City (2014)
New York, NY
Plastic Surgeon
On-Time Doctor Award (2014 - 2015)
Compassionate Doctor Award *
Ethics Award *
Intern of the Year *
Patient's Choice Award * Top Doctor *
Resident of the Year *
Trump Surgery Award *
Manhattan Eye, Ear & Throat Hospital (2007 - Present)
Lenox Hill Hospital (2007 - Present)
American Board of Surgery
American Board of Plastic Surgery
American College of Surgeons

Affiliations ?

Dr. Shafer is affiliated with 2 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • Lenox Hill Hospital *
    100 E 77th St, New York, NY 10075
    Top 25%
  • Manhattan Eye Ear Throat Hospital *
    210 E 64th St, New York, NY 10065
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Shafer has contributed to 30 publications.
    Title Brief Cognitive-behavioral Treatment for Tmd Pain: Long-term Outcomes and Moderators of Treatment.
    Date December 2010
    Journal Pain

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a brief (6-8 sessions) cognitive-behavioral treatment for temporomandibular dysfunction-related pain could be efficacious in reducing pain, pain-related interference with lifestyle and depressive symptoms. The patients were 101 men and women with pain in the area of the temporomandibular joint of at least 3 months duration, randomly assigned to either standard treatment (STD; n=49) or standard treatment+cognitive-behavioral skills training (STD+CBT; n=52). Patients were assessed at posttreatment (6 weeks), 12 weeks, 24 weeks, 36 weeks, and 52 weeks. Linear mixed model analyses of reported pain indicated that both treatments yielded significant decreases in pain, with the STD+CBT condition resulting in steeper decreases in pain over time compared to the STD condition. Somatization, self-efficacy and readiness for treatment emerged as significant moderators of outcome, such that those low in somatization, or higher in self-efficacy or readiness, and treated with STD+CBT reported of lower pain over time. Somatization was also a significant moderator of treatment effects on pain-related interference with functioning, with those low on somatization reporting of less pain interference over time when treated in the STD+CBT condition. It was concluded that brief treatments can yield significant reductions in pain, life interference and depressive symptoms in TMD sufferers, and that the addition of cognitive-behavioral coping skills will add to efficacy, especially for those low in somatization, or high in readiness or self-efficacy.

    Title Momentary Pain and Coping in Temporomandibular Disorder Pain: Exploring Mechanisms of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Pain.
    Date November 2009
    Journal Pain

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) operates by effecting changes in cognitions, affects, and coping behaviors in the context of painful episodes. Patients were 54 men and women with temporomandibular dysfunction-related orofacial pain (TMD) enrolled in a study of brief (6 weeks) standard conservative treatment (STD) or standard treatment plus CBT (STD+CBT). Momentary affects, pain, and coping processes were recorded on a cell phone keypad four times per day for 7 days prior to treatment, and for 14 days after treatment had finished, in an experience sampling paradigm. Analyses indicated no treatment effects on general retrospective measures of pain, depression, or pain-related interference with lifestyle at post-treatment. However, mixed model analyses on momentary pain and coping recorded pre- and post-treatment indicated that STD+CBT patients reported greater decreases in pain than did STD patients, significantly greater increases in the use of active cognitive and behavioral coping, and significantly decreased catastrophization. Analyses of experience sampling data indicated that post-treatment momentary pain was negatively predicted by concurrent active coping, self-efficacy, perceived control over pain, and positive-high arousal affect. Concurrent catastrophization was strongly predictive of pain. Active behavioral coping and self-efficacy reported at the prior time point (about 3h previously) were also protective, while prior catastrophization and negative-high arousal mood were predictive of momentary pain. The results suggest that CB treatment for TMD pain can help patients alter their coping behaviors, and that these changes translate into improved outcomes.

    Title The Use of Eidronate Disodium in the Prevention of Heterotopic Ossification in Burn Patients.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a well-known complication of moderate and severe burn injuries. The development and progression of HO in burn patients are poorly understood phenomena at this time. Numerous measures aimed at preventing or minimizing HO have been described, but no definitive prophylactic modality has been found. Biphosphonate compounds are known to inhibit calcification, but previous studies are equivocal regarding their effectiveness in preventing HO in burn patients. We retrospectively reviewed the effect of etidronate disodium (EDHP), a bisphosphonate, on the development of HO in severely burned patients. We found that not only was EDHP ineffective in preventing HO, the group of patients treated with EDHP demonstrated an increased incidence of HO over that seen in a comparison group. This was true after controlling for age, sex, and %TBSA burned. Based on the results of this study, the routine use of etidronate disodium to prevent HO in burn patients cannot be recommended.

    Title Oral Bisphosphonate-induced Osteonecrosis: Risk Factors, Prediction of Risk Using Serum Ctx Testing, Prevention, and Treatment.
    Date June 2008
    Journal Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
    Title A Review of the Association Between Osteoporosis and Alveolar Ridge Augmentation.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics

    OBJECTIVE: Because of increasing life expectancy and popularity of dental implants, surgeons face a larger number of osteoporotic patients who require bone augmentation. Relationship between low bone density/osteoporosis and bone graft success is still not clear. The purpose of this article is to review and summarize the literature regarding the success of alveolar bone augmentation in osteoporosis. STUDY DESIGN: The study design includes a literature review of relevant preclinical and clinical articles that address the association between osteoporosis and alveolar bone augmentation. RESULTS: Increased rate of complications such as resorption of bone graft, non-integration of bone graft, delayed healing time, and implant failure in augmented bone especially in the maxilla may be associated with compromised bone health. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the decreased success rate, osteoporosis is not an absolute contraindication for bone augmentation and dental implant placement. The modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis should be eliminated before surgery.

    Title Bisphosphonate-associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Report of a Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

    ONJ has been increasingly suspected to be a potential complication of bisphosphonate therapy in recent years. Thus, the ASBMR leadership appointed a multidisciplinary task force to address key questions related to case definition, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic imaging, clinical management, and future areas for research related to the disorder. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the task force.INTRODUCTION: The increasing recognition that use of bisphosphonates may be associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) led the leadership of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) to appoint a task force to address a number of key questions related to this disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary expert group reviewed all pertinent published data on bisphosphonate-associated ONJ. Food and Drug Administration drug adverse event reports were also reviewed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A case definition was developed so that subsequent studies could report on the same condition. The task force defined ONJ as the presence of exposed bone in the maxillofacial region that did not heal within 8 wk after identification by a health care provider. Based on review of both published and unpublished data, the risk of ONJ associated with oral bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis seems to be low, estimated between 1 in 10,000 and <1 in 100,000 patient-treatment years. However, the task force recognized that information on incidence of ONJ is rapidly evolving and that the true incidence may be higher. The risk of ONJ in patients with cancer treated with high doses of intravenous bisphosphonates is clearly higher, in the range of 1-10 per 100 patients (depending on duration of therapy). In the future, improved diagnostic imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography or MRI combined with contrast agents and the manipulation of image planes, may identify patients at preclinical or early stages of the disease. Management is largely supportive. A research agenda aimed at filling the considerable gaps in knowledge regarding this disorder was also outlined.

    Title Comparison of Five Different Abdominal Access Trocar Systems: Analysis of Insertion Force, Removal Force, and Defect Size.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Surgical Innovation

    Trocar designs have evolved in response to concerns about complication rates and surgical ergonomics. Functional properties of trocar systems that can be objectively measured include insertion force, removal force and the size of the tissue defect. This study will evaluate these properties in 5 common trocar designs. A porcine model was used to evaluate five different trocar systems for insertion force, removal force, and functional and measured tissue defect. Insertion force was lowest for cutting trocars and highest for radially dilating trocars. Removal force was similar for all trocars. Functional and measured tissue defect size was smallest for the hybrid type and radially dilating trocars. An ideal trocar system incorporates a low insertion force, secure retention, and a minimal tissue defect. Of the systems we tested, the hybrid type trocar has similar wound characteristics to the radially dilating trocar with the benefit of reduced insertion force. Further study is required to determine if these properties translate to an actual improvement in patient outcome.

    Title The Effect of Orthognathic Surgery on Taste Function on the Palate and Tongue.
    Date July 2003
    Journal Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    PURPOSE: Perceived taste intensity and taste quality identification on localized regions of the palate and tongue were examined for 9 patients before orthognathic surgery and again at 1 to 2 and 6 to 9 months after surgery. Taste function would be at risk on the palate after maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy (LFI) and on the tongue after mandibular sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) because of potential damage to peripheral nerves conducting afferent chemosensory information from these regions. Patients and Methods: Three patients had LFI and SSO, 1 had LFI only, and 5 had SSO only. Patients rated taste intensity (using a 10-point fixed-interval scale) and identified taste quality of 4 solutions (NaCl, sucrose, citric acid, and quinine.HCl) brushed with a cotton-tipped applicator on each of 6 oral locations (left and right soft palate, left and right anterior and posterolateral tongue). RESULTS: Perceived taste intensity of NaCl, sucrose, and citric acid was reduced on average to 34% of presurgery values on the palate for patients who underwent LFI, but the taste intensity of quinine was not affected. LFI also affected the ability to correctly identify the quality of tastants applied to the palate: Patients made 38% correct quality identifications postsurgery compared with 91% presurgery. Perceived taste intensity of quinine.HCl placed on the tongue was reduced to 72% of its presurgery value after SSO, but the taste intensities of NaCl, sucrose, and citric acid were not affected. Correct quality identifications of sucrose, citric acid, and quinine.HCl were reduced to 75% at 2 months post-SSO compared with 96% presurgery and at 6 months postsurgery, but identification for NaCl was 96% before and after surgery. CONCLUSION: In the patients studied, taste function on the palate was significantly decreased for 6 to 9 months after LFI, likely a result of impairment of function of the greater superficial petrosal branch of the facial nerve. Lingual taste function, reduced at 1 to 2 months after SSO, likely due to impaired chorda tympani nerve function, improved by 6 to 9 months. Palatal and lingual neurosensory testing can be used to identify reversible sequelae of oral maxillofacial surgery.

    Title Recovery After Third Molar Surgery: Clinical and Health-related Quality of Life Outcomes.
    Date June 2003
    Journal Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    PURPOSE: The study goal was to assess both clinical and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes after third molar surgery. METHODS: Patients who were having 4 third molars removed were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial. Baseline data were recorded that included demographics, the patient's and surgeon's assessment of third molar conditions, and details of the surgical procedure. After surgery, clinical data were collected that detailed healing and any treatment that was rendered. Each patient was given an HRQOL instrument to complete on each postsurgery day for 14 days; the instrument was designed to assess a patient's perception of recovery in 4 main categories: pain, lifestyle, oral function, and other symptoms related to the procedure. RESULTS: Recovery data were available for 630 of 740 enrolled patients. The median age of the 630 patients was 21 years, and the median operation time was 30 minutes. Recovery for most HRQOL measures occurred within 5 days after surgery. However, recovery from pain to the criterion of "little or none" was delayed relative to other HRQOL measures. Twenty-two percent of patients were treated for delayed healing after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Having both clinical and HRQOL data on recovery after third molar surgery could assist the surgeon when informing prospective patients about what to expect after surgery to remove third molars.

    Title Secondary Bone Grafting for Unilateral Alveolar Clefts: a Review of Surgical Techniques.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America

    For the past 5 years we have been performing the closure of the oronasal fistula with alveolar bone grafting in the early-to-late secondary time period. The final decision as to whether early or late grafting should be done is based on if a grafting is needed to support the eruption of a functional lateral incisor. Generally the Moczair type buccal flap, with a "Z" release for wide clefts, is used for the buccal flap. This is combined with lateral releasing incisions on the palate for palatal closure. Separate nasal and oral closures are performed in all cases, with bone placed between the two layers in the alveolar defect. It is believed that this treatment sequence best fulfills the criteria for successful alveolar bone grafting outlined at the beginning of this chapter. Figure 8 demonstrates an alveolar bone grafting procedure in a 10-year-old girl just before eruption of the canine tooth treated with a buccal Moczair flap, lateral releasing incisions on the palate, two-layered closure, and the placement of an iliac bone graft.

    Title Gustatory Function After Third Molar Extraction.
    Date June 1999
    Journal Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the severity and time course of taste changes after extraction of all 4 third molars. STUDY DESIGN: Taste function in 17 patients was measured before third molar surgery and at 1 month and 6 months after surgery. Two tests were administered: a whole-mouth, above-threshold test in which subjects sipped, expectorated, and then rated the intensities and identified the taste qualities of various solutions, and a localized test in which subjects rated and identified solutions painted with cotton swabs on different oral sites. RESULTS: Intensity ratings for solutions in the whole-mouth test were reduced by approximately 14% for NaCl, citric acid, and quinine hydrochloride at 1 month after surgery and had not recovered by 6 months after surgery for citric acid (P<.02). The taste quality of NaCl was identified correctly less frequently after third molar extraction. Perceived taste intensity on discrete areas of the tongue was significantly reduced after surgery (P<.05). Patients with the most severely impacted molars gave the lowest taste intensity ratings to whole-mouth test solutions at 6 months after surgery (P<.02). In contrast, taste function in a group of subjects who received only local dental anesthesia was not affected. CONCLUSIONS: Gustatory deficits occur after third molar extraction, persist for as long as 6 months after surgery, and appear to be associated with depth of impaction.

    Title Incremental Bolus Versus a Continuous Infusion of Propofol for Deep Sedation/general Anesthesia During Dentoalveolar Surgery.
    Date September 1998
    Journal Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    PURPOSE: This article compared the use of the traditional incremental bolus technique with the continuous infusion technique for the administration of propofol for deep sedation/general anesthesia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were sedated with midazolam and fentanyl and then had maintenance of an anesthetic state achieved with propofol administered by either of the two techniques. Data were collected to evaluate the overall surgical/anesthetic procedure, movement of the patient, and his or her hemodynamic status. RESULTS: Both groups received a mean maintenance dose of propofol exceeding 6 mg/kg/hr. However, the patients in the continuous infusion group received a statistically greater maintenance dose (continuous infusion + supplemental vs incremental bolus). All patients were maintained in a deep sedation/general anesthetic state. Respiratory and blood pressure values were comparable in both groups. However, the continuous infusion group showed improved hemodynamic stability manifested as fewer fluctuations in heart rate. Visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires completed by the surgeon and surgical assistant reported less patient movement and improved surgical/anesthetic conditions with the continuous infusion technique. Recovery of the two groups was comparable. CONCLUSION: This study, although finding advantages in the continuous infusion technique, showed satisfactory conditions associated with both techniques.

    Title Surgical-orthodontic Correction of Adult Facial Deformities.
    Date January 1997
    Journal Dental Clinics of North America

    The use of combined surgical-orthodontic therapy for the correction of skeletal anomalies has moved from the obscure to the routine over the last 25 years. Its use has been extended to treat not only developmental problems in children and adolescents, but also traumatic and temporomandibular joint-related deformities in adults. Its use can be integrated into a comprehensive treatment plan, including prosthodontics, periodontics, and implant dentistry. The advent of rigid internal fixation has made it particularly more appealing for the treatment of adult patients, allowing the patients to return to normal daily activities more rapidly.

    Title Orthodontic Forces Increase Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in the Human Gingival Sulcus.
    Date December 1995
    Journal American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics : Official Publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, Its Constituent Societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics

    The production of cytokines has been associated with the biology of tooth movement in animal populations. The purpose of this study was to measure tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) directly in the human gingival sulcus before and after the application of an orthodontic force. To recover TNF from the sulcus, paramagnetic beads, coated with monoclonal antibodies for TNF, were introduced into the gingival sulcus of 50 teeth undergoing orthodontic tooth movement (by two force systems) in 20 patients. Retrieval was performed by a permanent magnetic device designed to fit the periodontal sulcus. The samples were taken before force application (controls), and at a fixed time after force application. The amount of immunoabsorbed TNF was quantified with an immunochemical assay. There was a greater than twofold increase in TNF recoverable from the gingival sulcus after application of orthodontic forces (mean of 12.9 ng vs 30.5 ng). A Student's t test for paired samples demonstrated statistical significance at p < 0.01. We conclude that the quantity of paradental TNF, found in human gingival sulcus, is elevated during tooth movement. The source may be from the adjacent gingiva, but more likely the compressed periodontal ligament and the resorbing bone adjacent to the root surface.

    Title Respiratory Emergencies in the Dental Office.
    Date November 1995
    Journal Dental Clinics of North America

    Respiratory emergencies are among the most common problems encountered in dental practice and are potentially among the most devastating. Therefore, they must be recognized rapidly and treated promptly. This article focuses on the clinically significant pathophysiology of respiratory emergencies, such that the practitioner can effectively identify the patients with a risk of developing a respiratory crisis and use this information to help provide rapid, effective therapy. Simple protocols are presented for the treatment of the most common respiratory emergencies.

    Title The Effect of Electrical Perturbation on Osseointegration of Titanium Dental Implants: a Preliminary Study.
    Date September 1995
    Journal Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    PURPOSE: Successful osseointegration of titanium dental implants is decreased in areas of poor bone volume and density. Low amperage direct current (LADC) has been shown to perturb bone cells, which in turn promotes bone growth. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of LADC on the osseointegration of endosseous titanium dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two implant sites were prepared in the body of the mandible of five rabbits by an extraoral approach. An LADC-stimulated 3.75 x 7 mm-titanium implant was placed in one site and an identical control implant was inserted on the contralateral side. A sterilized silicone-encased power pack producing 7.5 +/- 0.2 uA and 1.35 +/- 0.01 V was placed in a submandibular pouch. The active cathode lead was attached to the LADC implant and the anode was placed in the mandible 5 mm distal to the implant. Nonactive leads were similarly connected to the control implant. Twenty-eight days after placement, the implants were removed using a torque wrench, and the bone surrounding the implants was examined both microscopically and radiographically. RESULTS: The average force to initial rotation was 1,320 +/- 880 g/cm for the LADC-stimulated implants and 1,290 +/- 238 g/cm for the control implants. This was significantly different by t test (P = .94). Light microscopic evaluation demonstrated a mixture of compact and woven bone and fibrous tissue adjacent to both groups of implants. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated an average percent of bone in relation to the total tissue adjacent to the control implants of 33.5 +/- 15.4 and 40.2 +/- 4.8 for the LADC-stimulated implants (not significantly different, t test, P = .39). CONCLUSION. It was concluded that LADC as used in this study does not positively affect the healing of bone. Its ability to enhance bone growth around titanium dental implants needs further investigation.

    Title Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha As a Biochemical Marker of Pain and Outcome in Temporomandibular Joints with Internal Derangements.
    Date August 1994
    Journal Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) in human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synovial fluid. The present study continues the investigation of the role of TNF in TMJs with internal derangements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Synovial fluid was obtained from 18 TMJs in 12 patients undergoing either arthroscopy (14 joints) or arthrotomy (four joints) for internal derangements. Standardized clinical data were collected preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. RESULTS: When pain on palpation was absent, the mean preoperative TNF level was 14 +/- 6 ng/mL. When pain on palpation was present, the mean TNF level was 42 +/- 39 ng/mL (significant difference at P = .05). When the surgical outcome was poor, the mean preoperative TNF level was 26 +/- 9 ng/mL. When the outcome was within the stated guidelines for a favorable result, the mean TNF level was 12 +/- 7 ng/mL (significant difference at P = .05). In addition, a significant reduction (P = .05) in TNF following joint lavage (preoperative, 48 ng/mL to postoperative, 7 ng/mL) was found. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of a positive correlation between preoperative pain and TNF values suggests a biochemical basis for the origin of the pain associated with internal derangements. The relationship between preoperative TNF levels and surgical outcome suggests that the prognosis for surgery may be predicted by measuring biochemical markers of joint disease.

    Title Rigid Internal Fixation of Mandibular Segmental Osteotomies.
    Date April 1994
    Journal Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
    Title Perfluoropropane Gas, Modified Panretinal Photocoagulation, and Vitrectomy in the Management of Severe Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy.
    Date October 1988
    Journal Archives of Ophthalmology

    Seventy-six consecutive patients with total rhegmatogenous retinal detachments and severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy underwent combined pars plana vitrectomy, lensectomy, panretinal photocoagulation, perfluoropropane gas (C3F8)/fluid exchange, and scleral buckling. Sixty-two (82%) of the patients had successful, sustained (greater than 12 months) posterior retinal reattachments at last examination. Of these 62 patients, 40 (65%) had complete retinal attachment, with no evidence of regrowth of periretinal membranes or redetachments following the initial procedure. In the remaining 22 cases with successful reattachment of the retina posterior to the equator, partial peripheral retinal detachments were observed. In 16 of the 22 cases, the detachments occurred entirely anterior to the boundary of the previously placed photocoagulation lesions. The posterior retina remained uninvolved, and no further treatment was needed. Reoperation was required in the other six patients to achieve sustained posterior retinal reattachment. Postoperative visual acuity ranged from 20/40 to bare light perception, with 69% of the anatomically successful cases obtaining functional visual acuity (greater than 20/400). Failures were related to reproliferation of fibrous membranes.

    Title Microsurgical Management of Macular Epiretinal Membranes (macular Pucker).
    Date August 1982
    Journal Developments in Ophthalmology

    Surgical management of selected macular epiretinal membranes is possible through the use of microsurgical pars plana vitreoretinal membranectomy. Visual improvement can be significant with resolution of traction retinal detachment and retinal distortion. Complications are similar to other forms of vitreous surgery. In a series of 9 selected cases with severe reduction of visual acuity secondary to macular pucker, microsurgical membranectomy was performed with encouraging results.

    Title Acute Acquired Toxoplasmosis.
    Date August 1981
    Journal Annals of Ophthalmology

    A case of acute necrotizing retinitis with discrete involvement in the right posterior pole was followed undiagnosed until the patient developed endophthalmitis in the right eye, loss of consciousness, high fever, and a similar picture in the left eye. Treatment with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and steroids brought about a prompt resolution. When the patient died from an unrelated cause, histopathology was performed showing Toxoplasma gondii in the brain.

    Title A Technique for Improving Corneal Clarity During Retinal Surgery.
    Date October 1978
    Journal American Journal of Ophthalmology

    To maintain corneal clarity during scleral buckling operations, the surgeon firmly rolls a dry cotton applicator across the edematous corneal surface, and the epithelial edema fluid is pressed out and absorbed by the applicator. This technique, which may be repeated a number of times, reduces the number of cases that require removal of the epithelium.

    Title Editorial: Vitrectomy.
    Date October 1976
    Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
    Title Human Vitreous Transplantation.
    Date June 1976
    Journal Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England

    This lecture presents the experience in 200 implantations of human eye-bank vitreous through the pars plana of eyes with complicated retinal detachments. Though the success rate was modest, it shows that a large-bore instrument can be passed into the vitreous cavity of the eye with relative impunity and sets the stage for the present popular machine vitrectomy. In addition, the paper presents the author's experience with human vitreous transplantation by the 'open sky' transcorneal technique for otherwise hopeless vitreous opacities.

    Title Symposium: Phacoemulsification. Retinal Detachment After Phacoemulsification.
    Date April 1974
    Journal Transactions - American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology. American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
    Title Total Vitrectomy in Six Eyes with Hopeless Vitreous Hemorrhage.
    Date October 1972
    Journal Modern Problems in Ophthalmology
    Title Central Areolar Choroidal Dystrophy.
    Date September 1972
    Journal Archives of Ophthalmology
    Title Progress in the Management of Detached Retina.
    Date June 1970
    Journal The Sight-saving Review
    Title Cryosurgery for Retinal Tears Without Detachment.
    Date December 1968
    Journal International Ophthalmology Clinics
    Title Hydrosurgical Tangential Excision of Partial-thickness Hand Burns.
    Journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

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