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Education ?

Medical School
Yonsei University (1974)
Foreign school

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Academy of Pain Medicine
American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Cho is affiliated with 3 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations

  • Desert Springs Hospital
  • Valley Hospital Medical Center
  • Sunrise Hospital and Med Center
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Cho has contributed to 23 publications.
    Title Heart Rate Variability in Assessment of Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Prostatitis/chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
    Date February 2012
    Journal Urology

    To determine and compare autonomic dysfunction in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    Title Predicting Target Vessel Location for Improved Planning of Robot-assisted Cabg Procedures.
    Date November 2010
    Journal Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention : Miccai ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention

    Prior to performing a robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting procedure, a pre-operative computed tomography scan is used to assess patient candidacy and to identify the location of the target vessel. The surgeon then determines the optimal port locations to ensure proper reach to the target with the robotic instruments, while assuming that the heart does not undergo any significant changes between the pre- and intra-operative stages. However, the peri-operative workflow itself leads to changes in heart position and consequently the intra-operative target vessel location. As such, the pre-operative plan must be adequately updated to adjust the target vessel location to better suit the intraoperative condition. Here we propose a technique to predict the position of the peri-operative target vessel location with approximately 3.5 mm RMS accuracy. We believe this technique will potentially reduce the rate of conversion of robot-assisted procedures to traditional open-chest surgery due to poor planning.

    Title The Post-synaptic Density of Human Postmortem Brain Tissues: an Experimental Study Paradigm for Neuropsychiatric Illnesses.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Plos One

    Recent molecular genetics studies have suggested various trans-synaptic processes for pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Examination of pre- and post-synaptic scaffolds in the brains of patients would greatly aid further investigation, yet such an approach in human postmortem tissue has yet to be tested. We have examined three methods using density gradient based purification of synaptosomes followed by detergent extraction (Method 1) and the pH based differential extraction of synaptic membranes (Methods 2 and 3). All three methods separated fractions from human postmortem brains that were highly enriched in typical PSD proteins, almost to the exclusion of pre-synaptic proteins. We examined these fractions using electron microscopy (EM) and verified the integrity of the synaptic membrane and PSD fractions derived from human postmortem brain tissues. We analyzed protein composition of the PSD fractions using two dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) and observed known PSD proteins by mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot studies revealed that expected protein-protein interactions and certain posttranscriptional modulations were maintained in PSD fractions. Our results demonstrate that PSD fractions can be isolated from human postmortem brain tissues with a reasonable degree of integrity. This approach may foster novel postmortem brain research paradigms in which the stoichiometry and protein composition of specific microdomains are examined.

    Title Sclerotherapy of Renal Cysts Using Acetic Acid: a Comparison with Ethanol Sclerotherapy.
    Date January 2009
    Journal The British Journal of Radiology

    This study compared percutaneous sclerotherapy using 50% acetic acid with that using 99% ethanol for patients with simple renal cysts. The study included 72 simple renal cysts in 64 patients (male/female ratio = 31/33; age range, 31-75 years). Under fluoroscopic guidance, the cyst fluid was aspirated completely. Sclerotherapy was then performed using 50% acetic acid for 32 cysts and 99% ethanol for 40 cysts. The volumes of each renal cyst before and after sclerotherapy were compared using ultrasonography or CT. Medical records were reviewed to analyse any complications. The mean follow-up period was 21.5 months (range, 3-75 months). The mean remnant volume of the cyst after sclerotherapy was 2.6% of the initial volume in the acetic acid group and 14.0% in the ethanol group. The rates of complete remission, partial remission and treatment failure were 90.6%, 9.4% and 0%, respectively, in the acetic acid group, and 60.0%, 30.0% and 10.0%, respectively, in the ethanol group. There were no complications related to sclerotherapy in either group. In conclusion, acetic acid is a safe and effective sclerosing agent, with clinical results superior to those of ethanol, and is an alternative to ethanol for sclerotherapy of renal cysts.

    Title On-line Near-infrared Spectrometer to Monitor Urea Removal in Real Time During Hemodialysis.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Applied Spectroscopy

    The ex vivo removal of urea during hemodialysis treatments is monitored in real time with a noninvasive near-infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a temperature-controlled acousto optical tunable filter (AOFT) in conjunction with a thermoelectrically cooled extended wavelength InGaAs detector to provide spectra with a 20 cm(-1) resolution over the combination region (4000-5000 cm(-1)) of the near-infrared spectrum. Spectra are signal averaged over 15 seconds to provide root mean square noise levels of 24 micro-absorbance units for 100% lines generated over the 4600-4500 cm(-1) spectral range. Combination spectra of the spent dialysate stream are collected in real-time as a portion of this stream passes through a sample holder constructed from a 1.1 mm inner diameter tube of Teflon. Real-time spectra are collected during 17 individual dialysis sessions over a period of 10 days. Reference samples were extracted periodically during each session to generate 87 unique samples with corresponding reference concentrations for urea, glucose, lactate, and creatinine. A series of calibration models are generated for urea by using the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm and each model is optimized in terms of number of factors and spectral range. The best calibration model gives a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.30 mM based on a random splitting of spectra generated from all 87 reference samples collected across the 17 dialysis sessions. PLS models were also developed by using spectra collected in early sessions to predict urea concentrations from spectra collected in subsequent sessions. SEP values for these prospective models range from 0.37 mM to 0.52 mM. Although higher than when spectra are pooled from all 17 sessions, these prospective SEP values are acceptable for monitoring the hemodialysis process. Selectivity for urea is demonstrated and the selectivity properties of the PLS calibration models are characterized with a pure component selectivity analysis.

    Title Usefulness of Silicone Elastomer Sheet As Another Option of Adhesion Preventive Material During Craniectomies.
    Date December 2007
    Journal Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the use of a silicone elastomer sheet (SILASTIC) to prevent peridural fibrosis in patients who underwent a craniectomy and a subsequent cranioplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a decompressive craniectomy and a subsequent cranioplasty with an autologous bone flap in 50 patients (mean age, 40 years) between 1996 and 2005 at our institution. Most of the craniectomies were performed as an emergency procedure for relief of brain swelling. The standard decompressive craniectomy technique that we performed included bone removal and a duroplasty in 26 of the 50 patients, however, a SILASTIC sheet was added to the standard decompressive craniectomy in the remaining patients in an attempt to prevent dural adhesions. The development of adhesion formation between the tissue layers was evaluated during the cranioplasty in terms of operative time and the amount of blood loss. RESULTS: During the cranioplasty, we observed that the SILASTIC sheet succeeded in creating a controlled dissection plane, which facilitated access to the epidural space, shortened the operative time by approximately 24.8% and diminished the intraoperative blood loss by 37.9% as compared with the group of patients who underwent the standard cranioplasty. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a SILASTIC sheet to prevent peridural scarring and to facilitate cranioplasty in patients who have previously undergone a craniectomy is a good technique, regardless of the procedural indication.

    Title Dysbindin-1 is a Synaptic and Microtubular Protein That Binds Brain Snapin.
    Date December 2006
    Journal Human Molecular Genetics

    Variations in the gene encoding the novel protein dysbindin-1 (DTNBP1) are among the most commonly reported genetic variations associated with schizophrenia. Recent studies show that those variations are also associated with cognitive functioning in carriers with and without psychiatric diagnoses, suggesting a general role for dysbindin-1 in cognition. Such a role could stem from the protein's known ability to affect neuronal glutamate release. How dysbindin-1 might affect glutamate release nevertheless remains unknown without the discovery of the protein's neuronal binding partners and its subcellular locus of action. We demonstrate here that snapin is a binding partner of dysbindin-1 in vitro and in the brain. Tissue fractionation of whole mouse brains and human hippocampal formations revealed that both dysbindin-1 and snapin are concentrated in tissue enriched in synaptic vesicle membranes and less commonly in postsynaptic densities. It is not detected in presynaptic tissue fractions lacking synaptic vesicles. Consistent with that finding, immunoelectron microscopy showed that dysbindin-1 is located in (i) synaptic vesicles of axospinous terminals in the dentate gyrus inner molecular layer and CA1 stratum radiatum and in (ii) postsynaptic densities and microtubules of dentate hilus neurons and CA1 pyramidal cells. The labeled synapses are often asymmetric with thick postsynaptic densities suggestive of glutamatergic synapses, which are likely to be derived from dentate mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells. The function of dysbindin-1 in presynaptic, postsynaptic and microtubule locations may all be related to known functions of snapin.

    Title Altered Neuregulin 1-erbb4 Signaling Contributes to Nmda Receptor Hypofunction in Schizophrenia.
    Date September 2006
    Journal Nature Medicine

    Recent molecular genetics studies implicate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor erbB in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Among NRG1 receptors, erbB4 is of particular interest because of its crucial roles in neurodevelopment and in the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling. Here, using a new postmortem tissue-stimulation approach, we show a marked increase in NRG1-induced activation of erbB4 in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Levels of NRG1 and erbB4, however, did not differ between schizophrenia and control groups. To evaluate possible causes for this hyperactivation of erbB4 signaling, we examined the association of erbB4 with PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa), as this association has been shown to facilitate activation of erbB4. Schizophrenia subjects showed substantial increases in erbB4-PSD-95 interactions. We found that NRG1 stimulation suppresses NMDA receptor activation in the human prefrontal cortex, as previously reported in the rodent cortex. NRG1-induced suppression of NMDA receptor activation was more pronounced in schizophrenia subjects than in controls, consistent with enhanced NRG1-erbB4 signaling seen in this illness. Therefore, these findings suggest that enhanced NRG1 signaling may contribute to NMDA hypofunction in schizophrenia.

    Title Phytochrome-specific Type 5 Phosphatase Controls Light Signal Flux by Enhancing Phytochrome Stability and Affinity for a Signal Transducer.
    Date March 2005
    Journal Cell

    Environmental light information such as quality, intensity, and duration in red (approximately 660 nm) and far-red (approximately 730 nm) wavelengths is perceived by phytochrome photoreceptors in plants, critically influencing almost all developmental strategies from germination to flowering. Phytochromes interconvert between red light-absorbing Pr and biologically functional far-red light-absorbing Pfr forms. To ensure optimal photoresponses in plants, the flux of light signal from Pfr-phytochromes should be tightly controlled. Phytochromes are phosphorylated at specific serine residues. We found that a type 5 protein phosphatase (PAPP5) specifically dephosphorylates biologically active Pfr-phytochromes and enhances phytochrome-mediated photoresponses. Depending on the specific serine residues dephosphorylated by PAPP5, phytochrome stability and affinity for a downstream signal transducer, NDPK2, were enhanced. Thus, phytochrome photoreceptors have developed an elaborate biochemical tuning mechanism for modulating the flux of light signal, employing variable phosphorylation states controlled by phosphorylation and PAPP5-mediated dephosphorylation as a mean to control phytochrome stability and affinity for downstream transducers.

    Title Adar1 Rna Deaminase Limits Short Interfering Rna Efficacy in Mammalian Cells.
    Date March 2005
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Double-stranded RNA induces the homology-dependent degradation of cognate mRNA in the cytoplasm via RNA interference (RNAi) but also is a target for adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). An interaction between the RNAi and the RNA editing pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans has been suggested recently, but the precise mode of interaction remains to be established. In addition, it is unclear whether this interaction is possible in mammalian cells with their somewhat different RNAi pathways. Here we show that ADAR1 and ADAR2, but not ADAR3, avidly bind short interfering RNA (siRNA) without RNA editing. In particular, the cytoplasmic full-length isoform of ADAR1 has the highest affinity among known ADARs, with a subnanomolar dissociation constant. Gene silencing by siRNA is significantly more effective in mouse fibroblasts homozygous for an ADAR1 null mutation than in wild-type cells. In addition, suppression of RNAi effects are detected in fibroblast cells overexpressing functional ADAR1 but not when overexpressing mutant ADAR1 lacking double-stranded RNA-binding domains. These results identify ADAR1 as a cellular factor that limits the efficacy of siRNA in mammalian cells.

    Title Cerebral Vasculitis in Henoch-schönlein Purpura: Mri and Mra Findings, Treated with Plasmapheresis Alone.
    Date January 2004
    Journal Pediatrics International : Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
    Title Neurological Manifestations of Avian Influenza Viruses in Mammals.
    Date December 2003
    Journal Avian Diseases

    The H5N1 viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong directly infected both mice and ferrets without prior adaptation to either host. Two representative viruses, A/Hong Kong/483/97 (HK/483) and A/Hong Kong/486/97 (HK/486) were equally virulent in outbred ferrets but differed in their virulence in inbred mice. Both HK/483 and HK/486 replicated systemically in ferrets and showed neurologic manifestations. In contrast, intranasal infection of mice with HK/483, but not HK/486, resulted in viral spread to the brain, neurologic signs, and death. However, HK/486 was able to replicate in the brain and induce lethal disease following direct intracerebral inoculation.

    Title Mechanisms of Pathogenicity of Influenza A (h5n1) Viruses in Mice.
    Date December 2003
    Journal Avian Diseases

    Avian-like H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans in 1997 were shown to have two distinct pathogenic phenotypes in BALB/c mice, after intranasal inoculation and without prior adaptation to this host. To further understand the mechanisms of H5N1 pathogenicity, we investigated the consequences of the mute of viral inoculation on morbidity and mortality, viral replication in pulmonary and systemic organs, and lymphocyte depletion. This study demonstrates the importance of extrapulmonary spread and replication, particularly in the brain, for the lethality of H5N1 viruses.

    Title Requirement of Dimerization for Rna Editing Activity of Adenosine Deaminases Acting on Rna.
    Date June 2003
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) convert adenosine residues into inosines in double-stranded RNA. Three vertebrate ADAR gene family members, ADAR1, ADAR2, and ADAR3, have been identified. The catalytic domain of all three ADAR gene family members is very similar to that of Escherichia coli cytidine deaminase and APOBEC-1. Homodimerization is essential for the enzyme activity of those cytidine deaminases. In this study, we investigated the formation of complexes between differentially epitope-tagged ADAR monomers by sequential affinity chromatography and size exclusion column chromatography. Both ADAR1 and ADAR2 form a stable enzymatically active homodimer complex, whereas ADAR3 remains as a monomeric, enzymatically inactive form. No heterodimer complex formation among different ADAR gene family members was detected. Analysis of HeLa and mouse brain nuclear extracts suggested that endogenous ADAR1 and ADAR2 both form a homodimer complex. Interestingly, endogenous ADAR3 also appears to form a homodimer complex, indicating the presence of a brain-specific mechanism for ADAR3 dimerization. Homodimer formation may be necessary for ADAR to act as active deaminases. Analysis of dimer complexes consisting of one wild-type and one mutant monomer suggests functional interactions between the two subunits during site-selective RNA editing.

    Title Structure-function Analysis of Urotensin Ii and Its Use in the Construction of a Ligand-receptor Working Model.
    Date October 2002
    Journal Angewandte Chemie (international Ed. in English)
    Title Il-13-induced Airway Hyperreactivity During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection is Stat6 Dependent.
    Date April 2001
    Journal Journal of Immunology (baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Airway damage and hyperreactivity induced during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can have a prolonged effect in infants and young children. These infections can alter the long-term function of the lung and may lead to severe asthma-like responses. In these studies, the role of IL-13 in inducing and maintaining a prolonged airway hyperreactivity response was examined using a mouse model of primary RSV infection. Using this model, there was evidence of significant airway epithelial cell damage and sloughing, along with mucus production. The airway hyperreactivity response was significantly increased by 8 days postinfection, peaked during days 10-12, and began to resolve by day 14. When the local production of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines was examined, there was a significant increase, primarily in IL-13, as the viral response progressed. Treatment of RSV-infected mice with anti-IL-13 substantially inhibited airway hyperreactivity. Anti-IL-4 treatment had no effect on the RSV-induced responses. Interestingly, when IL-13 was neutralized, an early increase in IL-12 production was observed within the lungs, as was a significantly lower level of viral Ags, suggesting that IL-13 may be regulating an important antiviral pathway. The examination of RSV-induced airway hyperreactivity in STAT6(-/-) mice demonstrated a significant attenuation of the response, similar to the anti-IL-13 treatment. In addition, STAT6(-/-) mice had a significant alteration of mucus-producing cells in the airway. Altogether, these studies suggest that a primary factor leading to chronic RSV-induced airway dysfunction may be the inappropriate production of IL-13.

    Title A Third Member of the Rna-specific Adenosine Deaminase Gene Family, Adar3, Contains Both Single- and Double-stranded Rna Binding Domains.
    Date June 2000
    Journal Rna (new York, N.y.)

    Members of the double-stranded RNA- (dsRNA) specific adenosine deaminase gene family convert adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and are involved in A-to-I RNA editing of transcripts of glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and serotonin receptor subtype 2C (5-HT(2C)R). We have isolated hADAR3, the third member of this class of human enzyme and investigated its editing site selectivity using in vitro RNA editing assay systems. As originally reported for rat ADAR3 or RED2, purified ADAR3 proteins could not edit GluR-B RNA at the "Q/R" site, the "R/G" site, and the intronic "hot spot" site. In addition, ADAR3 did not edit any of five sites discovered recently within the intracellular loop II region of 5-HT(2C)R RNAs, confirming its total lack of editing activity for currently known substrate RNAs. Filter-binding analyses revealed that ADAR3 is capable of binding not only to dsRNA but also to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Deletion mutagenesis identified a region rich in arginine residues located in the N-terminus that is responsible for binding of ADAR3 to ssRNA. The presence of this ssRNA-binding domain as well as its expression in restricted brain regions and postmitotic neurons make ADAR3 distinct from the other two ADAR gene family members, editing competent ADAR1 and ADAR2. ADAR3 inhibited in vitro the activities of RNA editing enzymes of the ADAR gene family, raising the possibility of a regulatory role in RNA editing.

    Title Altered G Protein-coupling Functions of Rna Editing Isoform and Splicing Variant Serotonin2c Receptors.
    Date March 2000
    Journal Journal of Neurochemistry

    Different isoforms of serotonin subtype 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) with altered G protein-coupling efficacy are generated by RNA editing, which converts genomically encoded adenosine residues into inosines. In combination, editing of five sites all located within the second intracellular loop region of 5-HT(2C)R mRNA changes the gene-encoded Ile, Asn, and Ile at positions 156, 158, and 160, respectively. We analyzed the G protein-coupling functions of previously unreported editing isoform receptors. An approximately 13-fold reduction in the agonist potency for G protein-coupling stimulation as well as a significantly reduced basal level activity was observed with the thalamus-specific isoform carrying Ile156, Gly158, and Val160 (5-HT(2C)R-IGV). In contrast, the agonist was four- to five-fold less potent with 5-HT(2C)R-MSV and -IDV, detected in the amygdala and choroid plexus, respectively, indicating a dominant role for the amino acid residue at position 158 in receptor functions. We also identified a splicing variant receptor with a truncated C terminus that displayed no ligand binding capacity or G protein-coupling activity. Examination of the alternatively spliced RNA encoding this truncated receptor suggests that editing of this variant RNA occurs after completion of splicing, resulting in complete editing at all five sites.

    Title Dna Restriction Profiles of Nontypable Group B Streptococcal Clinical Isolates.
    Date December 1997
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Title Alterations of P53 Gene in Primary Gastric Cancer Tissues.
    Date September 1994
    Journal Anticancer Research

    This study was conducted to investigate the p53 gene alterations in 25 surgically-resected gastric adenocarcinomas in the Korea Cancer Center Hospital by polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (PCR-SSCP) for exons 4-8 and immunohistochemical staining (IHCS) with anti-p53 antibody, DO-7. p53 mutations were detected in nine (36%) out of 25 cancer tissues by PCR-SSCP in exon 4-8: 0,1,1,6 and 1 mutations in exons 4,5,6,7 and 8, respectively. All tissues were also tested by IHCS, and positive staining was observed in 11 cases (44%). A discrepancy of the results between the two methods was observed in four cases. In one which showed positivity by PCR-SSCP a negative reaction by IHCS, the two base deletion was observed in exon 7. On the other hand, in three cases the mutation was detected only in IHCS but not in PCR-SSCP. The exact mechanism by which this discrepancy develops is not clear at present, although it may be due to the mutation of other exons not tested in this study or the relatively low sensitivity of the PCR-SSCP method. The incidence of p53 gene mutations was analysed according to pathologic stage and histological differentiation, but no significant difference was observed between the p53 alterations and these factors. By combined use of PCR-SSCP and IHCS, 48% of the 25 primary gastric cancer were considered to have mutations of the p53 gene. These results suggest that p53 mutation is not an infrequent event in primary gastric cancer and the p53 gene plays an important role in the carcinogenesis process of gastric cancer.

    Title Dosimetry and Biodistribution of an Iodine-123-labeled Somatostatin Analog in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors.
    Date October 1992
    Journal Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine

    A modified method for the preparation of a radiolabeled analog of somatostatin (123I-octreotide) is described. The pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of this analog were evaluated in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Thirty patients had multiple blood and urine samples and sequential anterior and posterior whole-body scintigraphy up to 40 hr postinjection of 123I-octreotide. Region of interest analysis of the whole-body images was used to determine organ and tumor doses. The 123I-octreotide was rapidly cleared from the blood with a T 1/2 of 10 min by the hepatobiliary system. By 40 hr, approximately 55% was eliminated in the feces. The gallbladder wall received the highest dose (0.48 rad/mCi), with other organs receiving doses of 0.12 rad/mCi or less. Tumors were identified in 25 of 28 satisfactory studies. Tumor doses ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 rad/mCi. Calculations with 131I instead of 123I indicated that the gallbladder wall would receive 2 rad/mCi, while average tumor doses would range from 0.9 to 5.0 rad/mCi. Iodine-123-octreotide is a useful agent for the visualization of neuroendocrine tumors. The rapid washout of this agent from tumors precludes the possibility of radiotherapy with 131I-octreotide in these patients.

    Title Rapid Radiotracer Washout from the Heart: Effect on Image Quality in Spect Performed with a Single-headed Gamma Camera System.
    Date July 1992
    Journal Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine

    Technetium-99m-teboroxime demonstrates high extraction and rapid washout from the myocardium. To evaluate the feasibility of performing SPECT with this agent using a single-headed gamma camera system, a series of phantom studies were performed that simulated varying degrees of washout from normal and "ischemic" regions of the myocardium. In the absence of ischemic regions, short axis profiles were relatively unaffected by washout of less than 50% of activity over the duration of a SPECT acquisition. However, significant corruption of the SPECT data was observed when large (greater than a factor of 2) differences existed in the washout of activity from normal and "ischemic" myocardium. This corruption was observed with 30%-40% washout of activity from normal regions of the heart. Based on published washout rates, these results indicate that clinical studies with 99mTc-teboroxime may need to be completed within 2-4 min to order to prevent degradation of image quality due to differential washout effects.

    Title Surgical Outcome of Cervical Arthroplasty Using Bryan(r).
    Journal Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society

    Recently, motion preservation has come to the forefront of emerging technologies in spine surgery. This is the important background information of the emergence of cervical arthroplasty as an alternative to arthrodesis that offers the promise of restoring normal spinal movement and reduces a kinematic strain on adjacent segments. The study was designed to evaluate early surgical outcome and radiological effects of Bryan(R) cervical disc prosthesis.

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