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Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Yale University (1997)
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Pediatrics

Affiliations ?

Dr. Frehm is affiliated with 4 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • Maine Medical Center
    22 Bramhall St, Portland, ME 04102
    Top 50%
  • Barbara Bush Children's Hospital
    22 Bramhall St, Portland, ME 04102
  • PA Hospital of The University of PA Health System
  • Maine Medical Center - Brighton Campus
    333 Brighton Ave, Portland, ME 04102
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Frehm has contributed to 2 publications.
    Title S-nitrosohemoglobin: an Allosteric Mediator of No Group Function in Mammalian Vasculature.
    Date January 2005
    Journal Free Radical Biology & Medicine

    Since the discovery of NO as the endothelium-derived relaxing factor, there has been considerable interest in how NO interacts with hemoglobin (Hb). Numerous investigations have highlighted the possibility that rather than operating as a sink to consume NO, the vasculature can operate as a delivery mechanism for NO. The principal hypothesis proposed to explain this phenomenon is that Hb can transport NO on the conserved cysteine residue beta93 and deliver that NO to the tissues in an allosterically dependent manner. This proposal has been termed the S-Nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) Hypothesis. This review addresses the experimental evidence that led to development of this hypothesis and examines much of the research that resulted from its generation. Specifically it covers the evidence concerning NO in the vasculature, the SNO-Hb Hypothesis itself, the biochemical and biophysical data relating to NO and Hb interactions, SNO-Hb in human physiology, and alternative vascular forms of NO. Finally a model of NO in the vasculature in which SNO-Hb forms the central core is proposed.

    Title Case Studies in Cholera: Lessons in Medical History and Science.
    Date March 2001
    Journal The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

    Cholera, a prototypical secretory diarrheal disease, is an ancient scourge that has both wrought great suffering and taught many valuable lessons, from basic sanitation to molecular signal transduction. Victims experience the voluminous loss of bicarbonate-rich isotonic saline at a rate that may lead to hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, and death within afew hours. Intravenous solution therapy as we know it was first developed in an attempt to provide life-saving volume replacement for cholera patients. Breakthroughs in epithelial membrane transport physiology, such as the discovery of sugar and salt cotransport, have paved the way for oral replacement therapy in areas of the world where intravenous replacement is not readily available. In addition, the discovery of the cholera toxin has yielded vital information about toxigenic infectious diseases, providing a framework in which to study fundamental elements of intracellular signal transduction pathways, such as G-proteins. Cholera may even shed light on the evolution and pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis, the most commonly inherited disease among Caucasians. The goal of this paper is to review, using case studies, some of the lessons learned from cholera throughout the ages, acknowledging those pioneers whose seminal work led to our understanding of many basic concepts in medical epidemiology, microbiology, physiology, and therapeutics.

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