Surgical Specialist
42 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Southfield
Michigan Head & Spine Institute
29275 Northwestern Hwy
Ste 100
Southfield, MI 48034
877-784-3667
Locations and availability (4)

Education ?

Medical School
Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico, Df (1968)
Foreign school

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Hour Detroit Magazine's Top Docs (2011)
Detroit Hour Magazine's Top Docs (2010)
Hour Detroit Magazine's Top Docs (2010), Hour Detroit Magazine's Top Docs (2011), U.S. News Top Doctors (2011)
U.S. News Top Doctors (2011)
Hour Detroit Magazine's Top Docs (2010)
Castle Connolly America's Top Doctors® (2002 - 2008, 2010 - 2014)
Patients' Choice Award (2009 - 2011)
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2010 - 2011)
Appointments
Wayne State University School Of Medicin
PROF NEUROSURGERY
Associations
American Association of Neurological Surgeons
American Board of Neurological Surgery
American College of Surgeons
Congress of Neurological Surgeons

Affiliations ?

Dr. Diaz is affiliated with 14 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • St. John Hospital & Medical Center
    22101 Moross Rd, Detroit, MI 48236
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Mount Clemens Regional Medical Center
    1000 Harrington St, Mount Clemens, MI 48043
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak *
    3601 W 13 Mile Rd, Royal Oak, MI 48073
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Beaumont Hospital, Grosse Pointe
    468 Cadieux Rd, Grosse Pointe, MI 48230
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Providence Hospital and Medical Center
    16001 W 9 Mile Rd, Southfield, MI 48075
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Harper University Hospital
    3990 John R St, Detroit, MI 48201
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • St John Detroit Riverview Hospital
    7733 E Jefferson Ave, Detroit, MI 48214
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Detroit Receiving - UHC
  • Providence Park Hospital
    47601 Grand River Ave, Novi, MI 48374
  • Children's Hospital of Michigan
    3901 Beaubien St, Detroit, MI 48201
  • Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
  • Providence Hospital - Southfield *
  • Beaumont Hospitals
  • Detroit Receiving Hospital *
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Diaz has contributed to 75 publications.
    Title Postischemic Reperfusion: Ultrastructural Blood-brain Barrier and Hemodynamic Correlative Changes in an Awake Model of Transient Forebrain Ischemia.
    Date May 2005
    Journal Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: In nonrecovery models of cerebral ischemia, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes are known to occur during reperfusion. It is unknown, however, whether those CBF and BBB alterations occur after brief, transient ischemia with neurological recovery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the time course of CBF and BBB ultrastructural changes during reperfusion in an awake, recovery model of transient global forebrain ischemia (GFI). METHODS: Forty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected, while awake, to 10 minutes of GFI by the nine-vessel occlusion method. Thirty-five age-matched animals composed a sham-operated group. Normal control (n = 5), sham-operated (n = 5), and nine-vessel occlusion/reperfusion (n = 15) rats were selected for ultrastructural analysis. Electroencephalography was performed, and CBF, mean arterial blood pressure, and intracranial pressure were measured during ischemia and reperfusion up to 24 hours. Quantitative morphological analysis of cortical BBB capillaries was performed by transmission electron microscopy at the same time points at which specific CBF changes occurred during reperfusion. RESULTS: CBF decreased to 6% of preocclusion values during GFI. This correlated with coma and decerebrate rigidity. During reperfusion, short-lived hyperemia (225 +/- 18%, P < 0.001) was characterized by increased intracranial pressure (28.3 +/- 2.6 mm Hg, P < 0.001) and isoelectric electroencephalogram. This was followed by hypoperfusion, which reached a nadir of 59.7% (59.7 +/- 8.8%, P < 0.01) from baseline by 90 minutes. At this time point, the electroencephalogram recovered, and intracranial pressure and mean arterial blood pressure showed no abnormalities. By 8.5 hours, CBF returned to normal, and this coincided with complete recovery of the animal. Ultrastructural BBB analysis revealed astrocyte end-foot process edema and patent capillaries during hyperemia. Severe interstitial BBB edema and capillary lumen collapse was observed during hypoperfusion. Detachment and migration of pericytes was observed during hypoperfusion and beyond. CONCLUSION: A biphasic CBF response is elicited during reperfusion after brief nonlethal GFI under awake conditions.

    Title Long-term Neuroprotection Induced by Regional Brain Cooling with Saline Infusion into Ischemic Territory in Rats: a Behavioral Analysis.
    Date January 2005
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    The neuroprotective effect of hypothermia has long been recognized. Our recent studies have demonstrated the significant therapeutic value of local brain cooling in the ischemic territory prior to reperfusion in stroke, with reduced infarction and inflammatory responses up to 48 hours of reperfusion. The goal of this study was to determine if local brain cooling, produced by infusion of cold saline, could induce long-term functional improvement after stroke. A hollow filament was used to block the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 3 hours, and then to locally infuse the ischemic territory with 6 ml cold saline (20 degrees C) for 10 minutes prior to reperfusion. This brain cooling infusion induced a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in neurologic deficits and significantly (p < 0.01) improved motor behavior in ischemic rats after 14 days of reperfusion, compared with ischemic rats without local cold saline infusion. This improvement continued for up to 28 days after reperfusion. No significant difference in motor performance was observed between the brain cooling infusion and normal control groups. Significant (p < 0.01) reductions in infarct volume were also evident. In conclusion, a local cerebral hypothermia induced by local saline infusion prior to reperfusion produced a long-term functional recovery after ischemic stroke. A therapeutic procedure, which combines prereperfusion infusion into an ischemic region with coincident cerebral hypothermia and perhaps subsequent recanalization of an occluded intracranial vessel, may improve the outcome for stroke patients.

    Title Local Saline Infusion into Ischemic Territory Induces Regional Brain Cooling and Neuroprotection in Rats with Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion.
    Date July 2004
    Journal Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The neuroprotective effect of hypothermia has long been recognized. Use of hypothermia for stroke therapy, which is currently being induced by whole-body surface cooling, has been limited primarily because of management problems and severe side effects (e.g., pneumonia). The goal of this study was to determine whether local infusion of saline into ischemic territory could induce regional brain cooling and neuroprotection. METHODS: A novel procedure was used to block the middle cerebral artery of rats for 3 hours with a hollow filament and locally infuse the middle cerebral artery-supplied territory with 6 ml cold saline (20 degrees C) for 10 minutes before reperfusion. RESULTS: The cold saline infusion rapidly and significantly reduced temperature in cerebral cortex from 37.2 +/- 0.1 to 33.4 +/- 0.4 degrees C and in striatum from 37.5 +/- 0.2 to 33.9 +/- 0.4 degrees C. The significant hypothermia remained for up to 60 minutes after reperfusion. Significant (P < 0.01) reductions in infarct volume (approximately 90%) were evident after 48 hours of reperfusion. In ischemic rats that received the same amount of cold saline systemically through a femoral artery, a mild hypothermia was induced only in the cerebral cortex (35.3 +/- 0.2 degrees C) and returned to normal within 5 minutes. No significant reductions in infarct volume were observed in this group or in the ischemic group with local warm saline infusion or without infusion. Furthermore, brain-cooling infusion significantly (P < 0.01) improved motor behavior in ischemic rats after 14 days of reperfusion. This improvement continued for up to 28 days after reperfusion. CONCLUSION: Local prereperfusion infusion effectively induced hypothermia and ameliorated brain injury from stroke. Clinically, this procedure could be used in acute stroke treatment, possibly in combination with intra-arterial thrombolysis or mechanical disruption of clot by means of a microcatheter.

    Title Exercise Pre-conditioning Reduces Brain Damage in Ischemic Rats That May Be Associated with Regional Angiogenesis and Cellular Overexpression of Neurotrophin.
    Date June 2004
    Journal Neuroscience
    Excerpt

    There is increasing evidence that physical activity is associated with a decreased stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to determine if exercise could also reduce brain damage in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, and if the reduced brain injury is associated with angiogenesis as well as cellular expression of the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in regions supplied by the MCA. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=36) exercised 30 min each day for 3 weeks on a treadmill on which repetitive locomotor movement was required. Then, stroke was induced by a 2-h MCA occlusion using an intraluminal filament, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. In addition to the two exercised groups of animals with or without MCA occlusion, there were two other groups of animals, with or without MCA occlusion, housed for the same duration and used as non-exercised controls. Brain damage in ischemic rats was evaluated by neurologic deficits and infarct volume. Exercise preconditioned and non-exercised brains were processed for immunocytochemistry to quantify the number of microvessels or NGF- and BDNF-labeled cells. Pre-ischemic motor activity significantly (P<0.01) reduced neurologic deficits and infarct volume in the frontoparietal cortex and dorsolateral striatum. Cellular expressions of NGF and BDNF were significantly (P<0.01) increased in cortex (neuron) and striatum (glia) of rats under the exercise condition. Significant (P<0.01) increases in microvessel density were found in striatum. Physical activity reduced stroke damage. The reduced brain damage may be attributable to angiogenesis and neurotrophin overexpression in brain regions supplied by the MCA following exercise.

    Title Regional Brain Cooling Induced by Vascular Saline Infusion into Ischemic Territory Reduces Brain Inflammation in Stroke.
    Date April 2004
    Journal Acta Neuropathologica
    Excerpt

    The neuroprotective effect of hypothermia has long been recognized. Use of hypothermia for stroke therapy, which is currently being induced by whole body surface cooling, has been largely limited because of management problems and severe side effects (i.e., pneumonia). Our recent studies have demonstrated the significant therapeutic value of local brain cooling in the ischemic territory prior to reperfusion in stroke. The goal of this study was to determine if cerebral local cooling infusion could reduce stroke-mediated brain injury by inhibiting inflammatory responses. A hollow filament was used to block the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 3 hours, and then to locally infuse the ischemic territory with 6 ml cold saline (20 degrees C) for 10 min prior to 48-h reperfusion. This cold saline infusion significantly ( P<0.01) reduced temperature of the MCA supplied territory (in cerebral cortex from 37.2+/-0.1 degrees C to 33.4+/-0.4 degrees C, in striatum from 37.5+/-0.2 degrees C to 33.9+/-0.4 degrees C), with the hypothermia remaining for at least 45 min after reperfusion. Consequently, significant ( P<0.01) reductions in endothelial expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the key step for inflammatory progress, as well as leukocyte infiltration, were evident in both cortex and striatum after reperfusion. As a control, ischemic rats received the same amount of cold saline systemically through a femoral artery. A mild hypothermia was induced in the cerebral cortex (35.3+/-0.2 degrees C) but not in the striatum (36.8+/-0.2 degrees C). The reduced cortical temperature returned to normal within 5 min. Brain temperature in ischemic rats perfused locally with saline at 37 degrees C remained normal. Intensive expression of ICAM-1 and accumulation of leukocytes was observed in ischemic control groups without brain cooling infusion. In conclusion, brain hypothermia induced by local pre-reperfusion infusion ameliorated brain inflammation from stroke.

    Title Measurement of Free Fatty Acids in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke.
    Date November 2003
    Journal Brain Research
    Excerpt

    Free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (n=25) and in contemporary controls (n=73) were examined using HPLC. Concentrations of CSF FFAs from ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients obtained within 48 h of the insult were significantly greater than in control patients. Higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in CSF obtained within 48 h of insult were associated with significantly lower (P<0.05) admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores and worse outcome at the time of hospital discharge, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (P<0.01).

    Title Free Fatty Acids in Cerebrospinal Fluids from Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Date October 2003
    Journal Neuroscience Letters
    Excerpt

    Free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are recognized as markers of brain damage in animal studies. There is, however, relatively little information regarding FFA concentrations in human CSF in normal and pathological conditions. The present study examined FFA concentrations in CSF from 15 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and compared the data with values obtained from 73 contemporary controls. Concentrations of specific FFAs from TBI patients, obtained within 48 h of the insult were significantly greater than those in the control group (arachidonic, docosahexaenoic and myristic, P<0.001; oleic, palmitic, P<0.01; linoleic, P<0.05). Higher concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<0.001) and of arachidonic, myristic and palmitic acids measured individually in CSF (P<0.01) obtained 1 week after the insult were associated with a worse outcome at the time of hospital discharge using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. This preliminary investigation suggests that CSF FFA concentrations may be useful as a predictive marker of outcome following TBI.

    Title Stereolithography: Neurosurgical and Medical Implications.
    Date June 2003
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    We present material to define and understand the concept of Stereolithography (STL) and its potential benefits to the field of neurosurgery and other medical specialties. A historical and scientific review of the literature on stereolithography, its evolution and uses in neurosurgery, forensic medicine, and other medical specialties are described. Considerations regarding different techniques used to obtain STL are discussed. The reproduction of cranial and vascular structures using this technique is evaluated. Data acquisition and model fabrication are the two basic steps required for stereolithography to create custom models for multiple applications in cranio-facial surgery, vascular studies, orthopedic surgery, urology and forensic medicine, among others. Stereolithography is a relatively new technique which continues to grow in many medical fields. Pre-operative education of patients, better understanding of patient anatomy, and the creation of custom-made prostheses are proven benefits of this technique.

    Title Effects of Immunosuppressants, Calcineurin Inhibition, and Blockade of Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Channels on Free Fatty Acid Efflux from the Ischemic/reperfused Rat Cerebral Cortex.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Brain Research
    Excerpt

    Elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal injury and death induced by cerebral ischemia. This study evaluated the effects of immunosuppressants agents, calcineurin inhibitors and blockade of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium channels on free fatty acid formation and efflux in the ischemic/reperfused (I/R) rat brain. Changes in the extracellular levels of arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, linoleic, myristic, oleic and palmitic acids in cerebral cortical superfusates during four-vessel occlusion-elicited global cerebral ischemia were examined using a cortical cup technique. A 20-min period of ischemia elicited large increases in the efflux of all six FFAs, which were sustained during the 40 min of reperfusion. Cyclosporin A (CsA) and trifluoperazine, which reportedly inhibit the I/R elicited opening of a mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, were very effective in suppressing ischemia/reperfusion evoked release of all six FFAs. FK506, an immunosuppressant which does not directly affect the MPT, but is a calcineurin inhibitor, also suppressed the I/R-evoked efflux of FFAs, but less effectively than CsA. Rapamycin, a derivative of FK506 which does not inhibit calcineurin, did not suppress I/R-evoked FFA efflux. Gossypol, a structurally unrelated inhibitor of calcineurin, was also effective, significantly reducing the efflux of docosahexaenoic, arachidonic and oleic acids. As previous experiments had implicated elevated Ca(2+) levels in the activation of phospholipases with FFA formation, agents affecting endoplasmic reticulum stores were also evaluated. Dantrolene, which blocks the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channel of the ER, significantly inhibited I/R-evoked release of docosahexaenoic, arachidonic, linoleic and oleic acids. Ryanodine, which can either accentuate or block Ca(2+) release, significantly enhanced ischemia/reperfusion-elicited efflux of linoleic acid, with non-significant increases in the efflux of myristic, arachidonic, palmitic and oleic acids. Xestospongin C, an inhibitor of the inositol triphosphate (IP(3)R) channel, failed to affect I/R-evoked FFA efflux. Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-ATPase ER uptake pump, elicited significant elevations in the efflux of myristic, arachidonic and linoleic acids, in the absence of ischemia. Collectively, the data suggest an involvement of both ER and mitochondrial Ca(2+) stores in the chain of events which lead to PLA(2) activation and FFA formation.

    Title Biomechanical Properties of High-density Polyethylene for Pterional Prosthesis.
    Date February 2003
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    The pterional approach is the most popular surgical technique in aneurysm and skull base tumor removal. Reconstruction of the temporal contour deformity due to craniotomy requires graft implantation. Porous high-density polyethylene (PHDPE) as a craniofacial and pterional implant material recently became available. However, material properties of the pterional implant are not yet known. In order to measure the biomechanical properties of PHDPE, we implemented the tensile test, the three-point bending test and the water displacement method for density measurement. Elastic modulus varies from 227 to 307MPa. Density range is 0.68 and 0.7 depending on the size of pores. The data can be used to study the character of the porous high-density polyethylene implant, how it resists stress or fatigue in combination with conventional plating systems.

    Title Future of Extracranial-intracranial Bypass.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Total occlusion of internal carotid artery in the cervical region is an end result of progressive occlusive vascular disease. A small proportion of these patients will have symptoms of cerebral ischemia due to cerebral hypoperfusion in a delayed fashion. Identification of those individuals who are at risk of developing symptoms and prophylactically treating with a revascularization procedure will prevent such catastrophic events. With the co-operative study for bypass not supporting the bypass procedure and trial being questioned for its design and conclusions, a new trial of extracranial-intracranial bypass, The Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study, using the currently available technology will be undertaken to verify that the bypass will decrease the future stroke rate by at least 40% in patients with total carotid occlusion. A subset of patients with skull base pathology including tumors and aneurysms who may have to undergo carotid sacrifice as part of the surgical procedure are at risk of peri-operative and delayed stroke. Identification of these patients at risk by pre-operative tests may allow performance of extracranial-intracranial bypass prior to undertaking complex skull base procedures. The new imaging technology will guide management of these patients at risk and help identify patients who may need a bypass procedure.

    Title Differential Effects of Phospholipase Inhibitors on Free Fatty Acid Efflux in Rat Cerebral Cortex During Ischemia-reperfusion Injury.
    Date November 2002
    Journal Brain Research
    Excerpt

    Free fatty acid (FFA) elevation in the brain has been shown to correlate with the severity of damage in ischemic injury. The etiology of this increase in FFA remains unclear and has been hypothesized to result from phospholipase activation. This study examines the effects of specific phospholipase inhibitors on FFA efflux during ischemia-reperfusion injury. A four-vessel occlusion model of cerebral ischemia was utilized to assess the effects of PLA(2) and PLC inhibitors on FFA efflux from rat cerebral cortex. In addition, FFA efflux from non-ischemic cortices exposed to PLA(2) and PLC was measured. Concentrations of arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, linoleic, myristic, oleic, and palmitic acids in cortical superfusates were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Exposure to the non-selective PLA(2) inhibitor 4-bromophenylacyl bromide (BPB) significantly inhibited FFA efflux during ischemia-reperfusion injury (P<0.01 arachidonic, oleic and palmitic; P<0.05 all others); exposure to the PLC inhibitor U73122 had no observed effect. The effects of the Ca(2+)-dependent PLA(2) inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF(3)) mirrored the effects of BPB and led to reductions in all FFA levels (P<0.01 arachidonic, oleic and palmitic; P<0.05 all others). Exposure to the secretory PLA(2) inhibitor 3-(3-acetamide-1-benzyl-2-ethyl-indolyl-5-oxy) propane sulfonic acid (LY311727) and to the Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2) inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL) had only minimal effects on FFA efflux. Application of both PLA(2) and PLC to non-ischemic cortices resulted in significant increases in efflux of all FFA (P<0.05). The study suggests that FFA efflux during ischemia-reperfusion injury is coupled to activation of Ca(2+)-dependent PLA(2) and provides further evidence of the potential neuroprotective benefit of Ca(2+)-dependent PLA(2) inhibitors in ischemia.

    Title Free Fatty Acids in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Their Potential Role in Vasospasm: a Preliminary Observation.
    Date September 2002
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    OBJECT: The mechanisms leading to vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remain unclear. Accumulation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of free fatty acids (FFAs) may play a role in the development of vasospasm; however, in no previous study have concentrations of FFAs in CSF been examined after SAH. METHODS: We collected samples of CSF from 20 patients with SAH (18 cases of aneurysmal SAH and two cases of spontaneous cryptogenic SAH) and used a high-performance liquid chromatography assay to determine the FFA concentrations in these samples. We then compared these findings with FFA concentrations in the CSF of control patients. All FFA concentrations measured 24 hours after SAH were significantly greater than control concentrations (p < 0.01 for palmitic acid and < 0.001 for all other FFAs). All measured FFAs remained elevated for the first 48 hours after SAH (p < 0.05 for linoleic acid, p < 0.01 for palmitic acid, and p < 0.001 for the other FFAs). After 7 days, a second elevation in all FFAs was observed (p < 0.05 for linoleic acid, p < 0.01 for palmitic acid, and p < 0.001 for the other FFAs). Samples of CSF collected within 48 hours after SAH from patients in whom angiography and clinical examination confirmed the development of vasospasm after SAH were found to have significantly higher concentrations of arachidonic, linoleic, and palmitic acids than samples collected from patients in whom vasospasm did not develop (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Following SAH, all FFAs are initially elevated. A secondary elevation occurs between 8 and 10 days after SAH. This study provides preliminary evidence of FFA elevation following SAH and of a potential role for FFAs in SAH-induced vasospasm. A prospective study is warranted to determine if CSF concentrations of FFAs are predictive of vasospasm.

    Title Quantification of Free Fatty Acids in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.
    Date September 2002
    Journal Neurochemical Research
    Excerpt

    Free fatty acids (FFA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are well-recognized markers of brain damage in animal studies. Information is limited regarding human CSF in both normal and pathological conditions. Samples of CSF from 73 patients, who had undergone lumbar puncture for medically indicated reasons, came from a core laboratory upon completion of ordered tests. Using high performance liquid chromatography, mean FFA concentrations (microg/L +/- SEM) were: arachidonic 26.14 +/- 3.44; docosahexaenoic 60.74 +/- 5.70; linoleic 105.07 +/- 10.98; myristic 160.38 +/- 16.17; oleic 127.91 +/- 10.13; and palmitic 638.34 +/- 37.27. No differences in FFA concentrations were seen with gender, race, age, and/or indication for lumbar puncture. This is the first study to document normal human CSF FFA concentrations in a large series. Further characterization of FFA in pathological conditions may provide markers for evaluating clinical treatments and assisting in prognostication of neurological disease.

    Title Surgical Management of Cavernous Malformations of the Brainstem.
    Date June 2002
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Cavernomas are well circumscribed lesions formed by sinusoidal vascular channels. They tend to slowly expand in size and carry a 0.7% to 1.1% annual risk of hemorrhage. Only 10% to 30% of intracranial cavernomas are located in the posterior fossa. When located in the brainstem they can cause recurrent hemorrhages and devastating neurological deficits. The authors report a series of cavernomas located in the brainstem and present a review on their epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, and methods of diagnosis and treatment. Although the surgical treatment of brainstem cavernomas can be associated with a significant risk, surgical resection is recommended of the lesions that have hemorrhaged or grown producing progressive deficits. The authors' experience on the surgical treatment of cavernous hemangiomas of the brainstem, indicating important aspects of intra-operative surgical techniques, is presented, including a clinical and anatomical correlation of different surgical approaches to brainstem cavernomas.

    Title A Model of Global Forebrain Ischemia/reperfusion in the Awake Rat.
    Date June 2002
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Anesthesia is an essential element during the induction of ischemia/reperfusion and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in most animal models. Cerebral neuroprotection and intrinsic effects on CBF afforded by anesthetics are confounding variables in those models. A new model of global forebrain ischemia/reperfusion (GFIR) in awake rats is presented and characterized. Rats underwent permanent occlusion of the basilar, and the paired pterygopalatine, external carotid, and occipital arteries. Inflatable balloon occluders were inserted around both common carotids, the nine-vessel occlusion (9VO) preparation. A subgroup of 9VO rats underwent placement of a laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) probe for measurement of cortical CBF. Twenty-four hours later, while awake, 9VO rats were subjected to 10 min of ischemia by occluding both common carotid arteries. Blood gases, glucose and hematocrit were analyzed before and during ischemia, and for up to 90 min during reperfusion. Behavioral observations and continuous LDF CBF and mean arterial blood pressure determinations during ischemia and reperfusion were made. Rats were rendered comatose and decerebrate rigidity was observed during 9VO. Following balloon deflation, rats immediately regained the righting reflex and achieved complete recovery in the next 24 h. Moderate hyperglycemia was observed at 5 min of ischemia and up to 90 min reperfusion in 9VO rats. LDF CBF decreased to 5% of baseline and remained unchanged during ischemia. The 9VO is a reproducible recovery model of GFIR. Behavioral and LDF CBF correlates are consistent and survival studies are feasible.

    Title Inhibition of Mitochondrial Na(+)/ca(2+) Exchange by 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,5-dihydro-4,1-benzothiazepin-2(3h)-one Attenuates Free Fatty Acid Efflux in Rat Cerebral Cortex During Ischemia-reperfusion Injury.
    Date May 2002
    Journal Neuroscience Letters
    Excerpt

    We evaluated the effects of 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,5-dihydro-4,1-benzothiazepin-2(3H)-one (CGP-37157) (50 muM), a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange, applied topically onto rat cerebral cortex during ischemia-reperfusion injury. Free fatty acid (FFA) levels in cortical superfusates, withdrawn at 10 min intervals from bilateral cortical windows, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. During a 20 min period of ischemia in control animals, there were significant increases in all FFAs. Following reperfusion, FFA levels remained significantly elevated. Application of CGP-37157 significantly inhibited effluxes of all FFAs during both ischemia and reperfusion. These data indicate that inhibition of mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange likely prevented the activation of phospholipases that usually occurs following an ischemic insult as evidenced by its attenuation of FFA efflux.

    Title Transplantation of Human Fetal Brain Cells into Ischemic Lesions of Adult Gerbil Hippocampus.
    Date January 2002
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    OBJECT: The goal of this study was to establish whether transplanted cells derived from fetal human brain can survive in an ischemic lesion. METHODS: Sixteen adult male Mongolian gerbils underwent transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. One week later, cell suspensions prepared from fetal human brain were injected using stereotactic guidance into the CA1 region of the hippocampus on one side. On the contralateral side injection of the cell suspension medium only was performed. One week after transplantation, the animals were perfusion fixed and their brains were processed for histological studies as well as expression of neuron and glia-specific antigens. Data from ischemic animals were compared with eight nonischemic gerbils that served as sham-operated controls. Last, the in vivo data were correlated with observations made from matching in vitro cultures of the fetal brain cell suspension. The in vivo data indicated that transplanted human fetus-derived brain cells survived in ischemic lesions of gerbil hippocampus after 1 week, provided that the host animal underwent adequate immunosuppression and the transplanted cells were not incorporated into the scar caused by the transplantation procedure. Unlike their in vivo counterparts, after 1 week, most cultured fetal brain cells expressed either neuron- or astrocyte-specific antigens. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates that xenotransplanted fetal human brain cells are able to survive in an ischemic lesion in a rodent model. These data might be useful for future neural transplantation studies of treatments for cerebrovascular ischemia in humans.

    Title Inhibition of Na(+)/ca(2+) Exchange by Kb-r7943, a Novel Selective Antagonist, Attenuates Phosphoethanolamine and Free Fatty Acid Efflux in Rat Cerebral Cortex During Ischemia-reperfusion Injury.
    Date January 2002
    Journal Brain Research
    Excerpt

    Reversal of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) occurs during ischemia-reperfusion injury as a result of changes in intracellular pH and sodium concentration. Inhibition of NCXs has been shown to be neuroprotective in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the effects of KB-R7943 (50 microM), a specific inhibitor of the reverse mode of NCX, applied topically onto rat cerebral cortex prior to and during ischemia. Amino acid and free fatty acid levels in cortical superfusates, withdrawn at 10-min intervals from bilateral cortical windows, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. During a 20-min period of ischemia in control animals, there were significant increases in all amino acids and in all FFAs. Following reperfusion, all FFAs remained significantly elevated. Application of KB-R7943 (50 microM) significantly inhibited effluxes of phosphoethanolamine, but had no effect on glutamate, aspartate, taurine or GABA levels. KB-R7943 also resulted in significant reductions in levels of myristic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid during ischemia and in reperfusion levels of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. These data indicate that inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange likely prevented the activation of phospholipases that usually occurs following an ischemic insult as evidenced by its attenuation of phosphoethanolamine and free fatty acid efflux. The inhibition of phospholipases may be an essential component of the neuroprotective benefits of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange inhibitors in ischemia-reperfusion injury and may provide a basis for their possible use in therapeutic strategies for stroke.

    Title Inhibition of Na(+)/h(+) Exchange by Sm-20220 Attenuates Free Fatty Acid Efflux in Rat Cerebral Cortex During Ischemia-reperfusion Injury.
    Date December 2001
    Journal Brain Research
    Excerpt

    The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) is activated during ischemia-reperfusion in an effort to restore intracellular pH to normal levels. Inhibition of NHE with non-selective amiloride derivatives has been shown to be neuroprotective and to attenuate free fatty acid efflux during ischemia-reperfusion. We evaluated the effects of SM-20220 (20 microM), a highly selective and specific NHE inhibitor, applied topically onto rat cerebral cortex prior to and during a 20-min period of ischemia. SM-20220 application significantly reduced the ischemia-evoked efflux of myristic, palmitic, and arachidonic acids during both ischemia and reperfusion with significant decreases in linoleic and docosahexaenoic levels during reperfusion. This study confirms the importance of NHEs in eliciting free fatty acid efflux, inhibition of which may be an essential component of the neuroprotective benefits of NHE inhibitors in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Title An Efficient Method for the Culturing and Generation of Neurons and Astrocytes from Second Trimester Human Central Nervous System Tissue.
    Date December 2001
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    The isolation, culturing and expansion of human neural progenitors cells has important potential clinical applications in cellular transplantation strategies as well as in developmental studies involving the central nervous system (CNS). This study describes an efficient method to culture neurons and astrocytes as primary cultures, as well as from proliferative progenitor cells derived from second trimester fetal CNS tissue. Second trimester fetal human tissue was mechanically dissociated and subjected to trypsin-dissociation and trituration. The resulting suspension was passed over a Percoll density gradient. The middle (second) fraction of cells was centrifuged to yield a homogenous population of cells with 80%-90% viability. These cells were either cultured directly on laminin coated dishes with defined medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum or in defined medium supplemented with growth factors including epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor. The primary cell cultures yielded neurons and astrocytes after 3-5 days in vitro verified by immunostaining with MAP2ab and GFAP. Cells exposed to growth factor supplemented medium formed free-floating spheres within one week. Upon growth factor removal and plating on laminin-coated dishes, brain derived spheres gave rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes; spinal cord derived spheres generated only astrocytes. This protocol describes an efficient method to generate and culture neurons and astrocytes from second trimester human CNS tissue that may be useful in transplantation and developmental studies.

    Title Comparison of Neural Precursor Cell Fate in Second Trimester Human Brain and Spinal Cord.
    Date September 2001
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Neural transplantation holds promise for the treatment of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury by replacing lost cellular elements as well as repairing neural damage. Fetal human stem cells derived from central nervous system (CNS) tissue are potential transplantable sources for all cell types found in the mature human nervous system including neurons, astrocytes and oligodendroglia. Although nearly all areas of the fetal human neuraxis contain undifferentiated neural precursor cells, the phenotypic fate of the daughter cells might vary from one region to another during a specific developmental period. The purpose of this study was to compare the various cell types derived from neural precursors cultured from second trimester fetal human brain and spinal cord. To this end, brains (n = 8) and spinal cords (n = 8) of 15-24 week fetuses were dissociated and grown in culture medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The proliferating precursor cells from both brain and spinal cord grew as spherical masses that were plated on laminin-coated dishes after seven days in culture. During the next 5-7 days, the cells that emerged from these spheres were fixed and processed for immunocytochemistry. Brain derived spheres gave rise to cells expressing antigens specific for neurons (MAP-2ab and neuron specific-intermediate filaments), astrocytes (GFAP) and oligodendrocytes (A007). In contrast, cells that emerged from spinal cord derived spheres were only immunoreactive for GFAP. These data suggest that neuroepithelial precursor cells from different CNS regions, although similar in their responsiveness to proliferative growth factors, might differ in their ability to generate different cell types in the adult CNS.

    Title Biomechanical Properties of Calvarium Prosthesis.
    Date September 2001
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    There are many materials available for the reconstruction of calvarial defects. Even though their biomaterial properties are well known, the biomechanical properties as part of the calvarium have not been investigated. In this article, calvarial implants are reviewed with their historic development into modern cranioplasty. Materials for trephined skulls are classified by their category. Individual parameters to describe their mechanical properties are collected and revealed in detail. The laboratory testing methodology for cranioplasty material is introduced to understand each parameter. At last, we discuss an engineering technique to look into the implant behavior. Since there is no standard goal for the biomechanical and biomaterial point of view for cranioplasty, this article suggests the finite element method for evaluation of the implant behavior and the degree of damage upon the impact injury.

    Title Vascular Injury in Neurotrauma.
    Date September 2001
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Traumatic vascular lesions can occur after severe or even the most mild of head and cervical trauma. The initial evaluation of the injured patient must be thorough and the clinical suspicion of vascular injury must be highly suspected based on the mechanism of injury. Traumatic vascular injuries can be broadly classified into traumatic aneurysms, dissections and occlusions and fistulae of the carotid or vertebral arteries. The current management and treatment options of each condition are discussed.

    Title The Effect of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes on the Release of Excitotoxic and Other Amino Acids from the Ischemic Rat Cerebral Cortex.
    Date May 2001
    Journal Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemic stroke results in increased neuronal damage, the exact mechanism of which is unknown. Lactic acidosis has been implicated; however, increases in the excitotoxic amino acid glutamate, which correlate with increased neuronal damage, may be the cause for the increased damage seen in hyperglycemic stroke. METHODS: Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg), and 12 normoglycemic rats were used as controls. Using a four-vessel occlusion model, global ischemia was assessed at 5 to 7 days after treatment in five animals (acute STZ group) or at 4 to 6 weeks after treatment in five animals (chronic STZ group). The cortical cup model was used to collect superfusates under basal, ischemic, and reperfusion conditions and analyzed for nine different amino acids using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Plasma glucose levels were significantly higher in the acute and chronic STZ groups as compared with the control group. Plasma lactate levels were higher in the acute STZ group as compared with the control or chronic STZ groups. Extracellular cortical glutamate levels were significantly reduced during reperfusion in the acute STZ group and during ischemia/reperfusion in the chronic STZ group as compared with the controls. Levels of extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid were significantly reduced in the acute and chronic STZ groups as compared with the controls. CONCLUSION: A chronic state of hyperglycemia results in reduction in extracellular brain glutamate levels during ischemia/reperfusion and therefore does not appear to be responsible for the increased neuronal damage seen in diabetic stroke. Chronic hyperglycemia also causes decreased extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid levels, which, because of the loss of the inhibitory effects of this neurotransmitter, could contribute to the increased damage observed in hyperglycemic stroke.

    Title Real-time Measurement of Glutamate Release from the Ischemic Penumbra of the Rat Cerebral Cortex Using a Focal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model.
    Date May 2001
    Journal Neuroscience Letters
    Excerpt

    Following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, extracellular penumbral glutamate levels, measured by a real-time glutamate electrode, increased in two different patterns. In 7/11 rats, glutamate increased from baseline levels of 19+/-4 (mean+/-SEM) to 208+/-29 microM and then declined towards baseline levels. Blood flow in the penumbral area declined to 30% of pre-ischemic levels with recovery to 60 and 70% of baseline values by 3 and 6 h, respectively. Four of 11 rats in the study also exhibited late peaks of glutamate release (120+/-40 microM ) 2 h after the onset of ischemia. There were no changes in the EEG recordings or cerebral blood flow during these late glutamate peaks.

    Title Cellular Transplantation and Spinal Cord Injury.
    Date February 2001
    Journal Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    Spinal cord injury is often characterized by immediate and irreversible loss of sensory and motor functions below the level of injury. Cellular transplantation in various experimental models of spinal cord injury has been used as a strategy for reducing deficits and improving functional recovery. The general strategy has been aimed at promoting regeneration of intrinsic injured axons with the development of alternative pathways that facilitate a partial functional connection. Other objectives of cellular transplantation studies have included replacement of lost cellular elements, alleviation of chronic pain, and modulation of the inflammatory response after injury. This review focuses on the cell types that have been used in spinal cord transplantation studies in the context of evolving biological perspectives, technological advances, and new therapeutic strategies and serves as a point of reference for future studies.

    Title The Effect of Topical Insulin on the Release of Excitotoxic and Other Amino Acids from the Rat Cerebral Cortex During Streptozotocin-induced Hyperglycemic Ischemia.
    Date September 2000
    Journal Brain Research
    Excerpt

    Insulin has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in brain and spinal cord ischemia. The mechanism of neuroprotection may involve alterations in metabolism, protein synthesis or uptake of GABA by astrocytes. Conversely, hyperglycemia increases the extent of neurologic damage observed during ischemia/reperfusion. Diabetic patients are 2-4 times more likely to suffer a stroke as normoglycemic patients and they also have worsened neurologic outcome. Determining if insulin, which many diabetics already use as therapy, can be neuroprotective, would be a possible means of alleviating the detrimental outcome from diabetic stroke. This study looked at the relationship between topically administered insulin (1 mIU insulin/ml and 100 mIU insulin/ml) during a four vessel occlusion model of global ischemia and the release of amino acids, especially glutamate, from the cortex in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. The rats were utilized either 5-7 days (ASTZ) or 4-6 weeks (CSTZ) after a single STZ injection. In the ASTZ animals both doses of insulin increased the amount of the excitotoxic amino acids, aspartate and glutamate, released during reperfusion and the higher dose also increased the levels of taurine and GABA during reperfusion. In the CSTZ animals, both doses of insulin increased the amount of excitotoxic amino acids during reperfusion and the lower dose increased GABA levels released during reperfusion. The differences between the ACTZ and CSTZ animals may be due to metabolic differences in the utilization of glucose. Insulin may act as a neuroprotectant by increasing extracellular GABA resulting in neuroinhibition.

    Title The Effect of Intravenous Insulin on Accumulation of Excitotoxic and Other Amino Acids in the Ischemic Rat Cerebral Cortex.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Neuroscience Letters
    Excerpt

    Insulin has been reported to be neuroprotective during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. However, it may also increase the sensitivity of cultured cortical neurons to glutamate toxicity. The experiments described here utilized a rat four-vessel occlusion model with cerebral cortical windows to determine the effects of intravenous insulin, alone (I) or combined with glucose (IG) to maintain physiologic blood glucose levels, on the extracellular accumulation of amino acids in superfusates of the cerebral cortex. Aspartate, phosphoethanolamine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were increased in the I and IG groups and glutamate was increased in the IG group compared to controls during ischemia/reperfusion. Insulin treatment attenuated the rebound in cortical superfusate glucose levels in both groups of animals during reperfusion. The increases in amino acid release during reperfusion may be due to a lack of glycolytically derived energy available for amino acid uptake systems and ionic pumps.

    Title The Relationship of Blunt Head Trauma, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, and Rupture of Pre-existing Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms.
    Date June 2000
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Patients with a history of closed head trauma and subarachnoid hemorrhage are uncommonly diagnosed with an intracranial saccular aneurysm. This study presents a group of patients in whom a pre-existing aneurysm was discovered during work-up for traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Without an accurate pre-trauma clinical history, it is difficult to define the relationship between trauma and the rupture of a pre-existing intracranial saccular aneurysm. We retrospectively reviewed 130 patients who presented to Detroit Receiving Hospital between 1993 and 1997 with a diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Of these 130 patients, 70 were spontaneous, and 60 had a history of trauma. Mechanisms of trauma include motor vehicle accident, assault, or fall from a height. Of the 60 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and a history of trauma, 51 (86%) did not undergo conventional four-vessel angiography, and had no further neurological sequelae. Nine patients (14%) had a suspicious quantity of blood within the basal cisterns or Sylvian fissure and had a four-vessel angiogram. Five patients (8%) were diagnosed with a saccular intracranial aneurysm, and all underwent surgical clipping of the aneurysm. We conclude that the majority of patients (92%), with post-traumatic SAH do not harbor intracranial aneurysms. However, during initial evaluation, a high level of suspicion must be entertained when post-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is encountered in the basal cisterns or Sylvian fissure, as 8% of our population were diagnosed with aneurysms.

    Title Topical Insulin and Accumulation of Excitotoxic and Other Amino Acids in Ischemic Rat Cerebral Cortex.
    Date May 2000
    Journal Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    Insulin plays a neuroprotectant role in the brain and spinal cord during ischemia. However, studies have shown insulin to increase the sensitivity of cultured cortical cells to glutamate toxicity. The present study looked at the relationship between topically administered insulin (1 mIU insulin/ml and 100 mIU insulin/ml) during a four-vessel model of global ischemia and the accumulation of amino acids, especially glutamate, from the ischemic rat cerebral cortex. The lower dose of insulin was found to attenuate the release of excitotoxic and other amino acids from the cortex in ischemia/reperfusion. This may occur because insulin increases glucose availability to glial cells resulting in maintenance of glycolysis and ionic pumps that can reduce glutamate release and maintain uptake during ischemia/reperfusion. The higher dose of insulin, which significantly increased the amount of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, and GABA during reperfusion, may act to stimulate the amount of glycogen stored in astrocytes, reducing the availability of glucose for metabolic purposes.

    Title Topical Glucose and Accumulation of Excitotoxic and Other Amino Acids in Ischemic Cerebral Cortex.
    Date April 2000
    Journal Hormone and Metabolic Research. Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung. Hormones Et Métabolisme
    Excerpt

    Pre-ischemic hyperglycemia aggravates brain damage due to transient global ischemia as demonstrated by exacerbation of brain lesions. Lactacidosis and elevated glutamate levels have been implicated as mechanisms of the increased damage. Our objective was to determine the effects of different levels of glucose (0, 66.5, 450 mg/dL) in cortical superfusates on the ischemia/reperfusion-evoked release of amino acids from the rat cerebral cortex. Physiologic levels of glucose significantly reduced the amount of aspartate, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid and the supra-physiologic levels of glucose reduced the amount of aspartate and phosphoethanolamine released from the cortex during ischemia/reperfusion in comparison with no glucose. The decrease in glutamate release may be due to increased availability of glucose for glycolysis with the subsequent formation of ATP and lactate, which has been shown to act as an energy source for neurons. The decreased levels may also reflect the continued energy-dependent uptake of glutamate by glial cells.

    Title A Brief Review of the Effects of Chronic Hydrocephalus on the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone System: Implications for Amenorrhea and Precocious Puberty.
    Date February 2000
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Precocious puberty and amenorrhea have been associated with hydrocephalus, but the pathogenesis has not been determined. Approximately 22 cases of amenorrhea, and a few cases of precocious puberty, have been reported in hydrocephalic patients. Shunt treatment leads to initiation and maintenance of normal reproductive cycles in most cases. An underlying mechanism responsible for reproductive dysfunction may involve the role of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). The exact pathway by which hydrocephalus disrupts the hypothalamic GnRH system is unknown. However, compressive forces, ischemia, and impairment of neurotransmitter feedback loops are likely candidates.

    Title Surgical Management of Complex Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms.
    Date September 1999
    Journal Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
    Excerpt

    Complex middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are defined in this review as aneurysms larger than 20 mm, arising from the MCA bifurcation, and requiring unusual surgical approaches for their obliteration. The direct surgical approaches to complex MCA aneurysms can be divided into five techniques: 1) direct clipping, 2) trapping, 3) trapping and extracranial-intracranial anastomosis, 4) excision and end-to-end anastomosis, and 5) external wrapping. The pertinent surgical anatomy, preoperative preparation, intraoperative procedures, operative approaches, and potential complications will be reviewed.

    Title Patterns of Immediate Early Gene Mrna Expression Following Rodent and Human Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Date June 1999
    Journal Neurological Research
    Excerpt

    Cell stimulation which leads to degeneration triggers a prolonged wave of immediate early gene (IEG) transcription that correlates with neuronal demise. In order to determine the relevance of the prolonged IEG response to human traumatic brain injury, we analyzed IEG mRNA levels in brain tissue isolated following a controlled penetrating injury and an injection of the excitotoxin Quinolinic acid (QA), as well as from tissue recovered during routine neurosurgery for trauma. Total RNA was extracted from tissue and subjected to Northern analysis of IEG mRNAs (c-fos and zif/268). Both models produced rapid and prolonged waves of IEG transcription that appeared to correlate with the severity of injury. Increases in zif/268 mRNA were observed within 1 h with levels reaching their peak at 6 h following excitotoxic injury and 3 h following a controlled penetration. In general, human traumatic brain injury resulted in variable increases in IEG mRNA levels following traumatic injury with the largest IEG mRNA increases observed in tissue collected 0-10 h after injury. This post-injury time corresponds to the peak of the prolonged IEG response observed in rodents following excitotoxic injury. Comparisons were made in IEG response between rodent frontal cortex and human cortex, because the majority of the human tissue originated from the cerebral cortex. These results further support the hypothesis that prolonged IEG transcription serves as a marker of traumatic brain injury and may play a role in neurodegeneration and/or glial activation. Moreover, observations of similar IEG patterns of expression reinforces the importance of rodent models of brain injury providing useful information directly applicable to human brain injury.

    Title Real-time Measurement of Ischemia-evoked Glutamate Release in the Cerebral Cortex of Four and Eleven Vessel Rat Occlusion Models.
    Date March 1999
    Journal Brain Research
    Excerpt

    Interstitial levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate and cerebral blood flow changes were compared in two models of rat forebrain ischemia using the dialysis electrode technique and laser doppler flowmetry with brain temperature controlled. Ten-minute periods of cerebral ischemia were elicited by the four and an eleven vessel occlusion and compared to carotid artery transection. Elapsed time from the onset of ischemia to the ischemic plateau was 76.8+/-57.9 s in 4VO vs. 14.8+/-1.3 s in 11VO animals. Percent residual cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 13.5+/-8.8% during 4VO as opposed to 4.5+/-2.9% during 11VO. Concomitantly, cerebral glutamate levels rose to 255. 7+/-72.8 micromol l-1 in the 4VO animals in comparison with levels of 138.5+/-78.7 and 135.7+/-40.2 micromol l-1 in the 11VO and carotid transection animals. During the first 89.6+/-47.4 s of reperfusion, glutamate levels rose to a second higher peak of 315. 1+/-179.2 micromol l-1 in 7 of 12 animals. Following reperfusion, glutamate levels in the 4VO and 11VO animals returned towards basal levels. This study demonstrates that 11VO causes a rapid drop in CBF to near zero levels, better mimicking complete forebrain ischemia than the traditional 4VO technique. Moreover, the 'low flow' state of cerebral ischemia, produced by traditional 4VO, results in a higher interstitial level of glutamate than a 'no flow' state, as exhibited by the 11VO technique. The dialysis electrode, used simultaneously with laser doppler flowmetry, real-time data acquisition, and continuous brain temperature control, in this new rat model, provides real-time evidence that glutamate levels in the interstitial space are enhanced during a low flow state of cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, not before demonstrated, glutamate transients are seen to occur during the first 90 s of reperfusion, and, to the best of our knowledge, the glutamate levels recorded by this technique are the highest in the literature.

    Title Cerebral Monitoring Devices: Analysis of Complications.
    Date January 1999
    Journal Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
    Excerpt

    The use of indwelling cerebral monitoring devices (ICMDs) is common in the intensive care of neurosurgical patients. ICMDs are used to measure and treat intracranial pressure (ICP), temperature, blood flow and the microchemical environment. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and infection are risks of ICMD use [4]. This study presents ICMD use at Detroit Receiving Hospital (DRH) from July 1993- March 1997. Analysis of complications associated with ICMD placement will test the hypothesis that complication rate depends upon type of ICMD used. A log of all patients having ICMDs at DRH has been kept since 1993. This log was used to identify complications of ICMD placement. Each case was reviewed and the following data obtained: diagnosis, patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Score, Glasgow Outcome Score, type of ICMD, number of ICMDs per patient, duration of implant and complication. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to compare samples of interest. The following number of ICMDs were placed: 274 ventriculostomies, 229 Camino intra parenchymal ICP monitors, and 33 other ICMDs. Complications in these 536 cases include 21 infections, 15 ICHs, 1 granuloma and 1 persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Complication was analyzed as a function of ICMD type using Chi-Square test for independence. The rate of infection and ICH was significantly higher in the ventriculostomy group (p = 0.0001). These results support the hypothesis that complications of ICMD use are due to the type of device implanted. The determinants of ICMD complication is undoubtedly multifactorial. The clinician must consider the complication rate related to a particular ICMD among other factors when choosing to place an ICMD.

    Title A Cohort Study of the Safety and Feasibility of Intraventricular Urokinase for Nonaneurysmal Spontaneous Intraventricular Hemorrhage.
    Date August 1998
    Journal Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small case series have reported potential benefit from thrombolysis after spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Our objective was to review our experience using intraventricular urokinase (UK) in treating selected patients with IVH. METHODS: Using medical records, we identified all patients who received ventriculostomies for CT-confirmed nonaneurysmal nontraumatic spontaneous IVH from December 1992 through November 1996. We reviewed charts and CT images and examined the data for associations with specific outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 40 patients, 18 treated with ventriculostomy alone and 22 receiving adjunctive intraventricular UK. The initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of the two groups were similar (P = 0.5). While there was a trend for patients with any intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) to receive UK (P = 0.07), the mean size of IPH in those who received ventriculostomy alone was larger than in those who received adjunctive UK (P = 0.002). There was lower mortality in the group treated with UK (31.8 versus 66.7%; P = 0.03), but there was only a trend toward an increase in favorable outcome (22.2% versus 36.4%; P = 0.3). Overall, the most significant association with outcome was neurological condition at presentation (GCS >5 versus < or = 5; P = 0.003). Receiving UK did not increase the occurrence of complications or hospital length of stay for survivors (P = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Intraventricular UK remains a safe and potentially beneficial intervention. While it appeared to lower mortality, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial is needed to explore whether the therapy can increase the incidence of favorable outcomes.

    Title Patterns of Heat-shock Protein 70 Biosynthesis Following Human Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Date August 1998
    Journal Journal of Neurotrauma
    Excerpt

    Heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) is activated upon cellular stress/injury and participates in the folding and intracellular transport of damaged proteins. The expression of hsp70 following CNS trauma has been speculated to be part of a cellular response which is involved in the repair of damaged proteins. In this study, we measured hsp70 mRNA and protein levels within human cerebral cortex subjected to traumatic brain injury. Specimens were obtained during routine neurosurgery for trauma and processed for Northern mRNA and Western protein analysis. The largest increase in hsp70 mRNA levels was detected in trauma tissue obtained 4-6 h following injury. By 24 h, hsp70 mRNA levels were similar to nontrauma comparison tissues. hsp70 protein expression exhibited its greatest increases at 12-20 h post-injury. Immunocytological techniques revealed hsp70 protein expression in cells with neuronal-like morphology at 12 h after injury. These results suggest a role for hsp70 in human cortex following TBI. Moreover, since the temporal induction pattern of hsp70 biosynthesis is similar to that reported in the rodent, our observations validate the importance of rodent brain injury models in providing useful information directly applicable to human brain injury.

    Title Heat-shock Protein 72 Expression in Excitotoxic Versus Penetrating Injuries of the Rodent Cerebral Cortex.
    Date August 1998
    Journal Journal of Neurotrauma
    Excerpt

    The induction of heat shock protein 72 (hsp72) has been described in various experimental models of brain injury. The present study examined hsp72 expression patterns within the rodent cerebral cortex in experimental paradigms designed to mimic two mechanisms of damage produced by penetration of the cerebral cortex: (1) tissue tearing from the missile track and (2) diffuse excitotoxicity during temporary cavitation and shock wave formation. Adult male Spaque-Dawley rats received controlled penetration (stab) or injection of the NMDA receptor excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QA), into the frontal cortex and were killed 1-24 h later. Tissue from the lesioned, sham-operated, or contralateral uninjected cortex was processed for Western and immunocytochemical analyses of hsp72 protein expression. By 12 h, both controlled penetration and excitotoxic brain injuries produced significant increases in hsp72 immunoreactivity, which decreased toward control levels at 24 h. However, the severity and regional distribution of hsp72 expression varied between the two models. Specifically, the controlled penetration injury produced many hsp72-expressing cells near the needle track, while immunoreactive cells within the QA-injected cortex were found in the periphery of the lesion site. Morphological assessment of brain sections subjected to dual-labeling procedures demonstrated that cells expressing hsp72 were primarily neuronal in both models of injury. These results suggest that although controlled penetration and diffuse excitotoxicity may induce similar temporal and cellular patterns of hsp72 expression, the spatial location of hsp72-immunoreactive cells may differ between the two models.

    Title Multiresolution Eeg Comparison of Rat Ischemia Models.
    Date June 1998
    Journal Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
    Excerpt

    Fourier transform of Electroencephalography (EEG) restricts EEG analysis due to its stationary properties with time change. It makes analysis difficult to ascertain the global effects of transient change in EEG signals. This study tested that multi-resolution analysis distinguishes different depths of ischemic insult related to the degree of residual blood flow in animal models. The results suggest that multi-resolution analysis demonstrate that little blood flowing to the brain has more detrimental effect to the EEG properties than no blood flowing, which is contrary to the common sense.

    Title Management of Elevated Intracranial Pressure in Patients with Cryptococcal Meningitis.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology : Official Publication of the International Retrovirology Association
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The most important predictor of early mortality in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is mental status at presentation; patients who present with altered mental status have up to 25% mortality. Historically, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion in HIV-negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis and signs of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) has improved survival. In an effort to affect survival and morbidity rates in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis, we have initiated aggressive management of elevated ICP in patients with focal neurologic deficits, mental obtundation, or both. METHODS: We identified 10 patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis who presented with symptoms consistent with elevated ICP, including headache, mental obtundation, papilledema, and cranial nerve palsies. Elevated opening pressure was defined as > 20 cm CSF during lumbar puncture. In patients with elevated opening pressures who had focal neurologic deficits or mental status changes refractory to serial lumbar puncture, management consisted of immediate placement of lumbar drains for continuous drainage of CSF to maintain normal ICP (10 cm CSF). Patients with persistent elevations of spinal neuraxis pressure following lumbar drainage underwent placement of lumbar peritoneal shunts. RESULTS: All patients returned to their baseline level of consciousness following normalization of ICP. Two patients were weaned from lumbar drainage. Eight patients eventually required placement of lumbar peritoneal shunts for persistently elevated ICP despite successful antifungal therapy. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 15 months. One shunt infection occurred, one lumbar peritoneal shunt was converted to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and one shunt was removed. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated ICP in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The use of lumbar drainage and selective placement of lumbar peritoneal shunts in the management of elevated ICP in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis can ameliorate the sequelae of elevated ICP.

    Title Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Planning of Aneurysm Surgery.
    Date July 1997
    Journal Computer Aided Surgery : Official Journal of the International Society for Computer Aided Surgery
    Excerpt

    Standard planning for intracranial aneurysm surgery relies on the surgeon's intellectual reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surgical field on the basis of a two-dimensional (2D) imaging modality, biplanar cerebral angiography. This method is relatively imprecise, and it relies on previous experience for optimal results. We describe a stereotactic magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA)-guided method based on computer segmentation techniques for the planning of aneurysm surgery that has the potential of bringing a 3D perspective to the lesion. The method has been evaluated retrospectively on 20 surgical patients in whom the aneurysm orientation and relationship to parent vessels were shown to match presurgical 3D stereotactic display. When it is adapted to frameless interactive surgical navigation, this method may become a useful adjunct in the surgical obliteration of these life-threatening lesions.

    Title Cerebral Cortex Blood Flow and Vascular Smooth Muscle Contractility in a Rat Model of Ischemia: a Correlative Laser Doppler Flowmetric and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study.
    Date June 1997
    Journal Acta Neuropathologica
    Excerpt

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain the role of smooth muscles and pericytes in the microcirculation during hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion following ischemia in rats. Paired external carotids, the pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotids and the basilar artery were exposed and divided. Reversible inflatable occluders were placed around the common carotids. After 24 h, the unanesthetized rat underwent 10-min ischemia by inflating the occluders. Continuous cortical cerebral blood flow (c-CBF) was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. The measured c-CBF was below 20% of control (P < 0.001) during ischemia. A c-CBF of 227.5 +/- 54.1% (P < 0.001) was obtained during reperfusion hyperemia. A c-CBF of 59.7 +/- 8.8% (P < 0.001) occurred at the nadir of postischemic hypoperfusion, and this was followed by a second hyperemia. The cytoarchitecture of the vascular smooth muscles and pericytes was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Samples were prepared using a KOH-collagenase digestion method. In control rats, arteriolar muscle cells showed smooth surfaces. Capillary pericytes were closely apposed to the endothelium. Immediately after reperfusion, transverse membrane creases were observed on the smooth muscle surfaces. During maximal hyperemia the creases disappeared. When c-CBF started to decrease the creases became visible again. Throughout the postischemic hypoperfusion the creases remained. Capillary endothelial walls became tortuous in the late phase of hypoperfusion. During the second hyperemia most arteriolar muscle cells showed smooth surfaces. Some pericytes appeared to have migrated from the vascular wall. The morphological changes of smooth muscle membranes suggest that they are related to specific perfusional disturbances during ischemia and reperfusion.

    Title The Neurovascular Complications of Cocaine.
    Date April 1997
    Journal Surgical Neurology
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Cocaine use has been temporally associated with neurovascular complications, including the rupture of intracerebral aneurysms. The purpose of the current study was to determine the type of neurovascular complications associated with cocaine use in our patient population, the temporal relationship between cocaine use and their onset, and whether cocaine users with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) presented with smaller aneurysms at an earlier age than a control group of noncocaine users with SAH. METHODS: Thirty-three patients who presented to the Detroit Medical Center with neurovascular sequelae associated with cocaine use were identified. All patients were chronic cocaine users who related a history of recent use confirmed by a drug screen. Cocaine users with SAH were compared to a control group of 44 patients with SAH who presented without evidence of cocaine use. RESULTS: Sixteen patients presented with SAH. Twelve patients subsequently underwent four-vessel cerebral arteriogram revealing 14 aneurysms; six patients presented with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and seven patients with evidence of ischemic stroke. Eighteen (54.5%) patients noted onset of their symptoms while using cocaine, 87.9% noted onset within 6 hours of use. Delayed presentation occurred predominantly in patients who suffered ischemic strokes. The average age of patients who used cocaine and presented with SAH secondary to a ruptured intracerebral aneurysm was 32.8 years with an average aneurysm diameter of 4.9 mm versus an average age of 52.2 years with an average aneurysm diameter of approximately 11.0 mm in noncocaine users. Population differences were statistically significant at the p < 0.05 level. Mortality was 27.3% for patients who presented with neurovascular sequelae of their cocaine use, with 77.8% of deaths occurring in patients who presented with SAH. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic cocaine use appears to predispose patients who harbor incidental neurovascular anomalies to present at an earlier point in their natural history than similar non-cocaine users.

    Title Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: a 10-year Experience.
    Date August 1994
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To report the changing incidence of previous cesarean delivery, and the increasing use and success of a trial of labor and its effect on the repeat cesarean rate.

    Title The Management of Cerebral Perfusion Pressure and Intracranial Pressure After Severe Head Injury.
    Date June 1993
    Journal Annals of Emergency Medicine
    Excerpt

    Neurosurgical intervention attempts to minimize secondary central nervous system injury after severe head injury through the evacuation of mass lesions with subsequent manipulation of cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure. The normal brain couples blood flow to metabolic demand through autoregulation of the cerebral vasculature. After severe head trauma and its attendant increase in intracranial pressure, marked alterations in cerebral blood flow and perfusion may occur. Currently, intervention is based on maintenance of coronary perfusion pressure and aggressive management of intracranial pressure. Both may be impacted by manipulation of ventilation, systemic blood pressure and volume status, administration of osmotic diuretics, and head elevation. Such therapy in the patient with severe head injury attempts to maintain coronary perfusion pressure and adequate oxygen delivery in a damaged central nervous system with altered hemodynamics and raised intracranial pressure.

    Title Temporary Clipping in Aneurysm Surgery: Technique and Results.
    Date October 1991
    Journal Surgical Neurology
    Excerpt

    The use of temporary clipping has become an established tool in the armamentarium of the aneurysm surgeon. Our experience with 62 consecutive patients is presented, detailing operative protocols and results. Twenty-two had unruptured aneurysms (35%), 15 were grade I (24%), 16 grade II (25%), five grade III (8%), and four grade IV (7%). The aneurysms were mainly located in the middle cerebral artery (29 patients) and the anterior communicating artery (13 patients). Eleven of our 62 patients (17%) developed a new, persistent postoperative deficit. However, in only one case (2%) was temporary clipping felt to be implicated in the development of the deficit. In three other patients (5%), the effect of temporary clipping, although unlikely, could not be excluded. Overall, 92% of our patients with temporary clipping had good to excellent outcome, with 3% mortality and 5% morbidity. We believe that temporary clipping is a safe procedure that contributes significantly to a better outcome.

    Title Management of Cerebral Aneurysms: Further Facts and Additional Myths.
    Date July 1989
    Journal Surgical Neurology
    Excerpt

    In 1985 we reviewed 17 misconceptions or myths surrounding the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage that may contribute to the dismal outcome from these lesions. Since that time, significant new data, or facts, have become available regarding the influence of early aneurysm surgery on rebleeding, the efficacy of treatments for symptomatic arterial narrowing, improvements in surgical techniques such as temporary arterial clipping, and measures to protect the brain from ischemic injury. However, additional myths have become apparent which continue to limit our ability to improve the outcome of these patients. We review these facts and myths and discuss management of the patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Title Hemodynamic Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency As an Adverse Effect of Antihypertensive Therapy.
    Date June 1989
    Journal Dicp : the Annals of Pharmacotherapy
    Excerpt

    A 63-year-old white male with a 25-year history of hypertension experienced the onset of intermittent diplopia and gait disturbance 24 hours after a change in antihypertensive medication from atenolol 50 mg/d to enalapril 5 mg bid. Three weeks later, the patient was admitted with a worsening of symptoms. Cerebral arteriography revealed significant bilateral vertebral artery stenosis. Symptoms continued to progress in the hospital, and at the time of posterior circulation revascularization the patient had a persistent bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia and right ptosis. The need for a neurovascular workup and adjustment of therapy in patients with antihypertensive-associated cerebral ischemia is discussed.

    Title Anomalies and Variations of the Middle Cerebral Artery: a Microanatomical Study.
    Date October 1988
    Journal Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    The microvascular anatomy of the main trunk and divisions of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 104 unfixed brain hemispheres injected with polyester resin and dissected under the operating microscope. The following anomalies and variations of the middle cerebral artery were found: fenestration (1 case; 1%), located on the first 4 mm of the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery; duplication (1 case; 1%), with vessels arising from the internal carotid artery; accessory middle cerebral artery (2 cases; 2%), originating on the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery; single-trunk type of middle cerebral artery (4 cases; 4%), with no division of its main trunk; quadrifurcation (4 cases; 4%), in which the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery divided into four secondary trunks. The clinical implications of these anatomical findings are discussed, and photographs of representative specimens illustrate the anomalies.

    Title Neurobehavioral and Life-quality Changes After Cerebral Revascularization.
    Date April 1988
    Journal Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
    Title Microanatomy of the Premamillary Artery.
    Date August 1987
    Journal Acta Neurochirurgica
    Excerpt

    The premamillary artery was studied in 50 unfixed human brain hemispheres (51 vessels were found) which were injected with polyester resin and dissected under the operating microscope. In one hemisphere there was duplication of the premamillary artery. There were premamillary arteries arising from the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) in 49 cases and from the posterior cerebral artery in the remaining two. The arteries originated from the superior and lateral surfaces of the PCoA and coursed superiorly, laterally, and posteriorly to enter a triangular perforated space limited by the mamillary body and tuber cinereum medially, the optic tract anterolaterally, and the cerebral peduncle posterolaterally. This space is called the paramedian perforated substance. The premamillary artery had an outer diameter of 0.6 +/- 0.2 mm on the right side and 0.6 +/- 0.1 mm on the left. The length of the premamillary artery was 12.0 +/- 2.0 mm on the right side and 12.7 +/- 1.9 mm on the left. Sixty-three percent of the premamillary arteries gave off branches that supplied the cerebral peduncles, optic tract, and paramedian perforated space. The clinical importance of these anatomical data in the symptomatology and management of vascular and neoplastic diseases in and around the posterior circle of Willis is discussed.

    Title Neuropsychological Deficits and Real-world Dysfunction in Cerebral Revascularization Candidates.
    Date August 1987
    Journal Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
    Excerpt

    An assessment strategy using multiple levels of observation permitted description of problems in everyday living experienced by cerebral revascularization candidates. We contrasted the neuropsychological deficits and real-world dysfunction displayed by candidates for cerebral revascularization with that manifested by patients with severe spinal complaints. Correlations between selected neuropsychological scores and life quality measures were modest. Prediction of real-world performance in individuals likely will require multivariate combinations of measures. Relationships between life quality measures and neuropsychological scores may differ for patients with known or suspected neurological disease and patients with disorders which do not threaten cognitive functioning.

    Title Microanatomy of the Posterior Communicating Artery.
    Date April 1987
    Journal Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    Fifty unfixed cerebral hemispheres were injected with polyester resin and dissected under the operating microscope to show the anatomy of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). There was a single PCoA in every hemisphere. Eleven (22%) were of fetal origin, and 17 (34%) were hypoplastic. Infundibular dilatations were found in 5 (10%) of the arteries. The outer diameter (OD) of the PCoA at its origin was 1.5 +/- 0.8 mm on the right and 1.6 +/- 0.6 mm on the left. At the junction of the PCoA with the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery, the PCoA had an OD of 1.4 +/- 0.7 mm on the right side and 1.6 +/- 0.6 mm on the left. The total length of the PCoA was 12.7 +/- 3.2 mm on the right and 12.5 +/- 1.7 mm on the left side. PCoA branches originated from the superior (36%) or lateral (64%) surface of the PCoA and coursed superiorly, posteriorly, or laterally. These vessels supplied the paramedian perforated substance (21%), the tuber cinereum (16.8%), the sulcus between the optic tract and the tuber cinereum (14.4%), the circuminfundibular anastomosis (11.5%), the mamillary bodies (8.4%), the sulcus between the optic tract and the cerebral peduncles (7.6%), and the cerebral peduncles (5.7%). The largest and most constant branch of the PCoA was the premamillary artery. The number and size of the branches from the PCoA were independent of the size of the parent artery.

    Title Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries of the Posterior Fossa.
    Date November 1986
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    The development of revascularization for vertebrobasilar ischemic events has created a need to identify the best sites at which to perform bypass procedures. Since the occlusive process may selectively affect various levels of the vertebrobasilar tree, sites in different vessels must be used to reestablish flow distal to the area of occlusion. Twenty-seven unfixed human brains were obtained 4 to 8 hours post mortem, and the vertebrobasilar system was injected with polyester resin. Under a surgical microscope the outer diameter, length, and site of origin of major branches were recorded for the following arteries: vertebral, basilar, posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA), anterior inferior cerebellar (AICA), superior cerebellar (SCA), and posterior cerebral (PCA). The ideal sites for an anastomosis were identified as the pretonsillar segment of the PICA, the second portion of the AICA, the perimesencephalic segment of the SCA, and the perimesencephalic part of the PCA. Based on the anatomical observations reported here, these were the best sites because of their outer diameter, degree of mobility, least number of branches, and frequency of occurrence. Use of two of these arteries, however, may pose potential problems: although the PCA has an ideal outer diameter, it also has numerous branches to the brain stem in its most accessible site in the perimesencephalic area; and the PICA is not consistently present, being found in only 75% of the 27 specimens studied.

    Title Anterior Cerebral Artery Reconstruction.
    Date September 1986
    Journal Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    Anterior cerebral artery end-to-end, end-to-side, and side-to-side anastomoses and grafting procedures including bypass and interposition using segments of the posterior cerebral artery harvested from the same specimen were performed. The reconstruction procedures were accomplished experimentally with the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery, the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH), and the orbitofrontal and frontopolar arteries in end-to-end or end-to-side anastomosis to the A1 segment. Side-to-side anastomoses between both A2 or A3 segments were completed without difficulty. We utilized the anatomical and experimental reconstruction data in the performance of three surgical procedures for aneurysms in this area. An A1 to A2 end-to-end anastomosis, an A2 to A2 end-to-side anastomosis, and an end-to-end anastomosis of the RAh were performed with no technical difficulties or complications. This study shows the feasibility of these microvascular reconstruction procedures in the anterobasal part of the interhemisphere, where cerebral aneurysms frequently develop.

    Title Microanatomy of the Anterior Cerebral Artery.
    Date August 1986
    Journal Surgical Neurology
    Excerpt

    The microanatomic features of the anterior cerebral artery were studied in 30 unfixed human brains which were injected with tinted polyester resin via cannulation of the internal carotid arteries under microscopic dissection. The outer diameter, length, and number of perforating branches were measured for each of the following vessels: anterior cerebral artery (proximal A1 segment, distal A2 segment), anterior communicating artery, and recurrent artery of Heubner. The perforating branches of the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery penetrated the brain at the anterior perforated substance, lateral chiasm, and optic tracts. The perforating branches of the anterior communicating artery penetrated the brain at the lamina terminalis, anterior perforated substance, and medial chiasm. The first 5 mm of the distal anterior cerebral artery (A2) had perforating branches penetrating the brain at the gyrus rectus and olfactory sulcus. The recurrent artery of Heubner originated from the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery in 57% of the cases, from the anterior cerebral artery-anterior communicating artery junction in 35%, and from the A1 segment in 8%. The depth of the interhemispheric fissure at the genu was 36.0 +/- 0.5 mm and at the midbody of the corpus callosum, 35.0 +/- 0.5 mm. Extension of the dissection to approach the anterior communicating artery from the genu of the corpus callosum using the anterior interhemispheric route was an additional 31.7 +/- 0.7 mm. The callosal arterial supply from the anterior cerebral artery showed short callosal branches in all brain specimens and long callosal vessels in 10% of the specimens.

    Title The Effect of Sta-mca Bypass on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Ischemic Foci.
    Date June 1986
    Journal Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal
    Title Microvascular Anatomy of the Interpeduncular Fossa.
    Date April 1986
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    An understanding of the microvascular anatomy of the midbrain and posterior diencephalon is essential in the surgical management of lesions in that region. A description of the arterial pattern of blood supply to these areas is the purpose of this study. Perforating branches originating from the last 5 mm of the basilar artery, from the initial 7 mm of both superior cerebellar arteries (SCA's), and from the initial segment (P1 segment) of the posterior cerebral artery were studied in 56 unfixed human cadaver brain hemispheres. The brains were injected with polyester resin. The perforating branches penetrated through a small space in the upper part of the interpeduncular fossa. The anterior two-thirds of this space was occupied by the posterior perforated substance (PPS), and the posterior one-third was the site of penetration of the branches that supply the inferior mesencephalon. The PPS was divided into anterior and posterior halves. The anterior half was perforated by the paramedian thalamic arteries (diameter 0.57 +/- 0.11 mm) while the superior paramedian mesencephalic arteries (diameter 0.20 +/- 0.06 mm) perforated the posterior half. The perforating arteries originated from a trunk exclusive to the anterior half in 30%, from a trunk supplying both halves in 57%, and from a trunk exclusive to the posterior half in 13% of specimens. There were 26 naturally occurring anastomoses between the perforating branches. The paramedian inferior mesencephalic arteries penetrating the posterior one-third of the upper part of the interpeduncular fossa arose from the P1 segment in 32% of the brains studied, from the proximal 7 mm of the SCA in 45%, and from the last 5 mm of the basilar artery in 23%.

    Title Effects of Needle Shape on the Integrity of the Vascular Endothelium.
    Date October 1985
    Journal Acta Neurochirurgica
    Excerpt

    Lesions generated by the passage of micro-needles through vessel walls are of concern because any lesion may significantly alter hemodynamics of an anastomosis. To study this problem, three different needles were tested on the exposed carotid arteries of 30 rats: the 100 mu taper point, the 100 mu cutting point, and the 75 mu taper point. Trauma generated by the penetration of needles was tested first as the needle and its attached suture was passed through the vessel, then the suture was left in place. One hour after penetration, the arteries were prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Differences between the 100 mu taper point and the 75 mu taper point were significant in terms of size and extent of lesions. An arc of endothelial cells surrounding the wounds showed flattening, tissue destruction and clotting. To minimize endothelial trauma, taper point needles are superior to cutting needles. The 100 mu cutting needle caused damage to the vessel wall in tissue cutting on needle penetration, causing a slit-like incision, and in aggregation of platelets at the puncture site.

    Title Cerebral Revascularization to a Main Limb of the Middle Cerebral Artery in the Sylvian Fissure. An Alternative Approach to Conventional Anastomosis.
    Date August 1985
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    Thirteen patients underwent an anastomosis of the superficial temporal artery (STA) or a saphenous vein graft to one of the secondary trunks of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). They included five patients with giant MCA trifurcation aneurysms, four patients in whom an earlier conventional STA-MCA anastomosis had become occluded, two patients who had stenosis of one of the secondary limbs of the MCA, and one patient who had a carotid-cavernous fistula. One patient had a saphenous vein graft from the common carotid artery to a secondary trunk of the MCA to bypass an occluded internal carotid artery and severely stenosed external carotid artery. The primary advantages of this procedure are that a large-caliber anastomosis to one of the secondary limbs of the MCA immediately restores flow into the MCA tree with a larger amount of vessel filling than with a standard cortical bypass, and large vessels can be used for the anastomosis. The disadvantages are that one of the secondary branches of the MCA must be occluded, the cerebral hemisphere around the Sylvian fissure must be retracted, a lumbar subarachnoid drain is needed, and the anastomosis must be performed deep within the Sylvian fissure. The procedure is a satisfactory alternative in cases in which a conventional STA-MCA anastomosis has either failed or would be less likely to succeed.

    Title Middle Cerebral Artery Reconstruction.
    Date July 1985
    Journal Surgical Neurology
    Excerpt

    The authors have conducted an experimental study of the microanatomic features of the middle cerebral artery in unfixed human brains to assess the feasibility of reconstructive procedures within the Sylvian fissure. It was found that reconstructive procedures within the Sylvian fissure such as end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-side, and grafting procedures were possible according to the anatomic data provided by our study. Possible surgical solutions to theoretical pathologic situations involving the middle cerebral artery vascular tree are highlighted and their feasibility is discussed.

    Title "reverse" Superficial Temporal Artery-middle Cerebral Artery Bypass.
    Date June 1985
    Journal Surgical Neurology
    Excerpt

    A new technical variant on the superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed in a patient with occlusions of both the left internal and external carotid arteries and persistent ischemic symptomatology. Instead of anastomosing the proximal segment of the superficial temporal artery to the middle cerebral artery as is conventionally done, the distal segment of the superficial temporal artery was anastomosed to a cortical branch of the left middle cerebral artery. Reconstituted flow of the left superficial temporal artery via right superficial temporal artery collateral branches proved adequate to relieve the patient's ischemic episodes. "Reverse" superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis should be considered in those cases where occlusive disease of the external carotid circulation renders conventional bypass procedures ineffective in the treatment of ischemic symptomatology.

    Title Cerebral Angiography and Neuropsychological Measurement: the Twain May Meet.
    Date June 1985
    Journal Surgical Neurology
    Excerpt

    In a sample of 31 cerebral revascularization candidates, severity and dissemination of atherosclerosis on the cerebral angiogram were correlated with two of three global indicators of neurobehavioral impairment. Additionally, the angiographic rating was correlated with age and with an index of medical risk factors, but not with duration of the longest symptomatic episode. It seems likely that several variables, particularly collateral circulation, help to determine whether a given pattern of stenoses results in neuropsychological dysfunction and what type of behavioral deficit occurs. In many cases, the configuration of neuropsychological test scores may not directly mirror the pattern of cerebrovascular stenoses.

    Title The Perforating Branches of the Middle Cerebral Artery. A Microanatomical Study.
    Date February 1985
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    The perforating branches (PFB's) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were studied in 34 unfixed brain hemispheres which were injected with a polyester resin and dissected under the operating microscope. Five hundred and eight vessels were identified and their site of origin, branching pattern, outer diameter (OD), and length recorded. Four hundred and two PFB's (79%) originated from the main trunk of the MCA before its division; the remaining 106 vessels (21%) had their origin from branches of the MCA as follows: superior trunk, 43 vessels (8.5%); inferior trunk, 30 vessels (6%); middle trunk, four vessels (0.8%); early temporal branch, 27 vessels (5.3%); and early frontal branch, two vessels (0.4%). The number of PFB's in each hemisphere varied from five to 29 (mean 14.9 +/- 0.7 vessels). The great majority of PFB's (96%) originated along the proximal 17 mm of the MCA. The PFB's arising in the first 10 mm had a mean OD of 0.35 +/- 0.01 mm and a mean length of 9.25 +/- 0.19 mm, and those arising from the second 10 mm had a mean OD of 0.47 +/- 0.02 mm and a mean length of 16.67 +/- 1.4 mm. A clear distinction between a medial and lateral group of PFB's was present in only 14 hemispheres (41%). In nine hemispheres (26%), perforating vessels from the anterior cerebral artery (A1 segment) and from the recurrent artery of Heubner replaced the medial group of PFB's of the MCA. In one case this group originated in an accessory MCA. In three hemispheres (9%) a small anastomosis (OD 0.2 mm) was seen between a PFB of the recurrent artery of Heubner and one of the MCA. From a total of 508 PFB's, 255 vessels (50%) originated as single vessels, while 253 vessels (50%) originated as branches of common stems. The OD of the single vessels ranged from 0.1 mm to 1.1 mm (mean 0.39 +/- 0.02 mm), and the length from 3 to 20 mm (mean 10.8 +/- 0.2 mm). The common stems ranged in OD from 0.6 to 1.8 mm (mean 0.87 +/- 0.04 mm), and in length from 1 to 15 mm (mean 4.1 +/- 0.4 mm). The clinical application of these anatomical data to the management of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations of the MCA, and in the field of interventional neuroradiology is described. The most frequent pathological entities involving the perforating vessels are also discussed.

    Title Microsurgical Anatomy of the Proximal Segments of the Middle Cerebral Artery.
    Date September 1984
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    The microvascular anatomy of the proximal segments (M1 and M2) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was studied in 70 unfixed brain hemispheres from 35 cadavers. The arteries were injected with a tinted polyester resin and dissected under magnification by microsurgical techniques. The authors studied the outer diameter (OD), length, site of origin, and pattern of branching of the main trunk, secondary trunks, and the initial insular portion of the cortical branches of the MCA. The degree of mobilization of the arteries lying over the insular cortex was also assessed. The main trunk of the MCA, which had an OD of 3 +/- 0.1 mm bilaterally and a length of 15 +/- 1.1 mm in the right hemisphere and 15.7 +/- 1.3 mm in the left hemisphere, could be divided into four groups: Group I: absence of a main division (that is, a single-trunk type of MCA) (in 6% of cases); Group II: bifurcation (64%); Group III: trifurcation (29%); and Group IV: quadrifurcation (1%). The secondary trunks resulting from the division of the main trunk of the MCA had a mean OD ranging from 1.4 to 2.3 mm and a mean length that varied from 12.1 to 14.9 mm. The mean OD of the cortical branches measured near their origin in the main and secondary trunks indicated that the angular artery was the largest vessel, with a mean OD of 1.5 mm on both sides of the brain. The temporopolar artery was the smallest, with a mean OD of 0.8 mm in the right hemisphere and 0.9 mm in the left hemisphere. The authors also describe the patterns of origin of the cortical vessels from the main trunk (early branches) and from the secondary trunks, as well as their branching pattern at the site of origin (single vessels and common stems). These anatomical data indicate that it is possible to perform microvascular reconstructive procedures, such as anastomosis, grafting, and reimplantation of branches in the insular area. The advantages of using unfixed specimens, intravascular injections, and magnification to reproduce in vivo conditions as closely as possible are also discussed.

    Title Microsurgical Anatomy of the Recurrent Artery of Heubner.
    Date January 1984
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    The recurrent arteries of Heubner were studied in 30 unfixed human brains (60 hemispheres) obtained from routine autopsies of individuals with a mean age of 34 years. The arteries were injected with tinted polyester resin via cannulation of the internal carotid arteries, and dissected under microscopic magnification. The recurrent artery of Heubner was absent in two hemispheres and double in seven hemispheres, either with a separate origin (in two) or from a common stem (in five). The artery of Heubner had a mean outer diameter of 0.8 +/- 0.04 mm (range 0.3 to 1.5 mm) and a mean length of 23.4 +/- 1.1 mm (range 12 to 38 mm). It originated from the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) in 57% of the specimens, from the junction of the ACA and the anterior communicating artery in 35%, and from the A1 segment of the ACA in 8%. Three types of recurrent courses were observed. In the Type I or superior course, seen in 41 (63%) of the 65 arteries, the artery followed the superior wall of the A1 segment of the ACA. In the Type II or anterior course, the arteries found in 22 (34%) of specimens maintained a rostral position in relation to the A1 segment. In the Type III or posterior course, taken by two (3%) arteries, a posterior course of the vessel in the anterior perforated substance was found. The branching pattern was identified down to a range of 100 to 200 mu, and the average number of branches was 6.5 +/- 0.4 (range 3 to 12). Four groups of branches were observed. The olfactory group was represented in 91% by a single olfactory branch, with a mean outer diameter of 0.3 +/- 0.03 mm. On average, 1.9 +/- 0.27 frontal branches were found with a mean diameter of 0.13 +/- 0.01 mm. The branches penetrating the anterior perforated substance had a larger outer diameter (mean 0.4 +/- 0.03 mm) with an average number of 2.5 +/- 0.2 branches. The Sylvian fissure branches were more numerous (mean 3 +/- 0.3) with a mean outer diameter of 0.4 +/- 0.03 mm. The point of penetration of the main trunk was found to be constant at the level of the lateral perforated substance-medial Sylvian fissure in 85% of the cases. This report emphasizes the advantages of the intravascular casting resin injection technique in unfixed human brains over other conventional methods. It also describes the application of these anatomic data to the surgical strategy for the anterior circle of Willis, including the possible use of the recurrent artery of Heubner for microvascular reconstructive procedures.

    Title Preoperative Neurobehavioral Impairment in Cerebral Revascularization Candidates.
    Date October 1982
    Journal Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology
    Excerpt

    We examined level of performance in 40 candidates for cerebral revascularization and found substantial variability on general indices of neuropsychological performance. Patients differed by duration of their longest ischemic attack, by surgery type, but not by time since onset of their first ischemic attack. Duration of the longest ischemic attack correlated highly with neuropsychological summary scores. In contrast, symptom duration was unrelated to level of performance in 18 additional patients with histories consistent with cerebrovascular ischemia who did not undergo surgery subsequently. We concluded that initial status on neuropsychological tests is an important variable to consider in postoperative followup of patients undergoing cerebral revascularization. More detailed clinical history and finer grained analysis of neuropsychological data promised to reveal additional relationships among clinical symptoms, neurobehavioral data, and underlying neuropathology.

    Title Early Diagnosis of Delayed Posttraumatic Intracerebral Hematomas.
    Date June 1979
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    Nine cases of delayed posttraumatic intracerebral hematomas (DTICH) were found retrospectively among 656 patients with closed head injuries admitted to the Hennepin County Medical Center in a 12-month period. All cases had severe head injuries sustained with the head in motion. The interval from cranial injury to diagnosis of DTICH by computerized tomography (CT) varied from 8 hours to 13 days. Eight patients were comatose on admission, three had focal seizures, and three had focal findings. The diagnosis was made on repeat CT scans obtained because of the development of focal findings in four cases, lack of improvement in four cases, and general neurological deterioration in one case. Four patients had initially negative CT scans. Four demonstrated only extracerebral hematomas on initial CT scan. One patient showed intracerebral hematoma on the initial scan followed by new hematomas on repeat study. The cases presented are discussed in light of pertinent literature.

    Title Spinal Subarachnoid Hematoma After Lumbar Puncture Producing Acute Thoracic Myelopathy: Case Report.
    Date April 1979
    Journal Neurosurgery
    Excerpt

    A case of subarachnoid hematoma after a difficult lumbar puncture and anticoagulation is presented. Subarachnoid adhesions preventing the free flow of spinal fluid at the T-6 level served to limit the cranial progression of the hemorrhage and produced a transverse myelopathy at that level. The underlying pathology, clinical course, and myelographic findings are reviewed. Pertinent literature is presented.

    Title Paraclinoid Carotid Aneurysms: Surgical Management, Complications, and Outcome Based on a New Classification Scheme.
    Date
    Journal Skull Base : Official Journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et Al.]
    Excerpt

    The site of origin, projection, and relationship of aneurysms arising from the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) to adjacent structures are heterogeneous. Based on a retrospective analysis of 61 patients with aneurysms in this location, we developed a simple numerical classification system to guide surgical planning. We used angiographic findings to categorize the aneurysms. We followed the nomenclature of the carotid segments by Bouthillier et al (Neurosurgery 1996;38:425-432), C4 being the intracavernous ICA, C5 the clinoidal segment, and C6 the ophthalmic segment of the ICA. The aneurysms were divided into four major types: Types Ia and Ib projected superiorly and arose from the dorsal surface of C6. Type Ia was related to the ophthalmic artery. Type Ib aneurysms were sessile and had no branch relations. Type II aneurysms were related to the ventral wall of the C6 segment without any branch relation. Type IIIa variant arose from medial wall of the C6 segment and was related to the superior hypophyseal artery. Type IIIb arose from the medial wall of the C5 segment below the dural reflection without any branch relation. Large type IV aneurysms arose from the C5 and C6 segments, widening the distal dural ring. Patients' postoperative status and visual and overall outcomes were analyzed. Ultimately, this classification helped us to plan operative approaches and clip selection.

    Title Intradural Invasion of Chordoma: Two Case Reports.
    Date
    Journal Skull Base : Official Journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et Al.]
    Excerpt

    Chordomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system and primarily occur in the extradural space. We report two patients with intracranial chordomas located in the region of the clivus that invaded the prepontine cisterns. The patients, 45 and 62 years old, had histories of cranial neuropathies and headache, respectively. Petrosal approaches were performed in both with radical resection of the tumors. Anatomopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of chordoma. The symptoms of both patients resolved, and they have had no recurrence after 18 months of follow-up. Intradural chordomas or extradural chordomas that invade the intradural space are difficult to differentiate from ecchordoses physaliphorae, a non-neoplastic entity with similar radiological features. MBI-1 studies were therefore performed to confirm the diagnosis of chordoma. The differential diagnosis for these two entities, the different modalities of treatment, and prognosis are reviewed.

    Title Anterior Circulation Aneurysms: Surgical Perspectives.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
    Excerpt

    Aneurysms arising from the internal carotid circulation represent 85% of all intracranial aneurysms. The intimate relationship of the internal carotid artery and its branches with the brain and cranial nerves, and the distribution of the internal carotid artery flow, make these aneurysms challenging, and potentially complicated in their surgical management. Great attention to detail, and clear understanding of the operative anatomy of the carotid system, facilitate the safe and successful treatment of these aneurysms. The surgical experience with 475 anterior circulation aneurysms treated from 1980 to 1992 is presented. The aneurysms arose from the internal carotid artery: 230(40%), middle cerebral artery: 152(32%), and anterior cerebral artery: 133(28%). Of aneurysms arising from the internal carotid artery, there were 142(30%) from the posterior communicating artery; internal carotid bifurcation: 29(6%), and anterior choroidal artery: 19(4%). There were 62(13%) giant aneurysms evenly distributed among the middle cerebral, internal carotid bifurcation and anterior cerebral artery. Serious neurological morbidity was observed in 13(3%) patients, who presented a combination of different neurological symptoms including: hemiplegia 3, hemiparesis 6, dysphasia 7, and loss of vision 4. Two patients developed a myocardial infarct and survived. Mortality occurred in 16(3%); these patients died from: a hemispheric infarction 7, severe vasospasm 6, myocardial infarction 2, and pulmonary emboli 1. All aneurysms appeared angiographically obliterated. Vasospasm was observed in 75(16%) patients of which nine were symptomatic, and six of them died. Six major arterial trunks were occluded in the post-operative angiogram, and three patients had occlusion of the internal carotid artery, not identified during surgery. Three of these patients with unexpected occlusions died from a major cerebral infarction, and three had lasting hemipareses and dysphasia. Surgical correction of internal carotid aneurysms can be conducted safely when the anatomical characteristics of the intracranial vessels is preserved, and when these patients are treated with appropriate medical support.

    Title Spinal Cord Changes After the Evacuation of a Spinal Subdural Haematoma.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
    Excerpt

    Spinal subdural haematoma is a rare entity. Only a few cases have been reported, mainly in patients with coagulopathies or bleeding diathesis, and also in patients undergoing anticoagulant therapy following surgery, trauma, or lumbar puncture. Symptoms of spinal cord compression produced by spinal subdural haematoma may progress rapidly causing complete and irreversible deficits. However, rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention can result in a good functional outcome for the patient. We report on a 41-year-old woman with a normal coagulation profile who developed a spinal subdural haematoma after a minor motor vehicle accident. Although initially asymptomatic, she developed a dense quadriparesis over a 36-h period. A magnetic resonance imaging study demonstrated a subdural mass compressing the spinal cord, and at surgery a spinal subdural haematoma was found. She was discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation facility. Follow-up at 1 year showed significant improvement in motor function, but absence of posterior column function. A follow-up magnetic resonance study demonstrated widening of the spinal cord, advanced myelomalacia and a large, central, multi-loculated syrinx.


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