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Pediatric Specialist, Infectious Disease Specialist (virus, bacteria, parasites)
27 years of experience

Education ?

Medical School
Sindh Medical College (1983)
Foreign school

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Board of Pediatrics

Publications & Research

Dr. Jafari has contributed to 10 publications.
Title Evaluation of an Algorithm for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness in an Area of Kenya with High Malaria Transmission.
Date May 1998
Journal Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Excerpt

In 1993, the World Health Organization completed the development of a draft algorithm for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI), which deals with acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, ear infections, malnutrition, and immunization status. The present study compares the performance of a minimally trained health worker to make a correct diagnosis using the draft IMCI algorithm with that of a fully trained paediatrician who had laboratory and radiological support. During the 14-month study period, 1795 children aged between 2 months and 5 years were enrolled from the outpatient paediatric clinic of Siaya District Hospital in western Kenya; 48% were female and the median age was 13 months. Fever, cough and diarrhoea were the most common chief complaints presented by 907 (51%), 395 (22%), and 199 (11%) of the children, respectively; 86% of the chief complaints were directly addressed by the IMCI algorithm. A total of 1210 children (67%) had Plasmodium falciparum infection and 1432 (80%) met the WHO definition for anaemia (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl). The sensitivities and specificities for classification of illness by the health worker using the IMCI algorithm compared to diagnosis by the physician were: pneumonia (97% sensitivity, 49% specificity); dehydration in children with diarrhoea (51%, 98%); malaria (100%, 0%); ear problem (98%, 2%); nutritional status (96%, 66%); and need for referral (42%, 94%). Detection of fever by laying a hand on the forehead was both sensitive and specific (91%, 77%). There was substantial clinical overlap between pneumonia and malaria (n = 895), and between malaria and malnutrition (n = 811). Based on the initial analysis of these data, some changes were made in the IMCI algorithm. This study provides important technical validation of the IMCI algorithm, but the performance of health workers should be monitored during the early part of their IMCI training.

Title Barriers to Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease.
Date January 1996
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

During 1992 the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued statements on prevention of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. To assess prevention practices and identify barriers to preventing GBS disease, we surveyed obstetricians, family practitioners and general practitioners in Georgia during 1993. A standard questionnaire was mailed to 1190 clinicians in August and to nonresponders again in September. Of 436 (38%) physicians who responded, 192 (44%) provided obstetric care. Among these 192 obstetric care providers, 121 (63%) screened patients for GBS carriage antenatally. The most frequently cited reasons for not screening were "no clear guidelines" and "not cost-effective" (52 and 39%, respectively). Clinicians who screened patients were significantly more likely to believe that screening was cost-effective (P = 0.05). Of obstetric care providers who screened, only 9% obtained specimens using culture sites recommended by ACOG or AAP. Although most clinicians were aware that antenatal antibiotic treatment of carriers does not prevent perinatal GBS disease, 64% of those who screened reported that they gave oral antibiotics when carriage was detected during pregnancy. Of clinicians who reported using obstetric risk factors to guide prophylaxis choices, < 15% reported using intrapartum antibiotics for the conditions identified in the ACOG and AAP statements as those that suggest the need for prophylaxis when screening is not performed. Many Georgia obstetric care providers do not use effective practices to prevent perinatal GBS disease. Education on appropriate culture methods, obstetric risk factors and the cost effectiveness of prevention strategies might lead to more effective preventive practices.

Title Dexamethasone Therapy in Bacterial Meningitis.
Date June 1994
Journal Pediatric Annals
Excerpt

With improved understanding of the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis, a number of points in the deleterious inflammatory cascade have been identified as possible sites for modulation. Dexamethasone attenuates tissue injury by inhibiting host mediators at several steps in the inflammatory process. Dexamethasone therapy initiated just before or simultaneously with the first parenteral antibiotic dose is recommended for infants older than 6 weeks of age and children with bacterial meningitis. A beneficial effect of steroid therapy administered 12 to 24 hours or more after the first dose of parenteral antibiotics is unlikely. The consistent finding of improved overall neurologic outcome in infants and children with bacterial meningitis caused by the usual meningeal pathogens treated with dexamethasone is the basis for this recommendation, provided that the caveats discussed above are observed.

Title Effects of Antifungal Therapy on Inflammation, Sterilization, and Histology in Experimental Candida Albicans Meningitis.
Date April 1994
Journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Excerpt

To assess the effects of antifungal therapy on the course of Candida albicans central nervous system infection and inflammation, we inoculated intracisternally 10(5) CFU of C. albicans into rabbits. Fluconazole (10 mg/kg of body weight) or amphotericin B (1 mg/kg) was infused intravenously daily for 14 days. Treatment was initiated 24 h or 5 days after infection. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was repeatedly obtained to culture the organisms, assess the level of inflammation, and measure drug concentrations. Brain tissue was obtained at the end of therapy for culture, drug concentration determinations, and histopathology. The median number of days of treatment required to sterilize CSF cultures was 4 days for fluconazole therapy and 1 day for amphotericin B therapy (P = 0.037). There was a significant reduction in tumor necrosis factor alpha and leukocyte concentrations in the CSF of animals treated early versus those in untreated control animals (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively; analysis of variance). Compared with treated animals, a higher proportion of cultured CSF samples from untreated animals were positive for Candida (P < 0.001). A cultured brain sample from 1 of the 12 animals treated early with amphotericin B was positive for C. albicans (P < 0.01 versus controls); cultures of brain samples from 3 of 12 animals treated early with fluconazole were positive, whereas cultures of brain samples from 10 of 12 controls were positive (P < 0.05). The mean density of C. albicans was lower in the single culture-positive amphotericin B recipient (1 x 10(1) CFU/g of brain tissue) than in those treated with fluconazole (1 x 10(3) CFU/g) and in controls (8 x 10(4) CFU/g). In animals treated late, the density of C. albicans in the brain in relation to the number of days of therapy was significantly lower in amphotericin B recipients than in those treated with fluconazole (P < 0.01) and untreated controls (P < 0.01; analysis of covariance). By histopathology, a larger proportion of untreated animals compared with those treated early demonstrated features of severe infection such as perivasculitis, ventriculitis, and evidence of fungal organisms. Compared with amphotericin B-treated rabbits, those given fluconazole had a trend toward more severe pathologic lesions. Reduced susceptibility to both fluconazole and amphotericin B was observed in the C. albicans organisms isolated from the brain of one fluconazole-treated animal. These data suggest that amphotericin B is the preferred treatment for C. albicans infections of the central nervous system.

Title Dexamethasone Attenuation of Cytokine-mediated Articular Cartilage Degradation in Experimental Lapine Haemophilus Arthritis.
Date November 1993
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

The role of cytokines in the regulation of articular inflammation and cartilage degradation was evaluated in the rabbit model of Haemophilus influenzae type b arthritis. At 6 and 12 h after intraarticular infection, treatment with IB4 monoclonal antibody to the CD18 leukocyte receptor alone or in combination with dexamethasone resulted in significant reduction of synovial fluid (SF) neutrophil concentration. Treatment with dexamethasone alone was associated with lower SF concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and stromelysin than in other groups. At 24 h after infection, increased cartilage degradation was detected in untreated controls and in animals treated with IB4 alone or in combination with dexamethasone compared with those treated with dexamethasone alone. Multiple regression analyses indicated SF concentration of IL-1 and stromelysin as the significant predictors of cartilage degradation. These data suggest that IL-1 mediates cartilage degradation by regulation of metalloproteinases, such as stromelysin, during acute experimental bacterial arthritis.

Title Sepsis and Septic Shock: a Review for Clinicians.
Date December 1992
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Title Enhanced Attenuation of Meningeal Inflammation and Brain Edema by Concomitant Administration of Anti-cd18 Monoclonal Antibodies and Dexamethasone in Experimental Haemophilus Meningitis.
Date January 1992
Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Excerpt

Antiinflammatory therapy has been shown to reduce the adverse pathophysiological consequences that occur in bacterial meningitis and to improve outcome from disease. In the present study, modulation of two principal steps of the meningeal inflammatory cascade was accomplished by concomitant administration of dexamethasone to diminish overproduction of cytokines in response to a bacterial stimulus and of a monoclonal antibody directed against adhesion-promoting receptors on leukocytes to inhibit recruitment of white blood cells into the subarachnoid space. Dexamethasone and antibody therapy produced a marked attenuation of all indices of meningeal inflammation and reduction of brain water accumulation after H. influenzae-induced meningitis in rabbits compared with results of each agent given alone and of untreated animals. In addition, the enhanced host's meningeal inflammatory reaction that follows antibiotic-induced bacterial lysis was profoundly ameliorated when dual therapy was administered without affecting clearance rates of bacteria from cerebrospinal fluid and vascular compartments. The combination of both therapeutic approaches may offer a promising mode of treatment to improve further the outcome from bacterial meningitis.

Title Characteristics of Experimental Candida Albicans Infection of the Central Nervous System in Rabbits.
Date August 1991
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

Different concentrations (10(7), 10(5), 10(3) cfu/ml) of Candida albicans were injected intracisternally in rabbits. The highest inoculum was fatal within 14 h in all animals. In recipients of 10(5) and 10(3) cfu/ml inocula, the mean +/- SD peak cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) concentrations were 1.6 +/- 2.42 and 0.3 +/- 0.59 ng/ml, respectively, at 6 h; the mean +/- SD CSF leukocyte and protein concentrations were 6291 +/- 6515 and 453 +/- 674 cells/mm3 (at 24 h) and 118 +/- 90 and 109 +/- 122 mg/dl (at 12 and 24 h), respectively. At 6-10 days after inoculation, a second peak of TNF alpha activity was accompanied by increased CSF inflammation. Mortality in the 10(5) and 10(3) cfu/ml inoculum groups was 56% and 22%, respectively. Fatal infection was associated with higher second CSF peak TNF alpha and leukocyte concentrations and a larger proportion of culture-positive CSF samples. Histopathology revealed hyphal invasion, vasculitis, abscesses, and acute and chronic inflammatory infiltration of meninges and brain parenchyma. This model can be useful for evaluation of the pathogenesis and therapy of central nervous system fungal infections.

Title Induction of Suppurative Arthritis in Rabbits by Haemophilus Endotoxin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Interleukin-1 Beta.
Date July 1991
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

Because Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the principal cause of suppurative arthritis in young children and its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is thought to be the main virulence factor, Hib endotoxin was evaluated for its ability to induce synovial inflammation in rabbits. Also, the role of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in mediating the synovial inflammatory process was studied. Intraarticular inoculation of 2 pg to 20 ng of Hib LOS produced a dose-dependent increase in concentrations of leukocytes and protein in synovial lavage fluid that was significantly modulated by concomitant administration of rabbit TNF alpha- and rabbit IL-1 beta-specific antibodies. Inoculation of joints with either 10(4) IU of rabbit TNF alpha or 10 ng recombinant rabbit IL-beta induced synovial inflammatory changes similar to those observed after LOS intraarticular challenge. These data provide evidence for the role of Hib LOS in inducing suppurative arthritis and for the critical participation of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in the initial events of the synovial inflammatory response.

Title Pharmacokinetics and Antibacterial Efficacy of Cefpirome (hr 810) in Experimental Escherichia Coli and Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Meningitis.
Date May 1991
Journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Excerpt

Cefpirome (HR 810) is a new cephalosporin related to cefotaxime that has potent bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. The pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacy of cefpirome administered as a single intravenous dose were assessed in rabbits with experimental Haemophilus influenzae type b and Escherichia coli K1 meningitis. The mean penetrations into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to the amount of drug in serum of animals infected with H. influenzae and E. coli were 25 and 54%, respectively. The median CSF bactericidal titers were 1:128 against both organisms at 1 h of uninfected animals, the mean penetration was 4.5%. There was a significant reduction in the concentrations of bacteria in CSFs of both groups of animals treated with cefpirome compared with that in untreated groups. Mortality was also significantly lower in treated animals than it was in untreated animals. Intravenous administration of dexamethasone before the cefpirome dose did not compromise penetration, bactericidal titers, or antibacterial activity of cefpirome in CSF.

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