Browse Health
Ophthalmologist (eyes)
7 years of experience
Accepting new patients


Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of Pennsylvania (2005)
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

New York Medical College
American Board of Ophthalmology
American Academy of Ophthalmology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Wu is affiliated with 1 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations

  • New York Eye And Ear Infirmary
    310 E 14th St, New York, NY 10003
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Wu has contributed to 26 publications.
    Title Gnrh-deficient Phenotypes in Humans and Mice with Heterozygous Variants in Kiss1/kiss1.
    Date December 2011
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

    KISS1 is a candidate gene for GnRH deficiency.

    Title Gasless Laparoscopic Aorto-bifemoral Bypass Grafting Using Self-designed Abdominal Lifting System.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A

    Severe aorto-iliac occlusive disease can cause disabling symptoms. The treatment of aorto-iliac occlusive disease has dramatically changed with the introduction of endoluminal techniques. However, according to the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus for severe aorto-iliac disease, aorto-bifemoral bypass remains the therapy of choice. A recent addition to the open repair is laparoscopic-assisted aorto-bifemoral bypass, especially in occlusive arterial disease. In this article, we describe a new technique of performing gasless laparoscopic-assisted aorto-bifemoral bypass grafting with a self-designed abdominal wall-lifting system. We dealt with a patient who had a history of coronary artery disease and poor cardiopulmonary functional reserve. He had disabling symptoms of claudication and rest pain on bilateral lower extremities. Aorto-biliac-femoral occlusive disease was diagnosed in him, and he underwent the gasless laparoscopic-assisted aorto-bifemoral bypass. The total procedure time was 260 minutes. The patient was extubated 5 hours postoperatively. He was discharged home without complications 5 days after the surgery. This procedure is attractive not only to minimize the length of the wound and the time to extubation but also to avoid the possible lethal complications associated with the traditional laparascopic pneumoperitoneum. This device and technique can also provide a bridge for young or less-experienced surgeons to be familiar with total laparoscopic aortic surgery from traditional open repair.

    Title Increased Hepatic Insulin Action in Diet-induced Obese Mice Following Inhibition of Glucosylceramide Synthase.
    Date November 2010
    Journal Plos One

    Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver and other tissues, leading to insulin resistance. We have previously shown that a specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, which inhibits the initial step in the synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), improved glucose metabolism and decreased hepatic steatosis in both ob/ob and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Here we have determined in the DIO mouse model the efficacy of a related small molecule compound, Genz-112638, which is currently being evaluated clinically for the treatment of Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder.

    Title Can Cyclosporine Blood Level Be Reduced to Half After Heart Transplantation?
    Date August 2010
    Journal Transplantation Proceedings

    Cyclosporine (CsA) is widely used after heart transplantation. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reduction of CsA blood level to one-half of the traditional blood concentration under a regimen of everolimus (EVL), CsA, and steroid.

    Title The Survival of Heart Transplant Recipients Using Cyclosporine and Everolimus is Not Inferior to That Using Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Transplantation Proceedings

    Heart transplantation has become the best available therapy for patients with refractory end-stage heart failure. Cyclosporine (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are the 2 FDA-approved drugs to prevent posttransplant acute rejection episodes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of heart transplantation treated with CsA and everolimus (EVL), compared with that of patients treated with CsA and MMF.

    Title End-stage Renal Disease After Orthotopic Heart Transplantation: a Single-institute Experience.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Transplantation Proceedings

    Orthotopic heart transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage heart failure, and calcineurin inhibitor agents allow for better allograft survival. However, pretransplantation low cardiac output status and posttransplantation immunosuppressants contribute toward deterioration of renal function. From 1987 to 2008, 350 patients underwent orthotopic heart transplantation in our hospital. Most of them received anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) as the induction immunosuppressant. The introduction of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) reduced the maintenance level of cyclosporine. The 26 patients who developed end-stage renal disease required dialysis. We reviewed the patient characteristics, including pretransplantation status, immunosuppressant regimens and drug levels, time and type of dialysis, and mortality rate. The mean age of these 26 patients was 53 years. Three patients underwent peritoneal dialysis. The overall 1-year survival rate was 96%, and the 5-year survival rate was 80%. The duration from heart transplantation to chronic dialysis correlated with the presence of a pretransplantation diagnosis of diabetes (P<.05) and an elevated pretransplantation blood creatinine level (P=.01), but there was no significant effect of the initial level of cyclosporine. In addition, the pretransplantation blood creatinine level was also related to the necessity of immediate postoperative hemodialysis (P=.01). There was no significant risk factor in relation to mortality. Regardless of modification of immunosuppressant regimens and initial drug levels, pretransplantation kidney function played an important inverse role in the duration from transplantation to dialysis: the higher the pretransplantation blood creatinine, the shorter the duration. While awaiting a heart transplant, more effort should be spent on protecting renal function to avoid early chronic dialysis.

    Title Loss of Insulin Signaling in Vascular Endothelial Cells Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E Null Mice.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Cell Metabolism

    To determine whether insulin action on endothelial cells promotes or protects against atherosclerosis, we generated apolipoprotein E null mice in which the insulin receptor gene was intact or conditionally deleted in vascular endothelial cells. Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and blood pressure were not different between the two groups, but atherosclerotic lesion size was more than 2-fold higher in mice lacking endothelial insulin signaling. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired and endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression was increased in these animals. Adhesion of mononuclear cells to endothelium in vivo was increased 4-fold compared with controls but reduced to below control values by a VCAM-1-blocking antibody. These results provide definitive evidence that loss of insulin signaling in endothelium, in the absence of competing systemic risk factors, accelerates atherosclerosis. Therefore, improving insulin sensitivity in the endothelium of patients with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes may prevent cardiovascular complications.

    Title The Significance of Endograft Geometry on the Incidence of Intraprosthetic Thrombus Deposits After Abdominal Endovascular Grafting.
    Date December 2009
    Journal European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery : the Official Journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery

    To examine the incidence and risk factors of intraprosthetic thrombotic deposits in abdominal aortic endografts.

    Title Selective Medical Treatment of Infected Aneurysms of the Aorta in High Risk Patients.
    Date February 2009
    Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter

    Infected aneurysm of the aorta is almost always fatal without undergoing aortic resection. Medical treatment was attempted selectively in patients who were considered too high risk for surgery. We review our experience with 22 patients treated without undergoing aortic resection over 12 years.

    Title Interactive 3d Hybrid Pet/ct Imaging in the Identification of Myocardial Viability in Patients After Myocardial Infarction: Feasibility Study and Clinical Implications.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan Yi Zhi

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Clinical decision-making in coronary artery disease requires integrated information on myocardial viability and coronary arteries, and cross-modality registration could facilitate this process. The recent emergence of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) allows acquisition of this information in one study session; however, clinically useful software capable of presenting three-dimensional (3D) fused images to assess the relationship between myocardium and coronary arteries is limited. METHODS: Patients with prior myocardial infarction were examined using electrocardiographically gated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and 16-slice CT. RESULTS: There were seven patients; mean age was 59 +/- 15 years and six were male. Using 3D reconstruction, coregistration and interactive display, the topographical relationship between myocardial viability and coronary arteries was clearly identified. CONCLUSION: We present a protocol to acquire CT coronary angiography and PET data and to visualize 3D fused images with an interactive visualization interface. This image coregistration is potentially useful to facilitate the process of image interpretation and decision-making.

    Title Is Old Age a Contraindication for Surgical Treatment in Acute Aortic Dissection? A Demographic Study of National Database Registry in Taiwan.
    Date May 2008
    Journal Journal of Cardiac Surgery

    Acute aortic dissection is usually presented as a surgical emergent condition with high mortality rate. Whether any patient of an advanced age suffering from acute aortic type A dissection or complicated type B dissection should be referred for surgery still deserves debating.

    Title Redirection of Hepatic Drainage for Treatment of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Following the Fontan Procedure.
    Date February 2007
    Journal Pediatric Cardiology

    The development of unilateral pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients after total cavopulmonary connection with an extracardiac conduit has been reported. Unequal distribution of hepatic venous flow to the lung is theorized to be the causative factor. We report the surgical management of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in a patient with heterotaxy syndrome, single ventricle, and interrupted inferior vena cava. The patient had previously undergone a total cavopulmonary connection with an extracardiac conduit draining hepatic venous flow to the right branch pulmonary artery. In the subsequent operation, we redirected the extracardiac conduit to the innominate vein. This operation provided the affected lung with hepatic venous blood without exposing the patient to the morbidity associated with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Title Wogonin Inhibits Il-6-induced Angiogenesis Via Down-regulation of Vegf and Vegfr-1, Not Vegfr-2.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Planta Medica

    So far, no antiangiogenic activity of wogonin, a flavonoid, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of wogonin on IL-6-induced angiogenesis in HUVEC cultures and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) neovascularization. The in vivo CAM model was applied to evaluate the percentage of new vessel formations, followed by measurement of endothelial migration and tube formation in HUVEC cultures. The results revealed that wogonin (10(-8) approximately 10(-5)M) concentration-dependently inhibited IL-6-induced angiogenesis. The signaling pathway was through down-regulation of the autocrine loop of VEGF and VEGFR-1, but not of VEGFR-2. Furthermore, the regulating loop of the IL-6 receptor complex was also attenuated via expression of sIL-6Ralpha and gp130, but not of IL-6/IL-6R binding density. We conclude that wogonin is a suppressive agent of the autoregulated loop of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and the IL-6 receptor complex.

    Title Protective Role of Wogonin Against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Angiogenesis Via Vegfr-2, Not Vegfr-1.
    Date December 2006
    Journal International Immunopharmacology

    Wogonin, one of flavonoid derived from particular plants, enriches the property of anti-inflammation. Inflammation-stimulated angiogenesis plays an important role in many pathological diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive effect of wogonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures. By cell differentiation assays, migration and tube formation activity under LPS treatment were evaluated. Besides, IL-6 neutralizing antibody was added to test the inhibitory effect in the phenotypic alteration. Western blot analysis, ELISA cytokine assay, and quantitative real time-PCR were performed for VEGF, IL-6, VEGF receptors, and IL-6 receptor gene expressions on HUVEC with wogonin treatment. Furthermore, in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was applied to evaluate the percentage of new vessels formation. The results revealed that wogonin (10(-8)-10(-5) M) inhibited LPS-induced angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expressions of VEGF, VEGFR-2, IL-6, and sIL-6Ralpha were attenuated (P<0.05), but not VEGFR-1. In the LPS-induced CAM model, our data suggested that wogonin (10(-8)-10(-5) M) significantly decreased new vessel formation and vascular network (P<0.05). We conclude that wogonin suppresses both in vitro and in vivo LPS-induced angiogenesis, through VEGFR-2, but not VEGFR-1.

    Title Incorporating a Pediatric Concept into Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis: One and a Half Ventricle Repair.
    Date March 2006
    Journal The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    Title Hemodynamic Compromise from a Right Coronary Artery Pseudoaneurysm After Remote Stent Placement.
    Date December 2005
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
    Title Risk Factor Screening Scale to Optimize Treatment for Potential Heart Transplant Candidates Under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.
    Date March 2005
    Journal American Journal of Transplantation : Official Journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons

    We developed a risk factor-scaling score (RFSS) to select which patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were suitable for ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation or heart transplantation (HTx). A total of 78 patients supported with ECMO for more than 48 h due to cardiac origin were included in this study. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the outcomes: the poor outcome group (n = 33) consisted of for those who later died or were later excluded from VAD or HTx; the favorable outcome group (n = 45) consisted of those who were weaned off ECMO finally and survived or were deemed suitable candidates for VAD or HTx. Seven risk factors were significant according to univariate analyses. Based on the regression coefficients of multivariate analysis, the RFSS was developed: (lung dysfunction x 7) + (systemic infection x 3) + (peak lactate > 3 mmole/L x 3) + (kidney dysfunction x 2) + (creatine kinase > 10,000 U/L x 1). Patients with an RFSS of 7 or more were be allocated to the poor outcome group. The RFSS was validated by another group of 30 patients with good correlation. The RFSS provides a way to predict which ECMO-supported patients are suitable candidates for VAD implantation or HTx.

    Title Retinal Temperature Increase During Transpupillary Thermotherapy: Effects of Pigmentation, Subretinal Blood, and Choroidal Blood Flow.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    PURPOSE: To study the risk of adverse events in transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for age-related macular degeneration by measuring how laser-induced retinal temperature increase is affected experimentally by subretinal blood, choroidal blood flow, and chorioretinal pigmentation. METHODS: An ultrafine thermocouple technique was developed to measure retinal temperature increase during TTT in albino and pigmented rabbit eyes. TTT was performed with 60-second, 0.78-mm spot size, 810-nm infrared diode laser exposures with power settings ranging from 50 to 950 mW. Intraretinal and subretinal temperature increases were measured in pigmented and albino rabbits, with or without subretinal blood and choroidal blood flow. RESULTS: Threshold power settings for visible lesions in albino and pigmented rabbits were 950 and 90 mW, respectively, corresponding to retinal temperature increases of 11.8 degrees C and 5.28 degrees C, respectively. Power settings required to produce threshold lesions in albino rabbits caused retinal temperature increases in pigmented rabbits that were five times higher than in the albino rabbits. Temperature increases in albino rabbits were 1.5 times higher with subretinal blood than without it. Choroidal blood flow generally did not affect measured retinal temperature increases. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm prior theoretical recommendations that clinicians should consider decreasing TTT power settings in darkly pigmented eyes and proceed with caution in those with subretinal hemorrhage or pigment clumping.

    Title Intravitreal Injection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Small Interfering Rna Inhibits Growth and Leakage in a Nonhuman Primate, Laser-induced Model of Choroidal Neovascularization.
    Date October 2004
    Journal Retina (philadelphia, Pa.)
    Title Computer Tomography-assisted Three-dimensional Technique to Assess Rectal and Bladder Wall Dose in Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer.
    Date September 2004
    Journal Radiotherapy and Oncology : Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    We used a computer tomography (CT)-assisted three-dimensional (3D) technique to assess dose to the rectum and bladder in intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for patients with cervical cancer, and compared this technique with the conventional method. The results revealed that the difference in dose to the rectal and bladder wall between these two methods were significant. The CT-assisted technique is a feasible method, and it gives different results than the conventional method.

    Title Partial Correction of the Alpha-galactosidase A Deficiency and Reduction of Glycolipid Storage in Fabry Mice Using Synthetic Vectors.
    Date August 2004
    Journal The Journal of Gene Medicine

    BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is a recessive, X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, leading to an accumulation of the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in most tissues of the body. The goal of this study was to determine if systemic delivery of a nonviral vector could correct the enzyme deficiency and reduce the levels of GL-3 in different tissues of a transgenic knockout mouse model of the disease. METHODS: Cationic lipid was complexed with a CpG-depleted plasmid DNA vector and then injected intravenously into Fabry mice. The levels of alpha-galactosidase A and GL-3 in different tissues were assayed at various time points after injection. RESULTS: Expression of alpha-galactosidase A was detected in the different tissues of Fabry mice for up to 3 months after complex administration, but resulted in minimal reductions in GL-3 levels. However, the use of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone and multiple dosing increased alpha-galactosidase A expression and resulted in significant reductions of GL-3 in all the organs with the exception of the kidney. In addition, injecting complex into young Fabry mice partially prevented the normal accumulation of GL-3 in the heart, lung, and liver. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic delivery of a cationic lipid-pDNA complex partially corrected the enzyme deficiency and reduced glycolipid storage in a mouse model of Fabry disease. The results are one of the few demonstrations of long-term efficacy in a genetic disease model using nonviral vectors. However, substantial improvements in expression, especially in critical organs such as the kidney, are required before these vectors can become a viable approach to treat Fabry disease and other lysosomal storage disorders.

    Title Intravitreal Injection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Small Interfering Rna Inhibits Growth and Leakage in a Nonhuman Primate, Laser-induced Model of Choroidal Neovascularization.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Retina (philadelphia, Pa.)

    PURPOSE: To determine the safety and efficacy of small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a nonhuman primate model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: Each animal received laser rupture of Bruch's membrane to induce CNV in both eyes. Each animal was then randomized to receive 0.05 mL of either vehicle alone or VEGF siRNA at 70 microg, 150 microg, or 350 microg in both eyes by intravitreal injection. Eyes were monitored weekly by ophthalmic examination, color photography, and fluorescein angiography for 36 days after laser injury. Electroretinograms were measured at baseline and at 5 weeks after laser. CNV on fluorescein angiograms were measured for area and graded for clinically significant leakage in a standardized, randomized, and double-masked fashion on days 15, 22, 29, and 36 after laser. RESULTS: VEGF siRNA did not cause any change in electroretinographic, hemorrhage, inflammation, or clinical signs of toxicity. A single administration of VEGF siRNA significantly inhibited growth of CNV and attenuated angiographic leakage in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of VEGF siRNA is capable of inhibiting the growth and vascular permeability of laser-induced CNV in a nonhuman primate in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates preclinical proof of a principle that supports proceeding to clinical studies of VEGF siRNA in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Title Analysis and Results of Prolonged Resuscitation in Cardiac Arrest Patients Rescued by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology

    We conducted this study to determine the result of prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and the predictive factors for hospital discharge and ECMO weaning.

    Title Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Suppresses Genomic Instability Independent of a G1 Arrest, P53, and Rb.
    Date September 1996
    Journal Cancer Research

    Alterations in expression of or responsiveness to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are frequently found in human and animal epithelial cancers and are though to be important for loss of growth control in the neoplastic cell. We show here that keratinocyte cell lines from mice with a targeted deletion of the TGF-beta 1 gene have significantly increased frequencies of gene amplification in response to the drug N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA) compared to TGF-beta 1-expressing control keratinocyte cell lines. In contrast to the control lines, the PALA-mediated G1 arrest did not occur in the TGF-beta 1 null keratinocytes despite the presence of wild-type p53 in both genotypes. Exogenous TGF-beta 1 suppresses gene amplification in the null keratinocytes at concentrations that do not cause a G1 growth arrest and in human tumor cell lines that are insensitive to TGF-beta 1-mediated growth inhibition. The pathway of TGF-beta 1 suppression is independent of the p53 and Rb genes, but requires an intact TGF-beta type II receptor. These studies reveal a novel TGF-beta-mediated pathway regulating genomic stability and suggest that defects in TGF-beta signaling may have profound effects on tumor progression independent of cell proliferation.

    Title [disseminated Strongyloides Stercoralis Infection Mimicking Pneumonia]
    Date August 1996
    Journal Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan Yi Zhi

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode. In an immunocompetent host, Strongyloides infections usually produce only mild gastrointestinal symptoms. However, in an immunocompromised host, widespread dissemination of larvae to the extra-intestinal organs may occur. If unrecognized, the mortality rate is high. Here we report a case of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subject whose chest radiograph demonstrated multiple pneumonic patches and interstitial infiltrates. Strongyloides larvae were found in stool, sputum, and urine, and embryonated eggs were also found in sputum. The patient was treated successfully with mebendazole and alben albendazole. In conclusion, although high mortality rate is noted in disseminated strongyloidiasis, it is still a curable disease when early diagnosis and treatment could be made.

    Title Binding of Zinc Finger Protein Zpr1 to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.
    Date July 1996
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)

    ZPR1 is a zinc finger protein that binds to the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Deletion analysis demonstrated that this binding interaction is mediated by the zinc fingers of ZPR1 and subdomains X and XI of the EGFR tyrosine kinase. Treatment of mammalian cells with EGF caused decreased binding of ZPR1 to the EGFR and the accumulation of ZPR1 in the nucleus. The effect of EGF to regulate ZPR1 binding is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR. ZPR1 therefore represents a prototype for a class of molecule that binds to the EGFR and is released from the receptor after activation.

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