Urologists
10 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients
Oak Lawn
5303 Harry Hines Blvd
Dallas, TX 75390
214-590-5218
Locations and availability (2)

Education ?

Medical School Score
Stony Brook University (2000)
  • Currently 2 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
2006 First Prize (Basic Science), Philadelphia Urological Society Resident Essay Competition
2004 The Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons Resident Achievement Award 2003 Resident Achievement Award, Department of Urology, Jefferson Medical College
2003, AUA/Praecis Pharmaceuticals Gerald P. Murphy Scholar
AFUD)/American Urological Association Scholar Fellow
2004, The Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons Resident Achievement Award, 2003 Resident Achievement Award, Department of Urology, Jefferson Medical College
2000, M.D. with Distinction in Research
1995 Phi Beta Kappa
Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2012 - 2013)
Associations
American Board of Urology
American Urological Association
Society of Urologic Oncology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Zeltser is affiliated with 17 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Children's Medical Center of Dallas
    1935 Motor St, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Main Line Hospital - Bryn Mawr *
    Urology
    130 S Bryn Mawr Ave, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Bryn Mawr Rehabilitation Hospital
    414 Paoli Pike, Malvern, PA 19355
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Riddle Memorial Hospital
    1068 W Baltimore Pike, Media, PA 19063
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • St. Mary Medical Center - Langhorne
    1201 Langhorne Newtown Rd, Langhorne, PA 19047
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Main Line Hospital Lankenau
    Urology
    100 E Lancaster Ave, Wynnewood, PA 19096
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • M L Hospital Bryn Mawr Hospital
  • M L Hospital Lankenau
  • Bryn Mawr Hospital - On staff since 2007
  • M L Health-Paoli Memorial Hospital
  • Ut Southwestern Hospitals
  • Children S Medical Center
  • UT Southwestern ST Paul Hospital
  • North Texas Va Medical Center
  • Parkland Health and Hospital System
  • Main Line Hospitals, Inc. - Paoli Memorial
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Zeltser has contributed to 17 publications.
    Title Do Silver Alloy-coated Catheters Increase Risk of Urethral Strictures After Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy?
    Date October 2011
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    To evaluate whether the use of silver-coated catheters increased the risk of developing urethral stricture disease after robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Recently, silver alloy-coated Foley catheters have been shown to decrease the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Other than the increased cost, no disadvantages to the use of these catheters have been reported.

    Title General Anesthesia and Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography to Optimize Renal Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation: Multi-institutional Intermediate-term Results.
    Date September 2009
    Journal Journal of Endourology / Endourological Society
    Excerpt

    Percutaneous renal ablation is often performed under conscious sedation and without contrast-enhanced imaging. We evaluated intermediate-term outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) under general anesthesia (GA) at two high-volume centers.

    Title A Comparison of Kidney Oxygenation Profiles Between Partial and Complete Renal Artery Clamping During Nephron Sparing Surgery in a Porcine Model.
    Date July 2009
    Journal The Canadian Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    To compare kidney oxygenation profiles between partial and complete renal artery clamping during nephron sparing surgery (NSS) in a porcine model.

    Title Training on a Virtual Reality Laparoscopic Simulator Improves Performance of an Unfamiliar Live Laparoscopic Procedure.
    Date December 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Virtual reality simulators provide a safe and efficient means of acquiring laparoscopic skills. We evaluated whether training on a virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulator (Lap Mentor) improves the performance of a live, unrelated laparoscopic urological procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were oriented to the Lap Mentor, and then performed virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy which was assessed by 2 experienced laparoscopists using the previously validated Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scoring. Subjects were randomized to group 1, in which participants completed 6, 30-minute virtual reality training sessions within 3 weeks, or group 2, in which participants received no training. All participants then performed live laparoscopic nephrectomy in a porcine model and performance was evaluated using Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills by 2 experts blinded to training status. RESULTS: Mean total pretraining laparoscopic cholecystectomy Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores were comparable between the groups (16.9 +/- 4.3 for group 1 vs 15.4 +/- 6.2 for group 2, p = 0.4). After training total Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores for live porcine laparoscopic nephrectomy were significantly higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (21.0 +/- 6.8 vs 15.7 +/- 6.6, respectively, p = 0.03). Likewise, individual subcategory Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores were higher in group 1 than in group 2, although significant differences were noted only in the categories of instrument handling and knowledge of the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical skills acquired as a result of training on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator are not procedure specific but improve overall surgical skills, thereby translating into superior performance of an unrelated live laparoscopic urological procedure.

    Title Focal Radiofrequency Coagulation-assisted Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: a Novel Nonischemic Technique.
    Date October 2008
    Journal Journal of Endourology / Endourological Society
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: HABIB 4X is a laparoscopic focal radiofrequency-coagulation (FRFC) device utilized in liver and kidney resections to facilitate dissection while minimizing blood loss. We evaluated the ergonomics and safety of a laparoscopic FRFC device for a non-ischemic laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a survival porcine model. METHODS: Five female pigs (10 renal units) underwent 14 laparoscopic transperitoneal partial nephrectomies using the laparoscopic FRFC device without hilar clamping. In phase 1, either one or multiple segments of the lower, upper, or middle pole were resected following FRFC of the resection plane. Large entries into the collecting system were sutured, while very small rents were left open. Following 2-week survival, a laparoscopic FRFC-assisted heminephrectomy without hilar clamping was performed on the opposite renal unit (phase 2). Both kidneys were then harvested for histologic examination. Retrograde pyelography (RGP) was used to assess the collecting system integrity of the kidneys treated in phase 1. RESULTS: All 14 LPNs were performed successfully without hilar clamping or open conversion. On average, the resected segments comprised 12.3% of the kidney in phase 1 and 34.8 % in phase 2, with a mean estimated blood loss of 45 mL and 76.5 mL, respectively. At harvest, no hematomas or perinephric collections were observed. RGP revealed urinary extravasation in two renal units that were not repaired. Histologic examination of the resection margin revealed hemorrhage and inflammation with some hyalinization of the proximal and distal tubules, none extending deeper than 3 mm. CONCLUSION: The FRFC-assisted non-ischemic porcine LPN is feasible and safe and can be accomplished with minimal bleeding, even with large resections. The laparoscopic FRFC device holds promise in decreasing the inherent difficulty of LPN by obviating the need for laparoscopic suturing to control small parenchymal vessels, as well as in reducing the deleterious effects of warm renal ischemia. Clinical evaluation of this device is warranted.

    Title A Novel Magnetic Anchoring and Guidance System to Facilitate Single Trocar Laparoscopic Nephrectomy.
    Date June 2008
    Journal Current Urology Reports
    Excerpt

    A transabdominal magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) deploys multiple instruments through a single 15-mm diameter, transabdominal trocar. These instruments are positioned in the peritoneal cavity and controlled by externally placed magnets to reduce the need for multiple transabdominal trocars. To assess the feasibility of MAGS technology in a single keyhole, complex laparoscopic procedure, nonsurvival porcine nephrectomies were completed without complications via a single 15-mm transumbilical trocar using a prototype MAGS camera and a magnetically anchored, robotic arm cauterizer.

    Title A Randomized Comparison of Conventional Vs Articulating Laparoscopic Needle-drivers for Performing Standardized Suturing Tasks by Laparoscopy-naive Subjects.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of conventional and articulating laparoscopic needle-drivers for performing standardized laparoscopic tasks by medical students with no previous surgical experience. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty medical students with no surgical experience were randomly assigned to two equal groups, one using a conventional laparoscopic needle-holder (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) and the other using a first-generation articulating laparoscopic needle-holder (Cambridge Endo, Framingham, MA, USA). Each student performed a series of four standardized laparoscopic tasks, during which speed and accuracy were assessed. The tasks tested needle passage through rings (1), an oblique running suture model (2), a urethrovesical anastomosis model (3) and a model simulating renal parenchymal reconstruction following partial nephrectomy (4). RESULTS: Tasks 1 and 3 were completed significantly more quickly by those using the conventional instruments (P < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference for task 2 and 4 (P > 0.05). Those using conventional instruments were significantly more accurate in all of the tasks than those using the articulated instruments (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The conventional laparoscopic needle-driver allowed laparoscopy-naive medical students to complete a series of standardized suturing tasks more rapidly and accurately than with the novel articulating needle-driver. Laparoscopic suturing with first-generation articulating needle-drivers might be more difficult to learn, secondary to the complexity of physical manoeuvres required for their use.

    Title Renal Function Outcomes in Patients Treated for Renal Masses Smaller Than 4 Cm by Ablative and Extirpative Techniques.
    Date January 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We examined the effect of radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and radio frequency ablation on renal function in patients with stage T1a renal masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 242 consecutive patients from July 1995 to March 2005 undergoing primary treatment for unilateral renal masses smaller than 4 cm and a normal contralateral kidney were identified. Renal function was calculated using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. The rate of decrease in the glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml per minute 1.73 m2 was compared among the 3 treatment modalities. RESULTS: A total of 86, 85 and 71 patients were treated with radio frequency ablation, partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy, respectively. Preoperatively stage 3 chronic kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2) was identified in 65 patients (26.7%), including 26.7%, 27.1% and 26.8% who underwent radio frequency ablation, partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy, respectively. Following intervention the 3-year freedom from a glomerular filtration rate decrease of below 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 for radio frequency ablation, partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy was 95.2%, 70.7% and 39.9%, respectively (p <0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that radical nephrectomy was an independent risk factor vs radio frequency ablation and partial nephrectomy for stage 3 chronic kidney disease (HR 34.3, 95% CI 4.28-275 and 10.9, 95% CI 1.36-88.7, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased renal function is prevalent in patients with small unilateral renal tumors even with a normal contralateral kidney. Ablative or extirpative nephron sparing techniques are effective for preserving renal function in these patients.

    Title Intermediate-term Prospective Results of Radiofrequency-assisted Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: a Non-ischaemic Coagulative Technique.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE To report the first intermediate-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic radiofrequency coagulation followed by laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RF-LPN) to treat small renal masses, as LPN is limited by the technical difficulty of efficient tumour resection and parenchymal repair during warm ischaemia of the kidney. PATIENTS AND METHODS A prospective database was searched to identify patients treated with RF-LPN; in each case the tumour was first RF coagulated with a margin of normal parenchyma, and then excised. Only fibrin glue was applied to the haemostatic resection site to prevent urinary leaks. In all, 32 tumours were treated with this approach, and a radiographic follow-up was completed yearly. RESULTS All PNs were accomplished with no hilar clamping, with a mean blood loss of 80 mL; 72% of masses were renal cell carcinoma. There was a positive margin in four masses (13%); 29 tumours (mean size 1.9 cm) were eligible for analysis of oncological outcomes, with a mean follow-up of 31 months. There were no tumour recurrences at the last follow-up, giving a cancer-specific survival rate of 100%. CONCLUSIONS RF-LPN with no hilar clamping simplifies the surgical technique and appears to have excellent cancer control in the intermediate term. In the few patients with a positive surgical margin, it is possible that coagulation beyond the tumour margin kills any residual microscopic tumour, minimizing or obviating the risk of tumour recurrence. Nevertheless, vigilance during tumour excision and margin identification is mandatory.

    Title Single Trocar Laparoscopic Nephrectomy Using Magnetic Anchoring and Guidance System in the Porcine Model.
    Date July 2007
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We assessed the feasibility of single keyhole laparoscopic surgery using a novel transabdominal magnetic anchoring and guidance system platform in the porcine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A collaborative research group was formed to build a prototype system of magnetically anchored instruments for trocar-free laparoscopy. The design mandate was that the developed technology should be able to deploy into the insufflated abdomen through an existing 12 mm diameter trocar and then be moved into position in the peritoneum by manipulating external magnets. The magnetic anchoring and guidance system concept was advanced to a working prototype with a system of external magnetic anchors, an internal camera system and a hook cautery supported by an intra-abdominal robotic arm. This prototype system was then evaluated in vivo in a porcine laparoscopic nephrectomy model. RESULTS: Two nonsurvival porcine laparoscopic nephrectomies were successfully completed without complications via a single 15 mm transumbilical trocar using the prototype magnetic anchoring and guidance system camera and the magnetically anchored robotic arm cauterizer. A conventional laparoscopic grasper was used for retraction through the 15 mm trocar after magnetic anchoring and guidance system deployment. The renal artery and vein were transected with a conventional Endo-GIA stapler introduced through the 15 mm trocar. Procedure time was not recorded and blood loss was minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Single trocar laparoscopic nephrectomy using magnetically anchored instrumentation is technically feasible, demonstrating that intracorporeal instrument manipulation may overcome the limitations of current laparoscopic and robotic surgery by allowing unhindered intra-abdominal movement. This single access technique may be used with natural orifice surgery approaches and it has the potential to realize incision-free intra-abdominal surgery.

    Title Percutaneous Renal Access Simulators.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Journal of Endourology / Endourological Society
    Excerpt

    Percutaneous renal access is an integral step in percutaneous renal drainage and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Urologists are increasingly obtaining access themselves, as this eliminates reliance on a second "surgeon" and increases flexibility with respect to procedure timing and the location of the access tract. Surprisingly few models have been developed to train urologists in percutaneous renal access. Harvested porcine kidney/ureter units mounted so they can be viewed radiographically and accessed by needle puncture through material simulating the human flank have been incorporated into two models. The PERC Mentor (Simbionix; Lod, Israel) is a virtual-reality simulator developed specifically for training in percutaneous renal puncture. Hands-on intraoperative training continues to be the primary method for learning percutaneous renal access. However, bench model and simulator-based education offer a useful adjunct.

    Title Basket Design As a Factor in Retention and Release of Calculi in Vitro.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Journal of Endourology / Endourological Society
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To compare stone retrieval and release from seven basket designs in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested two tipped and one tipless NCompass models, three other tipless Nitinol designs (NCircle, Sur-Catch, and Dimension), and the Segura Hemisphere for their ability to retrieve and release single beads 8, 6, 5.6, and 5 mm diameter and multiple beads 3.6 mm diameter in both a ureteral and a caliceal model in three separate attempts. RESULTS: In the ureteral model, all baskets were successful in retrieving all sizes of single beads. With multiple 3.6-mm beads, only the NCompass and Dimension designs were able to retrieve at least two of three beads in all attempts. With the exception of the Segura Hemisphere, all designs were successful in releasing all bead sizes. In the caliceal model, only the NCircle, Dimension, and tipless NCompass models were able to retrieve all bead sizes in 100% of the trials. The tipped NCompass and Hemisphere designs were unable to retrieve any beads in this model. The Sur-Catch basket was successful in the retrieval of large beads only. The Dimension articulating design was the only basket able to release all bead sizes in all attempts. The tipless NCompass basket did not release any of the beads once engaged. CONCLUSION: Nitinol basket designs show excellent retrieval and release capabilities in the in-vitro ureteral model. The articulating Nitinol basket has the best stone-releasing capability of all baskets tested.

    Title The Incidence of Crossing Vessels in Patients with Normal Ureteropelvic Junction Examined with Endoluminal Ultrasound.
    Date April 2006
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We estimated the incidence of a crossing vessel at the normal ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) in patients undergoing ureteroscopy and endoluminal ultrasonography for indications other than UPJ obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endoluminal ultrasonography was performed in 141 patients undergoing upper tract endoscopy for various indications excluding UPJ obstruction. A detailed description of the anatomy of the UPJ as well as the location and size of crossing vessels was included in the operative note. Charts were reviewed to determine the precise anatomy of the UPJ. RESULTS: The overall incidence of crossing vessels at the unobstructed UPJ was 19.2%. Endoluminal ultrasonography demonstrated a crossing vessel in 13.2% of patients with ureteral narrowing or stricture, 31.3% of those with tumors or filling defects, 10.5% of those with submucosal calculi and 16.7% of patients with ureteral diverticula. In cases where the position of a crossing vessel was ascertained, 41% were anterior to the ureter, 28% anterolateral, 24% anteromedial and 7% posterior. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of vessels at the UPJ in patients with and without obstruction examined with endoluminal ultrasound (p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A crossing vessel at the UPJ is seen with endoluminal ultrasound in 19.2% of patients with a normal UPJ. This incidence is lower than that seen in patients with obstructed UPJ. Many of these vessels are related to the lateral surface of the UPJ and there was no area that was always free of vessels.

    Title Comparison of Dismembered and Nondismembered Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty in the Pediatric Patient.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Journal of Endourology / Endourological Society
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty is an acceptable option for ureteropelvic junction (UPS) obstruction in the pediatric population. We compared our results with dismembered and nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of 26 children between the ages of 8 months and 15 years (mean age 5 years) underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic pyeloplasty for an obstruction not caused by a crossing vessel. Nineteen had an Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty (AH), while the remaining seven had a nondismembered pyeloplasty in a Heineke-Mikulicz fashion (HM). The outcome measures were operative time, length of hospital stay, and resolution of obstruction by ultrasonography and diuretic radionuclide imaging. RESULTS: The mean operative time was 3.1 hours and 2.5 hours for AH and HM, respectively. No difference in hospital stay was noted, with a mean of 3 days. The stent was removed 6 weeks later. Four of the seven patients having nondismembered procedures presented with acute flank pain within 3 days of stent removal. The AH pyeloplasty produced a 94% rate of resolution of UPJ obstruction, while the HM patients did poorly, with a success rate of only 43% (P = 0.002; Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSIONS: We believe that for UPJ obstructions in children not involving a crossing vessel, laparoscopic dismembered (AH) pyeloplasty may be considered a safe alternative.

    Title Transperitoneal Laparoscopic Pyelolithotomy After Failed Percutaneous Access in the Pediatric Patient.
    Date August 2004
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We present our experience with transperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in pediatric patients in whom percutaneous renal access failed and the stone burden warranted open intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A transperitoneal laparoscopic approach was used for pyelolithotomy in 8 patients 3 months to 10 years old (mean age 4 years). Percutaneous access failed secondary to a nondilated system and/or an occluding lower pole calculus. Inclusion criteria were failed percutaneous access secondary to a nondilated system and/or stone occlusion of the lower pole system and failed shock wave lithotripsy or a stone burden of greater than 2.5 cm2. A posterior pelviotomy was made. Stones in the renal pelvis were removed with rigid graspers under direct laparoscopic vision. A flexible cystoscope was introduced through a port if caliceal stones were present. The renal pelvis was reconstructed. A watertight anastomosis was verified. RESULTS: Average operative time was 1.6 hours (range 0.8 to 2.3). Mean hospital stay was 2.15 days (range 2 to 3). A range of 1 to 3 stones (median of 1) were removed and the mean stone burden was 2.9 cm2. No intraoperative complications were noted. Stone analysis revealed 3 patients with calcium oxalate stones, 1 with a calcium phosphate stone and 4 with cysteine stones. There was 1 patient with stone recurrence at a mean followup of 12 months (range 3 to 20). Thus, the overall long-term stone-free rate was 87.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Transperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy is feasible when percutaneous access fails and open pyelolithotomy is considered due to a large stone burden.

    Title An Update on Ureteroscopic Instrumentation for the Treatment of Urolithiasis.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Current Opinion in Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ureteroscopic instruments, both endoscopic and working devices, continue to evolve. Changes in instrumentation have necessitated concurrent modifications in ureteroscopic techniques over the years. The safety and efficacy of the ureteroscopic approach for the treatment of renal and ureteral calculi, however, have continued to improve. RECENT FINDINGS: This review emphasizes the recent advances in the major groups of instruments employed for ureteroscopy. Among the endoscopic instruments, the flexible ureteroscopes have undergone the most notable advances, benefiting from greatly improved deflection and durability. Progress has been made in adjunctive instruments as well. Current stone retrieval devices composed of nitinol-based wire technology are able to easily secure fragments from the most peripheral calices. The holmium laser is a versatile device with proven safety and effectiveness as an endoscopic lithotrite. SUMMARY: The availability and coordinated use of the latest ureteroscopic instruments have resulted in better treatment outcomes, thus expanding the use of ureteroscopy as a first-line option for the treatment of calculi in appropriate cases. Urologists should be familiar with currently available instrumentation in order to optimize their equipment.

    Title Effect of Freezing Parameters (freeze Cycle and Thaw Process) on Tissue Destruction Following Renal Cryoablation.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Journal of Endourology / Endourological Society
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Renal cryoablation is a successful nephron-sparing treatment alternative for selected patients with small renal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the number of freeze cycles (one v two) and the thaw process (active v passive) on renal tissue following cryodestruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen female mongrel dogs (19.9 +/- 2.1 kg) were randomly divided into four groups and underwent transabdominal laparoscopic access by standard techniques. Tissue freezing was performed using argon gas following interstitial cryoprobe (3 mm) placement into the upper and lower poles of the left kidney. Single active (SA), single passive (SP) double active (DA) or double passive (DP) 15-minute treatment cycle(s) were carried out via the CRYOcare Cryosurgical Unit (Endocare, Irving, CA) on eight kidneys each. An active thaw process with helium gas or a passive thaw process was initiated after each freeze period. The cryoprobe was removed when the temperature reached 0 degrees C. Four weeks following cryosurgery, animals were sacrificed, and the renal tissue was evaluated grossly and histologically. RESULTS: Interstitial cryoprobe temperatures decreased from 31.3 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C to -142 degrees C +/- 1.0 degrees C following the 15-minute freeze cycle. The temperature reached 0 degrees C significantly faster following active thaw than with the passive process (2.13 +/- 0.24 min/freeze cycle and 15.18 +/- 2.97 min/freeze cycle, respectively; P < 0.0001). Grossly, each lesion consisted of a central area of necrosis surrounded by a rim of white tissue. On microscopic examination, each lesion consisted of a central area of liquefaction necrosis (LN) surrounded by various degrees of fibrosis and granulation tissue admixed with residual parenchyma. The size of the LN was significantly different in tissues subjected to double and single freeze cycles when compared across both thaw processes (active and passive). There was no significant difference in the overall lesion volume following DA, DP, SA, or SP. CONCLUSIONS: Renal cryodestruction via laparoscopic access achieves complete tissue ablation without complications. The double freeze cycle produced significantly larger areas of LN than the single freeze regardless of the thaw process. The type of thaw process did not affect the amount of tissue damage. Utilizing a double 15-minute freeze cycle with the faster active thaw process will effectively cryoablate renal tissue as well as significantly reduce overall operative time.


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