Urologists
29 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients
North Philadelphia East
3401 N Broad St
3rd Floor
Philadelphia, PA 19140
215-707-3375
Locations and availability (1)

Education ?

Medical School Score
State University of New York Downstate (1981)
  • Currently 1 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
One of America's Leading Experts on:
Kidney Cancer (Kidney Neoplasm)
Associations
American Board of Urology
American Urological Association
American College of Surgeons

Affiliations ?

Dr. Mydlo is affiliated with 3 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Jeanes Hospital
    7600 Central Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Temple University Children's Medical Center
    3509 N Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19140
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Temple University Hospital - Episcopal Campus
    100 E Lehigh Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19125
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Mydlo has contributed to 55 publications.
    Title Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Other Premalignant Lesions of the Penis.
    Date August 2010
    Journal The Urologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    Invasive penile cancer is an aggressive malignancy that often requires partial or complete penile amputation. Premalignant penile lesions, such as penile intraepithelial neoplasia, will have been present prior to the development of invasive disease in a substantial percentage of patients. Early detection and treatment of premalignant penile lesions may prevent malignant progression while avoiding penile amputation. This review focuses on premalignant penile lesions and the associations of these lesions with the development of invasive penile cancer.

    Title Evaluation and Management of Gunshot Wounds of the Penis: 20-year Experience at an Urban Trauma Center.
    Date April 2008
    Journal The Journal of Trauma
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Although gunshot injuries to the penis occur relatively infrequently in patients with penetrating trauma, they often present dilemmas of subsequent evaluation and management. We review our extensive experience with gunshot wounds to the penis at a high volume urban trauma center. METHODS: The urologic trauma database was retrospectively reviewed to extract and compile information from the records of 63 patients treated for gunshot wounds to the penis. Data were accumulated for a 20-year period from 1985 to 2004 with regard to findings on physical examination, diagnostic evaluation, associated injuries, management, and outcome. We detail our technique of penile exploration and artificial erection in the management of these injuries. RESULTS: Penile gunshot wounds were associated with additional injuries in 53 of 63 (84%) patients. A total of 48 (76%) patients were taken to the operating room and 44 (70%) penile explorations were performed. Evaluation included retrograde urethrogram in 50 of 63 (79%) patients and was diagnostic for urethral injury in 11 of 12 (92%) cases. Primary urethral repair was performed in 8 of 12 (67%) patients with urethral injury versus 4 of 12 (33%) who underwent urinary diversion by means of suprapubic cystotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation and management of gunshot wounds to the penis may potentially be complex. Retrograde urethrogram should be performed in all cases except the most insignificant and superficial wounds. We describe our technique of penile exploration and artificial erection, noting excellent results in patients for whom follow-up is available. Additional studies are needed to prospectively evaluate techniques for management of gunshot urethral injuries.

    Title Hiv-aids: Urologic Considerations.
    Date March 2008
    Journal The Urologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    The prevalence of HIV continues to grow in the United States and worldwide. HIV-positive patients experience many genitourinary disease processes. With improvements in HIV therapy, patients have questions and concerns pertaining to their quality of life. This article reviews conditions such as HIV-related urinary tract infections, urolithiasis, voiding dysfunction, fertility, sexual dysfunction, HIV-related nephropathy, malignancies, and occupational exposure and prophylaxis. Knowledge of the various HIV manifestations of genitourinary conditions and their treatment options benefits clinicians and improves patient outcomes.

    Title Immediate Postoperative Complications of Combined Penetrating Rectal and Bladder Injuries.
    Date March 2007
    Journal The Journal of Trauma
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Combined penetrating trauma involving the rectum and bladder has been associated with increased postoperative morbidity. Specific complications resulting from these injuries include colovesical fistula, urinoma, and abscess formation. METHODS: A retrospective review of Temple University Hospital trauma database was performed. Patients were categorized by having an isolated rectal (n = 29), isolated bladder (n = 16), or combined injury (n = 24). Records were reviewed for sex, age, site of injury, location of rectal and bladder injuries, operative intervention, fistula formation, urinoma formation, abscess formation, time to urinary catheter removal, length of intensive care unit stay, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Patient sex and age did not differ significantly between groups, nor was there a significant difference in location of rectal injury between groups. Presacral drainage was utilized in all patients with extraperitoneal injuries. Fecal diversion was performed in all patients, except two with intraperitoneal rectal injuries. Omental flap interposition between rectal and bladder injuries was utilized in one patient. No significant difference was noted in immediate postoperative complications between groups including fistula, urinoma, and abscess formation. However, all cases of colovesical fistula (n = 2) and urinoma (n = 2) formation were noted in those patients with rectal and posterior bladder injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Combined rectal and bladder injuries were not associated with an increase in immediate postoperative complications compared with isolated rectal and bladder injuries. However, postoperative fistula and urinoma formation occurred only in patients with a combined rectal and posterior bladder injury. Consequently, these patients may benefit from omental flap interposition between injuries to decrease fistula and urinoma formation.

    Title Effect of Obese and Lean Zucker Rat Sera on Human and Rat Prostate Cancer Cells: Implications in Obesity-related Prostate Tumor Biology.
    Date February 2007
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: Several reports have demonstrated the effects of obesity on prostate cancer. Also several reports have linked expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) to prostate cancer aggressiveness. The objective of this study was to determine whether a difference exists between lean and obese Zucker rat sera on proliferation prostate cancer cell lines, as well as to examine the differences in FGF-2 and VEGF concentrations. METHODS: Ten-week-old female obese and lean Zucker rat sera were subjected to charcoal stripping and tested for the proliferation of human LNCaP and rat AT3B-1 prostate cancer cells. An acetonitrile extract of the charcoal used to strip the sera was also tested for mitogenicity. VEGF and FGF-2 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Both unstripped and charcoal-stripped obese rat sera had a greater mitogenic effect than did the lean sera on the LNCaP cell line. Charcoal stripping of both obese and lean sera reduced the mitogenic effect on the AT3B-1 cell line. The acetonitrile extract of the charcoal used to strip the sera was unable to recover this proliferative effect. The concentration of VEGF was greater in the obese serum than in the lean serum, and charcoal stripping reduced the concentrations of both FGF-2 and VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of greater VEGF in obese rat sera, as well as greater mitogenic responses on human prostate cancer cells in vitro, suggests this as one of the many possible mechanisms involved in obesity-related prostate cancer biology.

    Title Delayed Diagnosis of Traumatic Ureteral Injuries.
    Date December 2006
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We review our experience with traumatic ureteral injuries missed at exploration. We also conduct meta-analysis to define factors contributing to missed injury, comparing outcomes of early vs late diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our genitourinary trauma database was retrospectively reviewed from 1995 through 2004. A total of 40 ureteral injuries were identified including 5 with delayed diagnosis. Previously published series of ureteral trauma were then analyzed for injuries with delayed diagnosis, with data extracted and collated for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients with traumatic ureteral injuries was identified, all of whom underwent laparotomy. Five (12.5%) injuries were discovered at a mean of 6.0 +/- 3.0 days after laparotomy. The number of associated injuries for early and delayed diagnosis was 3.2 and 2.6 (p = 0.25), respectively. Mean hospital stay was 19.2 vs 36.6 days (p = 0.18) for those with immediate vs delayed diagnosis, respectively. Only 2 of 5 (40%) patients achieved satisfactory results during initial hospitalization. Literature review revealed 48 missed ureteral injuries, representing 11.1% of all patients with ureteral injuries who underwent laparotomy. Rates of nephrectomy for early and late diagnosis were 2.4% and 18.4% (p = 0.0001). Mortality related to traumatic injuries occurred in 6.1% with early diagnosis and 13.2% with missed injuries (p = 0.089). CONCLUSIONS: Despite preoperative studies and intraoperative inspection, ureteral injury may remain undiagnosed until after laparotomy. We report intraoperative exploration to have a sensitivity of 88.9% across multiple series for traumatic ureteral injuries. Delayed diagnosis of ureteral injuries produces an association with prolonged hospital stay, and meta-analysis reveals a statistically significant increase in the rate of nephrectomy when ureteral injury is missed at exploration.

    Title Bladder Wall Lipoma in Patient with Irritative Voiding Symptoms.
    Date November 2005
    Journal Urology
    Title Use of Combined Intracorporal Injection and a Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor Therapy for Men with a Suboptimal Response to Sildenafil And/or Vardenafil Monotherapy After Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy.
    Date May 2005
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To report experience with combined therapy using intracorporal injection (ICI) of alprostadil and oral phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for the minimally invasive treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical prostatectomy (RP), as PDE-5 inhibitors are effective but a few patients may have a suboptimal response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, 34 men (aged 46-66 years) had a nerve-sparing retropubic RP and subsequent ED. Patients were titrated on sildenafil citrate or vardenafil to maximum doses. All had a suboptimal response after a maximum of eight doses of oral therapy and were then treated with ICI therapy using 15 or 20 microg alprostadil. Erectile function was assessed with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). RESULTS: Of the 32 patients who continued combined therapy, 22 (68%) had an improvement in erectile function after ICI therapy, as assessed by the SHIM score. On follow-up, 36% of these patients used ICI therapy only intermittently, instead of regularly, as they felt that this was adequate enough for good results. CONCLUSIONS: PDE-5 oral pharmacotherapy is the most commonly used effective therapy for ED but may not be as effective in patients who have radical surgery; the addition of testosterone patches may have side-effects or be considered a risk in patients with a history of prostate cancer. The use of ICI therapy as an adjunct or maintenance therapy to their oral medication may be another alternative in these patients.

    Title Does Brachytherapy of the Prostate Affect Sperm Quality And/or Fertility in Younger Men?
    Date November 2004
    Journal Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Sperm banking prior to surgical procedures which may affect fertility, such as retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, has been well documented. However, such procedures are usually performed in young men. With older men marrying later in life, or remarrying, we wanted to investigate the effects of radiation on prostate cancer patients who wanted to have children afterwards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We encountered several patients with prostate cancer who decided to undergo brachytherapy and were planning to have more children. We performed a search using PubMed and Ovid for the period 1966-2001 using the key words "fertility", "sperm banking", "radiation effects", "prostate cancer" and "brachytherapy". RESULTS: Of the four young patients we encountered who underwent brachytherapy, we found no significant change in semen parameters post-therapy, and three of them were able to father a child subsequently without any deleterious side-effects. It has been demonstrated in several reports that external-beam radiation therapy is associated with decreased spermatogenesis due to Leydig cell dysfunction and decreased serum testosterone, as well as having a direct effect on spermatogonia. However, there is a scarcity of literature discussing the effects of prostate brachytherapy on spermatogenesis as the patients involved are usually older and usually do not desire to father any more children. As I has a half-life of 60 days, we used an exposure of 10 mR/h at the symphysis pubis and used integration to find the total dose exposed to the testis as follows: Limits 14 400 to 0, S 10e (-In2/1440.Tdt) where T = 14 400 and 20.75 R = 20.75 cGy. Therefore, the total dose was 20.75 cGy x 0.91 = 18.88 cGy. This value is considered too low to have any significant effect on testicular tissues. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that the effects of prostate brachytherapy on spermatogenesis in prostate cancer patients are minimal. However, due to the half-life of I, we recommend that these patients should wait for at least 3-4 months before trying to conceive. Furthermore, younger men with prostate cancer may want to consider sperm banking prior to brachytherapy if they want to have children in the future.

    Title Increasing Incidence and Importance of Hiv/aids and Gonorrhea Among Men Aged >/= 50 Years in the Us in the Era of Erectile Dysfunction Therapy.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: With the advent of effective pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction, the risk of sexually transmitted diseases is a possible consequence, especially in the older population. We wanted to review the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in the older population in an attempt to correlate this with the advent of these new drugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Publicly available information on the incidence of HIV, AIDS and gonorrhea was retrieved from the websites of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the State of Florida Department of Health, the Senior HIV Intervention Project and the National Association on HIV Over Fifty. National case incidences of HIV and AIDS in men between 1996 and 2000 were examined for trends. National and Florida state trends were compared and, in Florida, Palm Beach, Broward and Dade counties in particular were selected because of their traditionally large retiree population. In addition, the national and Florida state incidences of gonorrheal infection were examined for trends. Statistics on national sildenafil (Viagra) prescriptions were obtained via a personal communication with a regional healthcare representative from Pfizer. RESULTS: According to the CDC, at the end of 1998 >10% of new AIDS cases nationally were in individuals aged >50 years. In the late 1990s, new AIDS cases rose faster in middle-aged and older adults than in people aged >40 years. Many of the newly diagnosed cases of AIDS may have contracted HIV before the age of 50 years; however, many individuals are newly becoming infected above the age of 50 years. Of the reported AIDS cases in 1996 in individuals aged >/= 50 years, 48% were aged 50-54 years, 26% were aged 55-59 years, 14% were aged 60-64 years and 12% were aged >/= 65 years; 84% of these cases were male, and blacks accounted for the greatest proportion of cases (43%). In the US, 7.5 million prescriptions for sildenafil were written in 1998, 9.5 million in 1999, 12 million in 2000 and 15.5 million in 2001. The age breakdown for these prescriptions was as follows: 40-49 years, 23%; 50-59 years, 35%; and 60-69 years, 25%. CONCLUSIONS: The past decade saw rises in heterosexual transmission of HIV and i.v. drug use, especially in the population aged >50 years. The CDC reports that the incidence of new HIV infection is stabilizing in men aged 30-39 years and even falling in men aged 20-29 years. Gonorrhea is well known to increase infectivity for HIV and other STDs. Although the rates of gonorrhea infection fell throughout the early 1990s, they increased by 9% between 1997 and 1999. The number of sildenafil prescriptions has increased by almost 80% over the last few years. Although there may be multiple contributory factors for these findings, to our knowledge this is the first paper in the urologic literature to examine such trends in the older male population, especially in the light of newly available medications for erectile dysfunction.

    Title Incidence and Management of Penetrating Renal Trauma in Patients with Multiorgan Injury: Extended Experience at an Inner City Trauma Center.
    Date November 2004
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Patients with penetrating trauma often have multiorgan involvement that may complicate the management of any single organ system. Here we review the incidence of associated injuries in patients with penetrating renal trauma and our extended experience treating these patients at a busy inner city trauma center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All trauma cases presenting to Temple University Trauma Center during a 6-year period were identified through our institutional databases and were reviewed (5,276). Penetrating trauma represented 41% of all cases (2,163). Of these we identified 123 patients with penetrating renal trauma (5.7%). A total of 93 cases were available for review. Multiorgan injury was staged in the operating room if patients were hemodynamically unstable or radiographically if they were stable. Renal injuries were staged by high dose, single shot excretory urogram in patients taken immediately to surgery or by computerized tomography if stable. Renal injuries were classified using the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system. AAST classifications were subcategorized for purposes of streamlining. Grade 1 and 2 injuries were grouped as low grade, grades 3 and 4 nonvascular injuries were grouped as intermediate grade, and AAST grade 4 vascular and grade 5 injuries were grouped as high grade. Demographic, clinical and intraoperative variables, as well as number and severity of associated injuries, were then assessed to determine the relationship with various renal surgical outcomes including the requirement of surgical intervention, type of surgical intervention, need for nephrectomy and associated adverse outcomes. RESULTS: The median age of injured patients was 28 years (range 14 to 80). The majority of victims were male (93%). The mechanism of injury was predominantly gunshot wound (GSW, 86%) while 14% were due to stab wounds. Renal injuries were low grade (19%), intermediate grade (44%) and high grade (37%). Nearly all patients with penetrating renal injury had associated multiorgan injury (94.6%). Associated injuries for penetrating renal trauma on the right side predominately involved the liver, small bowel and vertebra while injury to the left kidney was most often associated with trauma to the stomach, colon and spleen. Patients suffered extensive renal injury as evidenced by the high rate of intraoperative urinomas (30.1%) and hematomas (97.5%) identified. In the absence of an expanding hematoma and/or hemodynamic instability, associated injuries by themselves did not increase the risk of nephrectomy. Despite multiorgan penetrating injury 54% of kidneys were salvageable. CONCLUSIONS: Isolated penetrating trauma to the kidney is rare. The majority of patients with penetrating renal trauma have associated adjacent organ injuries that may complicate treatment. In the absence of an expanding hematoma with hemodynamic instability, associated multiorgan injuries did not increase the risk of nephrectomy. With appropriate radiographic and/or surgical staging, it is possible to repair and salvage many of these kidneys despite extensive associated intraabdominal trauma.

    Title Use of Intraurethral Alprostadil in Patients Not Responding to Sildenafil Citrate.
    Date October 2004
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether intraurethral alprostadil would be an effective alternative for men with erectile dysfunction who did not respond adequately to sildenafil citrate but desired minimally invasive treatment. METHODS: A total of 44 male patients aged 41 to 74 years with erectile dysfunction refractory to treatment with sildenafil citrate were enrolled in this study. Of the 44 patients, 10 had undergone prior radical retropubic prostatectomy. The patients were evaluated for subjective improvement in an office setting and completed the Sexual Health Inventory for Men questionnaire as an objective assessment of improved erectile ability. Success was defined as subjective improvement in erectile function, as well as an improved Sexual Health Inventory for Men score. RESULTS: Of the 44 men, 13 (29.5%) responded successfully to intraurethral alprostadil, with a follow-up ranging from 2 to 15 months. The remaining 31 men had no response (n = 28, 90%), refused escalating doses (n = 2, 7%), or were lost to follow-up (n = 1, 3%). In the subgroup of 10 men with prior radical retropubic prostatectomy, 5 (50%) reported success with intraurethral alprostadil (500 microg in 2 patients and 1000 microg in 3 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Although sildenafil citrate remains the most common initial therapy in men with erectile dysfunction, intraurethral alprostadil may be a reasonable treatment option for sildenafil nonresponders. This may be especially true in men having undergone prior radical retropubic prostatectomy.

    Title Immune Function, Mitogenicity, and Angiogenic Growth Factor Concentrations in Lean and Obese Rodent Sera: Implications in Obesity-related Prostate Tumor Biology.
    Date August 2004
    Journal Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
    Excerpt

    Some studies suggest that several tumors have a greater incidence in those patients with a high fat diet, such as colon, breast, and prostate. However, we wanted to determine the effects of obesity alone, independent of diet, on the progression of prostate tumor growth. Using a genetic model of obese and lean Zucker rats, we wanted to demonstrate any sera differences in the concentration of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), two important factors involved in the growth and progression of prostate cancer. We also wanted to investigate if there were any differences in immune function between the two sera, which could also account for uninhibited tumor growth, as well as differences in mitogenic stimulation. Female Zucker rat obese and lean sera were analyzed using ELISA assays for FGF-2, VEGF, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1a), as a measure of macrophage function. In addition, the sera of lean and obese sera were plated on wells growing LNCaP prostate cancer cells to determine differences in mitogenicity. We found a greater concentration of FGF-2 in the sera from obese Zucker rats compared to lean Zucker rats: 6.32+/-0.56 vs 3.48+/-0.34 pg/ml, respectively, P<0.05). We also demonstrated a greater concentration of VEGF in obese rat sera compared to lean sera: 54.4+/-4.1 vs 38.0+/-2.9 pg/mL, respectively, P<0.05). We detected a trend in mitogenic stimulation among LNCaP cells along the higher concentrations of the dose-response curve (0.72+/-0.06 vs 0.51+/-0.5). However, this was not statistically significant. In addition, we did not find a significant difference in MIP-1a macrophage activity levels between sera. To conclude, we speculate that the greater concentrations of VEGF and FGF-2 in the sera of obese rodents vs lean rodents may account for some of the differences seen in obesity-related tumor growth seen in the human condition. However, the lack of any sera differences of immune function, as measured by macrophage activity, as well as no significant differences on mitogenic proliferation on LNCaP prostate cancer cells, suggests that other mechanisms may exist to explain differences seen in obesity-related prostate tumor biology.

    Title The Impact of Obesity in Urology.
    Date July 2004
    Journal The Urologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    The incidence and progression of urologic diseases, as well as several urologic cancers.depend on many interrelated factors, such as obesity, diet, genetics, environment, age, and the immune system. Obesity is a risk factor for stress urinary incontinence, ED, infertility, and renal calculi. Numerous publications have demonstrated that a high dietary intake of fat increases prostate cancer risk, although the mechanisms are not clear. Although some reports may demonstrate an association between obesity and prostate cancer, it may be hard to establish because, in general, men with obesity have a high-fat diet. Obesity, recurrent urinary tract infections, increased intake of protein and fried foods, and female sex seem to increase the risk of renal cancer. Environmental toxins seem to be the major factors affecting the incidence of bladder cancers. Thus, dietary modification and other public health measures directed at reducing weight may reduce the incidence of urologic illnesses. More studies are necessary to determine the therapeutic effects of weight loss and dietary modification on the incidence and progression of urologic tumors.

    Title Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Contralateral Testis in a Man with a History of Cryptorchism.
    Date June 2004
    Journal Urologia Internationalis
    Excerpt

    We report a case of adult-type testicular granulosa cell tumor in a 33-year-old man with a history of cryptorchism of the contralateral testis as well as Crohn's disease. The tumor was identified as a 1 x 1 x 1 cm mass on baseline ultrasound evaluation. CT evaluation of the patient revealed extensive mesenteric adenopathy, most likely secondary to his history of Crohn's disease.

    Title Fournier's Gangrene: an Analysis of Repeated Surgical Debridement.
    Date August 2003
    Journal European Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: We wanted to determine if there was a difference in outcome for those patients with Fournier's disease who underwent numerous debridements as opposed to only one initial debridement. METHODS: The records of 19 patients with the diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene were reviewed retrospectively at our institution. Special attention was placed on demographic data, primary managing service, as well as wound cultures, and the number and timing of surgical debridements. Patients were also classified by a collection of variables at presentation and given a score named the Fournier's Severity Index. We utilised the Fournier's Severity Index (FSI) as developed by Laor et al. which included a number of vital sign data as well as laboratory values collected at admission in the emergency room. RESULTS: The average FSI was 9.1 ranging from 0 to 15. The mean FSI of survivors was 8.6 versus 12.4 of non-survivors. The surgical management of this disease process was also critically examined. The average number of repeated debridements was 3.5 ranging from 1 to 8. Both the FSI and the number of debridements were attempted to be used to predict outcome. Outcome was measured in the variables length of stay (days) and survival. A regression analysis revealed the number of debridements to be positively related to the length of stay (LOS). This was the opposite as expected at the beginning of the study. Also FSI was not predictive of LOS. CONCLUSIONS: Fournier's gangrene is a disease process with a wide variability in presentation. The FSI does give some indication about the likelihood of survival based on variables which can be recorded upon presentation. It also provides an efficient way to characterize the acuity of presentation and compare patients. While the repeated nature of debridements may be considered the accepted standard of care in these patients, this was not found to be predictive of outcome.

    Title Percutaneous Drainage And/or Nephrectomy in the Treatment of Emphysematous Pyelonephritis.
    Date July 2003
    Journal Urologia Internationalis
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the current and past literature relating to the differential treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN). Some of the newer literature suggests percutaneous drainage (PCD), as compared to the standard nephrectomy, as a better modality. Since these two may complement each other, we sought to seek indications when to perform each treatment. METHODS: Medline and MD Consult were used for our journal review. Ten articles, ranging from 1980 to 2000, were chosen, which covered 162 patients. The criteria for selecting these articles were study size (n < 3 were excluded) and non-overlapping of patient information. Patient data was then used to certain risks of the various treatment modalities. RESULTS: Due to the lack of randomization of the studies, it is difficult to say whether PCD is superior to nephrectomy or not. It appears to be that each treatment may complement each other, and that treatment should be individualized based on the severity of the EPN and the medical condition of the patient. PCD though appears to be acceptable for use in the initial phases of the disease. However, long-term data is lacking to corroborate the overall benefit of PCD compared to nephrectomy. CONCLUSION: PCD could be utilized initially in some cases of EPN if certain conditions exist. This treatment may complement nephrectomy if the need exists, and therefore, treatment may be staged. Truly randomized studies need to be done to determine if one treatment is better than the other, and provide documented long-term follow-up of these patients.

    Title Incidence and Management of Dialysis Patients with Renal Calculi.
    Date June 2003
    Journal Urologia Internationalis
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of renal stones in patients on dialysis, while lower in number compared to the general population because of decreased renal function, is nonetheless a clinical dilemma. We wanted to evaluate the incidence and management of stone disease in patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: We reviewed the literature from 1966 to the present using Medline. Study inclusion criteria were detection and treatment of stone disease in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. RESULTS: It is estimated that between 5 and 13% of all dialysis patients will develop symptomatic renal calculi and many more asymptomatic calculi. Many of the stone-forming dialysis patients will have recurring stone disease with one study finding an 83.3% recurrence rate. CONCLUSION: Since dialysis patients have a wide range of urine output, the clinician should be alert to the possibility of stone formation. We recommend yearly ultrasound examinations on all dialysis patients as well as citrate and magnesium supplements with careful follow-up of laboratory results and urine electrolytes. We also recommend careful follow-up of all patients on aluminum-hydroxide phosphate binders as they are predisposed to form Al-Mg-urate stones. For those dialysis patients that form renal calculi, watchful waiting and symptomatic treatment is recommended since almost all patients will spontaneously pass their stones. However, ESWL and other current modalities may be used with no greater morbidity compared to nondialysis cohorts. We also suggest that patients with severe recurring intractable stone disease who are candidates for renal transplantation should be offered bilateral nephrectomies.

    Title Ischemia and Gangrene of the Penis.
    Date June 2003
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title Renal Cancer and Pregnancy in Two Different Female Cohorts.
    Date April 2003
    Journal The Canadian Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Although human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered refractive to hormone therapy, this lesion can be induced in the Syrian hamster by exogenous estrogen. Human RCC also has been demonstrated to contain estrogen receptors. Since there are significant changes of estrogen levels during pregnancy, we wanted to investigate if there were any associations between the hormonal variations of pregnancy and renal cancer in women using two distinct cohorts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 57 females who presented for treatment of renal cancer. We assessed the size of each tumor radiologically and pathologically, the tumor stage, the number of pregnancies and/or abortions/miscarriages, age at menarche, and use of oral contraceptives. We compared this cohort to a sample of 985 nuns, and then reviewed the literature on the association of pregnancy, contraceptives and renal cell carcinoma. We used analysis of multiple variables (ANOVA) and the student's t test to determine any significance (p<0.05). RESULTS: Our age range was 39 to 67 years, with a mean of 51. The tumor volumes ranged from 9 cm(3) to 1500 cm(3), and the number of pregnancies ranged from 1 to 14. Menarche ranged from 8 to 14. We did not find any significant correlation between menarche or the number of pregnancies and the size or stage of renal cancers. However, our nun population did not reveal any incidence or illness from renal cell carcinoma over a 20 year review. CONCLUSIONS: Although our first cohort did not demonstrate any significant associations between the number of pregnancies or age at menarche and RCC, our second cohort and a review of the literature supports the notion that pregnancy is a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma.

    Title Blunt, Penetrating and Ischemic Injuries to the Penis.
    Date October 2002
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We describe our experience with treating a series of 40 penile injuries, including 2 gunshot wounds, 1 stab wound, 1 zipper injury and 34 penile fractures, of which 29 were corrected surgically and 5 were managed conservatively, as well as 2 cases of glandular gangrene at 3 large inner city medical centers in a 12-year period. We describe our standard diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, which have evolved with time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 2000, 34 patients were evaluated after blunt trauma to the erect penis resulted in penile fracture. Four patients had penetrating trauma to a flaccid penis and 2 had localized penile gangrene. Of the patients with blunt trauma 32 were injured during sexual intercourse and 2 were injured during masturbation. A single gunshot wound occurred during a crime, 2 penetrating traumas were intentionally inflicted and the remaining penetrating injury was due to a zipper. The 2 patients with penile gangrene had diabetes and were on dialysis. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients were treated with surgery using a degloving incision. The corpora and urethra were evaluated with radiography or injection of saline intraoperatively. Five patients were treated conservatively for presumed penile fracture after they refused diagnostic confirmation and/or surgery, and the 2 with localized glandular gangrene were also treated conservatively. At followup 35 of the 40 patients available reported erection adequate for intercourse without erectile or voiding dysfunction. Two patients had mild curvature. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience a degloving procedure provided the best exposure for blunt and penetrating trauma. All penetrating injuries were débrided before repair. Saline injection showed additional corporeal body and/or urethral pathology, and also assessed the integrity of repair. Distal amputation in patients with localized glandular gangrene may result in sloughing and further complications. However, hyperbaric oxygen and local wound care may be adequate if there is no progression of gangrene.

    Title Radiologic, Pathologic and Molecular Attributes of Two Types of Papillary Renal Adenocarcinomas.
    Date January 2002
    Journal Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Most papillary renal tumors are not as aggressive as clear cell carcinomas and thus carry a better prognosis. However, several reports in the literature have demonstrated a subset of patients with papillary tumors that have a more aggressive biology and advanced stage at presentation. We compared several parameters of these subsets of renal tumors in an effort to characterize these lesions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 391 cases of nephrectomies that were performed for cancer over a 20-year period from four institutions. Of these, 41 were documented as papillary adenocarcinomas. We reviewed these cases with respect to stage at presentation, size, vascularity on (computerized tomography) CT scan, histology, and cytokeratin immunohistology. RESULTS: Thirty-two of the lesions presented in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth decades of life (Type I), while most of the remaining 9 tumors (Type II) presented in the fourth decade of life, and in more advanced stages. Tumor volumes ranged from 84 cm3 to 1660 cm3. Type I tumors had an average size of 515 cm3 and an enhancement on CT of 36 +/- 4 Hounsfield units, compared with Type II tumors which had an average size of 164 cm3 and an enhancement on CT of 92 +/- 8 Hounsfield units. Type II tumors also had a higher mean Fuhrman score of nuclear pleomorphism than Type I, and a greater expression of cytokeratin. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the more common Type I variant of papillary renal adenocarcinoma was less vascular on CT scan, larger in size, and had a lower amount of nuclear pleomorphism as well as decreased expression of cytokeratin 7. The more aggressive biological variant, Type II, presented in the earlier decades of life, with a smaller, but more vascular, cancer and had a greater nuclear pleomorphism. Nuclear pleomorphism still appears to have the best prognostic assessment. However, other molecular and genetic parameters of these tumors, as well as long-term survival data will be necessary to determine the significance of these findings.

    Title A Review of Urologic Cancer Patients with Multiple Primary Malignancies.
    Date January 2002
    Journal World Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Much has been written on the treatment of solitary or multiple metastatic nodules that sometimes present in patients with urological malignancies. However, relatively little has been published regarding those patients with urological cancer who have another concomitant primary non-urologic tumor. We describe several cases of patients who presented with a urologic malignancy and a secondary non-urologic tumor. We also reviewed the literature using MEDLINE to gather information concerning this rare occurrence. We found that secondary malignancies, although not very common, are being increasingly reported. They are usually detected during the preoperative work-up of the primary tumor, usually by CT scan, ultrasound, or chest X-ray. Most authors suggest that treatment should be directed at the more aggressive lesion first, which would improve the overall status of the patient, and thus allow a better response from therapy for the secondary lesion. While patients with multiple primary malignancies are rare, the urologist should be alerted to this possibility when evaluating the patient for the initially presenting or detected tumor.

    Title Patients with Urologic Cancer and Other Nonurologic Malignancies: Analysis of a Sample and Review of the Literature.
    Date January 2002
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with patients with urologic cancers who also have malignancies of nonurologic origin, before, after, or simultaneously, to review the literature, and to suggest treatment options. METHODS: We reviewed our institutions' tumor registry from 1995 to 2000 to discover how many patients had a urologic malignancy and another nonurologic cancer (antecedent, subsequent, or synchronous). We reviewed Medline from 1966 to 2000 and also questioned several urologists at major centers in the United States concerning this clinical dilemma. RESULTS: We encountered 18 patients during a 6-year period with a urologic cancer and another primary malignancy. Thirteen patients had their second cancer detected during the workup of their primary urologic tumor. Two patients developed a second tumor within 1 year of treatment of the primary urologic tumor. Another patient was referred with two primaries already diagnosed, and another had renal carcinoma detected during her colon cancer workup. We found that multiple tumors, although very rare, are usually detected during the preoperative workup of the primary tumor, usually by physical examination and improved radiologic imaging, or during the follow-up examinations. Most reports suggest that treatment should be performed simultaneously, especially if the lesions are relatively small and require a single incision, and the patient's medical condition allows longer anesthesia exposure. If these prerequisites are not met, most investigators agree that treatment should be directed at the more aggressive lesion first, which may improve the condition and/or survival, and thus, if a second operation is warranted, it will be possible. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with multiple malignancies are rare, the urologist and/or other specialist should be alerted to this possibility when evaluating patients for the initially presenting symptoms and/or detected tumor, as well as during the follow-up evaluations.

    Title The Applicability of Using Straight Ureteral Stents for the Treatment of Ureteral Stones in Presumably Non-compliant Patients.
    Date October 2001
    Journal Urologia Internationalis
    Excerpt

    There have been many reports describing the complications of retained ureteral stents following stone treatment. We wanted to evaluate the practicality of definitive treatment of poorly compliant patients who present with ureteral stones using a straight stent connected to a urethral catheter alone and compared these to patients treated with double-J stents alone. We treated 23 patients (12 in group I and 11 patients in group II) who had a ureteral stone of 6 mm or less, with an indwelling straight stent and a double-J stent, respectively, while on oral antibiotics. We followed these patients 1 week later with an abdominal X-ray prior to removing the stent. Eleven patients in group I and 9 patients in group II passed their stones spontaneously. Three patients required surgical intervention with a ureterscope and laser lithotripsy. There were no cases of infection or pyelonephritis. Although each of the straight-stent-treated patients returned to our clinic for follow-up, only 5 of the 11 double-J stent patients returned for follow-up. The remaining 6 patients had to be contacted to remind them that they still had an internal stent. Although technologic advances now allow many urologists to definitively treat ureteral stones, some urologists may lack the proper equipment and/or assistance to treat the stone at the time of presentation, or may deal with non-compliant patients. Therefore, in these certain circumstances, treatment of small ureteral stones in non-compliant patients using a straight stent connected to a leg bag, as either definitive or initial treatment, may be of practical use and avoid the risk of retained double-J ureteral stents.

    Title Surgeon Experience with Penile Fracture.
    Date August 2001
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: The experience of a single surgeon with a series of 34 penile fractures, including 29 corrected surgically and 5 managed conservatively, at 3 large inner city medical centers in an 11-year period is presented. Standard diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are described that have evolved with time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 1999, 34 patients 18 to 38 years old (mean age 27 at presentation) were evaluated after blunt trauma to the erect penis. The interval from injury to presentation was between 6 and 72 hours. Of these patients 32 and 2 had been injured during sexual intercourse and masturbation, respectively. Surgery in 29 cases involved a degloving incision, and intraoperative evaluation of the corpora and urethra by radiography or saline injection. Five patients were treated conservatively for presumed penile fracture after they refused diagnostic confirmation and/or surgery. RESULTS: Injury involved unilateral and bilateral corporeal rupture in 25 and 3 cases, respectively, and urethral injury in 5. Urinalysis in 6 patients demonstrated microscopic hematuria with 5 to 10 red blood cells, although there were several false-negative urethrograms and cavernosograms. At followup 33 of the 34 patients available reported erection adequate for intercourse without erectile or voiding dysfunction, while 2 reported mild to moderate curvature. CONCLUSIONS: A degloving procedure with a urethral catheter in place provides the best exposure and orientation. In addition, saline injection may demonstrate additional corporeal body and/or urethral pathology as well as assess the integrity of repair. Although surgical repair was not associated with serious sequelae, a small subgroup of patients with presumed penile fracture also had no sequelae.

    Title Nonoperative Treatment of Patients with Presumed Penile Fracture.
    Date May 2001
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Immediate surgical intervention is the basis for treatment of penile fractures due to the high risk of complications associated with conservative management. Unfortunately, patient refusal to undergo surgery has led to conservative treatment of a small group of patients with presumed penile fractures at our institution. We followed these patients in regard to clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1992 and 1999, 5 patients were evaluated after blunt trauma to an erect penis. Patient age at presentation ranged from 19 to 31 years (mean 25). The interval from time of injury to presentation was 24 to 72 hours. Of these patients 4 had been injured during sexual intercourse, while 1 had been injured during masturbation. All 5 patients refused immediate surgical exploration for presumed penile fracture. RESULTS: No patient had any immediate complications. At 6 and 12-month followup all patients reported erections adequate for intercourse without associated pain. One patient reported only mild curvature for which he did not seek treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We report on a subset of young males with presumed penile fracture who refused diagnostic evaluation and therapy, and were able to maintain normal erectile and voiding function. However, longer followup and radiographic evidence will be necessary to corroborate or refute these initial observations.

    Title Results from Different Patient Populations Using Combined Therapy with Alprostadil and Sildenafil: Predictors of Satisfaction.
    Date November 2000
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of combined therapy (using intraurethral alprostadil and oral sildenafil) in private and clinic patients with erectile dysfunction, and thus assess predictors of satisfaction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 360 men were treated for erectile dysfunction using single and/or combined therapy, comprising 214 private-practice and 166 clinic patients. Responses were evaluated using the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire before and after treatment. Serum testosterone levels, education and socio-economic status were also assessed. Group 1a consisted of 33 private patients and Group 1b of 24 clinic patients who tried the maximum dose of intraurethral alprostadil monotherapy initially, followed by the maximum dose of sildenafil monotherapy, and remained dissatisfied. Group 2a consisted of 32 private patients and group 2b of 31 clinic patients who tried the maximum dose of sildenafil monotherapy initially, followed by the maximum dose of alprostadil monotherapy, and were also dissatisfied. These two groups of 65 private and 55 clinic patients then underwent combined therapy. RESULTS: The mean (SD) score for erectile function was 24.1 (2) for combined therapy (a 123% improvement), and 19.8 (1. 8) (83% improvement) and 15.2 (1.6) (41% improvement) for sildenafil and alprostadil monotherapies (P < 0.05 for both patient groups). The men also reported an improvement in their satisfaction with intercourse. However, at 18 months, 60 of the 65 private patients but only 40 of the 55 clinic patients continued with combined therapy; thus, the discontinuation rate was three times greater among clinic than among private patients. Furthermore, the private patients had an overall improvement in the satisfaction score of 128%, compared with 51% for the clinic patients. CONCLUSION: Although there were no significant differences in erectile function improvement within the two satisfied combined therapy groups, the differences in overall satisfaction and long-term withdrawal rates suggests that other factors beside motivation must be involved for success, e.g. education, persistence, realistic expectations, and certain psychological factors. Combined therapy should be considered for those patients who have a suboptimal response to monotherapy and refuse or are not candidates for surgical options. Generally, those patients with a higher education, greater persistence and more realistic expectations were more satisfied with combined therapy.

    Title Initial Results Utilizing Combination Therapy for Patients with a Suboptimal Response to Either Alprostadil or Sildenafil Monotherapy.
    Date August 2000
    Journal European Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Intraurethral alprostadil and oral sildenafil are useful in selected patients. However, there continues to be a significant treatment failure rate. Since their mechanisms of action are different, we wanted to evaluate the effectiveness of combination therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 214 patients treated for erectile dysfunction (ED), 65 were not fully satisfied with the firmness of their erections via monotherapy. Responses were evaluated using the International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire before and after treatment. Group I consisted of 33 patients who tried maximal dose intraurethral alprostadil monotherapy initially, followed by the maximal dose of sildenafil monotherapy, and were still unsatisfied. Group II consisted of 32 patients who tried the maximal dose sildenafil monotherapy initially, followed by the maximal dose of alprostadil monotherapy, and were also unsatisfied. There 65 patients then underwent combination therapy. RESULTS: 60 out of the 65 patients stated they were satisfied with combination therapy. Questionnaire scores for erectile function were 23.1+/-2.0 (114%) for combination therapy vs. 19.2+/-1.8 (77%) and 15.2+/-1.6 (41%) for sildenafil and alprostadil monotherapies (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in responses between the two groups. The men also reported improvement in intercourse and overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy may be an option for motivated patients who have a suboptimal response from monotherapy.

    Title Treatment of a Delayed Zipper Injury.
    Date June 2000
    Journal Urologia Internationalis
    Excerpt

    Penile zipper injuries have been reported occurring usually in the pediatric population, and occasionally in adults. Usually, the zipper can be dislodged with mineral oil or by breaking the median bar. When these attempts fail, a small elliptical incision may be used to remove the zipper and any devitalized tissue.

    Title The Role of Obesity and Diet in Urological Carcinogenesis.
    Date September 1999
    Journal Bju International
    Title Is There a Difference in Outcome when Treating Traumatic Intraperitoneal Bladder Rupture with or Without a Suprapubic Tube?
    Date April 1999
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Primary bladder repair with a suprapubic tube is considered to be effective for managing intraperitoneal bladder injury. We compared the outcomes of suprapubic tube placement and no suprapubic tube for this injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 31 men and 3 women with a mean age of 28.5 years who required emergency operative repair without a cystogram of traumatic bladder injury from 1992 to 1997. Patient characteristics, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, and short and long-term complications were reviewed. RESULTS: Penetrating and blunt trauma occurred in 28 (82%) and 5 (15%) patients, respectively, while 1 had spontaneous bladder rupture. After primary bladder repair the bladder was drained with a suprapubic tube in 18 cases (53%) and a urethral catheter only in 16 (47%). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to mechanism of injury, patient age, location of injury in the bladder, coexisting medical illnesses, stability in the field or emergency room, or the bladder repair technique. The 18 patients treated with a suprapubic tube had an associated injury that resulted in 2 deaths, while 13 of the 16 treated with urethral catheter drainage only had an associated injury and 1 died. Urological and nonurological complications in the suprapubic tube versus urethral catheter only group developed in 28 and 33 versus 19 and 19% of the cases, respectively (p <0.05). Followup ranged from 1 month to 4 years. No significant long-term morbidity was noted in either group. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that intraperitoneal bladder injuries may be equally well managed by primary bladder repair and urethral catheter drainage only versus suprapubic tube drainage.

    Title Long-term Consequences from Bladder Perforation And/or Violation in the Presence of Transitional Cell Carcinoma: Results of a Small Series and a Review of the Literature.
    Date April 1999
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Perforation of the bladder during transurethral resection is a worrisome complication for most urologists. Little is known about the consequences of seeding of tumor cells into the peritoneum or retroperitoneum. We reviewed several hospital patient databases as well as the literature to determine the outcome of such situations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a local multi-institutional case and MEDLINE review using key words, such as bladder neoplasm, neoplasm seeding, perforation, rupture, transurethral resection, peritonitis and tumor. We also contacted several urologists and oncologists at major cancer centers in the United States and Europe regarding the incidence and followup of perforated/violated bladder cancer cases. RESULTS: There were 16 bladder violations in the presence of transitional cell carcinoma, including 2 partial cystectomies that had negative margins and no subsequent metastatic recurrences, a bladder tumor that was detected during suprapubic prostatectomy and perforations during transurethral resection (extraperitoneal in 4 cases and intraperitoneal in 9). Two patients died of sepsis and existing metastatic disease, respectively. The only recurrence among the remaining 11 patients developed after intraperitoneal bladder perforation during transurethral resection for Ta grade 2 tumor. Several anecdotal reports discussed local and distal tumor recurrences, suggesting that even superficial transitional cell carcinoma can behave aggressively if grown in an environment outside the bladder. However, these reports are rare. Any benefit of prophylactic chemotherapy was not proved. CONCLUSIONS: While perforation of the bladder during transurethral resection for cancer and the possibility of tumor implantation are matters of concern, our review demonstrates that few patients return with an extravesical tumor recurrence either locally or distally compared to those with a nonruptured bladder after resection. Although our patient sample is small and there are a limited number of reports in the literature, the risk of recurrence still exists and the urologist should be aware of its possibility. Since recurrences are usually rapid, they may easily manifest to the urologist at followup. However, one should also consider chest x-rays and/or computerized tomography to rule out recurrences that are not clinically obvious.

    Title Early Ct Findings of Fournier's Gangrene in a Healthy Male.
    Date March 1999
    Journal Clinical Imaging
    Excerpt

    Early clinical identification of Fournier's gangrene is imperative to avoid delay in the aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotic therapy, and sometimes hyperbaric oxygen treatments. We report on the early computed tomography findings of a non-gas-forming Fournier's gangrene in a healthy male to aid urologists, surgeons, and radiologists in the recognition of this rapidly progressive and often fatal infection.

    Title An Analysis of Microvessel Density, Androgen Receptor, P53 and Her-2/neu Expression and Gleason Score in Prostate Cancer . Preliminary Results and Therapeutic Implications.
    Date December 1998
    Journal European Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate relationships between microvessel density (MVD), androgen receptors (AR), mutant p53 and HER-2/neu expression and Gleason score (GS) to further understand the tumor biology of prostate cancer (CAP). METHODS: Slides of CAP from patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or channel transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) were tested for androgen receptors by immunocytochemical assay and MVD was analyzed by staining with antibodies to the endothelial cell membrane molecule PECAM-1/CD-31. The p53 monoclonal antibody D07 and HER-2 9G6 mouse monoclonal antibody were used to assess p53 and HER-2/neu expression, respectively. The results were correlated with GS and clinical stage by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: We found a fourfold greater expression of MVD in prostate cancer specimens compared to neighboring normal prostate tissue. We observed a greater concentration of MVD in the higher Gleason scores (r = 0.40, p = 0. 06), and a correlation of Gleason score with mutant p53 expression (r = 0.57, p <0.05). We did not observe any associations between AR or HER-2/neu to Gleason score. More than half of the patients with specimens with 50% or greater expression of mutant p53 were in stage D2 (T4NxM1b) at the time of biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a correlation between mutant p53 and GS, and a greater concentration of MVD in the higher GS. Since the neovascularity of prostate tumors can be attenuated by radiation and hormones, while mutant p53 may confer resistance to such treatment, it appears that p53 expression may also play an important role in addition to angiogenesis in the virulence of prostate cancer. These data may aid in allocating patients to different treatment modalities.

    Title Preliminary Results Comparing the Recovery of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (fgf-2) in Adipose Tissue and Benign and Malignant Renal Tissue.
    Date June 1998
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is mitogenic to numerous epithelial, mesodermal and endothelial cells, and thus may play a role in the neovascularity and progression of several tumors. Furthermore, FGF-2 is reported to be elevated in the serum and urine of patients with various cancers, including renal cancer. Obesity, with increased body fat, is a risk factor for renal cancer through unknown mechanisms. Since adipose tissue is a source of FGF-2, we determined the quantity and quality of activity of FGF-2 in omental adipose tissue and compared it to normal and cancerous renal tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using heparin-Sepharose chromatography we extracted proteins from human omental adipose tissue, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign renal tissue (BRT). Using FGF-2 antisera we performed western blot analysis to confirm their homology to FGF-2. We also assessed recovery, mitogenicity and angiogenicity of each of the proteins using thymidine incorporation into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. RESULTS: Each of the three purified mitogenic proteins eluted with NaCl concentrations between 1.4 M. and 1.8 M., similar to control FGF-2. There was greater recovery of FGF-2 from omental adipose tissue compared with renal cell carcinoma or benign renal tissue (42 microg. vs. 24 microg. and 18 microg., respectively; ANOVA p <0.05). Moreover, FGF-2 from adipose tissue had greater mitogenic activity (96.% versus 68% and 38%; p <0.05) and greater angiogenic activity (5.5 vessels versus 2.7 and 1.6 vessels; p <0.05) on the CAM assay. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that human omental adipose tissue FGF-2 may demonstrate greater mitogenic and angiogenic activity than either benign or cancerous renal tissue FGF-2. It is not known if FGF-2 from adipose tissue may play a role in the relationship between obesity and renal cancer.

    Title Urethrography and Cavernosography Imaging in a Small Series of Penile Fractures: a Comparison with Surgical Findings.
    Date June 1998
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To compare our results of preoperative corporal cavernosography and retrograde urethrography in penile fractures with the clinical and intraoperative findings. METHODS: From January to October 1996, 7 cases of penile fracture were diagnosed at our inner city trauma center. All cases were associated with sexual activity and patients underwent preoperative retrograde urethrography and corpus cavernosography with immediate surgical intervention. RESULTS: We found that 2 patients who presented with blood at the meatus had intact urethras, whereas 2 of the 3 patients who had urethral lacerations did not have a bloody meatus. In 2 cases the urethrogram and cavernosogram revealed lacerations that were not initially detected surgically. However, in another 2 cases, the urethrogram and cavernosogram were falsely negative. Two of the seven corporal fractures were bilateral and five were unilateral. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of this small sample, it appears that preoperative cavernosography and retrograde urethrography may show additional sites of tears in the corpora and urethra because hematoma formation may mask some ruptures. However, the presence or absence of a bloody meatus may not necessarily correlate with the status of the urethra, and the urologist also should be wary of a false-negative imaging study. We suggest that all cases of penile fracture be explored surgically, but preferably by a subcoronal degloving incision that allows careful examination of the urethra and corpora. Results of a larger series may determine if the routine use of these imaging modalities is justified intraoperatively.

    Title Differences in Prostate and Adipose Tissue Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor: Analysis of Preliminary Results.
    Date October 1997
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is mitogenic to human prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and it is reported to be elevated in the serum and urine of patients with various cancers, including prostate cancer. Obesity, with increased body fat, is a risk factor for prostate cancer through unknown mechanisms. Because adipose tissue is a source of FGF-2, we determined the quantity and quality of activity of FGF-2 in omental adipose tissue and compared it with normal and cancerous prostate tissues. METHODS: Using heparin-Sepharose chromatography, we extracted proteins from human omental adipose tissue, adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and benign prostatic hypertrophic (BPH) tissues. Each of the mitogenic proteins eluted with NaCl concentrations between 1.4 M and 1.8 M, similar to control FGF-2. Using FGF-2 antisera (which inhibited the mitogenic activity of the proteins), we performed Western blot analysis to confirm their homology to FGF-2. We also assessed recovery, mitogenicity, and angiogenicity of each of the proteins using thymidine incorporation into human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the chorioallantoic membrane assay. RESULTS: There was greater recovery of FGF-2 from omental adipose tissue compared with cancerous or BPH homogenates (40 micrograms [2.0 micrograms/g] versus 25 micrograms [1.25 micrograms/g] and 20 micrograms [1.0 microgram/g], respectively). Moreover. FGF-2 from adipose tissue had greater mitogenic activity (96.2% versus 74.8% and 54%; P < 0.05) and a greater angiogenic activity (5.1 vessels versus 2.9 and 1.8 vessels; P < 0.05) on the chorioallantoic assay. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that human omental adipose tissue FGF-2 may demonstrate greater mitogenic and angiogenic activity than either BPH or prostate cancer tissue FGF-2. It is not known whether FGF-2 from adipose tissue qualitatively or quantitatively may underlie the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer.

    Title Munchausen's Syndrome: a Medico-legal Dilemma.
    Date September 1997
    Journal Medicine, Science, and the Law
    Excerpt

    In his or her life-long career, the physician will eventually encounter a patient with factitious disorder, or Munchausen's syndrome. We discuss two patients complaining of renal colic that were identified as having Munchausen's syndrome. We review the literature to identify certain aspects of the disease and to discuss the medical and legal implications for the treating physician and hospital.

    Title Spontaneous Renal Hemorrhage Associated with Renal Tumors.
    Date August 1997
    Journal Clinical Imaging
    Excerpt

    Spontaneous ruptures of the kidney sometimes require emergency surgery, at which time the etiology for the rupture becomes evident. Because the patient with previously existing renal pathology is asymptomatic, when these ruptures do occur one should be suspect of underlying disease. We present a case and discuss the relevant aspects of such entities.

    Title Growth Factors and Renal Cancer: Characterization and Therapeutic Implications.
    Date April 1997
    Journal World Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    The heterogeneiety renal-cell carcinoma can lead to unpredictable behavior: the ability to achieve a large volume yet not metastasize, the ability to demonstrate late recurrence or spontaneous regression, or the capability to metastasize at a relatively small volume. One-third of all patients who undergo radical nephrectomy for presumed localized disease will eventually have metastasis. Since renal-cell carcinoma is not significantly radio- or chemosensitive, it is important to investigate new avenues for treatment of this tumor once it has spread, specifically at the molecular level. This review discusses the most recent work on growth factors and renal cancer and proposes possible modalities for treatment.

    Title An Unusual Presentation of Adult Wilms' Tumor.
    Date February 1997
    Journal Urologia Internationalis
    Excerpt

    Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma), a primary renal neoplasm containing primitive blastema and embryonic glomerulotubular structures, is the most common malignant tumor of the urinary tract in children. There have been about 240 cases of adult Wilms' tumor reported in the world literature, however due to some differences in histologic findings, many cases have been reclassified as rhabdoid or clear cell sarcomas, both of which are recognized as separate entities. We report a case of an adult Wilms' tumor and discuss the clinical, radiographic and histologic features of this tumor.

    Title Conditioned Media from a Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Line Demonstrates the Presence of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor.
    Date September 1993
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    In a previous report, we demonstrated the isolation and purification of a heparin binding growth factor from human renal carcinoma, and suggested that this growth factor may play a role in the neovascularity and growth of the tumor. In this report, we demonstrate that the growth of the renal cell carcinoma cell line RC29 is stimulated by the addition of exogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha). Also, media conditioned by this cell line was able to stimulate growth of the A431 vulvar tumor cell line, known for its high concentration of EGF receptors, 3T3 fibroblasts, human umbilical vein (HUV) cells and RC29 cells. Using heparin-sepharose chromatography and then SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), we were able to demonstrate several proteins in the conditioned media of the RC29 cell line. Using Western blot analysis, we detected that at least one of the proteins expressed in this conditioned media was FGF and that it belongs to the basic, not acidic, family of fibroblast growth factors. These findings suggest that renal tumors may express growth factors that may play a direct role in maintaining their unrestricted proliferation.

    Title Growth Factors in Urologic Tissues: Detection, Characterization, and Clinical Applications.
    Date January 1993
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    During the last two decades, enormous strides have been made in understanding cellular and molecular biology. The direction of treatment of many neoplasms and other diseases are starting at the microscopic level. Growth factors are polypeptides that play a part in the development and maintenance of living tissues. We, as well as others, have investigated the role that growth factors play particularly in urologic tissues, both benign and malignant. We review several well-known growth factors and their function in prostate, kidney, and bladder tissues, as well as their functions in other regulating processes of the human body, and also the use of growth factors as tumor markers, and antibodies to growth factors as possible treatment of disease.

    Title Perirenal Lipoma Versus Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Date September 1991
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    Pure renal and perirenal lipomas are rare. They arise from renal cortex, capsule, or perirenal tissue, and may be difficult to distinguish from renal adenocarcinomas. We report on a patient who presented with a renal mass that had the radiologic findings suggestive of a renal cell carcinoma, but proved to be a simple lipoma.

    Title Renal Cell Metastases Versus Liver Hemangioma.
    Date April 1991
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    We present the case of a man with presumed metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on radiologic examination and weight loss, who refused treatment of any kind for one year. A surgical exploration to control hematuria revealed a Stage I tumor.

    Title Expression of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Messenger Rna in Neoplastic and Nonneoplastic Human Kidney Tissue.
    Date July 1989
    Journal Cancer Research
    Excerpt

    Using Northern blot analysis, we have demonstrated that mRNA for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) was expressed in five malignant kidney tissue specimens but was not detected in their autologous nonneoplastic homologues. In addition, the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor mRNA in these malignant tissues was 2- to 3-fold greater than in nontransformed tissues. In two cases examined using immunohistochemistry, we were able to correlate the increased expression of the mRNA with an increase in protein expression. Since TGF-alpha is known to bind to the EGF receptor, the finding of an increased expression of both TGF-alpha and EGF receptor mRNA in kidney tumor tissue suggests that interaction between TGF-alpha and the EGF receptor may play a role in promoting transformation and/or proliferation of kidney neoplasms, perhaps by an autocrine mechanism.

    Title Expression of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Mrna in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Carcinoma.
    Date February 1989
    Journal The Prostate
    Excerpt

    In our previous work we demonstrated that prostate-derived growth factor (PrGF) is homologous to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), not acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). Using Northern blot analysis we now show that the messenger RNA for bFGF but not aFGF is expressed in benign prostatic hyperplastic (BPH) tissue as well as in carcinoma of the prostate (CAP). This not only corroborates our previous results, but suggests that PrGF is produced locally and not merely stored in the prostate. The demonstration of local production of bFGF by prostate tissue may indicate that this growth factor plays a role, either alone or in conjunction with other factors, in the etiology of benign hyperplasia or prostatic cancer.

    Title Characterization of a Heparin-binding Growth Factor from Adenocarcinoma of the Kidney.
    Date January 1989
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    A polypeptide isolated from tissue extracts of renal adenocarcinoma was mitogenic for BALB/c 3T3 cells and human umbilical vein (HUV) cells in culture. It also demonstrated angiogenic ability using the chorioallantoic membrane bioassay. Using heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography the purified protein eluted with a NaCl concentration between 1.4 and 1.8 M and demonstrated a molecular weight of approximately 17,000 daltons based on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Half maximal stimulation of tritiated thymidine incorporation into BALB/c 3T3 cells was achieved by 1.6 ng./ml. of the heparin binding material. Western blot analysis using antibodies specific to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) only or acidic FGF (aFGF) only demonstrated that the purified protein binds to the former and not the latter. The characteristics of this material, in effect the elution profile off heparin-Sepharose, the molecular weight, angiogenic activity and the results of western blot analysis, suggest that this growth factor is similar to the family of basic fibroblast growth factors.

    Title Heparin-binding Growth Factor Isolated from Human Prostatic Extracts.
    Date August 1988
    Journal The Prostate
    Excerpt

    Prostatic tissue extracts from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic carcinoma were fractionated using heparin-Sepharose chromatography. The mitogenic activity of eluted fractions on quiescent subconfluent Swiss Albino 3T3 fibroblasts was tested employing a tritiated-thymidine-incorporation assay. Two peaks of activity were consistently noted--one in the void volume and a second fraction which eluted with 1.3-1.6 M NaCl and contained the majority of the mitogenic activity. Both non-heparin- and heparin-binding fractions increased tritiated incorporation into a mouse osteoblast cell line (MC3T3), while only the heparin-binding fractions stimulated a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUV). No increased uptake of thymidine was seen using a human prostatic carcinoma cell line (PC-3). Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) of lyophilized active fractions showed a persistent band at 17,500 daltons. The purified protein demonstrated angiogenic properties using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Western blot analysis using antibodies specific to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or acidic FGF (aFGF) demonstrated that the former, but not the latter, bound to prostatic growth factor (PrGF), and inhibited its mitogenic activity as well. It appears that PrGF shares homology with basic fibroblast growth factors.

    Title Analysis of Papillary Renal Adenocarcinoma.
    Date January 1988
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    A retrospective review was conducted comparing the angiographic findings, tumor volumes, staging, and survival of patients with papillary renal adenocarcinoma as compared with the more common clear and granular cell renal adenocarcinoma. The data suggest that the papillary histopathologic organization confers an improved prognosis, which concurs with previous findings. We speculate on why this tumor behaves differently from clear cell carcinoma.

    Title Retrospective Study of Efficacy of Intravesical Bcg Alone in Treatment of Superficial Bladder Cancer.
    Date October 1986
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    This is a review of 100 patients at our institution who were treated for superficial bladder cancer. In those patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder who were treated with conventional therapy (resection and/or fulguration) and intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) without intradermal BCG, and those patients who were treated with conventional therapy alone, we found a response rate of 60 per cent versus 40 per cent at the end of three months. In comparing those patients with superficial papillary cancer, we found a response of 39 per cent after conventional therapy and 63 per cent after conventional therapy and intravesical BCG. This suggests that intravesical BCG without intradermal BCG can be an important adjunct to the conventional therapy of bladder tumors.

    Title Detection of Tumor Angiogenesis Factor in Adenocarcinoma of Kidney.
    Date June 1986
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    Implantation of human renal adenocarcinoma in the rabbit cornea has resulted in new vascular growth from the limbus toward the tumor implant. This suggests that renal adenocarcinoma elaborates tumor angiogenesis factor (TAF) which stimulates endothelial cell growth. Such a substance could conceivably be responsible for the luxuriant vascularity of most renal adenocarcinomas. Conversely, absence or diminished secretion of TAF may be responsible for the hypovascular papillary renal adenocarcinomas and their recognized relatively benign clinical behavior.

    Title A Pilot Study Analyzing Psa, Serum Testosterone, Lipid Profile, Body Mass Index and Race in a Small Sample of Patients with and Without Carcinoma of the Prostate.
    Date
    Journal Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
    Excerpt

    Androgens, diet, race and obesity are thought to play some roles in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. We wanted to evaluate if there were any inter-relationships between prostate specific antigen (PSA), serum testosterone, serum cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, body mass index (BMI) and race, in older patients with and without prostate cancer (CaP). We evaluated 308 patients referred to urologists in private practice offices and clinics with and without prostate cancer with regard to race, serum PSA, age, serum testosterone, full lipid profile, height and weight, and stage of cancer. We used multivariate analysis, Fisher's exact test and t-tests as well as logistic regression analysis. Data was analyzed using SPSS computer software, and P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Significantly higher levels of serum testosterone were found in black men with CaP than black men without CaP (526+/-28 vs 404+/-19, respectively.) We also found significantly higher levels of serum testosterone in white men with CaP than white men without CaP (409+/-20 vs 302+/-14, respectively, P<0.05). HDL was higher in black men than white men, and triglycerides were higher in white men than black men. Cholesterol was similar across all groups, but BMI was highest in white men with CaP. We also found a significant association between BMI and pathological stage of prostate cancer patients among both black and white men (P<0.05). Our study demonstrated that black men who developed CaP had higher serum testosterone levels, on average, than white men who developed CaP. Furthermore, BMI was highest in white men developing CaP compared to black men, but we found a significant association between pathological stage and BMI in both black and white patients. Although it is controversial whether obesity is considered to be a risk factor for prostate cancer, this small pilot study suggests that BMI may play a role in the progression of the disease once it is established.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2001) 4, 101-105

    Title Gunshot Wounds to the Scrotum: a Large Single-institutional 20-year Experience.
    Date
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Penetrating trauma to the scrotum often requires operative intervention, with testicular salvage only possible when enough testicular tissue can be re-approximated in the traumatic setting. The present report represents the largest series of gunshot wound trauma to the scrotum in the literature. Further, it validates recommendations of the European Association of Urology guidelines on urological trauma that advocate operative intervention due to minimal rates of patient morbidity and the inherent limitations of scrotal ultrasonography in discerning testicular compromise.


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