Surgical Specialist
33 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients
Doylestown Hospital
595 W State St
Doylestown, PA 18901
(215) 345-2100
Locations and availability (1)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Temple University Physicians (1976)
  • Currently 3 of 4 apples
Top 50%
Fellowship
Newark Beth Israel Medical Center *
* This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Top Docs 2012;
Top Docs 2011
Top Docs 2010
Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2012)

Affiliations ?

Dr. McClurken is affiliated with 13 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Temple University Hospital
    Cardiology
    3401 N Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19140
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Doylestown Hospital
    Cardiology
    595 W State St, Doylestown, PA 18901
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Holy Redeemer Health System
    Cardiology
    1648 Huntingdon Pike, Jenkintown, PA 19046
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Abington Memorial Hospital
    Cardiology
    1200 Old York Rd, Abington, PA 19001
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Jeanes Hospital
    Thoracic Surgery (Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery)
    7600 Central Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Saint Christopher's Hospital for Children
    3601 A St, Philadelphia, PA 19134
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Warminster Hospital
    225 Newtown Rd, Warminster, PA 18974
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Temple Lower Bucks Hospital
    Cardiology
    501 Bath Rd, Bristol, PA 19007
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • American College of Surgeons
  • Philadelphia Academy of Surger
  • College of Physicians of Phila
  • Temple University Hospital - Episcopal Campus *
    100 E Lehigh Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19125
  • Am College of Chest Physicians
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. McClurken has contributed to 29 publications.
    Title Pre-transplant Obesity in Heart Transplantation: Are There Predictors of Worse Outcomes?
    Date October 2010
    Journal Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal : Scj
    Excerpt

    Morbid obesity is increasingly observed in patients being evaluated for heart transplantation and represents a relative contraindication. We sought to evaluate the influence of pre-transplant obesity on morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation.

    Title Outcomes After Heart Transplantation in Patients with and Without Pretransplant Renal Dysfunction.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal : Scj
    Excerpt

    To compare long-term survival and incidence of ESRD between patients with and without preoperative renal dysfunction following heart transplantation.

    Title Outcomes After Emergency Department Thoracotomy for Penetrating Cardiac Injuries: a New Perspective.
    Date December 2008
    Journal Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
    Excerpt

    Previous reports have described penetrating cardiac injuries as the anatomic injury with the greatest opportunity for emergency department thoracotomy (EDT) survival. We hypothesize that actual survival rates are lower than that initially reported. A retrospective review of our EDT experience was performed. Data collected included injury mechanism and location, presence of measurable ED vital signs, initial ED cardiac rhythm, GCS, method of transportation, and survival. Logistic regression analysis identified predictors of survival. Ninety-four of 237 patients presented penetrating cardiac injuries after EDT. Eighty-nine patients (95%) were males. Measurable ED vital signs were present in 15 patients (16%). Cardiac injuries were caused by GSW in 82 patients (87%) and SW in 12 patients (13%). Fifteen patients (16%) survived EDT and were taken to the operating room, while eight patients (8%) survived their entire hospitalization. All survivors were neurologically intact. Survival rates were 5% for GSW and 33% for SW. Mechanism of injury (SW), prehospital transportation by police, higher GCS, sinus tachycardia, and measurable ED vital signs were associated with improved survival. In urban trauma centers where firearm injuries are much more common than stabbings, the presence of a penetrating cardiac injury may no longer be considered a predictor of survival after EDT.

    Title Management of the Sensitized Cardiac Recipient: the Use of Plasmapheresis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Clinical Transplantation
    Excerpt

    Previously, we reported that the combination of plasmapheresis (PP) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) allow sensitized patients to undergo orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), even across a positive crossmatch. In the current study, the effect of that combination, PP+IVIg, on survival of a larger group of such recipients is investigated. The latter group (I) consisted of 35 sensitized patients who received PP+IVIG together with standard immunosuppressive drugs. Rejection was seen in 11 patients, findings strongly suggestive of a vascular (humoral) being identified in five of those cases. Four deaths occurred, two of them in the immediate post-operative period, one after almost six months, and one after almost two yr post-OHT. Follow-up range 4.5 months to 7.8 yr post-OHT (average=1.1 yr). Patient survival was analyzed after generation of a Kaplan-Meier plot. Comparison with a control OHT group (II) given standard immunosuppressive drugs only (N=276) showed enhanced survival of group I (p=0.0414 by log-rank test). We conclude that the combination of PP and IVIG (i) is associated with declines in T- and B-percent-reactive antibody and in crossmatch positivity, and (ii) is very useful in the management of the sensitized cardiac patient undergoing OHT, often allowing a successful outcome to transplantation in the face of a positive crossmatch.

    Title Factors Affecting Survival After Heart Transplantation: Comparison of Pre- and Post-1999 Listing Protocols.
    Date June 2006
    Journal The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation : the Official Publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Listing status for heart transplantation (Tx) patients was changed in 1999 from Status 1 and 2 to Status 1A, 1B and 2. Because the selection process was modified in favor of seriously ill patients, it was not clear whether this change would affect survival or other aspects of transplant management. METHODS: We examined outcomes in 551 patients transplanted at our institution between 1986 and 2002 (pre-1999: n = 419; post-1999: n = 132) to determine the effects of change in listing protocol on transplant outcome. RESULTS: Using Cox proportional hazard analysis, survival was not different between pre-1999 (pre) and post-1999 (post). Overall waiting-list times were longer post-1999 (pre: 134 +/- 10.5 days, post: 172 +/- 15.6 days; p = 0.044), and were longer post-1999 for blood groups A (177 vs 123 days), B (96 vs 84 days) and O (229 vs 172 days), but were shorter post for blood group AB (42 vs 68 days). Survival was not affected by age (pre: 53.7 +/- 0.52 years, post: 53.1 +/- 1.04 years; hazard ratio [HR] 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.996 to 1.023; p = 0.181), male gender (HR 1.132; 95% CI 0.822 to 1.56; p = 0.447) or waiting-list time. Serum creatinine was similar between the 2 groups (pre: 1.25 +/- 0.02, post: 1.26 +/- 0.04; p = 0.794), whereas pulmonary artery (PA) diastolic pressure was increased post-1999 (pre: 24.9 +/- 0.46, post: 27.0 +/- 0.74; p = 0.023). Survival was not affected by PA pressure (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.986 to 1.014; p = 0.976), but an elevated pre-transplant creatinine reduced survival (HR 1.484; 95% CI 1.139 to 1.933; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The change in listing status implemented in 1999 caused an increase in wait times for patients with blood types A, B and O, and shortened wait time for type AB; however, no differences occurred in overall post-transplant survival after the change in listing protocol. Age, gender and PA pressure had no effect on survival in either time period, whereas pre-transplant serum creatinine decreased survival in both patient groups.

    Title Successful Transplantation of an Older Donor Heart with Documented Myocardial Bridging: a Case Report.
    Date July 2005
    Journal The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation : the Official Publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
    Excerpt

    Myocardial bridging, the overlying of myocardial tissue onto epicardial coronary arteries, is an anatomic variant that is widely present in the general population. This condition can be associated with reduced forward coronary flow. Once these hearts are identified in potential donors by either visual inspection or coronary catheterization, they may no longer be considered suitable for transplantation. We present a case study that successfully utilized such a heart explanted from an older donor with "bench" myotomy repair before implantation.

    Title Effect of Older Donor Age on Risk for Mortality After Heart Transplantation.
    Date July 2005
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Despite the increasingly common use of donor hearts at least 50 years of age, controversy still remains regarding long-term outcome. Our goal was to determine if older donor age is associated with an increased risk of mortality and specifically if the use of donor hearts at least 50 years of age reduces survival. METHODS: We retrospectively studied records of all primary heart transplants performed between January 1990 and July 2002. Fifty-six patients who had received donor hearts at least 50 years of age were compared with 611 recipients of donor hearts less than 50 years of age. Clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed for their effect on mortality using the Cox proportional hazard model with calculation of hazard ratios (HR). Cut-point analysis of donor age was used to determine which donor age is associated with the greatest risk of mortality after transplant. RESULTS: Recipients of donor hearts at least 50 years of age were older (58.5 years +/- 7.0 vs 53.2 +/- 11.6; mean +/- standard deviation [SD]; p < 0.0001), suffered more often from ischemic cardiomyopathy (69% vs 50%, p = 0.01), and experienced a longer waiting time (192.2 days +/- 301.0 vs 138.6 +/- 190.8, p < 0.0001). Donor hearts at least 50 years of age (age 54.1 +/- 3.5 years) were more often female (50% vs 34%, p = 0.03), died less often of "head trauma" (9% vs 42%, p < 0.0001), and exhibited fewer cytomegalovirus (CMV) mismatches (29% vs 39%, p = 0.04) than donor hearts less than 50 years of age (age 26.8 +/- 12.3 years). Multivariate predictors of mortality were rejection index (HR 1.90 per unit [rejections/100 survival days], p < 0.0001), donor age (HR 1.16 per 10-year increment, p = 0.002), and recipient age (HR 1.24 per 10-year increment, p = 0.04). Recipients of donor hearts at least 50 years of age had reduced 1-year and 5-year survival ([65.7% vs 81.7%, p < 0.05] and [48.3% vs 68.4%, p < 0.05], respectively), as well as a higher proportion of deaths occurring within 1 month of transplant (41% of total deaths vs 23%, p = 0.06). Cut-point analysis indicated the characteristic of donor age of at least 40 years (categorical variable) to predict mortality with the same degree of fit as age used as a continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed a substantial reduction in survival among patients who were allocated donor hearts at least 50 years of age, this difference was not solely attributable to the categorical variable of donor age 50 in this group. Donor age as a continuous variable, however, was determined to be a notable predictor of survival and use of the donor age cut-point of 40 years (categorical variable) allowed risk stratification with similar accuracy. The use of a donor age cut-point of 40 years may be a useful clinical criterion for graft-related risk assessment.

    Title Use of Leveen Pleuroperitoneal Shunt for Refractory High-volume Chylothorax.
    Date May 2005
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
    Excerpt

    We present a case of intractable high-volume (> 2L/d) chylothorax after transhiatal esophagectomy treated successfully with the simultaneous insertion of both Denver (Denver Biomedical, Golden, CO) and LeVeen (Becton-Dickinson, Rutherford, NJ) pleuroperitoneal shunts. The patient initially had chemoradiotherapy for a T4N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus. Re-staging showed a dramatic shrinkage of tumor, and a transhiatal esophagectomy was performed. Sequential bilateral thoracotomies were performed on postoperative days 19 and 26 for attempted control of high-volume chylothorax, but these were unsuccessful. Subsequent pleuroperitoneal shunt insertion was used, which immediately controlled the effusion. A shunt study was performed shortly after hospital discharge, which showed an occluded Denver shunt and a patent LeVeen shunt. The patient succumbed to metastatic carcinoma 18 months after discharge, but no pleural effusion had recurred.

    Title The Cardiac Rag: Simple Exposure of the Heart.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Texas Heart Institute Journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital
    Title Off-pump Technique for Insertion of a Heartmate Vented Electric Left Ventricular Assist Device.
    Date March 2004
    Journal The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    Title Cardiac Transplantation Across a Positive Prospective Lymphocyte Cross-match in Sensitized Recipients.
    Date January 2004
    Journal Clinical Transplantation
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Although there is an increasing body of evidence for a deleterious effect of mismatched donor HLA antigens on the outcome of human cardiac transplantation, the role of anti-HLA lymphocytotoxic antibodies remains controversial. Thus, their appearance after cardiac transplantation has been associated with poor outcome by some groups; whereas others have reported them to be of no clinical significance. Furthermore, their presence prior to cardiac transplantation has also been the subject of similarly conflicting reports. The deleterious effect of such pre-existing antibodies has been predicted by a positive lymphocyte cross-match (LCM), which, for most patients awaiting renal transplantation and in many requiring a cardiac allograft, leads to cancellation of the operation. The reason for undertaking the current study was to test the hypothesis that the constraints which a positive LCM result impose in preventing renal transplantation may not apply to orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four sensitized patients underwent OHT across a positive prospective LCM. Three were females, and one of those females also underwent cadaveric renal transplantation at the time of OHT. All four patients received aggressive early post-transplant immunosuppressive therapy, which included plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), antiproliferative agents (cyclophosphamide, basiliximab) and cytokine down-regulators (calcineurin inhibitors, muromonab-CD3) and anticell antibodies (OKT3, ATG). They also received standard immunosuppressive therapy which included corticosteroids. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) was used for the identification of anti-HLA lymphocytotoxic antibodies. Reactivity of the latter against more than 10% of a panel of well-characterized T cells was considered sensitization, and required LCM to be performed prospectively, which test was also performed using the CDC technique. RESULTS: Three of the patients exhibited evidence suggestive of acute or hyperacute rejection in endomyocardial biopsy specimens by postoperative day (POD) 7. Two of the three patients with rejection also exhibited haemodynamic instability (elevated filling pressures and reduced cardiac index) on POD 1, which improved with inotropic support. One patient sustained a cardiac arrest on POD 7, and was successfully resuscitated without sequelae. All patients are now doing well, postoperatively (follow-up: 17-57 months) post-transplant. Two patients have normal left ventricular function and one patient has mild left ventricular dysfunction. Two have no further evidence of sensitization (PRA < 10%). CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of patients in this study is small, the long-term successful outcome of OHT following positive prospective cross-matches suggests that such a test result, in contrast to the restraints it imposes on renal transplantation, may not be a contra-indication to transplantation of the human heart. If OHT proceeds after the LCM is reported positive, aggressive immunotherapy should not only be initiated early, but should also be targeted at humoral-vascular rejection in particular.

    Title Transcardiac Gunshot Wound Recognized Forty-eight Years Later.
    Date September 2003
    Journal The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    Title Off-pump Technique for Thoratec Left Ventricular Assist Device Insertion.
    Date March 2003
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
    Excerpt

    We present a case of left ventricular assist device (Thoratec; Thoratec Laboratories Corp, Pleasanton, CA) insertion performed through a left thoracotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with severe end-stage congestive heart failure with renal and respiratory dysfunction and a history of multiple cardiac operations.

    Title Direct Effects of Triiodothyronine on Human Internal Mammary Artery and Saphenous Veins.
    Date July 1997
    Journal Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid hormone (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine is under investigation as a positive inotrope and vasodilator for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This study determined the direct effects of triiodothyronine on human blood vessels. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled, in vitro study. SETTING: Laboratory facility in a university teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Small excess segments of internal mammary arteries or saphenous veins were obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Vessel segments were cut into rings to measure isometric tension development in isolated tissue baths containing Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution at 37 degrees C. Rings were prestretched in vitro to resting tensions analogous to mean arterial or central venous pressures in vivo and then constricted with potassium or phenylephrine. Rings were exposed to increasing concentrations of triiodothyronine (4 x 10(-12) to 1 x 10(-4) mol/L) to obtain dose-response curves. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: High concentrations (> or = 3.3 x 10(-5) mol/L) of trilodothyronine produced dose-dependent relaxation of preconstricted rings. The relaxation was not selective for arteries or veins at arterial resting tensions, and with either potassium or phenylephrine as a vasoconstrictor. Propranolol had little effect on subsequent triiodothyronine-induced relaxation of potassium-constricted rings at resting arterial tensions. CONCLUSIONS: Triiodothyronine, in supraphysiological and suprapharmacological concentrations, dilates preconstricted rings of human blood vessels in vitro; however, triiodothyronine had no demonstrable vasomotor effects on human internal mammary artery or saphenous vein in clinically relevant concentrations (10(-9) to 10(-8) mol/L). Triiodothyronine administration in vivo most likely has little direct effect on the tone of human vascular smooth muscle, particularly coronary artery bypass conduits.

    Title Intravenous Vitamin K1 Prior to Orthotopic Heart Transplantation: Effects in Vivo and in Vitro.
    Date May 1997
    Journal Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin K1 is used to reverse warfarin's anticoagulant action. It is unclear whether intravenous vitamin K1 is safe or efficacious prior to urgent cardiac surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively and prospectively examined the effects of preoperative intravenous vitamin K1 in vivo (administered for warfarin reversal immediately before heart transplantation) on intraoperative blood product utilization, hemodynamics and coagulation parameters. We also determined the direct effects of vitamin K1 in vitro on rings of human saphenous vein and internal mammary artery. RESULTS: In the retrospective limb, 29 of 67 patients were administered vitamin K1 preoperatively via slow intravenous infusion. Vitamin K1 administration produced no adverse outcome but did not affect subsequent perioperative use of blood products. In the prospective limb (n = 10), vitamin K1 significantly (P < or = 0.01, Student t-test) altered mean arterial pressure (from 85 +/- 15 to 76 +/- 16 mmHg), systemic vascular resistance (from 1364 +/- 308 to 1078 +/- 252 dyn.s.cm-5), and cardiac index (from 2.3 +/- 0.3 to 2.7 +/- 0.3 L/min/m2) (mean +/- SD). Significant decreases in prothrombin time (19.8 +/- 2.7 to 17.7 +/- 1.8 s) and activated clotting time (164 +/- 26 to 137 +/- 24 s) were observed at 60 min. In vitro vitamin K1 (10(-7) to 10(-4) M) had no effect on the tone of noradrenaline-constricted rings. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K1, administered by intravenous infusion prior to heart transplantation, did not alter subsequent perioperative blood product administration. Vitamin K1 rapidly reversed the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and produced modest hemodynamic changes. The decrease in systemic vascular resistance is probably not due to a direct effect of vitamin K1 on vascular smooth muscle.

    Title Increased Activation of the Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Systems Leads to Hemorrhagic Complications During Left Ventricular Assist Implantation.
    Date December 1996
    Journal Circulation
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have provided a new therapeutic option for patients with end-stage heart failure. Despite advances in device design, there remains an apparent bleeding diathesis, which leads to increased transfusion requirements and reoperative rates. The purpose of our study was to examine the abnormalities that might contribute to these clinical sequelae. METHODS AND RESULTS: To separate the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), eight patients undergoing coronary revascularization (CABG) were compared with seven LVAD (TCI HeartMate) recipients intraoperatively and 2 hours postoperatively. We evaluated several well-characterized indexes of platelet activation: platelet count, platelet factor 4 (PF4), beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). We also measured activation of thrombin: thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) as well as markers of fibrinolysis: plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin (PAP) and D-dimer. Patterns of intraoperative platelet adhesion and activation were not statistically different in the CABG control and LVAD groups. In the immediate postoperative period, however, there was significant release of PF4 and beta-TG and generation of TXB2. Compared with the CABG controls (TAT, 26 +/- 8 micrograms/L; F1 + 2, 4 +/- 1 nmol/L; mean +/- SEM), there was a significant increase in TAT (380 +/- 112 micrograms/L) and F1 + 2 (23 +/- 4 nmol/L) in LVAD patients 2 hours after surgery. Furthermore, a sharp rise in FPA was noted 20 minutes after LVAD initiation (CABG, 8 +/- 4 ng/mL; LVAD, 235 +/- 63 ng/mL; P < .05). A concomitant increase in both PAP (CABG, 987 +/- 129 micrograms/L; LVAD 3456 +/- 721 micrograms/L; P < .05) and D-dimer (CABG, 1678 +/- 416 ng/mL; LVAD, 15243 +/- 4682 ng/mL; P < .05) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The additive effects of CPB and LVAD lead to platelet activation as well as elevation of markers of in vivo thrombin generation, fibrinogen cleavage, and fibrinolytic activity. The etiology of these findings may be secondary to the LVAD surface, flow characteristics, and/or operative procedure. Nevertheless, platelet alterations and exaggerated activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems may contribute to the clinically observed hemostatic defect.

    Title Standard Criteria for an Acceptable Donor Heart Are Restricting Heart Transplantation.
    Date December 1996
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The lack of satisfactory donor organs limits heart transplantation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the criteria for suitability of donors may be safely expanded. METHODS: One hundred ninety-six heart transplantations were performed on 192 patients at our institution from January 1992 to 1995 and were divided into two groups. Group A donors (n = 113) conformed to the standard criteria. Group B donors (n = 83) deviated by at least one factor and consisted of the following: 16 hearts from donors greater than 50 years of age, 33 with myocardial dysfunction (echocardiographic ejection fraction = 0.35 +/- 0.10, dopamine level exceeding 20 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, and resuscitation with triiodothyronine), 33 undersized donors with donor to recipient weight ratios of 0.45 +/- 0.04, 48 with extended ischemic times of 297.4 +/- 53.6 minutes, 25 with positive blood cultures, 16 with positive hepatitis C antibody titers, and 7 with conduction abnormalities (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, prolonged QT interval, bifascicular block). RESULTS: Thirty-day mortality was 6.2% (7/113) in group A and 6.0% (5/83) in group B. Mortality in group A was attributed to 3 patients with myocardial dysfunction, 2 with infection, 1 with acute rejection, and 1 with pancreatitis; group B had 2 with myocardial dysfunction, 1 with infection, 1 with aspiration, and 1 with bowel infarction. At 12 months, survival and hemodynamic indices were similar between the groups. Of the 16 recipients with hepatitis C-positive hearts, 5 have become hepatitis C positive with mild hepatitis (follow up, 6 to 30 months). CONCLUSIONS: Expanding the criteria for suitability of donor hearts dramatically increases the number of transplantations without compromising recipient outcome.

    Title Recipient-donor Atrial Synchronization Benefits Acute Hemodynamics After Orthotopic Heart Transplantation.
    Date October 1996
    Journal The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation : the Official Publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
    Title Defining the Role of Aprotinin in Heart Transplantation.
    Date October 1996
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation is associated with excessive bleeding due to recipient coagulopathy, frequent need for reoperative median sternotomy, and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. Aprotinin reduces bleeding and the inflammatory response after cardiopulmonary bypass, but there are concerns about efficacy and side effects. METHODS: To determine the role of aprotinin in primary and reoperative sternotomy heart transplantation, we studied 70 patients undergoing heart transplantation between August 1993 and October 1994. Thirty-eight undergoing primary sternotomy for heart transplantation and receiving no aprotinin were randomized to group A (n = 20); patients in group B (n = 18) received the full recommended dose. Similarly, 32 patients undergoing reoperative heart transplantation were randomized to group C (n = 16), receiving no aprotinin, and to group D (n = 16), receiving aprotinin at the full recommended dose. All patients received the same immunosuppression regimen. Similarities in the groups included recipient age, weight, preoperative hemodynamic indices, creatinine, creatinine clearance, platelet count, hemoglobin, percentage receiving warfarin, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and creatinine level at 48 hours. RESULTS: There were no significant differences postoperatively between groups A and B. Differences (p < 0.05) 24 hours postoperatively between groups C and D, respectively, included: total blood product requirement (5.9 +/- 3.8 versus 3.6 +/- 2.0 U), total fluid balance (+752 +/- 300 versus -250 +/- 185 mL), chest tube drainage (894 +/- 120 versus 526 +/- 95 mL), alveolar-arterial O2 difference (120.4 +/- 45.9 versus 95.5 +/- 33.5), and pulmonary artery mean pressures (28.2 +/- 4.6 versus 21.1 +/- 3.5 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Aprotinin decreases bleeding after reoperative heart transplantation without renal dysfunction. Decreased inflammation is manifested as reduced fluid requirement and improved pulmonary and right heart function, which benefit patients during the posttransplantation period. Aprotinin at recommended doses is effective and safe for patients undergoing reoperative heart transplantation.

    Title Endomyocardial Biopsy: Variations in Venous Access for Endomyocardial Biopsy in Cardiac Transplantation.
    Date April 1992
    Journal Journal of Cardiac Surgery
    Excerpt

    With the increasing number of cardiac transplantation procedures performed worldwide, a strategy for endomyocardial biopsy techniques has evolved at our institution. Specific approaches for venous access for biopsy purposes are described. These include approaches via the right internal jugular vein, right external jugular vein, left subclavian vein, and the femoral veins. Particular emphasis is placed on the technical nuances of each approach. In approximately 2,000 endomyocardial biopsies performed on 155 transplant patients from 1984-1989, only two major complications occurred, only one of which required operative intervention. This was a perforated right ventricle, and the patient recovered after repair without further sequelae. No pneumothoraces or infection occurred during this time period. With proper understanding of regional anatomy, fluoroscopic appearance, and experience, endomyocardial biopsies can be performed with an extremely low incidence of major or minor complications.

    Title Sternotomy Closure with Parham Bands.
    Date April 1992
    Journal Journal of Cardiac Surgery
    Excerpt

    The closure of a median sternotomy incision requires secure bony approximation to prevent postoperative pain, sternal click, and/or nonunion of bone. The standard technique of sternotomy closure involves the use of stainless steel wires for reapproximation of the sternum. These wires occasionally break or pull through bone, resulting in instability of either a portion of the sternum or the entire sternum. Presented here is our technique for sternotomy closure that provides secure closure with reduced postoperative morbidity.

    Title Acute Postinfarction Septal Rupture: Long-term Results.
    Date March 1992
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
    Title Isradipine for Treatment of Acute Hypertension After Myocardial Revascularization.
    Date April 1991
    Journal Critical Care Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and duration of action of iv isradipine in the control of postoperative hypertension immediately after myocardial revascularization. DESIGN: Prospective, phase 2 trial. SETTING: Surgical ICU, university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-one (15 male, six female) patients, ages 49 to 75 yr (mean 65 +/- 5), undergoing elective myocardial revascularization. INTERVENTIONS: Twenty-one patients with postoperative hypertension after coronary artery bypass graft surgery received iv isradipine, a new dihydropyridine calcium-channel antagonist. Mean duration of the isradipine infusion was 96.9 +/- 29 min. Mean dose of isradipine, indexed to weight, was 16.63 +/- 6.66 micrograms/kg (n = 20). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty of the 21 patients achieved satisfactory BP control. The reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP), first noted at the 15-min point, was maximal at 1 hr when MAP decreased from 102 +/- 9 mm Hg baseline to 81 +/- 5 mm Hg (p less than .01), accompanied by a significant (p less than .01) decrease in systemic vascular resistance from 1753 +/- 339 baseline to 1180 +/- 229 dyne.sec/cm5. The CVP, pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure did not change significantly. Heart rate and cardiac index increased; however, stroke volume index did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Isradipine is an acceptable agent for the treatment of hypertension in this setting.

    Title Cardiac Transplantation in Diabetic Patients.
    Date November 1990
    Journal Transplantation Proceedings
    Title Muscle Flap Closure for Infected Wounds After Heart Transplantation.
    Date November 1990
    Journal Transplantation Proceedings
    Title Beware Centrifugal Pumps: Not a One-way Street, but a Potentially Dangerous "siphon".
    Date October 1990
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
    Title Successful Heart Transplantation in Recipients with Recent Preoperative Pulmonary Emboli.
    Date March 1990
    Journal The Journal of Heart Transplantation
    Excerpt

    Acute pulmonary embolus (less than 6 weeks old) has been considered an absolute contraindication to heart transplantation for fear of the potential problems of lung abscess, empyema, bronchopleural fistula, and systemic sepsis in an immunosuppressed patient. It is difficult to adhere to this principle because 30% to 50% of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy may have an acute pulmonary embolus and would be excluded from transplantation. Several centers have considered such patients for heart transplantation if they are young, on maximal medical therapy, and in extremis. The surgical management of the postoperative pulmonary problems can include bronchoscopy, antibiotics, surgical drainage, decortication, and pulmonary resection with or without muscle flaps. We describe our approach to two such patients who were managed successfully with lobectomies and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps to seal the bronchus and fill the pleural space.

    Title Bran-induced Small-intestinal Obstruction in a Patient with No History of Abdominal Operation.
    Date February 1988
    Journal Archives of Surgery (chicago, Ill. : 1960)
    Excerpt

    An infrequently reported cause of small-bowel obstruction, but one with increasingly important implications in today's diet-conscious society, is bran. This report describes a patient with no history of abdominal operation who developed complete obstruction of the small bowel after the ingestion of two bowls of bran cereal. The obstructing mass of bran was removed by enterotomy and found to be an inspissated, toothpastelike plug. The patient recovered fully.

    Title Antithymocyte Gamma Globulin, Low-dosage Cyclosporine, and Tapering Steroids As an Immunosuppressive Regimen to Avoid Early Kidney Failure in Heart Transplantation.
    Date October 1987
    Journal The Journal of Heart Transplantation
    Excerpt

    Cyclosporine is a powerful immunosuppressive agent that unfortunately has significant renal toxicity. Two risk factors associated with a high incidence of kidney failure in patients receiving cyclosporine have been described in the literature. In an effort to decrease the possibility of renal toxicity with the use of cyclosporine, we use low-dosage cyclosporine, antithymocyte gamma globulin, and tapering dosages of steroids as an immunosuppressive regimen. Twenty-one patients had orthotopic heart transplants from January 1985 to January 1986. Sixteen of 21 patients or 70% had at least one high risk factor for kidney failure. There were no episodes of acute kidney failure, and the blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels that were recorded over an average of 8.5 months per patient did not increase significantly from preoperative values. Seventeen of 21 or 81% of the patients are alive and functioning fully. The incidence of rejection per patient was 0.9, and there were no biopsy-proven severe rejections. One patient died at 5 months; the autopsy showed generalized moderate rejection. There were 0.24 episodes of infection per patient, with one patient who died from Pneumocystis pneumonia. With this immunosuppression protocol, early postoperative kidney dysfunction was avoided. The incidences of rejection and infection were within acceptable range, and the quality of life in the 17 survivors is excellent.


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