Internists


4315 Diplomacy Dr
University Area, Anchorage, AK 99508
907-729-1500
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Publications & Research

Dr. Wenger has contributed to 64 publications.
Title Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Alaskan Children: Impact of the Seven-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and the Role of Water Supply.
Date May 2010
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

Alaska Native (AN) children, especially those in the Yukon-Kuskokwim region (YK-AN children), suffer some of the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the world. Rates of IPD declined after statewide introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2001, but increased in subsequent years.

Title Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus-associated Hospitalizations Among the American Indian and Alaska Native Population.
Date November 2009
Journal Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Excerpt

American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have had documented outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection but, to our knowledge, no studies have examined MRSA infection among this population nationally. We describe MRSA-associated hospitalizations among the approximately 1.6 million AI/ANs who receive care at Indian Health Service health care facilities nationwide.

Title Rapid Assessment Tool for Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease in Developing Countries.
Date October 2004
Journal Emerging Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) still causes a substantial number of deaths among children in developing countries, despite the availability of effective conjugate vaccines. A major obstacle in developing a Hib vaccine has been limited awareness about the impact of Hib disease. A tool was developed to estimate the national rates of Hib meningitis and pneumonia by assessing retrospective local data over 7 to 10 days. Data from 11 countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia were studied and showed rates of Hib meningitis from >50 cases per 100,000 children >5 years in Ghana and Uganda to <15 per 100,000 in Iran, Jordan, and Uzbekistan. Results were affected by the quality of available data. The Hib rapid assessment tool can be useful to countries that desire a timely assessment of Hib disease rates.

Title Epidemiology of Meningitis Due to Haemophilus Influenzae Type B in Children in Bulgaria: a Prospective, Population-based Surveillance Study.
Date November 2002
Journal Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) among children in Bulgaria and to provide evidence for an informed decision on the use of Hib vaccines in Bulgaria. METHODS: From 1 July 1997 to 31 December 1999, active surveillance for meningitis was conducted in six regions. For children with suspected meningitis, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen was sent for cytology, chemistry, latex agglutination testing, culture and sensitivity. FINDINGS: During the 2.5-year study period, surveillance was conducted among 138 249 children aged <5 years - a sample representing 40% of all Bulgarian children in this age group. Overall, 285 children with suspected meningitis were identified. In eight children, clinical symptoms of meningitis resolved rapidly before a CSF specimen could be obtained. Of the remaining 277 children, 121 (44%) were classified as having probable bacterial meningitis on the basis of a CSF examination. An organism was identified for 88 (73%) of the 121 cases with probable bacterial meningitis. There were 21 cases of Hib, giving a mean annual incidence of 6.1 Hib meningitis cases per 100 000 children <5 years; the case-fatality rate was 10%. Nearly 60% of Hib isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, but they were not resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSION: On the basis of these findings, Hib conjugate vaccines have been included in the list of vaccines recommended for children by the Bulgarian Ministry of Health. The recommended initial treatment for paediatric bacterial meningitis has been changed to third-generation cephalosporins.

Title Early Detection and Response to Meningococcal Disease Epidemics in Sub-saharan Africa: Appraisal of the Who Strategy.
Date July 2002
Journal Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold strategy for detecting meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and to estimate the impact of the strategy on an epidemic at district level. METHODS: Data on meningitis cases at the district level were collected weekly from health ministries, WHO country and regional offices, and nongovernmental organizations in countries where there were epidemics of meningococcal disease in 1997. An epidemic was defined as a cumulative district attack rate of at least 100 cases per 100,000 population from January to May, the period of epidemic risk. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold rate were calculated, and curves of sensitivity against (1 - specificity) were compared with alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemic sizes. The impact of the WHO strategy on a district epidemic was estimated by comparing the numbers of epidemic cases with cases estimated to have been prevented by vaccination. FINDINGS: An analysis was made of 48 198 cases reported in 174 districts in Benin, Burkina Faso, the Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. These cases were 80.3% of those reported from Africa to WHO during the 1997 epidemic period. District populations ranged from 10,298 to 573,908. The threshold rate was crossed during two consecutive weeks in 69 districts (39.7%) and there were epidemics in 66 districts (37.9%). Overall, the sensitivity of the threshold rate for predicting epidemics was 97%, the specificity was 95%, and the predictive value positive was 93%. Taken together, these values were equivalent or better than the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemics, and remained high regardless of district size. The estimated number of potential epidemic cases decreased by nearly 60% in the age group targeted for vaccination in one district where the guidelines were followed in a timely manner. CONCLUSION: The use of the WHO strategy was sensitive and specific for the early detection of meningococcal disease epidemics in countries of sub-Saharan Africa during 1997 and had a substantial impact on a district epidemic. Nevertheless, the burden of meningococcal disease in these countries remains formidable and additional control measures are needed.

Title Immunogenicity of Two Efficacious Outer Membrane Protein-based Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines Among Young Adults in Iceland.
Date March 1998
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

Serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and ELISA antibody levels elicited by two efficacious serogroup B meningococcal vaccines were measured in a controlled trial involving 408 15- to 20-year-olds. Subjects were given two doses at a 6-week interval of a serogroup B or control vaccine. Response was defined as > or = 4-fold rise in antibody level. After two doses of the Finlay Institute (Havana) vaccine at 12 months, the proportions of SBA and ELISA responders were not different from those of the control group (15% and 17% [vaccine] vs. 13% and 9% [control], P > .05). After two doses of the National Institute of Public Health (Oslo) vaccine, there were more SBA and ELISA responders than in the control group (47% and 34% [vaccine] vs. 10% and 1% [control]) or the Finlay Institute vaccine group (P < .05 for both). SBA and ELISA may be insensitive correlates for protective efficacy for some outer membrane protein-based serogroup B meningococcal vaccines.

Title Efficacy of Meningococcal Vaccine and Barriers to Vaccination.
Date February 1998
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

CONTEXT: Use of the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine for control of outbreaks has increased in recent years, but the efficacy of meningococcal vaccine during mass vaccination campaigns in US civilian populations has not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine against serogroup C meningococcal disease in a community outbreak setting and to evaluate potentially modifiable barriers to vaccination in an area with persistent meningococcal disease following immunization. DESIGN: Matched case-control study of vaccine efficacy using cases of serogroup C meningococcal disease in persons eligible for vaccination during mass vaccination campaigns. Control patients were matched by neighborhood and age. The control group was used to identify possible barriers to vaccination. SETTING: Gregg County, Texas, population 106076, from 1993 to 1995. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17 case patients with serogroup C meningococcal disease eligible for vaccine and 84 control patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vaccine efficacy and risk factors associated with nonvaccination. RESULTS: Vaccine efficacy among 2- to 29-year-olds was 85% (95% confidence interval, 27%-97%) and did not change in bivariate analyses with other risk factors that were significant in univariate analysis. Among control patients, older age was strongly associated with nonvaccination; vaccination rates for 2- to 4-year-olds, 5- to 18-year-olds, and 19- to 29-year-olds were 67%, 48%, and 20%, respectively (chi2 for linear trend, P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: The meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine was effective against serogroup C meningococcal disease in this community outbreak. Although specific barriers to vaccination were not identified, older age was a risk factor for nonvaccination in the target population of 2- to 29-year-olds. In future outbreaks, emphasis should be placed on achieving high vaccination coverage, with special efforts to vaccinate young adults.

Title Molecular Epidemiology of Sporadic (endemic) Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease.
Date November 1997
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

Understanding the basis of sporadic (endemic) meningococcal disease may be critical to prevention of meningococcal epidemic outbreaks and to understanding fluctuations in incidence. Active, prospective, population-based surveillance and molecular epidemiologic techniques were used to study sporadic serogroup C meningococcal disease in a population of 2.34 million persons (Atlanta area). During 1988-1994, in which no outbreaks or case clusters were reported, 71 patients developed sporadic serogroup C meningococcal disease (annual incidence, 0.51/100,000). Eighty-three percent of patients were >2 years old. By multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and serotyping, 84% (52/62) of the isolates available for study were identical or closely related members of the electrophoretic type 37 (ET 37) complex responsible for multiple serogroup C outbreaks in the United States in the 1990s. Sporadic disease caused by 9 clonal strains occurred over periods up to 4 years and accounted for 45% (28/62) of cases. Sporadic serogroup C meningococcal disease was most often due to a limited number of related strains that appear to slowly circulate in the population.

Title Tobacco Smoke As a Risk Factor for Meningococcal Disease.
Date November 1997
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Since 1992 the US Pacific Northwest has experienced a substantial increase in the incidence of serogroup B meningococcal disease. The current meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is poorly immunogenic in young children and does not protect against N. meningitidis serogroup B. Defining alternative approaches to the prevention and control of meningococcal disease is of considerable public health importance. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing 129 patients in Oregon and southwest Washington with 274 age- and area-matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression analysis to determine which exposures remained associated with disease after adjusting for other risk factors and confounders and calculated the proportion of disease attributable to modifiable exposures. RESULTS: After adjustment for all other significant exposures identified, having a mother who smokes was the strongest independent risk factor for invasive meningococcal disease in children < 18 years of age [odds ratio (OR), 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 8.9)], with 37% (CI 15 to 65) of all cases in this age group potentially attributable to maternal smoking. Adult patients were more likely than controls to have a chronic underlying illness (OR 10.8, CI 2.7 to 43.3), passive tobacco smoke exposure (OR 2.5, CI 0.9 to 6.9) and to smoke tobacco (OR 2.4, CI 0.9 to 6.6). Dose-response effects were seen for passive smoke exposure and risk of disease in all age groups. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoke exposure independently increases the risk of developing meningococcal disease.

Title Bacterial Meningitis in the United States in 1995. Active Surveillance Team.
Date October 1997
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Before the introduction of the conjugate vaccines, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the major cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, and meningitis was primarily a disease of infants and young children. We describe the epidemiologic features of bacterial meningitis five years after the H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines were licensed for routine immunization of infants. METHODS: Data were collected from active, population-based surveillance for culture-confirmed meningitis and other invasive bacterial disease during 1995 in laboratories serving all the acute care hospitals in 22 counties of four states (total population, more than 10 million). The rates were compared with those for 1986 obtained by similar surveillance. RESULTS: On the basis of 248 cases of bacterial meningitis in the surveillance areas, the rates of meningitis (per 100,000) for the major pathogens in 1995 were Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1.1; Neisseria meningitidis, 0.6; group B streptococcus, 0.3; Listeria monocytogenes, 0.2; and H. influenzae, 0.2. Group B streptococcus was the predominant pathogen among newborns, N. meningitidis among children 2 to 18 years old, and S. pneumoniae among adults. Pneumococcal meningitis had the highest case fatality rate (21 percent) and in 36 percent of cases was caused by organisms that were not susceptible to penicillin. From these data, we estimate that 5755 cases of bacterial meningitis were caused by these five pathogens in the United States in 1995, as compared with 12,920 cases in 1986, a reduction of 55 percent. The median age of persons with bacterial meningitis increased greatly, from 15 months in 1986 to 25 years in 1995, largely as a result of a 94 percent reduction in the number of cases of H. influenzae meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the vaccine-related decline in meningitis due to H. influenzae type b, bacterial meningitis in the United States is now a disease predominantly of adults rather than of infants and young children.

Title Capsule Switching of Neisseria Meningitidis.
Date February 1997
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Excerpt

The different sialic acid (serogroups B, C, Y, and W-135) and nonsialic acid (serogroup A) capsular polysaccharides expressed by Neisseria meningitidis are major virulence factors and are used as epidemiologic markers and vaccine targets. However, the identification of meningococcal isolates with similar genetic markers but expressing different capsular polysaccharides suggests that meningococcal clones can switch the type of capsule they express. We identified, except for capsule, isogenic serogroups B [(alpha2-->8)-linked polysialic acid] and C [(alpha2-->9)-linked polysialic acid] meningococcal isolates from an outbreak of meningococcal disease in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. We used these isolates and prototype serogroup A, B, C, Y, and W-135 strains to define the capsular biosynthetic and transport operons of the major meningococcal serogroups and to show that switching from the B to C capsule in the outbreak strain was the result of allelic exchange of the polysialyltransferase. Capsule switching was probably the result of transformation and horizontal DNA exchange in vivo of a serogroup C capsule biosynthetic operon. These findings indicate that closely related virulent meningococcal clones may not be recognized by traditional serogroup-based surveillance and can escape vaccine-induced or natural protective immunity by capsule switching. Capsule switching may be an important virulence mechanism of meningococci and other encapsulated bacterial pathogens. As vaccine development progresses and broader immunization with capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines becomes a reality, the ability to switch capsular types may have important implications for the impact of these vaccines.

Title School-based Clusters of Meningococcal Disease in the United States. Descriptive Epidemiology and a Case-control Analysis.
Date February 1997
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiologic features and risk factors for multiple cases of meningococcal disease in schools. DESIGN: Population-based prospective evaluation and case-control study of clusters of meningococcal disease that occurred in schools from January 1989 to June 1994. SETTING: Surveillance conducted through state health departments in the United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive epidemiology of school-based clusters of meningococcal disease and determinants of their occurrence. RESULTS: We identified 22 clusters of meningococcal disease in 15 states. The estimated incidence of secondary meningococcal disease among schoolchildren aged 5 to 18 years was 2.5 per 100000 population, a relative risk of 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.3). The median number of students per cluster was 2 (range, 2-4). Of 30 subsequent cases, 10 (33%) occurred 2 or fewer days after the index case, and 22 (73%) occurred 14 or fewer days after the index case. Among the 8 schools with 2 or more cases, 50% of the additional cases occurred 2 or more days after the second case. Secondary schools (grades 7 through 12) accounted for 15 (75%) of 20 cluster schools compared with 9 (45%) of 20 matched control schools (P<.05). In 16 (73%) of 22 clusters, interaction between case patients was noted. The index patient in cluster schools was more likely than the controls to have participated in a school-based group activity 14 or fewer days before illness (matched odds ratio, 7.0; 95% CI, 0.9-57). CONCLUSIONS: Three quarters of the school clusters occurred in secondary schools, with over 70% of subsequent cases occurring within 2 weeks of the index case. Rapid initiation of a chemoprophylaxis program after 2 cases of meningococcal disease in a school would have potentially prevented 50% of subsequent cases in the clusters described.

Title Prevention Practices for Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: a Multi-state Surveillance Analysis. Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease Study Group.
Date February 1997
Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hospital-based practices for perinatal group B streptococcal disease prevention and to identify institutional factors related to the disease. METHODS: We surveyed microbiology laboratories and obstetric programs during 1994 at hospitals in five states with active surveillance for invasive group B streptococcal disease. Institutions provided information on methods for detecting carriers and on obstetric policies for group B streptococcal disease prevention. We used linear regression to identify prevention practices and hospital characteristics that correlated with the number of cases of early-onset disease. RESULTS: Of 295 hospitals, 247 (84%) laboratories and 154 (52%) obstetric programs completed the survey. Most (83%) laboratories performed group B streptococcal cultures on rectal and vaginal specimens, but only 12 (6%) used selective broth media. Among the obstetric programs, 54 (35%) had policies on some aspect of group B streptococcal disease prevention. Of the hospitals with policies, 21 (48%) recommended intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis for women with risk factors outlined by the 1992 ACOG statement. Adjusting for the number of births, there were more cases of early-onset group B streptococcal disease in institutions providing care for more African American women and for more women with no prenatal care. Institutions that had group B streptococcal screening policies had fewer early-onset cases. CONCLUSIONS: Many institutions with prevention policies followed practices that differed from those recommended in published prevention statements. Having any screening policy, however, was associated with reduced early-onset disease, independent of the risk profile of the patient population. Adopting prevention policies is most urgent for practices serving individuals at increased risk, such as African American women and women without prenatal care.

Title Invasive Disease Due to Haemophilus Influenzae Serotype F: Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics in the H. Influenzae Serotype B Vaccine Era. The Haemophilus Influenzae Study Group.
Date January 1997
Journal Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Excerpt

With the decline in the rate of infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype b, H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) is becoming a relatively important cause of invasive disease due to H. influenzae. We identified 91 cases of invasive Hif infections in a multistate area over a 6-year period. The incidence of invasive Hif disease was 0.5 case per 1,000,000 population in 1989 and 1.9 cases per 1,000,000 population in 1994. The proportion of all invasive H. influenzae disease caused by Hif rose from 1% in 1989 to 17% in 1994. Seventy-two percent of cases occurred in adults, and 26% of cases occurred in children younger than 5 years of age. Respiratory tract infections accounted for 82% of adult cases, and most adults had significant underlying diseases. In children, pneumonia and meningitis each accounted for 40% of cases, respectively. Overall mortality was 30% among adults, and 21% among children. Molecular typing demonstrated limited overall diversity in Hif isolates. Continued surveillance is warranted to evaluate the trend toward the increasing incidence of Hif disease that was noted in this study.

Title Molecular Epidemiology of Diphtheria in Russia, 1985-1994.
Date November 1996
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

The largest diphtheria outbreak in the developed world since the 1960s began in the Russian federation in 1990. One hundred fifty-six Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains from throughout Russia, selected for temporal and geographic diversity, were assayed by ribotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE). These tests showed significant genetic diversity within the C. diphtheriae species, and ribotyping and MEE data generally correlated well with epidemiologic data. A distinct clonal group of C. diphtheriae isolates (ET 8 complex) emerged in Russia in 1990 as the current outbreak began, and as the outbreak has progressed, these organisms have made up increasingly larger proportions of the strains that are isolated. Furthermore, the main characteristic of the epidemic strains is a specific combination of ET 8 and ribotypes G1 and G4. This study confirms the epidemiologic utility of the molecular subtyping methods that detected the epidemic clone and addresses the clone's origin and relation to C. diphtheriae from throughout Russia.

Title Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Clinical Characteristics in a Case-control Study.
Date October 1996
Journal Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Excerpt

Clinical characteristics associated with bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis (BAP) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated in a case-control study; 42 case-patients and 84 controls were matched by clinical care institution. Case-patients presented with fever (temperature, > 37.8 degrees C; 93%), a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 21/mm3, cutaneous or subcutaneous vascular lesions (55%), lymphadenopathy (21%), and/or abdominal symptoms (24%). Many case-patients experienced long delays between medical evaluation and diagnosis of BAP (median, 4 weeks; range, 1 day to 24 months). Case-patients were more likely than controls to have fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, a low CD4 lymphocyte count, anemia, or an elevated serum level of alkaline phosphatase (AP) (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, a CD4 lymphocyte count of < 200/mm3 (matched odds ratio [OR], 9.9; P < .09), anemia reflected by a hematocrit value of < 0.36 (OR, 19.7; P < .04), and an elevated AP level of > or = 2.6 mukat/L (OR, 23.9; P < .05) remained associated with disease after therapy with zidovudine was controlled for. BAP should be considered an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection and should be included in the differential diagnosis for febrile, HIV-infected patients with cutaneous or osteolytic lesions, lymphadenopathy, abdominal symptoms, anemia, or an elevated serum level of AP.

Title Meningococcal Disease in Los Angeles County, California, and Among Men in the County Jails.
Date September 1996
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: From January through March 1993, there were 54 cases of meningococcal disease in Los Angeles County, California, of which 9 occurred among men incarcerated in the county's jail system, which was 40 percent above capacity at the time. Several of the 45 patients from the community had had contact with men recently released from a county jail. METHODS: We interviewed patients from the community (n=42) and neighborhood controls matched with the patients for age, race, and ethnic group (n=84) about potential exposures. We collected and cultured pharyngeal swabs for Neisseria meningitidis from men entering the central jail (n=162), men leaving the central jail (n=379), members of the jail staff (n=121), and patients at a community health center (n=214). Meningococcal isolates were identified by serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. RESULTS: The presence of community-acquired meningococcal disease was strongly associated with exposure to a person who had been in or worked at one of the county jails (multivariate matched odds ratio, 18.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 90.8; P<0.001). Pharyngeal carriage of meningococcus was significantly more frequent among men released from jail (19 percent) or entering jail (17 percent) than among workers at the jails (3 percent) or community residents seen at the clinic (1 percent). Among men entering jail, those who had previously been incarcerated were more often carriers than those who had not (21 percent vs. 7 percent, P=0.03). Of the isolates from nine community residents with serogroup C meningococcal disease, eight were the same strain as that isolated from the eight inmates with serogroup C disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this outbreak of meningococcal disease in Los Angeles County, nearly half of community residents with the disease had contact with persons who had been in a county jail. The high rates of carriage among recidivists and released inmates suggests that the men became meningococcal carriers while in jail.

Title Outbreak of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease Associated with Campus Bar Patronage.
Date May 1996
Journal American Journal of Epidemiology
Excerpt

Between February 1991 and April 1992, eight undergraduates at a US residential university and one at a nearby 2-year college contracted serogroup C meningococcal disease. A case-control investigation with 20 controls per case, oropharyngeal carriage surveys, and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) of serogroup C isolates were used to identify factors contributing to the outbreak. All eight sterile-site isolates from cases were closely related by MEE and were similar (though not identical) to the strain associated with the 1991-1992 epidemic of meningococcal disease in eastern Canada. Disease was associated with cigarette smoking (p = 0.012), recent patronage of campus-area bars (p = 0.034), estimated amount of time spent in campus-area bars (p = 0.0003), and, especially, recent patronage of one specific bar, bar A (p = 0.0006; odds ratio = 23.1, 95% confidence interval 3.0-571.5). In carriage surveys, 1,528 throat cultures taken from (primarily student) noncases yielded only five (0.3%) strains that were identical by MEE to those from cases. Two of these were found among 22 cultures obtained from bar A employees in spring 1992. Some cases in this outbreak may have followed transmission of the epidemic strain in bar A. Campus bar environments may facilitate the spread of meningococcal disease among teenagers and young adults.

Title Meningococcal Carriage, Alcohol Consumption, and Campus Bar Patronage in a Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease Outbreak.
Date March 1996
Journal Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Excerpt

Community outbreaks of serogroup C invasive meningococcal disease are increasing in North America (L. H. Harrison, JAMA 273:419-421, 1995; L. A. Jackson, A. Schuchat, M. W. Reeves, and J. D. Wenger, JAMA 273:382-389, 1995; C. M. Whalen, J. C. Hockin, A. Ryan, and F. Ashton, JAMA 273:390-394). In a recent 15-month university outbreak, disease was linked to patronage of a specific campus-area bar, suggesting that aspects of a campus bar environment might promote meningococcal transmission (P. B. Imrey, L. A. Jackson, P. H. Ludwinski, et al., Am. J. Epidemiol., in press). To investigate this hypothesis, oropharyngeal carriage results from samples taken from 867 university health service clients and 85 campus-area bar employees during the last 3 months of the outbreak were analyzed to determine factors correlated with carriage of any strain of Neisseria meningitidis. Results were validated with data from samples from 344 health center clients and 211 campus bar employees taken 8 months after the last outbreak case. Recent alcohol consumption (adjusted prevalence odds ratio = 3.8 for > 15 versus 0 drinks in last week [P = 0.0012]) and campus bar patronage (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9 for any versus no patronage in last 2 weeks [P = 0.0122]) showed separate effects in both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses of data from the 1992 health center clients. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage among 1992 campus bar workers was 3.8 times that among health center clients; this prevalence ratio was roughly 2.5 after adjustment for alcohol consumption and bar patronage. Recent antibiotic usage was protective (prevalence odds ratio = 0.3) among health center clients and bar workers. These findings were generally supported by the validation samples. If alcohol consumption and other aspects of the campus bar environment facilitate transmission of and/or colonization by N. meningitidis, then the introduction of a highly pathogenic substrain into the campus bar environment may provide an unusual opportunity for invasive meningococcal disease within a campus community.

Title Application of Pcr for Detection of Toxigenic Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Strains Isolated During the Russian Diphtheria Epidemic, 1990 Through 1994.
Date March 1996
Journal Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Excerpt

A total of 250 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from clinical cases and carriers in Russia were assayed by PCR directed at the A subunit of the diphtheria toxin gene to distinguish toxigenic from nontoxigenic strains; 170 strains were positive as indicated by the presence of the 248-bp amplicon. The results of this PCR assay were in complete concordance with those of the standard immunoprecipitation assay (Elek), and the PCR assay is a useful tool for rapid identification in clinical laboratories.

Title Utility of Emergency, Telephone-based National Surveillance for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Hantavirus Task Force.
Date February 1996
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

On May 27, 1993, in response to the outbreak investigation of newly recognized Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Four Corners states (New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established a national surveillance case definition for severe, unexplained respiratory disease to determine the extent of HPS throughout the United States. A toll-free telephone hotline number was instituted to provide updated information about unexplained respiratory illness and to serve as a passive mechanism for reporting suspected cases. Clinical information was obtained from callers reporting suspected cases, and diagnostic specimens and medical record reviews were requested from health care providers. From June 3 through December 31, 1993, the hotline received 21,443 telephone inquiries; callers identified 280 suspected cases living outside the Four Corners states with at least one specimen available for diagnostic testing. By December 31, 1993, 21 confirmed cases (age range, 14 to 58 years) residing in 11 states outside the Four Corners region had been identified. This passive surveillance system was successful in rapidly identifying the widespread sporadic geographic distribution for HPS cases throughout the United States and could serve as a model for similar emergencies. Expanding and coordinating surveillance systems for the early detection, tracking, and evaluation of emerging infections is a critical component of disease prevention.

Title Barriers to Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease.
Date January 1996
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

During 1992 the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued statements on prevention of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. To assess prevention practices and identify barriers to preventing GBS disease, we surveyed obstetricians, family practitioners and general practitioners in Georgia during 1993. A standard questionnaire was mailed to 1190 clinicians in August and to nonresponders again in September. Of 436 (38%) physicians who responded, 192 (44%) provided obstetric care. Among these 192 obstetric care providers, 121 (63%) screened patients for GBS carriage antenatally. The most frequently cited reasons for not screening were "no clear guidelines" and "not cost-effective" (52 and 39%, respectively). Clinicians who screened patients were significantly more likely to believe that screening was cost-effective (P = 0.05). Of obstetric care providers who screened, only 9% obtained specimens using culture sites recommended by ACOG or AAP. Although most clinicians were aware that antenatal antibiotic treatment of carriers does not prevent perinatal GBS disease, 64% of those who screened reported that they gave oral antibiotics when carriage was detected during pregnancy. Of clinicians who reported using obstetric risk factors to guide prophylaxis choices, < 15% reported using intrapartum antibiotics for the conditions identified in the ACOG and AAP statements as those that suggest the need for prophylaxis when screening is not performed. Many Georgia obstetric care providers do not use effective practices to prevent perinatal GBS disease. Education on appropriate culture methods, obstetric risk factors and the cost effectiveness of prevention strategies might lead to more effective preventive practices.

Title Sporadic Meningococcal Disease in Adults: Results of a 5-year Population-based Study.
Date December 1995
Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To define the incidence, demographics, clinical features, and risk factors for sporadic meningococcal disease in adults (> or = 18 years) residing in metropolitan Atlanta. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based surveillance, with retrospective review of clinical and laboratory records. SETTING: Eight-county metropolitan Atlanta area. PATIENTS: All adult patients in whom Neisseria meningitidis was isolated from normally sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid) during the period 1 December 1988 to 30 November 1993. MEASUREMENTS: Incidence, relative risk, clinical and laboratory parameters, and serogroup of meningococcal isolates. RESULTS: For the 5-year period, 44 (33%) of 132 cases of meningococcal disease in Atlanta occurred in adults (annual incidence, 0.50/100,000 adults per year). Twenty-three (52%) of the 44 adults presented without rash or meningitis, the two most obvious signs of meningococcal disease. Pneumonia, sinusitis, or purulent tracheobronchitis, but without rash, were the likely sources of meningococcal bacteremia in 15 (34%) of the 44 adults. Twelve of the 15 patients with meningococcal respiratory infection were older than 50 years of age or were immunocompromised (or both), and three fourths of the 15 patients had disease caused by serogroups B, Y, and W-135. Overall, two thirds of adults older than 24 years of age with meningococcal disease had one or more immunocompromising conditions (for example, low complement 50 level [CH50], corticosteroid use, congestive heart failure, multiple myeloma, human immunodeficiency virus infection). Meningococcemia or meningococcal meningitis, often caused by serogroup C, were the presentations in 14 of 15 adults 18 to 24 years old; only 2 had an identified underlying condition. CONCLUSIONS: In this 5-year population-based study, one third of all cases of sporadic meningococcal disease occurred in adults. Over half of the adults presented without rash or meningitis. Pneumonia, sinusitis, and tracheobronchitis are important sources of bacteremic meningococcal disease, especially in immunocompromised patients and elderly persons.

Title Cutaneous Manifestations of Opportunistic Infections in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Date October 1995
Journal Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Excerpt

Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) presents most commonly as a cutaneous disease and is caused by two organisms. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae and Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana. Biopsy confirmation of cutaneous BA is essential because lesions can mimic nodular Kaposi's sarcoma in appearance. Although the vast majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with BA have CD4 lymphocyte counts of less than 100 cells per mm3, the disease responds well to antimicrobial therapy. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial skin pathogen affecting HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of skin disease due to S. aureus may be explained by high nasal carriage rates for the organism ( > or = 50%) and altered immune function in conjunction with an impaired cutaneous barrier. Herpes simplex virus causes mucocutaneous disease early in the course HIV infection and ulcerative lesions at any site in advanced HIV infection. Herpes zoster is common early in the course of HIV infection; recurrent and disseminated herpes zoster infections are characteristic of patients with advanced HIV disease. Acyclovir resistance is usually seen in patients with large, untreated, ulcerative lesions of herpes simplex virus and in patients with chronic, verrucous lesions of varicella-zoster virus. Cutaneous cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidiomycosis are markers of disseminated disease and require biopsy confirmation. Scabies is easily diagnosed but may be atypical in presentation and difficult to eradicate in advanced HIV disease.

Title Risk Factors for Group B Streptococcal Disease in Adults.
Date September 1995
Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for community-acquired and nosocomial group B streptococcal disease in adults. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: 3 metropolitan areas in the United States with an aggregate population of 6.6 million persons. PATIENTS: 219 nonpregnant adults with invasive group B streptococcal infection identified by a population-based surveillance in 1991 and 1992 and 645 hospital-matched controls. RESULTS: The following conditions were associated with a significantly increased risk for community-acquired group B streptococcal infection after controlling for age in multivariate analysis: cirrhosis (odds ratio, 9.7 [95% CI, 3.5 to 26.9]; P < 0.001), diabetes (odds ratio, 3.0 [CI, 1.9 to 4.7]; P < 0.001), stroke (odds ratio, 3.5 [CI, 1.9 to 6.4]; P < 0.001), breast cancer (odds ratio, 4.0 [CI, 1.6 to 9.8]; P = 0.002), decubitus ulcer (odd ratio, 4.0 [CI, 1.6 to 9.8]; P = 0.002), and neurogenic bladder (odds ratio, 4.6 [CI, 1.4 to 15.1]; P = 0.01). Sixty-three percent of community case-patients had at least one of these conditions. Nosocomial infection (48 cases [22%]) was independently associated with the placement of a central venous line (odds ratio, 30.9 [CI, 5.2 to 184.1]; P < 0.001), diabetes, congestive heart failure, and seizure disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Several chronic conditions were independently associated with group B streptococcal disease, and most case-patients had at least one of these conditions. If group B streptococcal vaccines being developed for prevention of neonatal disease are protective in adults, a vaccination strategy targeting those at highest risk has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of invasive group B streptococcal infection in adults.

Title Should College Students Be Vaccinated Against Meningococcal Disease? A Cost-benefit Analysis.
Date June 1995
Journal American Journal of Public Health
Excerpt

Outbreaks and sporadic cases of meningococcal disease among college students have prompted consideration of a policy of routine vaccination for this group. Purchase and administration of the vaccine for routine vaccination would cost $56 million per year. Savings in medical care and indirect costs would not equal this amount unless the annual rate of disease among students is at least 6.5/100,000. The actual rate among students is unknown; however, surveillance data suggest it could not be more than 1.3/100,000. At rates near this estimate, the net cost of the program would be approximately $45 million annually. More cost-effective prevention strategies might be yielded by further studies to identify students at substantial risk of meningococcal disease, or by the development of a conjugate serogroup C vaccine that could be administered during infancy.

Title Epidemiology of Group B Streptococcal Disease. Risk Factors, Prevention Strategies, and Vaccine Development.
Date May 1995
Journal Epidemiologic Reviews
Title Reduction in the Incidence of Human Listeriosis in the United States. Effectiveness of Prevention Efforts? The Listeriosis Study Group.
Date May 1995
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

BACKGROUND--Food-borne transmission is now recognized as a major cause of human listeriosis. OBJECTIVE--To assess the impact of prevention efforts, listeriosis rates before interventions were initiated in 1989 were compared with more recent rates (1990 through 1993). DESIGN--From 1989 through 1993, multistate, laboratory-based active surveillance was conducted to identify all cases in which Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cultures or ordinarily sterile sites in an aggregate population of more than 19 million. SETTING--All laboratories serving acute care hospitals in up to nine surveillance areas in the United States. INTERVENTIONS--In 1989, a well-publicized case report of listeriosis linked to processed poultry led US regulatory agencies to enforce aggressive food monitoring policies and prompted industry to invest in cleanup efforts. In May 1992, consumer guidelines for listeriosis prevention were disseminated. OUTCOME MEASURES--Cases of perinatal and nonperinatal listeriosis. RESULTS--The rate of listeriosis decreased in all surveillance areas. Projection of these rates to the US population suggests an estimated 1965 cases and 481 deaths occurred in 1989 compared with an estimated 1092 cases and 248 deaths in 1993, a 44% and 48% reduction in illness and death, respectively. Among adults 50 years of age and older, rates declined from 16.2 per 1 million in 1989 to 10.2 per 1 million in 1993 (P = .02). Perinatal disease decreased from 17.4 cases per 100,000 births in 1989 to 8.6 cases per 100,000 births in 1993 (P = .003). Three serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) of L monocytogenes accounted for more than 96% of cases during each year of the study (1989 through 1993). CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of listeriosis in study areas was substantially lower in 1993 than in 1989. The temporal association of this reduction with industry, regulatory, and educational efforts suggests these measures were effective.

Title Are We Ready for Diphtheria? A Report from the Diphtheria Diagnostic Workshop, Atlanta, 11 and 12 July 1994.
Date May 1995
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Title Serogroup C Meningococcal Outbreaks in the United States. An Emerging Threat.
Date February 1995
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--Multiple outbreaks of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis have recently been reported from diverse areas of the United States. To better define the characteristics of this increasingly important problem, we reviewed data on all known serogroup C outbreaks in the United States from January 1980 through June 1993. DATA SOURCES--MEDLINE searches, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention records, state health department officials, infectious disease experts, and the meningococcal vaccine manufacturer. DEFINITION OF AN OUTBREAK--Three or more cases of serogroup C meningococcal disease within a 3-month period, either among members of a community or persons attending a single school or other institution, for which those cases represented an attack rate of at least five per 100,000 population. RESULTS--Twenty-one outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease were identified; eight occurred since 1991. In 1992 and the first half of 1993, approximately 180,000 doses of vaccine were administered for outbreak control, compared with approximately 34,000 doses from 1980 to 1991. Approximately 50% of community-outbreak cases were between the ages of 5 and 24 years, compared with only 19% of sporadic serogroup C cases (P < .001). Subtyping of patient isolates indicates that outbreaks are clonal; however, at least five distinct but closely related strains have caused recent outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS--Serogroup C outbreaks are occurring more frequently in the United States. The effectiveness of preventive measures depends on early recognition; therefore, physicians should promptly report all cases of suspected meningococcal disease, and the causative serogroup should be established for every case.

Title Multistate Case-control Study of Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease. The Active Surveillance Study Group.
Date December 1994
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

Risk factors for early onset disease (EOD) caused by Group B streptococci (GBS) that are the foundation of prevention guidelines were identified in studies conducted in a few hospital centers. We investigated cases of EOD identified through laboratory-based active surveillance during 1991 and 1992 in a multistate population of 17 million. Ninety-nine cases were compared with 253 controls matched for hospital, date of birth and birth weight. Prematurity (< 37 weeks of gestation) was present in 28% of cases; 53% of case mothers had rupture of membranes > 12 hours; and 48% reported intrapartum fever. The incidence of EOD in each surveillance area was higher among blacks. By multivariate analysis, case mothers were more likely than controls to have rupture of membranes before labor onset (adjusted odds ratio 8.7, P < 0.001), intrapartum fever (adjusted odds ratio 11.9, P < 0.001), and history of urinary infection during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio 4.3, P < 0.05). Young maternal age was also associated with risk of disease. Three-fourths of case mothers had intrapartum fever, < 37 weeks of gestation and/or prolonged rupture of membranes, indicators previously used to select high risk women for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Our findings extend data from single hospitals and suggest prenatal screening and selective intrapartum chemoprophylaxis of high-risk mothers could potentially prevent the majority of EOD in the United States.

Title National Trends in Haemophilus Influenzae Meningitis Mortality and Hospitalization Among Children, 1980 Through 1991.
Date April 1994
Journal Pediatrics
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines were licensed for routine use in the United States in December 1987. We compared national trends in deaths and hospitalization from H influenzae meningitis among children < 5 years old before and after Hib conjugate vaccine licensure. METHODS. H influenzae meningitis mortality rates were calculated using data from the 1980 through 1991 computerized national mortality files. Hospitalization rates from H influenzae meningitis were calculated using data from the 1980 through 1991 National Hospital Discharge Surveys. Trends in H influenzae mortality and hospitalization from 1980 through 1887 were compared with trends from 1988 through 1991. Trends for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis meningitis were also examined. RESULTS. From 1980 through 1987, mortality from H influenzae meningitis decreased an average of 8.5% each year, compared with a 48% annual decrease from 1988 through 1991 (P < .001 for difference in trends). H influenzae meningitis hospitalization rates increased 1% each year from 1980 through 1987, and decreased an average of 34% each year from 1988 through 1991. There was no significant difference in mortality or hospitalization trends for S pneumoniae or N meningitidis meningitis during the two periods. Among infants, H influenzae meningitis mortality decreased an average of 8% per year from 1980 through 1987 and 43% per year from 1988 through 1991. One- to four-year-old children had similar average annual declines, 8% and 58% for the two periods. Although there were regional differences in the absolute mortality rates, all regions of the country had similar trends in meningitis mortality. CONCLUSIONS. Among US children < 5 years old, we found substantial decreases in deaths and hospitalization from H influenzae meningitis, but not S pneumoniae or N meningitidis meningitis, in the years after Hib conjugate vaccine licensure. These results suggest that the declines in H influenzae meningitis were due primarily to the use of Hib conjugate vaccines.

Title Duration of Antibody Response After Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination in Us Air Force Personnel.
Date April 1994
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

The long-term kinetics of the immunologic response after vaccination of adults with Neisseria meningitidis polysaccharide vaccine is unknown. Total meningococcal anti-capsular antibody response (measured by ELISA) and serum bactericidal activity after routine vaccination with quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine were evaluated in US Air Force personnel. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, blood samples were obtained from approximately 40 personnel before vaccination, at 1 and 4-6 months, and at 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years after vaccination. Total anti-group A and -group C capsular antibody levels and bactericidal activity peaked 1 month after vaccination and declined substantially by 2 years. At each interval, significantly higher levels of total antibody and bactericidal activity were detected than before vaccination. Anti-capsular antibodies and bactericidal activity persisted for up to 10 years after immunization. These and further studies on the serologic measure of protection against meningococcal disease are important for evaluation of candidate vaccines and development of recommendations for immunization.

Title Increased Risk of Meningitis and Bacteremia Due to Listeria Monocytogenes in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.
Date October 1993
Journal Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Excerpt

The incidence, demographics, and clinical outcome of infections due to Listeria monocytogenes in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were evaluated by prospective population-based surveillance. During a 2-year study period, 37 cases of invasive listeriosis occurred in metropolitan Atlanta (annual incidence, 0.8 case per 100,000 population). Seven of these cases occurred in known HIV-infected individuals (19% of all cases); five had an AIDS-defining illness, and the other two had CD4 lymphocyte cell counts of < 200/microL. The estimated incidence of listeriosis among HIV-infected patients in metropolitan Atlanta was 52 cases per 100,000 patients per year, and among patients with AIDS it was 115 cases per 100,000 patients per year, rates 65-145 times higher than those among the general population. HIV-associated cases occurred in adults who were 29-62 years of age and in postnatal infants who were 2 and 6 months of age. Mortality among the HIV-infected group was 29%. L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were isolated from the HIV-infected patients. L. monocytogenes is an important opportunistic pathogen in HIV-infected patients.

Title Carriage of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B in Children After Widespread Vaccination with Conjugate Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccines.
Date September 1993
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

Rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in children decreased very rapidly after licensure of Hib conjugate vaccines. A role for a vaccine-related reduction in nasopharyngeal carriage of Hib has been suggested. We studied oropharyngeal carriage of Hib and vaccination rates in a population of 2- to 5-year-old children in metropolitan Atlanta. Among 584 children 75% were vaccinated with an Hib conjugate vaccine, 17% had not been vaccinated and 8% had no vaccination records available. Forty-one percent of the children were colonized with H. influenzae. One child was colonized with Hib. Hib carriage (0.17%; upper 95% confidence interval boundary, 0.97%) was substantially lower than the estimates of Hib carriage from prior studies of children who had not received Hib conjugate vaccines. Our data are consistent with a decline in Hib carriage induced by widespread use of conjugate Hib vaccines, which may have contributed to the decline of Hib disease in United States children.

Title Cat Scratch Disease in Connecticut. Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Evaluation of a New Diagnostic Test.
Date July 1993
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Excerpt

BACKGROUND. Although cat scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in patients who have unexplained regional lymphadenopathy after encounters with cats, its epidemiology and the risk factors for disease are not clearly defined, and there is no generally accepted diagnostic test. METHODS. We conducted a physician survey to identify cases of cat scratch disease occurring over a 13-month period in cat owners in Connecticut. We interviewed both the patients (or their parents) and controls matched for age who owned cats. Serum from the patients was tested for antibodies to Rochalimaea henselae with a new, indirect fluorescent-antibody test. RESULTS. We identified 60 patients with cat scratch disease and 56 age-matched subjects. Patients were more likely than controls to have at least one pet kitten 12 months old or younger (odds ratio, 15), to have been scratched or bitten by a kitten (odds ratio, 27), and to have had at least one kitten with fleas (odds ratio, 29). A conditional logistic-regression analysis found that in kitten-owning households, patients were more likely than controls to have been scratched or bitten by a cat or kitten (odds ratio, 12.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 150). Of 45 patients, 38 had serum samples with titers of 1:64 or higher for antibody to R. henselae, as compared with 4 of 112 samples from controls (P < 0.001). The positive predictive value of the serologic test was 91 percent. Of 48 serum samples from patients' cats, 39 were positive for antibodies to R. henselae, as compared with positive samples from 11 of 29 control cats (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. Cat scratch disease is strongly associated with owning a kitten, and fleas may be involved in its transmission. The serologic test for rochalimaea may be useful diagnostically, and our results suggest an etiologic role for this genus.

Title A Population-based Assessment of Invasive Disease Due to Group B Streptococcus in Nonpregnant Adults.
Date June 1993
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Excerpt

BACKGROUND. Group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) are a major cause of meningitis and septicemia in neonates and pregnant women, but the importance of group B streptococcal disease in nonpregnant adults has not been clearly defined. METHODS. We conducted a prospective surveillance of the pathogens responsible for meningitis for a period of 24 months in 35 hospitals and a referral laboratory in metropolitan Atlanta. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory records of all the nonpregnant adults identified as having invasive group B streptococcal disease during this period. RESULTS. During 1989 and 1990 there were 424 patients with invasive group B streptococcal disease (annual incidence, 9.2 cases per 100,000 population). Of these patients, 46 percent were 1 month of age or younger, 6 percent were older than 1 month but younger than 18 years of age, and 48 percent were 18 or older. Men and nonpregnant women accounted for 68 percent (n = 140) of all cases among adults (annual incidence, 4.4 per 100,000). Clinical and laboratory records were available for 137. In the nonpregnant adult patients (age, 18 to 99 years), the most common clinical diagnoses were skin, soft-tissue, or bone infection (in 36 percent); bacteremia with no identified source (30 percent); urosepsis (14 percent); pneumonia (9 percent); and peritonitis (7 percent). Risk factors included older age (> or = 60 years), the presence of diabetes mellitus, the presence of malignant neoplasms, and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. The mortality rate in nonpregnant adults was 21 percent, accounting for 67 percent of all deaths related to group B streptococcal infection during the surveillance period. CONCLUSIONS. Invasive group B streptococcal infection is a major problem not only in pregnant women and neonates but also in nonpregnant adults, especially those who are elderly and those who have chronic diseases.

Title Gastrointestinal Carriage of Listeria Monocytogenes in Household Contacts of Patients with Listeriosis.
Date June 1993
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Title Amplification of Rdna Loci to Detect and Type Neisseria Meningitidis and Other Eubacteria.
Date April 1993
Journal Molecular and Cellular Probes
Excerpt

In 1991-92, Neisseria meningitidis group C was isolated from the blood of eight students in Urbana, Illinois, USA, and from the cerebrospinal fluid of one student from a nearby community, Decatur, Illinois. These and other bacterial species were analysed by PCR fingerprinting using primers selected from the ribosomal (r)DNA loci. A rDNA primer pair spanning a region within the 16S rDNA amplified a predicted 280 base pair (bp) DNA fragment from Neisseria spp. and fragments of different sizes for other genera. This primer pair specifically detected a carrier of N. meningitidis in a small clinical battery. Identity of the fragment was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. A 600 bp fragment was also amplified from the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of N. meningitidis; amplification from six other genera yielded different-sized fragments. Digestion of the ITS fragment from N. meningitidis with Alu I revealed three patterns; pattern I was found only for serogroup C isolates, and it was the dominant pattern among recent isolates with the exception of the one from Decatur. The isolate from Decatur yielded pattern III which suggested a non-clonal relationship to the seven isolates from Urbana. Patterns II and III were more prevalent in isolates from the 1960's and 1980's. PCR-based analysis of these loci can complement the techniques which are currently used for the detection and typing of these and other eubacteria.

Title The Epidemiology of Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis.
Date February 1993
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To determine environmental risk factors for bacillary angiomatosis-bacillary peliosis (BAP), and to confirm infection with Rochalimaea species. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--Community and university hospitals and clinics. PATIENTS--Case patients (N = 48) had biopsy-confirmed BAP. Controls (N = 94) were matched to patients by institution and by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Clinical information was obtained from medical records. Subjects were queried about environmental exposures. Univariate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. Bivariate analyses were performed on variables associated with disease by univariate analysis. DNA from 22 available case-patient tissues and from 22 control tissues was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to detect Rochalimaea species. RESULTS--We identified five HIV-negative, immunocompetent case patients; one HIV-negative, immunodeficient case patient; and 42 HIV-positive case patients. There were no significant differences between case patients and controls by race, sex, age, or risk factors for HIV infection. Owning a cat (OR, 2.8; CI, 1.4 to 5.8) and history of a recent cat lick (OR, 1.95; CI, 1.0 to 3.8), cat scratch (OR, 3.7; CI, 1.7 to 8.0), or cat bite (OR, 3.9; CI, 1.8 to 8.9) were associated with disease in the univariate analysis. In bivariate analyses, only the variables representing traumatic contact with a cat (bite or scratch) remained associated with disease. No other environmental exposure was associated with disease. The PCR amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for Rochalimaea species in all 22 case-patient tissue specimens. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that BAP is a new zoonosis associated with both traumatic exposure to cats and infection with Rochalimaea species or a closely related organism.

Title Group B Streptococcal Disease in the United States, 1990: Report from a Multistate Active Surveillance System.
Date January 1993
Journal Mmwr. Cdc Surveillance Summaries : Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Cdc Surveillance Summaries / Centers for Disease Control
Excerpt

Group B streptococcal (GBS) disease is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in the United States. It is also an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and adults with underlying medical conditions. Because most states have not designated GBS disease as a reportable condition, previous estimates of the incidence of GBS disease were based on studies from single hospitals or small geographic areas. This report summarizes the results of population-based active surveillance for invasive GBS disease in counties within four states that had an aggregate population of 10.1 million persons in 1990. A case of GBS disease was defined as isolation of group B streptococcus from a normally sterile anatomic site in a resident of one of the surveillance areas. Age- and race-adjusted projections to the U.S. population suggest that > 15,000 cases and > 1,300 deaths due to GBS disease occur each year. The projected age- and race-adjusted national incidence is 1.8/1,000 live births for neonatal GBS disease and 4.0/100,000 population per year for adult GBS disease. Intrapartum chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women at risk for delivering infants with GBS disease is the most effective strategy available for prevention of neonatal disease. Development of effective GBS vaccines may prevent GBS disease in both infants and adults. Ongoing surveillance for GBS disease is important for targeting preventive measures and determining their effectiveness.

Title Decline of Childhood Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (hib) Disease in the Hib Vaccine Era.
Date January 1993
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--Effective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines were first licensed for use in US children at least 18 months old in December 1987 and for infants at least 2 months old in October 1990. We evaluated trends in Hib disease associated with licensure of Hib conjugate vaccines. DESIGN--Data from two sources, an intensive laboratory-based active surveillance system and the National Bacterial Meningitis Reporting System (NBMRS), were used separately to evaluate disease incidence. Data from vaccine manufacturers on Hib vaccine doses distributed in the United States were compared with trends in Hib disease incidence. RESULTS--The age-specific incidence of Hib disease among children less than 5 years old decreased by 71% from 37 per 100,000 persons in 1989 to 11 per 100,000 persons in 1991 (active surveillance data). Haemophilus influenzae meningitis incidence decreased by 82% between 1985 and 1991 (NBMRS data). Increases in doses of Hib vaccine distributed in the United States coincided with steep declines in Hib disease. Both surveillance systems showed decreased rates of Hib disease in infants less than 1 year old before vaccine was licensed for use in this age group. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease incidence in persons at least 12 years old and pneumococcal meningitis incidence in children less than 5 years old did not change substantially during the same period; therefore, decreased Hib disease in children less than 5 years old is not likely to be explained solely by changes in surveillance sensitivity or decreases in bacterial disease due to changes in medical practice. CONCLUSION--Our data suggest that conjugate vaccines have already had a marked impact on the incidence of Hib disease in the United States, preventing an estimated 10,000 to 16,000 cases of Hib disease in 1991. The decline of disease in infants less than 1 year old before licensure for this age group warrants further investigation.

Title Invasive Haemophilus Influenzae Infections in Men with Hiv Infection.
Date December 1992
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the proportion of disease due to serotype b. DESIGN--Population-based, active surveillance. SETTING--San Francisco (Calif) Department of Health. PARTICIPANTS--All men 20 to 49 years of age with invasive H influenzae disease. RESULTS--The cumulative incidences of invasive H influenzae disease in men 20 to 49 years of age with AIDS and in HIV-infected men 20 to 49 years of age without AIDS were 79.2 and 14.6 per 100,000, respectively, but only 33% of cases were due to serotype b. The corresponding rates for invasive H influenzae b disease were 11.3 and 7.6 per 100,000. CONCLUSIONS--Men with AIDS or HIV infection are at increased risk of invasive H influenzae infections, including H influenzae b, but such infections are still infrequent in this population.

Title Comparative Efficacy of Oral Rifampin and Topical Chloramphenicol in Eradicating Conjunctival Carriage of Haemophilus Influenzae Biogroup Aegyptius. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.
Date December 1992
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

Persistent conjunctival carriage of the Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) strain (BPF clone) responsible for Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) has been documented. Topical chloramphenicol is routinely used to treat conjunctivitis in areas affected by BPF in Brazil. Although the BPF clone is susceptible to chloramphenicol, we observed a number of children treated with topical chloramphenicol for conjunctivitis who still developed BPF. During an investigation of an outbreak of BPF in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, we compared oral rifampin (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) with topical chloramphenicol for eradication of conjunctival carriage of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius among children with presumed BPF clone conjunctivitis. Conjunctival samples were taken for culture on the day treatment was initiated and a mean of 8 and 21 days later. At 8 days the eradication rates for oral rifampin and topical chloramphenicol were 100 and 44%, respectively (P = 0.003); at 21 days they were 100 and 50% (P = 0.01). Oral rifampin was more effective than topical chloramphenicol for eradication of the BPF clone and may be useful in prevention of BPF.

Title Case 22-1992--pathogenesis of Cat Scratch Disease.
Date December 1992
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Title Invasive Haemophilus Influenzae Disease: a Population-based Evaluation of the Role of Capsular Polysaccharide Serotype. Haemophilus Influenzae Study Group.
Date June 1992
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Title Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Invasive Haemophilus Influenzae Disease in Adults. Cdc Meningitis Surveillance Group.
Date June 1992
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Title Invasive Haemophilus Influenzae Disease in Adults. A Prospective, Population-based Surveillance. Cdc Meningitis Surveillance Group.
Date May 1992
Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE: To define the incidence of and possible risk factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in adults. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based surveillance of hospital and referral bacteriology laboratories. SETTING: Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia community. PATIENTS: All patients with H. influenzae isolated from normally sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, joint, pleura) from 1 December 1988 through 31 May 1990. MEASUREMENTS: Isolates of H. influenzae were analyzed for serotype and biotype status, outer membrane proteins, lipooligosaccharide phenotypes, ribotyping patterns and beta-lactamase production. RESULTS: A total of 194 cases of invasive H. influenzae occurred (annual incidence of 5.6 cases/100,000 population), of which 47 (24%) were in adults 18 years old or older (annual incidence 1.7 cases/100,000 adults). Adults with invasive H. influenzae ranged from 18 to 96 years; 79% were women. Bacteremic pneumonia accounted for 70% of the adult cases. Other sources for invasive H. influenzae in adults were obstetric infections, epiglottitis, and tracheobronchitis; one patient had meningitis. Underlying conditions were noted in 92% of the patients. Chronic lung disease was the most common risk factor, but pregnancy (annual incidence, 4.9/100,000 pregnant women), HIV infection (annual incidence, 41/100,000 known HIV-infected adults), and malignancy were also important. Overall mortality was 28% in adults, and over half of pregnancy-related infections resulted in fetal death. Fifty percent of the 40 isolates available for testing were serotype b; 47.5%, nontypable; and 2.5%, serotype f. Sixteen of the 45 isolates (36%) were ampicillin-resistant. Based on biotypes, outer membrane protein profiles, lipooligosaccharide phenotypes, and ribotyping patterns, the type b isolates showed less heterogeneity than the nontypable isolates but were distinguishable from one another. CONCLUSIONS: Adult cases currently represent one quarter of all cases of invasive H. influenzae disease. Half of the reported adult cases were caused by type b H. influenzae, and the rate of ampicillin resistance in H. influenzae isolates from adults was higher than previously reported. Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of bacteremia in compromised adults.

Title Role of Foods in Sporadic Listeriosis. I. Case-control Study of Dietary Risk Factors. The Listeria Study Group.
Date April 1992
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To identify dietary risk factors for sporadic listeriosis. DESIGN--Case-control study with blinded telephone interviews. SETTING--Multistate population of 18 million persons, November 1988 through December 1990. PARTICIPANTS--One hundred sixty-five patients with culture-confirmed listeriosis and 376 control subjects matched for age, health care provider, and immunosuppressive condition. RESULTS--The annual incidence of invasive listeriosis was 7.4 cases per million population; 23% of the infections were fatal. Cases were more likely than matched controls to have eaten soft cheeses (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 4.8; P = .002) or food purchased from store delicatessen counters (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5; P = .04); 32% of sporadic disease could be attributed to eating these foods. Sixty-nine percent of cases in men and nonpregnant women occurred in cancer patients, persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, organ transplant recipients, or those receiving corticosteroid therapy. Among these immunosuppressed patients, eating undercooked chicken also increased the risk of listeriosis (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 9.2; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS--Foodborne transmission may account for a substantial portion of sporadic listeriosis. Prevention efforts should include dietary counseling of high-risk patients and continued monitoring of food production.

Title Role of Foods in Sporadic Listeriosis. Ii. Microbiologic and Epidemiologic Investigation. The Listeria Study Group.
Date April 1992
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the role of foods in sporadic listeriosis. DESIGN--Microbiologic survey of foods collected from refrigerators of patients with listeriosis identified through active laboratory-based surveillance. Patient and food Listeria monocytogenes isolates were subtyped to identify foods contaminated with the same strain of L monocytogenes that caused illness in the patient; samples of these foods were obtained from the retail source. SETTING--Multistate population-based study conducted between 1988 and 1990. RESULTS--Listeria monocytogenes grew from at least one food specimen in the refrigerators of 79 (64%) of 123 listeriosis patients; 11% of more than 2000 food specimens collected in the study contained L monocytogenes. Twenty-six (33%) of 79 refrigerators with foods that grew L monocytogenes contained at least one food isolate of the same strain as that in the corresponding patient, a frequency much higher than would be expected by chance (P less than .001). Multivariate analysis showed that of the food specimens that grew L monocytogenes, foods that were ready-to-eat, foods that grew L monocytogenes by a direct-plating method (a measure of the level of contamination), and foods that contained serotype 4b isolates were independently associated with an increased likelihood of containing the patient-matching strain. CONCLUSION--We identified specific food and L monocytogenes isolate characteristics--ready-to-eat foods, foods containing higher concentrations of L monocytogenes, and foods containing serotype 4b--which were associated with disease-causing strains. These results can provide guidance to industry and regulatory agencies in developing strategies to prevent listeriosis.

Title Comparison of Cold Enrichment and U.s. Department of Agriculture Methods for Isolating Listeria Monocytogenes from Naturally Contaminated Foods. The Listeria Study Group.
Date February 1992
Journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Excerpt

We compared the cold enrichment (CE) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) methods for isolating Listeria monocytogenes by examining 402 food samples. The food samples were collected from refrigerators of listeriosis patients as part of a multistate active surveillance project to determine the role of foods in sporadic listeriosis in the United States. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 51 food samples (13%). The USDA method was significantly better (P less than 0.001) than the CE method. The isolation efficiencies of the USDA and CE methods were 96 and 59%, respectively. Quantitation of L. monocytogenes in the food samples revealed that many food samples containing less than 0.3 CFU/g were negative as determined by the CE method but positive as determined by the USDA method.

Title Efficacy of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Polysaccharide-diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine in Us Children Aged 18-59 Months. Haemophilus Influenzae Vaccine Efficacy Study Group.
Date September 1991
Journal Lancet
Excerpt

Vaccines prepared from the polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) capsule of Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) have not consistently shown good efficacy in protecting children aged over 18 months from invasive Hib disease. To evaluate the efficacy of conjugate-PRP vaccines in this age-group, and to compare their effect with that of PRP vaccines, a post-marketing case-control study was conducted among 10,400,000 persons. Between Oct 1, 1988, and Feb 28, 1990, 75 patients with Hib disease and 161 control children between 18 and 60 months of age were enrolled. To minimise potentially confounding socioeconomic variables, controls were selected either from among patients' classmates at their day-care centre or from among family acquaintances. 9 of the 75 patients had received the diphtheria toxoid conjugate Hib vaccine more than 2 weeks before onset of illness. After adjusting for age and household crowding, the efficacy of PRP Hib vaccine was 64% (95% Cl = -20,89) and efficacy of the diphtheria toxoid conjugate Hib vaccine was 74% (95% Cl = 30,90). The study shows that the protective efficacy of this conjugate vaccine is less than ideal and highlights the need for additional post-licensing studies to confirm and expand understanding of the efficacy of these new products.

Title Serological Evaluation of the Macrofilaricidal Effects of Diethylcarbamazine Treatment in Bancroftian Filariasis.
Date August 1991
Journal The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Excerpt

An Mr 200,000 phosphorylcholine-containing antigen (PC-Ag) of predominantly adult worm origin was found in the sera of humans infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. This paper describes results of a longitudinal study of changes in levels of PC-Ag in response to diethylcarbamazine (DEC) therapy as measured by two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and Western blotting. One hundred thirty-two residents of a bancroftian filariasis-endemic area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) were treated with a 72 mg/kg dose of DEC. A macrofilaricidal effect was seen with this dose of DEC as 34% of the treated subjects had localized side effects and long-term decreases in microfilariae (mf) counts were observed 12 months after treatment. The PC-Ag levels were reduced to 72%, 52%, and 51% of pretreatment values at 21 days and at six and 12 months after treatment. These decreases, observed by IRMA, were specifically associated with loss of the Mr 200,000 PC-Ag detected by immunoadsorption and Western blotting. From drug treatment data, the maximum half-life of PC-Ag in circulation was calculated to be 50 days, assuming a first-order decay process. This maximum half-life indicates that persistent antigenemia observed in the majority of treated subjects could only result from the survival of adult worms. In the absence of methods to directly demonstrate W. bancrofti adult worms, detection of serum PC-Ag levels provides a sensitive indirect measure of the dynamics of adult worm populations. This serological measurement may be useful in optimizing the macrofilaricidal and therapeutic effects of DEC and in assessing the macrofilaricidal action of new antifilarial drugs and immunological interventions.

Title Risk Factors for Carriage of Meningococcus in the Los Angeles County Men's Jail System.
Date April 1991
Journal American Journal of Epidemiology
Excerpt

Ten cases of meningococcal meningitis in the Los Angeles County men's jail system in 1986 were the first known reported cases in this population. New cases have continued into 1990. Nineteen of 21 symptomatic cases identified by serogroup from the men's jail occurring through 1988 had serogroup C. The prevalence of meningococcal carriage and potential risk factors were studied in 1988 among 150 men booked to enter the jail, 350 inmates being released, and 100 jail staff. The prevalence of meningococcal carriage among releases, bookings, and staff were 25.4%, 18.7%, and 5.0%, respectively. Among releases, imprisonment longer than a threshold of 28 days increased carriage of serogroup C 10.0 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-21.6). Among bookings, household crowding increased serogroup C carriage 8.2 times (95% CI 1.5-45.3). Direct and passive smoking at home increased carriage of any serogroup 5.2 (95% CI 1.2-47.5) and 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-5.8) times, respectively. Feasible potential interventions include banning smoking in the jail and immunization with quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine of booked men sentenced for one month or more.

Title Day Care Characteristics Associated with Haemophilus Influenzae Disease. Haemophilus Influenzae Study Group.
Date December 1990
Journal American Journal of Public Health
Excerpt

To identify characteristics of day care facilities associated with H. influenzae disease, we compared 92 licensed facilities in which a case of H. influenzae disease had occurred with randomly selected facilities at which no cases occurred. Matched univariate analysis showed that personnel at facilities where H. influenzae disease occurred were more likely than those at control facilities to use towels or handkerchiefs to wipe children's noses, admit children who were not toilet trained or had diarrhea ("liberal fecal policy"), had a narrower age range, were more likely than control facilities to be for-profit and less likely to use volunteers. In a multivariate model that adjusted for age range, profit status and liberal fecal policy, towel or handkerchief use (OR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 30) was the only variable independently associated with case facilities. This is the first association of a specific day care practice with H. influenzae disease.

Title Bacterial Meningitis in the United States, 1986: Report of a Multistate Surveillance Study. The Bacterial Meningitis Study Group.
Date December 1990
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

A prospective, laboratory-based surveillance project obtained accurate data on meningitis in a population of 34 million people during 1986. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis (45%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (18%), and Neisseria meningitidis (14%). Rates of H. influenzae meningitis varied significantly by region, from 1.9/100,000 in New Jersey to 4.0/100,000 in Washington state. The overall case fatality rates for meningitis were lower than those reported in several studies from the early 1970s, suggesting that improvements in early detection and antibiotic treatment may have occurred since that time. Concurrent surveillance was also performed for all invasive disease due to the five most common causes of bacterial meningitis. Serotypes of group B streptococcus other than type III caused more than half of neonatal group B streptococcal disease and mortality, suggesting that an optimal vaccine preparation must be multivalent. Of the organisms evaluated, group B streptococcus was the second most common cause of invasive disease in persons greater than 5 years old.

Title Outbreak of Mycobacterium Chelonae Infection Associated with Use of Jet Injectors.
Date August 1990
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

Between January 1 and May 15, 1988, foot infections due to Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscessus were diagnosed in eight persons who had undergone invasive procedures at a podiatry office. A cohort study was performed to evaluate risk factors for disease. Persons who underwent procedures before 10:30 AM were more likely to have developed infection than those with procedures after that time (relative risk, 5.6). In addition, procedures involving any of the second through fourth toes were more likely to have resulted in infection than procedures involving only the first and/or fifth toes (relative risk, 4.4). Persons with 0, 1, or 2 risk factors had attack rates of 5%, 14%, and 60%, respectively. Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscessus organisms of the same antimicrobial resistance pattern as the patients' strains were cultured from distilled water in a reusable, nonsterilized container. A jet injector used to administer lidocaine was held between procedures in a mixture of the distilled water and a disinfectant as recommended by the manufacturer. Inoculation of patients with mycobacteria by the jet injector may have only occurred early in the day due to slow killing of the bacteria by the disinfectant. The outbreak emphasizes the pathogenicity of this water-associated organism and the need for high-level disinfection of jet injectors.

Title Prevention of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease: Vaccines and Passive Prophylaxis.
Date December 1989
Journal Current Clinical Topics in Infectious Diseases
Title Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Microbicidal Activity and Oxidative Metabolism by Fibrinogen Degradation Products D and E.
Date July 1989
Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Excerpt

Fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) D and E are typically present in blood of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation and related conditions in which granulocyte (PMN) defense against bacterial infection may be compromised. This study was intended to determine whether FDP modify PMN functions critical to their bactericidal activity. Incubation of human PMN and Escherichia coli with 50-100 micrograms/ml FDP did not affect phagocytosis, but reduced by greater than 90% the cells' ability to inhibit bacterial colony growth compared with control PMN incubated with albumin or fibrinogen. FDP (10-100 micrograms/ml) inhibited PMN O2- release and chemotaxis stimulated by FMLP by 17-50% (P less than 0.005) and 41% (P less than 0.01), respectively. Fragment E3, and not fragment D1, was primarily responsible for inhibition of FMLP-induced PMN O2- release. Phorbol myristate acetate (10 ng/ml), 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (10(-6) M), AA (4.2 x 10(-5) M), and zymosan-activated serum-stimulated PMN O2- release were also decreased 37-63% by FDP compared with control protein. There are at least two mechanisms by which FDP may impair PMN responses. With respect to FMLP, FDP (16-100 micrograms/ml) inhibited specific binding to the cell surface over a ligand concentration range of 1.4-85 nM [3H]FMLP. In contrast, FDP did not effect the extent of phorbol ester binding to PMN but blocked activation of protein kinase C. These data suggest that elevated plasma FDP inhibit several PMN functions critical to the bactericidal role of these inflammatory cells.

Title Infection Caused by Francisella Philomiragia (formerly Yersinia Philomiragia). A Newly Recognized Human Pathogen.
Date June 1989
Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
Excerpt

We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with Francisella philomiragia (formerly Yersinia philomiragia) isolated from normally sterile sites. Isolates from 14 patients were received by the Centers for Disease Control between 1975 and 1987: 9 were from blood; 2 from lung biopsies; and 1 each from pleural, peritoneal, and cerebrospinal fluid. Underlying problems included chronic granulomatous disease in 5 patients, near-drowning in 5, and a myeloproliferative disease in 2. All 13 patients for whom records were available had a febrile syndrome compatible with bacterial infection. Pneumonia and fever-bacteremia were the commonest clinical syndromes reported. In 7 cases, F. philomiragia was the only sterile-site isolate, and the clinical syndrome did not resolve without appropriate antibiotics. Familiarity with this organism is important because of its ability to cause serious disease in chronic granulomatous disease and near-drowning patients. Further study may yield new insights into pathogenic and host defense mechanisms.

Title Prognostic Factors in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.
Date November 1988
Journal Journal of General Internal Medicine
Excerpt

To identify prognostic factors in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors studied an inception cohort of 45 patients in a non-endemic area (Group I). The probability of survival was 67% six months after the diagnosis of AIDS and 32% at 12 months. As shown by multivariate Cox regression analysis, survivals were shorter (p less than 0.01) in patients 35 years old or older and in those who had anemia when AIDS was diagnosed. In patients with neither of these poor prognostic factors, the 12-month survival was 64%; in patients with one factor, it was 22%; and in patients with both factors, 0%. The prognostic significance of these two factors was validated in a second inception cohort of 50 patients (Group II): in patients with zero, one, and two poor prognostic factors, the 12-month survivals were 80%, 58%, and 26%, respectively. Other poor prognostic factors in Group I included disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and the development of new opportunistic infections or neoplasms. The authors conclude that clinically important prognostic factors can be identified in AIDS patients. These findings should be considered in planning therapeutic trials and in counseling patients.

Title A Day Care-based Study of the Efficacy of Haemophilus B Polysaccharide Vaccine.
Date September 1988
Journal Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association
Excerpt

To assess the efficacy of the Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine following licensure and to evaluate the risk of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in the week following vaccination, we conducted a day care-based case-control efficacy study using cases of invasive Hib disease ascertained through active surveillance in areas with a total population of 34 million. For each patient 18 to 59 months old, up to three 18- to 59-month-old controls were chosen from the same day care classroom. Using conditional logistic regression, the vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 45% (95% confidence interval = -1% to 70%) and did not change significantly after accounting for potential biases. In addition, three (3%) of 104 patients vs five (2%) of 207 controls were vaccinated within seven days before the patients' dates of admission (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.3 to 10.2), which does not suggest an increased risk of Hib disease in the week following immunization. This study suggests that the efficacy of the currently used HBPV is less than expected from previous studies and points out the usefulness of case-control studies for monitoring vaccine efficacy following licensure.

Title Identification of Phosphorylcholine Epitope-containing Antigens in Brugia Malayi and Relation of Serum Epitope Levels to Infection Status of Jirds with Brugian Filariasis.
Date March 1988
Journal The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Excerpt

The Gib 13 monoclonal antibody was raised against eggs of Onchocerca gibsoni and subsequently found to react with a phosphorylcholine epitope designated as the T15 idiotype. Since an immunoradiometric assay based on the Gib 13 monoclonal antibody holds promise for serodiagnosis of filariasis, the goals of the current study were to evaluate phosphorylcholine epitope production and release by various parasite stages and to assess changes in serum epitope levels during different phases of Brugia malayi infection in jirds. Extracts of B. malayi adult male worms, female worms, and microfilariae contained Gib 13 monoclonal antibody-reactive antigens of Mr 25-30,000, 57-90,000, and approximately equal to 200,000. Adult female worms secreted ten-fold more epitope than microfilariae on a weight basis. Phosphorylcholine-containing antigens were localized in female and male worms, respectively, in egg-bearing regions and the intestines. Assessment of the relationship between serum levels of Gib 13 antibody-binding epitope and parasitologic status of B. malayi-infected jirds showed that the immunoradiometric assay distinguishes patent infected from uninfected control animals, detects a significant rise in epitope level during the prepatent phase of infection, and is unaffected by diethylcarbamazine-induced reduction in the intensity of microfilaremia. There was a direct positive correlation between serum epitope level and female adult worm load. Quantification of serum phosphorylcholine epitope of the T15 idiotype may be useful as an indirect measure of parasite burden in humans with lymphatic filariasis that is independent of microfilaremia.

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