Browse Health
Obstetrician & Gynecologist (OB/GYN)
17 years of experience
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of Alabama at Birmingham (1993)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
One of America's Leading Experts on:
Pregnancy Complications (Infectious)
Associations
American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Sheffield is affiliated with 8 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - Zale Lipshy
    5151 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Children's Medical Center of Dallas
    Obstetrician & Gynecologist
    1935 Motor St, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Parkland Health and Hospital System
  • Dallas County Hospital District
  • UT Southwestern Zale Lipshy Hospital
  • UT Southwestern St Paul Hospital
  • Parkland Hospital
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Sheffield has contributed to 53 publications.
    Title Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Congenital Transmission of Cytomegalovirus.
    Date February 2011
    Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
    Excerpt

    To determine the frequency of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers and assess risk factors that may facilitate intrauterine transmission of CMV, including the role of perinatal HIV infection.

    Title Gestational Age at Previous Preterm Birth Does Not Affect Cerclage Efficacy.
    Date October 2010
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of earliest previous spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) gestational age on cervical length, pregnancy duration, and ultrasound-indicated cerclage efficacy in a subsequent gestation.

    Title Does Midtrimester Cervical Length ≥25 Mm Predict Preterm Birth in High-risk Women?
    Date October 2010
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    We sought to assess pregnancy outcome along a continuum of cervical lengths (CLs) ≥25 mm.

    Title Cervical Funneling: Effect on Gestational Length and Ultrasound-indicated Cerclage in High-risk Women.
    Date September 2010
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this study was to assess funnel type and pregnancy duration in women with previous spontaneous preterm birth and cervical length <25 mm.

    Title Diagnostic Dilemmas in a Pregnant Woman with Influenza A (h1n1) Infection.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    Pregnant women are at increased risk for complications from seasonal influenza. Early data suggest that influenza A (H1N1) may present an even greater risk.

    Title Presentation of Seasonal Influenza A in Pregnancy: 2003-2004 Influenza Season.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To describe the clinical course of influenza in pregnant women followed at our institution during the 2003-2004 influenza season.

    Title Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes After Antepartum Treatment of Influenza with Antiviral Medications.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To review the maternal and neonatal outcomes after antepartum exposure to M2 ion channel inhibitors or oseltamivir to provide some guidance on the risk, if any, of antiviral medication during pregnancy.

    Title 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone Caproate for the Prevention of Preterm Birth in Women with Prior Preterm Birth and a Short Cervical Length.
    Date April 2010
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    We sought to evaluate 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) for prevention of preterm birth (PTB) in women with prior spontaneous PTB (SPTB) and cervical length (CL) <25 mm.

    Title Community-acquired Pneumonia in Pregnancy.
    Date December 2009
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a common disease worldwide, with considerable morbidity and mortality. In the United States, pneumonia complicates 0.5 to 1.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. Physiologic adaptations in the respiratory and immunologic systems may increase susceptibility to pulmonary infections as well as alter their clinical course. Bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens all cause pneumonia in pregnancy, although the causative agent is identified in only 40-60% of cases. The most common single pathogen is Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is identified in 15-20% of community-acquired pneumonia cases in pregnancy. Recent recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society on the management of community-acquired pneumonia address diagnostic techniques and management schemes for bacterial and viral pneumonias. These guidelines are discussed in the setting of the pregnant woman with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Title Multicenter Randomized Trial of Cerclage for Preterm Birth Prevention in High-risk Women with Shortened Midtrimester Cervical Length.
    Date October 2009
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    The objective of the study was to assess cerclage to prevent recurrent preterm birth in women with short cervix.

    Title The Effect of Progesterone Levels and Pregnancy on Hiv-1 Coreceptor Expression.
    Date March 2009
    Journal Reproductive Sciences (thousand Oaks, Calif.)
    Excerpt

    The upregulation of HIV-1 co-receptor expression during certain clinical settings may explain the predisposition of individuals to enhanced HIV-1 acquisition. We sought to determine the effect of estrogen and progesterone on the HIV-1 coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. Co-receptor expression on CD3- and CD14-positive cells obtained systemically and locally (genital tissue in women) was determined in men, pre- and post-menopausal women, pregnant women in each trimester and in labor. CCR5 on both CD3- and CD14-positive cells was highest in pregnant women, and increased as gestation advanced ( P < .01 and P < .001, respectively). Progesterone levels were significantly associated with CCR5 expression on PBMCs ( P < .03 for CD3-positive, and P < .002 for CD14-positive cells) and from cells isolated from tissue ( P < .001).CCR5 mRNA expression correlated with the cell surface marker expression from blood and tissue. These findings suggest that pregnancy and other high progesterone states may predispose women to HIV-1 acquisition.

    Title Ampicillin Resistance and Outcome Differences in Acute Antepartum Pyelonephritis.
    Date November 2008
    Journal Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. RESULTS: We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases) had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission). Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth). CONCLUSION: A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients.

    Title Effect of Genital Ulcer Disease on Hiv-1 Coreceptor Expression in the Female Genital Tract.
    Date January 2008
    Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) by monocytic cells within human genital ulcers. METHODS: Women with primary or secondary syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or HSV-2 infection, or noninfectious abrasions had a biopsy sample taken from the lesion and contralateral vulva. HIV-1 coreceptor expression on CD3(+) and CD14(+) cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to assess levels of coreceptor mRNA expression. RESULTS: Women with primary or secondary syphilis or with HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection had significantly increased numbers of CD14(+) cells expressing CCR5 within the genital ulcer. This increase was also noted in the nonulcerated tissue isolated from women with syphilis and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women with secondary syphilis. CCR5 mRNA expression was increased in tissue obtained from syphilis lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Monocytes recruited to genital ulcer disease (GUD) sites express increased levels of CCR5. This increased expression could account, at least in part, for enhanced HIV-1 transmission in the setting of GUD.

    Title The Incidence of Neonatal Herpes Infection.
    Date May 2007
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of perinatal transmission of neonatal herpes infection has recently been reported at 1 in 3200 births. The main objective of this study was to determine a population-based incidence of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective chart review of newborn infants presenting with herpes infection established by cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction or lesion culture between 1999 and 2003. Only infants delivered at our institution were considered to establish a population-based incidence. RESULTS: Four cases of neonatal herpes infection were identified based on polymerase chain reaction and culture diagnosis. During the study period 78,115 infants were delivered at our institution yielding an incidence of 1 in 20,000 live births. CONCLUSION: The incidence of neonatal herpes infection at our institution is lower than reported elsewhere. A national surveillance program of neonatal herpes is needed to measure the burden of disease across the United States.

    Title Recurrence of Clinical Chorioamnionitis in Subsequent Pregnancies.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the role of clinical chorioamnionitis as an independent risk factor for recurrence in a subsequent pregnancy. METHOD: This was a historical cohort study of pregnant women who had their first and second deliveries at our institution between January 1988 and May 2005. The index pregnancy was restricted to those who delivered vaginally. Data were collected from a continuously updated obstetric database and included demographic and labor characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Chorioamnionitis was diagnosed clinically. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 23,397 women. During the index pregnancy, 10% of women developed chorioamnionitis. This group was significantly different from the rest of the cohort in terms of age, ethnicity, length of labor, epidural analgesia, use of internal monitors, and incidence of prolonged rupture of membranes. In the second pregnancy, 6% of those women again developed chorioamnionitis compared with 2% of women who did not have chorioamnionitis in the first pregnancy (odds ratio 2.93, 95% confidence interval 2.40-3.57). After adjusting for the above confounders, the increased risk of recurrence persisted (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.49-2.30). CONCLUSION: Women delivering vaginally who were diagnosed with chorioamnionitis during their first pregnancy are at increased risk for chorioamnionitis in a subsequent pregnancy. This supports the concept that there may be a predisposition to chorioamnionitis that should be further investigated. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.

    Title Valacyclovir Prophylaxis to Prevent Recurrent Herpes at Delivery: a Randomized Clinical Trial.
    Date August 2006
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the efficacy of valacyclovir suppression in late pregnancy to reduce the incidence of recurrent genital herpes in labor and subsequent cesarean delivery. METHODS: A total of 350 pregnant women with a history of genital herpes were assigned randomly to oral valacyclovir 500 mg twice a day or an identical placebo from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery. In labor, vulvovaginal herpes simplex virus (HSV) culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specimens were collected. Vaginal delivery was permitted if no clinical recurrence or prodromal symptoms were present. Neonatal HSV cultures and laboratory tests were obtained, and infants were followed up for 1 month after delivery. Data were analyzed using chi2 and Student t tests. RESULTS: One hundred seventy women treated with valacyclovir and 168 women treated with placebo were evaluated. Eighty-two percent of the women had recurrent genital herpes; 12% had first episode, nonprimary genital herpes; and 6% had first episode, primary genital herpes. At delivery, 28 women (8%) had recurrent genital herpes requiring cesarean delivery: 4% in the valacyclovir group and 13% in the placebo group (P = .009). Herpes simplex virus was detected by culture in 2% of the valacyclovir group and 9% [corrected] of the placebo group (P =.02). No infants were diagnosed with neonatal HSV, and there were no significant differences in neonatal complications. There were no significant differences in maternal or obstetric complications in either group. CONCLUSION: Valacyclovir suppression after 36 weeks of gestation significantly reduces HSV shedding and recurrent genital herpes requiring cesarean delivery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.

    Title Effect of Protease Inhibitor Therapy on Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy.
    Date June 2006
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if protease inhibitor use was associated with increased glucose intolerance in our population of pregnant women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Women who were infected with HIV from January 1, 1998, to January 8, 2004, and who had a 1-hour and 3-hour glucola test were identified. Medical records were reviewed to obtain demographic characteristics and obstetric and laboratory data. Drug regimens at the time of glucola testing were determined. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected women were then matched 1:3 to HIV-noninfected gravidas by race, age, and year of delivery. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-one HIV-infected women had glucola results available. Twelve percent had an abnormal 1-hour glucola result and 3% had an abnormal 3-hour result. This was similar to the HIV-noninfected population. Forty-five percent of the HIV-infected cohort was on a protease inhibitor at the time of glucola testing. Protease inhibitor exposure had no effect on glucola test results. HIV infection itself also did not increase abnormal glucola test results. CONCLUSION: Glucose intolerance in this obstetric population was not associated with the diagnosis of HIV or with the use of protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors should continue to be an option for the treatment of HIV in pregnancy.

    Title Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by Hiv-infected Women.
    Date February 2006
    Journal Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994) compared to before implementation. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study in which medical records were reviewed to obtain demographic, obstetric and HIV-related data from January 1993 through December 2002. HIV-infected women who completed a pregnancy by birth or abortion were divided into two comparison groups: "Pre-076" and "Post-076". The primary outcome was sterilization by postpartum tubal ligation.Results. Forty-two women (74%) in the Pre-076 group chose sterilization compared to 139 of 310 women (45%) in the Post-076 group (unadjusted OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.83, 6.47). Seventy-one percent of women younger than 21 years of age in the Pre-076 Group chose sterilization compared with only 35% of women younger than 21 years in the Post-076 group (p = 0.0136). Similarly, 78% of primiparous women chose sterilization after their first pregnancy in the Pre-076 group, compared to 14% in the Post-076 group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Since the implementation of PACTG 076 protocol in November 1994, fewer HIV-infected women chose postpartum sterilization. The typical woman who now chooses postpartum sterilization is less likely to be young or primiparous than those who chose sterilization before PACTG Protocol 076 implementation.

    Title Urinary Tract Infection in Women.
    Date February 2006
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    Urinary tract bacterial infections are common in women. Moreover, they tend to recur throughout life and in the same relatively small group of women. In most cases, bladder and renal infections are asymptomatic and manifest by demonstrating coincidental bacteriuria. In some instances, however, especially with frequent sexual activity, pregnancy, stone disease, or diabetes, symptomatic cystitis or pyelonephritis develops and antimicrobial therapy is indicated. In most cases, cystitis is easily managed with minimal morbidity. When acute pyelonephritis develops in an otherwise healthy woman, however, consideration for ureteral obstruction is entertained. If her clinical response to proper therapy is not optimal, then imaging studies are indicated. Pregnancy is a common cause of obstructive uropathy, and severe renal infections are relatively common. Because they usually arise from preexisting covert bacteriuria, experts recommend screening and eradication of these silent infections as a routine prenatal practice.

    Title Clinical Presentation of Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Pregnancy.
    Date November 2005
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the presentation and management of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pregnant women. METHODS: This was a chart review of pregnant patients who were diagnosed with MRSA between January 1, 2000, and July 30, 2004. Data collected included demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, culture results, and pathogen susceptibilities. Patients' pregnancy outcomes were compared with the general obstetric population during the study period. RESULTS: Fifty-seven charts were available for review. There were 2 cases in 2000, 4 in 2001, 11 in 2002, 23 in 2003, and 17 through July of 2004. Comorbid conditions included human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (13%), asthma (11%), and diabetes (9%). Diagnostic culture was most commonly obtained in the second trimester (46%); however 18% of cases occurred in the postpartum period. Skin and soft tissue infections accounted for 96% of cases. The most common site for a lesion was the extremities (44%), followed by the buttocks (25%), and breast (mastitis) (23%). Fifty-eight percent of patients had recurrent episodes. Sixty-three percent of patients required inpatient treatment. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, and rifampin. Other antibiotics to which the isolates were susceptible included gentamicin (98%) and levofloxacin (84%). In comparison with the general obstetric population, patients with MRSA were more likely to be multiparous and to have had a cesarean delivery. CONCLUSION: Community-acquired MRSA is an emerging problem in our obstetric population. Most commonly, it presents as a skin or soft tissue infection that involves multiple sites. Recurrent skin abscesses during pregnancy should raise prompt investigation for MRSA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-3.

    Title Influenza and Pneumonia in Pregnancy.
    Date October 2005
    Journal Clinics in Perinatology
    Excerpt

    Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from febrile respiratory illness worldwide. Influenza in pregnant women has historically been associated with a higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and it is the number one cause of death from an infectious disease. Although pregnant women do not get pneumonia more often than nonpregnant women, it can result in greater morbidity and mortality because of the physiologic adaptations of pregnancy. Pregnant patients who have either of these conditions require a higher level of surveillance and intervention.

    Title Tuberculosis in Pregnancy.
    Date October 2005
    Journal Clinics in Perinatology
    Excerpt

    There were approximately 2 million deaths worldwide from tuberculosis in 1997, 98% of them in developing countries. Factors implicated in the resurgence of tuberculosis in the United States in the late 80s and early 90s included increased immigration from countries with high prevalence, HIV infection, emergence of resistant strains, poverty, homelessness, drug abuse, and a decline in tuberculosis-related health services. With better control programs, cases began to decrease in 1993. In 1998, 18,361 cases of tuberculosis (6.8 per 100,000 population) were reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a 31% decrease from 1992. Pregnancy is not thought to change the course of tuberculosis; however, tuberculosis poses a risk to the pregnant woman and her fetus.

    Title Spontaneous Resolution of Asymptomatic Chlamydia Trachomatis in Pregnancy.
    Date April 2005
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the rate of spontaneous resolution of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy and to evaluate factors associated with its resolution. METHODS: A cohort of women enrolled in a large multicenter randomized bacterial vaginosis antibiotic trial (metronidazole versus placebo) that, when randomly allocated, had asymptomatic C trachomatis diagnosed by urine ligase chain reaction (from frozen archival specimens) between 16(0/7) and 23(6/7) weeks were included. The urine ligase chain reaction is a highly accurate predictor of genital tract chlamydial infection. A follow-up ligase chain reaction was performed between 24(0/7) and 29(6/7) weeks. RESULTS: A total of 1,953 women were enrolled in the original antibiotic trial; 1,547 (79%) had ligase chain reaction performed both at randomization and follow-up. Women receiving antibiotics effective against Chlamydia between randomization and follow-up or having symptomatic Chlamydia infection were excluded (26 women). Of the 140 women (9%) who were diagnosed as positive via the initial ligase chain reaction assay, 61 (44%) had spontaneous resolution of Chlamydia by the follow-up ligase chain reaction assay. Factors associated with spontaneous resolution included older age (P = .02), more than 5 weeks from randomization to follow-up (P = .02), and a greater number of lifetime sexual partners (P = .02). Using a logistic regression model, maternal age and a greater-than-5-week follow-up interval remained significant; for every 5-year increase in maternal age, the odds of a positive result on the ligase chain reaction test at follow-up decreased by 40% (odds ratio 0.6; 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.9). Race, substance abuse, parity, and treatment with metronidazole were not associated with spontaneous resolution. Gram stain score and vaginal pH at randomization and follow-up also were not associated. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asymptomatic C trachomatis in pregnancy was 9%; infection resolved spontaneously in almost half of these women. The association of older age and increasing time interval to spontaneous resolution of Chlamydia is consistent with a host immune-response mechanism.

    Title False Positive Results for the Auszyme Monoclonal Test.
    Date March 2005
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Title Acute Pyelonephritis in Pregnancy.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of pyelonephritis and the incidence of risk factors, microbial pathogens, and obstetric complications in women with acute antepartum pyelonephritis. METHODS: For 2 years, information on pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis was collected in a longitudinal study. All women were admitted to the hospital and treated with intravenous antimicrobial agents. We compared the pregnancy outcomes of these women with those of the general obstetric population received at our hospital during the same time period. RESULTS: Four hundred forty cases of acute antepartum pyelonephritis were identified during the study period (incidence 1.4%). Although there were no significant differences in ethnicity, pyelonephritis was associated with nulliparity (44% versus 37%, P = .003) and young age (P = .003). Thirteen percent of the women had a known risk factor for pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis occurred more often in the second trimester (53%), and the predominant uropathogens were Escherichia coli (70%) and gram-positive organisms, including group B beta Streptococcus (10%). Complications included anemia (23%), septicemia (17%), transient renal dysfunction (2%), and pulmonary insufficiency (7%). CONCLUSION: The incidence of pyelonephritis has remained low in the era of routine prenatal screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria. First-trimester pyelonephritis accounts for over 1 in 5 antepartum cases. Gram-positive uropathogens are found more commonly as pregnancy progresses. Maternal complications continue, but poor obstetrical outcomes are rare.

    Title Sepsis and Septic Shock in Pregnancy.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Critical Care Clinics
    Excerpt

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients in the United States. Improvements in the critical care management of septic shock have led to a decrease in the mortality rate in the past decade. Septic shock in obstetric patients is rare. Pregnant women as a group are younger and have fewer comorbid conditions. Though little is known regarding the treatment of sepsis and septic shock in pregnancy, the same principles and treatment modalities discussed in this article should govern the management of pregnant women.

    Title Morbidity That is Associated with Curettage for the Management of Spontaneous and Induced Abortion in Women Who Are Infected with Hiv.
    Date November 2004
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the morbidity that is associated with curettage for the management of abortions in women who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus compared with women who were not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. STUDY DESIGN: Women who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (cases) and who underwent curettage for the management of scheduled and unscheduled abortions in the first half of pregnancy between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2002, were identified. Women who were not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (control subjects) were matched 3:1 to cases for gestational age, type of abortion, and year of procedure. Medical records were reviewed to obtain demographic characteristics, gestational age, abortion characteristics, and procedure-related complications. Chi-squared test, Student t test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: Seventy-one women who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (cases) and 213 women who were not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (control subjects) who underwent curettage during the study period were evaluated. Forty-eight cases (68%) and 146 control subjects (69%) underwent a scheduled curettage. Twenty-three cases (32%) and 66 control subjects (31%) underwent an unscheduled curettage for spontaneous or incomplete abortion. No significant differences were seen in age, gravidity, or parity. There were significantly more black women in the HIV-infected cohort (P < .001), which was representative of our human immunodeficiency virus population. The mean gestational age in the cases was greater than in the control subjects (10.9 +/- 4.2 weeks of gestation vs 9.2 +/- 3.1 weeks of gestation; P = .004). Procedure-related complications occurred in 10 of the women (14%) who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus who underwent curettage, compared with 9 of the women (4%) who were not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (P = .004). With the use of logistic regression, complication rates were unaffected by the difference in gestational age. Infectious complications did not differ between the 2 groups (P = .435). CONCLUSION: There was a higher rate of procedure-related complications among women who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus and who underwent curettage for management of spontaneous and induced abortions. There was no increase in infectious morbidity in the women who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Title Tetanus in Pregnancy.
    Date September 2004
    Journal American Journal of Perinatology
    Excerpt

    Tetanus remains a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. It is caused by the release of two toxins produced by Clostridium tetani, a noninvasive gram-positive anaerobic bacillus. Tetanospasmin is taken up by the neuronal end plates and prevents neurotransmitter release at the synaptic junction. This leads to spasms and is irreversible. Recovery requires the formation of new neurons and may take months. Generalized muscle spasm, respiratory compromise, and autonomic dysfunction are all common clinical manifestations. Diagnosis is based mainly on history and clinical examination. The management of the pregnant woman is similar to the nonpregnant individual. The main objectives are prompt prevention of further toxin absorption, wound debridement, antibiotic therapy, and aggressive supportive care. Primary and secondary prevention protocols are important worldwide because tetanus is a preventable disease. The tetanus toxoid vaccine can be given in pregnancy.

    Title Improving the Management of Opioid-dependent Pregnancies.
    Date August 2004
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Title Thyrotoxicosis and Heart Failure That Complicate Pregnancy.
    Date February 2004
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: When untreated, Graves' thyrotoxicosis has profound cardiovascular effects, although it rarely causes heart failure in otherwise healthy patients. Preliminary observations suggest that pregnant women are the exception. To further elucidate this association, we studied both immediate and long-term outcomes in women who had thyrotoxicosis and heart failure during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed clinical outcomes of pregnant women with Graves' disease and heart failure at our institution from 1974 through 2001. Women with other underlying heart disease were excluded. A standardized antithyroid regimen and serial echocardiography and/or chest radiography were performed. RESULTS: The 13 women with thyrotoxicosis and heart failure were either noncompliant with antithyroid therapy or had no medical care during pregnancy. Six women had heart failure before fetal viability; decompensation was precipitated by hemorrhage, sepsis, or both. The other 7 women were in the last trimester when heart failure developed; in 4 women, the heart failure was precipitated by severe preeclampsia-eclampsia and in 2 women was precipitated by sepsis. Overall, 11 of 13 women had an underlying obstetric event. In follow-up of 11 women from 2 to 25 years, resolution of cardiomyopathy was confirmed after successful treatment of thyrotoxicosis. CONCLUSION: Normal pregnancy mimics and amplifies some of the hyperdynamic cardiovascular changes that are caused by thyrotoxicosis. When they occur simultaneously, there is usually a compensated high-output state. In some women, however, common pregnancy complications that include hemorrhage with associated anemia, sepsis, and severe preeclampsia-eclampsia will precipitate heart failure. The immediate treatment of heart failure and the correction of precipitating pregnancy factors usually results in good outcome. Long-term follow-up confirmed that thyrotoxic cardiac dysfunction is reversible with successful antithyroid therapy.

    Title Acyclovir Prophylaxis to Prevent Herpes Simplex Virus Recurrence at Delivery: a Systematic Review.
    Date January 2004
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Perinatal transmission of the virus to the fetus or neonate is a major concern in affected pregnancies. Our objective was to systematically review published data to estimate the effect of prophylactic acyclovir provided to pregnant women near term on the rate of recurrent genital herpes at delivery; the number of cesarean deliveries performed for clinical HSV recurrences or prodromal symptoms; and the prevalence of HSV virologic detection at delivery. DATA SOURCES: Our search included MEDLINE (1966-March 2003), LILACS, EMBASE, conference proceedings, abstracts from scientific forums and bibliographies of published articles with the following medical headings: acyclovir, pregnancy, Herpes viridae, and Herpesviridae. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Prospectively designed criteria included randomized, clinical trials detailing the use of acyclovir in pregnancy for women with HSV published in either abstract or article form. Five trials with a total enrollment of 799 patients were included in the analysis. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: The studies were reviewed independently by three of the authors. With RevMan software, a fixed-effects model was used to calculate a summary odds ratio (OR) comparing the effect of treatment with placebo. Acyclovir prophylaxis beginning at 36 weeks' gestation was effective in reducing clinical HSV recurrences at the time of delivery (OR 0.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.15, 0.40), cesarean deliveries for clinical recurrence genital herpes (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.13, 0.67), total HSV detection at delivery (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.04, 0.31), and asymptomatic HSV shedding at delivery (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.02, 0.39). CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis indicate that prophylactic acyclovir beginning at 36 weeks' gestation reduces the risk of clinical HSV recurrence at delivery, cesarean delivery for recurrent genital herpes, and the risk of HSV viral shedding at delivery.

    Title State Laws Regarding Prenatal Syphilis Screening in the United States.
    Date December 2003
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and pattern of state laws or regulations regarding prenatal syphilis serologic screening in the United States in 2001. STUDY DESIGN: We surveyed the United States for existing laws and regulations regarding serologic screening for syphilis during pregnancy. Testing was compared with 2000 state rates of syphilis in women and newborn infants, with states that had syphilis high morbidity areas, and with national 2000 and 2010 objectives for rates of syphilis. RESULTS: Forty-six of the 50 states (90%) and the District of Columbia have laws regarding antenatal syphilis screening. Thirty-four of the 46 statutes (76%) mandate one prenatal test, usually at the first prenatal visit or early in pregnancy. Twelve laws (26%) include third-trimester testing for all or high-risk women. The presence of high morbidity areas, incidence of early syphilis in women, and rates of congenital syphilis are associated with increasing frequency of legislated antepartum screening. CONCLUSION: Only 90% of states have statutes that require antepartum syphilis screening, and there is variation in the content of the statutes about the number and timing of tests. States with a heavy burden of infectious syphilis in women tend to require more prenatal testing.

    Title Relationship Between Maternal Methadone Dosage and Neonatal Withdrawal.
    Date January 2003
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether maternal methadone dosage affects duration and degree of neonatal narcotic withdrawal. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with opioid addiction who delivered live-born singletons between April 1990 and April 2001. Inpatient detoxification or outpatient methadone maintenance therapy was offered. Women who had a positive drug screen or whose neonate tested positive for opioids were considered to be supplementing. We evaluated indices of neonatal withdrawal according to the maximum daily methadone dosage in the last week of pregnancy. RESULTS: Seventy women with opioid addiction were followed. Median methadone dosage was 20 mg (range 0-150 mg), and 32 infants (46%) were treated for narcotic withdrawal. Among women who received less than 20 mg per day, 20-39 mg per day, and at least 40 mg per day of methadone, treatment for withdrawal occurred in 12%, 44%, and 90% of infants, respectively (P < 0.02). Methadone dosage was also correlated with both duration of neonatal hospitalization and neonatal abstinence score (r(s) =.70 and.73 respectively, both P <.001). Neonates were more likely to experience withdrawal if their mothers were supplementing with heroin, 68% versus 35% (P =.01). Regardless of supplementation, there was a significant relationship between methadone dosage and neonatal withdrawal (P <.05). CONCLUSION: Maternal methadone dosage was associated with duration of neonatal hospitalization, neonatal abstinence score, and treatment for withdrawal. Heroin supplementation did not alter this dose-response relationship. In selected pregnancies, lowering the maternal methadone dosage was associated with both decreased incidence and severity of neonatal withdrawal.

    Title Maternal Diabetes Mellitus and Infant Malformations.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pregestational, as opposed to gestational, diabetes on infant malformations. METHODS: All women delivering infants at Parkland Hospital between January 1, 1991, and December 31, 2000, were ascertained. Screening for gestational diabetes was methodically employed throughout the study period using National Diabetes Data Group criteria for diagnosis of pregestational and gestational diabetes. Standardized definitions of major infant malformations were specified before data analysis and subdivided according to the organ systems involved. RESULTS: A total of 145,196 women were delivered during the study period, and 2687 (1.9%) were diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 2277 (1.6%) of whom 230 (10%) had fasting hyperglycemia diagnosed, and the remainder consistently demonstrated fasting serum levels less than 105 mg/dL. Pregestational diabetes was diagnosed in 410 (0.3%) women. Infant malformations occurred in 1.5% of nondiabetic women compared with 1.2% of women with normal fasting glucose gestational diabetes, 4.8% in women with gestational diabetes plus fasting hyperglycemia, and 6.1% in those with pregestational diabetes (P <.001, for comparison of the latter two groups with the nondiabetic population). CONCLUSION: Women with pregestational diabetes or gestational diabetes plus fasting hyperglycemia have a three- to four-fold increased risk of infant malformations, whereas women with mild gestational diabetes have malformation rates no different than the general nondiabetic obstetric population.

    Title Treatment of Syphilis in Pregnancy and Prevention of Congenital Syphilis.
    Date October 2002
    Journal Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
    Excerpt

    Studies about the management of syphilis during pregnancy were reviewed. They lacked uniformity in diagnostic criteria and study design. Currently recommended doses of benzathine penicillin G are effective in preventing congenital syphilis in most settings, although studies are needed regarding increased dosing regimens. Azithromycin and ceftriaxone offer potential alternatives for penicillin-allergic women, but insufficient data on efficacy limit their use in pregnancy. Ultrasonography provides a noninvasive means to examine pregnant women for signs of fetal syphilis, and abnormal findings indicate a risk for obstetric complications and fetal treatment failure. Ultrasonography should precede antepartum treatment during the latter half of pregnancy to gauge severity of fetal infection. However, optimal management of the affected fetus has not been established; collaborative management with a specialist is recommended. Antepartum screening remains a critical component of congenital syphilis prevention, even in the era of syphilis elimination.

    Title Placental Histopathology of Congenital Syphilis.
    Date August 2002
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of placental histopathology to the diagnosis of congenital syphilis. METHODS: From January 1, 1986, through December 31, 1998, all pregnant women presenting to a large, urban Dallas County labor and delivery unit with untreated syphilis at delivery and who had placental evaluation performed were identified. Women were clinically staged, and the infants were evaluated for congenital syphilis using a standard protocol. Each placenta was evaluated by two independent pathologists. Histologic characteristics of the placenta related to congenital syphilis in live-born and stillborn infants were then analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-seven women met the study criteria: 33 (49%) stillborn and 18 (27%) live-born infants with congenital syphilis, 15 (22%) uninfected live-born infants, and one uninfected stillborn fetus diagnosed by current criteria. There were no differences between the groups with regard to demographic characteristics, prenatal care, or stage of syphilis. Stillborn infants were more likely to deliver preterm (P <.001). Controlling for gestational age, histopathology revealed necrotizing funisitis, villous enlargement, and acute villitis associated with congenital syphilis. Erythroblastosis was more common in stillborn infants with congenital syphilis than all live-born infants (odds ratio 16, 95% confidence interval 1, 370). The addition of histologic evaluation to conventional diagnostic evaluations improved the detection rate for congenital syphilis from 67% to 89% in live-born infants, and 91% to 97% in stillborn infants. CONCLUSION: Our results show that histopathologic examination of the placenta is a valuable adjunct to the contemporary diagnostic criteria used to diagnose congenital syphilis.

    Title Risk of Hepatitis B Transmission in Breast-fed Infants of Chronic Hepatitis B Carriers.
    Date June 2002
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the rate of hepatitis B (HBV) transmission from chronic HBV carriers to breast-fed infants after immunoprophylaxis. METHODS: Since 1992, information on women with HBV during pregnancy has been collected in a prospective longitudinal study. Those HBV carriers and their infants participating in a county HBV immunoprophylaxis program were identified. Infants were followed for up to 15 months and examined for hepatitis B infection by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). RESULTS: A total of 369 infants born to women with chronic HBV met the inclusion criteria and received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and the full course of the hepatitis B vaccine series. We compared 101 breast-fed infants with 268 formula-fed infants. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the number of women who were positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) (22% versus 26%, P =.51). Three women in the breast-feeding group had liver transaminase abnormalities, compared with six women in the formula-feeding group (P =.29). Overall, there were nine cases of HBV infection transmission (2.4%). None of the 101 breast-fed infants and nine formula-fed infants (3%) were positive for HBsAg after the initial vaccination series (P =.063). The mean length of time for breast-feeding was 4.9 months (range 2 weeks to 1 year). CONCLUSION: With appropriate immunoprophylaxis, including hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccine, breast-feeding of infants of chronic HBV carriers poses no additional risk for the transmission of the hepatitis B virus.

    Title Congenital Syphilis After Maternal Treatment for Syphilis During Pregnancy.
    Date April 2002
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize pregnancies that were complicated by maternal syphilis that had been treated before delivery in which the newborn infant was diagnosed with congenital syphilis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective surveillance from January 1, 1982, to December 31, 1998, involved women who received antenatal treatment for syphilis. Infants who were born with congenital syphilis were identified by clinical or laboratory criteria. Antepartum factors such as gestational age, time to delivery and VDRL titers were then analyzed and compared with those of women who had been treated and who were delivered of an uninfected infant. The 1:1 match was based on the stage of syphilis and the gestational age at treatment. RESULTS: Forty-three women who received antepartum therapy for syphilis were delivered of an infant with congenital syphilis. Most of the women had been treated for early syphilis; the mean gestational age at treatment was 30.3 weeks. Thirty-five percent of the women were treated >30 days before delivery. Fifty-six percent of the infants were preterm. The 1:1 match revealed that treatment and delivery high VDRL titers, prematurity, and a short interval from treatment to delivery were significantly different in those infants who were diagnosed with congenital syphilis. CONCLUSION: High VDRL titers at treatment and delivery, earlier maternal stage of syphilis, the interval from treatment to delivery, and delivery of an infant at < or =36 weeks' gestation are associated with the delivery of a congenitally infected neonate after adequate treatment for maternal syphilis.

    Title Acyclovir Concentrations in Human Breast Milk After Valaciclovir Administration.
    Date February 2002
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the valaciclovir and acyclovir pharmacokinetic profiles in serum and breast milk after valaciclovir administration to women after delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Valaciclovir (500 mg twice daily for 7 days) was given to 5 women after delivery who were breast-feeding healthy term infants. Matched serum and breast milk samples were obtained after the initial dose, on day 5 and 24 hours after the drug was discontinued. Infant urine was obtained on day 5. RESULTS: Valaciclovir was rapidly converted to acyclovir. The peak serum acyclovir concentration occurred 3 hours before the peak breast milk concentration (2.7 microg/mL at 1 hour vs 4.2 microg/mL at 4 hours). The serum acyclovir elimination half-life was 2.3 hours. The ratio of breast milk to serum acyclovir concentration was highest 4 hours after the initial dose at 3.4 and reached steady state ratio at 1.85. The median infant urine acyclovir concentration at steady state was 0.74 microg/mL. CONCLUSION: Valaciclovir is rapidly converted to acyclovir and concentrates in breast milk. However, the amount of acyclovir in breast milk after valaciclovir administration is considerably less (2%) than that used in therapeutic dosing of neonates.

    Title Hepatotoxicity with Antiretroviral Treatment of Pregnant Women.
    Date December 2001
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Hepatotoxicity in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been associated with all classes of antiretroviral drugs and coinfection with hepatitis B and C virus. We treated two HIV-infected pregnant women in whom hepatotoxicity developed after initiating antiretroviral therapy. CASES: The first woman developed icterus, jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated serum aminotransferase levels approximately 5 months after beginning combination antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Serum aminotransferase abnormalities improved after discontinuation of antiretroviral medications. The second woman had similar symptoms and laboratory abnormalities 3 months after initiation of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir. Despite initial improvement after discontinuing her antiretroviral medications, fulminant hepatic failure developed and she died. Both patients tested negative for hepatitis A, B, and C; Epstein-Barr virus; and cytomegalovirus. There was no history of illicit drug use, alcohol use, or blood transfusions in either case. CONCLUSION: We emphasize the need for careful monitoring for hepatotoxicity after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

    Title A Randomized Trial That Compared Oral Cefixime and Intramuscular Ceftriaxone for the Treatment of Gonorrhea in Pregnancy.
    Date October 2001
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the Centers for Disease Control recommendations for the treatment of gonococcal infection in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred sixty-one women who were referred with probable endocervical gonorrhea underwent pretreatment endocervical, anal, and oral cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The women were randomly assigned to receive ceftriaxone 125 mg intramuscularly or cefixime 400 mg orally. Treatment was open and in a 1:1 distribution. There were 95 evaluable patients. The tests of cure cultures were performed 4 to 10 days after treatment. RESULTS: Eighty-six women (91%) had endocervical infection; 39 women (41%) had anal infection, and 11 women (12%) had pharyngeal infection. Fifty of 95 women (53%) had concomitant endocervical chlamydial infection. The overall efficacy was 91 of 95 subjects (95.8%; 95% CI, 89.6%-98.8%). Ceftriaxone was effective in 41 of 43 cases (95%; 95% CI, 84.2%-99.4%), and cefixime was effective in 50 of 52 cases (96%; 95% CI, 86.8%-99.5%). No significant difference was noted in the overall efficacy or by site of infection. Three of the 4 women who experienced treatment failures admitted to unprotected intercourse before their test of cure culture. CONCLUSION: Both intramuscular ceftriaxone 125 mg and oral cefixime 400 mg appear to be effective for the treatment of gonococcal infection in pregnancy.

    Title Antenatal Dexamethasone and Decreased Birth Weight.
    Date April 2001
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that antenatal dexamethasone treatment to promote fetal lung maturation results in decreased birth weight corrected for gestational age. METHODS: The birth weights of all dexamethasone-treated, singleton, live-born infants delivered at our hospital were compared with our overall obstetric population; a group of untreated infants frequency matched approximately 3:1 according to maternal race, infant sex, and gestational age at delivery; and an historical cohort of infants with an indication for dexamethasone but delivered in the 12 months before the introduction of corticosteroid therapy at our hospital. RESULTS: Dexamethasone-treated infants (n = 961), when compared with either the overall population (n = 122,629) or matched controls (n = 2808), had significantly lower birth weights after adjustment for week of gestation (P <.001). Compared with the historical cohort of infants, the average birth weight of dexamethasone-treated infants was smaller by 12 g at 24-26 weeks, 63 g at 27-29 weeks, 161 g at 30-32 weeks, and 80 g at 33-34 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSION: Antenatal dexamethasone administered to promote fetal maturation is associated with diminished birth weight.

    Title Virulent Treponema Pallidum, Lipoprotein, and Synthetic Lipopeptides Induce Ccr5 on Human Monocytes and Enhance Their Susceptibility to Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1.
    Date March 2000
    Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
    Excerpt

    Treponema pallidum, its membrane lipoproteins, and synthetic lipoprotein analogues (lipopeptides) were each examined to determine whether they induced CCR5 expression on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for CCR5 gene transcripts, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta binding assays, and flow cytometry revealed that either T. pallidum, a representative treponemal lipoprotein, or a corresponding synthetic lipopeptide induced CCR5 on CD14 monocytes but not on CD3 lymphocytes. CXCR4, the coreceptor for T cell-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), was not induced on PBMC by treponemes or by lipoproteins or lipopeptides. Consistent with these findings, T. pallidum, lipoprotein, and synthetic lipopeptide all promoted the entry of a macrophage-tropic, but not a T cell-tropic, strain of HIV-1 into monocytes. These combined results imply that T. pallidum and its constituent lipoproteins likely induce the expression of CCR5 on macrophages in syphilitic lesions, thereby enhancing transmission of macrophage-tropic HIV-1.

    Title Syphilis in Pregnancy.
    Date April 1999
    Journal Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Title Efficacy of Treatment for Syphilis in Pregnancy.
    Date February 1999
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended regimens for the treatment of antepartum syphilis and prevention of congenital syphilis. METHODS: This was a prospective evaluation of recommended syphilis treatment regimens from September 1, 1987, to August 31, 1989, at Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas. Women with syphilis were staged and treated according to CDC recommendations. Treatment included 2.4 million units of intramuscular (IM) benzathine penicillin G for primary, secondary, or early latent (less than 1 year) syphilis. Women with late latent (uncertain or longer than 1 year) syphilis were treated with 7.2 million units of benzathine penicillin G IM over 3 weeks. RESULTS: During the study period, 448 of 28,552 women (1.6%) delivered were diagnosed with syphilis. One hundred eight were diagnosed at delivery and treated postpartum. The remaining 340 (75.9%) gravidas with untreated syphilis attending prenatal clinic comprised the study group. The success of therapy in preventing congenital syphilis was as follows: primary syphilis, 27 of 27; secondary syphilis, 71 of 75; early latent syphilis, 100 of 102; and late latent syphilis, 136 of 136. The success rate for all stages of syphilis was 334 of 340 (98.2%). The success rate of therapy in secondary syphilis was significantly different from that of the other groups (P = .03). Two of the six fetal treatment failures produced preterm stillborns. Only one maternal treatment failure occurred, in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected woman. CONCLUSION: The CDC-recommended regimens for the prevention of congenital syphilis and treatment of maternal infection are effective, but the highest risk of fetal treatment failure exists with maternal secondary syphilis.

    Title Fryns Syndrome: Prenatal Diagnosis and Pathologic Correlation.
    Date December 1998
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Title 72-hour Discharge After Cesarean Delivery: Results in a Selected Medicaid Population.
    Date June 1998
    Journal The Journal of Maternal-fetal Medicine
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and cost savings of discharging low income patients at 72 hours following cesarean delivery. Predetermined criteria were used to allow discharge. Selection criteria were no medical problems, an afebrile postoperative course, documented bowel function, to have tolerated at least one regular meal, and to have reached 72 hours postdelivery by 6 o'clock PM at discharge. Each patient returned to clinic 2-3 days postdischarge for staple removal. Physicians also discharged some low income patients home at 72 hours even though strict eligibility criteria were not met. Maternal outcome and financial data were compared between patients discharged after meeting eligibility criteria versus those who did not. Of 1,299 cesareans performed from July 1, 1993-July 31, 1995, 906 (70%) were performed in low income patients and 399 (44%) of these women were discharged at 72 hours. Twenty-seven women were lost to follow-up and 286 (77%; Group A) met the eligibility criteria for 72-hour discharge. Eighty-six women (23%; Group B) who did not meet criteria were also discharged at 72 hours. When maternal outcome data from the two groups were compared, Group B patients (did not meet criteria) were more likely to have been readmitted at < or = 30 days (7 of 86; 8% vs. 8 of 286; 3%; P = 0.05) and had longer hospital stays (27 days vs. 22 days) than Group A patients (met criteria). Net cost savings in 2 years was $448 per discharge for Group A, but only $333 per discharge for Group B. In our selective 72-hour discharge program, failure to abide by predetermined guidelines established to select only low risk, afebrile patients for 72-hour discharge resulted in more hospital readmissions, and longer stays and thus was not as cost effective.

    Title Molecular Localization of Variable and Conserved Regions of Pspa and Identification of Additional Pspa Homologous Sequences in Streptococcus Pneumoniae.
    Date May 1993
    Journal Microbial Pathogenesis
    Excerpt

    PspA is anchored to the surface of all pneumococci by the C-terminal end of the molecule. The N-terminal half of PspA is known to be serologically variable and to be able to elicit protective immune responses. Molecular analysis with DNA probes spanning different regions of pspA was carried out to identify homologous sequences among pneumococcal isolates. At high stringency, DNA probes derived from the 3'-half of pspA (encoding the C-terminal half of PspA) hybridized to all of 37 pneumococcal isolates tested, representing 20 capsular serotypes and 12 PspA serotypes. Most strains had two sequences highly homologous to this region of pspA. Using derivatives of strain Rx1, with insertion mutations in pspA, it was possible to identify the functional pspA sequence. At 50% stringency, the 3' pspA probes also detected lytA and additional sequences. lytA encodes autolysin and shares homology with the 3' portion of pspA. A probe derived from the 5'-half of pspA (encoding the N-terminal half of PspA) hybridized with only 75% of strains and generally detected only one of the two sequences recognized by the 3' probes. Thus, the 3'-half of pspA appears to contain more highly conserved sequences than the 5'-half of pspA and shares homology with several additional sequences, suggesting that the pneumococcus might make several proteins that interact with the surface by the same mechanism as PspA.

    Title Detection of Dna in Southern Blots by Chemiluminescence is a Sensitive and Rapid Technique.
    Date September 1992
    Journal Biotechniques
    Title Pspa, a Surface Protein of Streptococcus Pneumoniae, is Capable of Eliciting Protection Against Pneumococci of More Than One Capsular Type.
    Date February 1991
    Journal Infection and Immunity
    Excerpt

    Monoclonal antibodies against pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) have been shown to protect mice from fatal pneumococcal infection. PspA is highly variable serologically, raising the possibility that PspA from one strain might not be able to elicit protective responses against strains which possess serologically different PspA. We have prepared a lambda gt11 library of pneumococcal genomic DNA and identified a clone expressing PspA. The recombinant PspA in this phage lysate elicited protection against pneumococcal infections with three strains of two different capsular serotypes. This finding demonstrated that PspA could elicit a protective response in the absence of other pneumococcal antigens. The observed protection was probably antibody mediated because it could be passively transferred with immune sera. Lambda lysates producing pneumococcal proteins other than PspA failed to elicit protection against fatal pneumococcal infection.

    Title Sexual Assault: a Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis.
    Date
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology International
    Excerpt

    The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62%) were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier.

    Title Urine Screening for Chlamydia Trachomatis During Pregnancy.
    Date
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To compare the rates of Chlamydia trachomatis detection using urine and cervical secretions from pregnant women at our institution.

    Title Efficacy of an Accelerated Hepatitis B Vaccination Program During Pregnancy.
    Date
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To estimate the feasibility and immunogenicity of an accelerated hepatitis B vaccination schedule of 0, 1, and 4 months in high-risk pregnant women.

    Similar doctors nearby

    Dr. James Alexander

    Obstetrics & Gynecology
    19 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Ruth Word

    Obstetrics & Gynecology
    32 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Barbara Hoffman

    Obstetrics & Gynecology
    23 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. David Nelson

    Obstetrics & Gynecology
    49 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Debra Richardson

    Internal Medicine
    9 years experience
    Dallas, TX

    Dr. Charles Read

    Obstetrics & Gynecology
    11 years experience
    Dallas, TX
    Search All Similar Doctors