Family Physicians
17 years of experience

1432 S Sunnyvale
Mesa, AZ 85206
Locations and availability (1)

Education ?

Medical School Score
Uniformed Services University (1993)
  • Currently 2 of 4 apples

Affiliations ?

Dr. Curtis is affiliated with 1 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

  • Phoenix Indian Medical Center
    4212 N 16th St, Phoenix, AZ 85016
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Curtis has contributed to 29 publications.
    Title The Impact of Disadvantage on the Development and Progression of Diabetic Kidney Disease.
    Date March 2011
    Journal Clinical Nephrology
    Excerpt

    Disadvantaged people include those experiencing economic, social or educational deprivation and, in some cases, those undergoing rapid transition from subsistence to industrial economies. Disadvantaged people worldwide are affected disproportionately by the global epidemic of diabetes. They are also at increased risk of kidney disease attributable to diabetes, and for many, the cost of managing their kidney disease far exceeds their available resources.

    Title Genomic Signatures Predict Migration and Spawning Failure in Wild Canadian Salmon.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    Long-term population viability of Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is threatened by unusually high levels of mortality as they swim to their spawning areas before they spawn. Functional genomic studies on biopsied gill tissue from tagged wild adults that were tracked through ocean and river environments revealed physiological profiles predictive of successful migration and spawning. We identified a common genomic profile that was correlated with survival in each study. In ocean-tagged fish, a mortality-related genomic signature was associated with a 13.5-fold greater chance of dying en route. In river-tagged fish, the same genomic signature was associated with a 50% increase in mortality before reaching the spawning grounds in one of three stocks tested. At the spawning grounds, the same signature was associated with 3.7-fold greater odds of dying without spawning. Functional analysis raises the possibility that the mortality-related signature reflects a viral infection.

    Title Effects of Vitamin E and Organic Selenium on Oxidative Stability of Omega-3 Enriched Dark Chicken Meat During Cooking.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Journal of Food Science
    Excerpt

    The influence of vitamin E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on lipid oxidation in frozen-raw and cooked omega-3 enriched dark chicken meat was evaluated. Feed was supplemented with 2 levels of vitamin E (250 and 50 IU/kg of feed) and selenium (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg of feed and 0.3 mg of SeMet/kg of feed). An extruded linseed product was used as the alpha-linolenic acid source. Fatty acid (FA) profile, oxysterols, and thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARs) were analyzed in frozen-raw, boiled, pan-fried, and roasted meat. After 6 mo of storage, oxysterols in frozen-raw meat remained stable with either high or low levels of dietary antioxidants. During cooking, high levels of vitamin E reduced oxysterol formation, whereas high levels of SeMet were inconsistent and even increased oxysterols during roasting. TBARs in frozen-raw meat stored for 6 mo were inhibited by high levels of either antioxidant. Conversely, no protective effect during cooking was observed at this time of storage. After 12 mo at -30 degrees C no antioxidant protection was observed.

    Title The Spry Domain-containing Socs Box Protein Spsb2 Targets Inos for Proteasomal Degradation.
    Date July 2010
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS; NOS2) produces NO and related reactive nitrogen species, which are critical effectors of the innate host response and are required for the intracellular killing of pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Leishmania major. We have identified SPRY domain-containing SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling) box protein 2 (SPSB2) as a novel negative regulator that recruits an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to polyubiquitinate iNOS, resulting in its proteasomal degradation. SPSB2 interacts with the N-terminal region of iNOS via a binding interface on SPSB2 that has been mapped by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mutational analyses. SPSB2-deficient macrophages showed prolonged iNOS expression, resulting in a corresponding increase in NO production and enhanced killing of L. major parasites. These results lay the foundation for the development of small molecule inhibitors that could disrupt the SPSB-iNOS interaction and thus prolong the intracellular lifetime of iNOS, which may be beneficial in chronic and persistent infections.

    Title The Separate and Joint Effects of Prolonged Qt Interval and Heart Rate on Mortality.
    Date June 2010
    Journal Atherosclerosis
    Excerpt

    Understanding why prolonged Bazett-corrected QT interval (QTc) is a risk factor for mortality is difficult, because QTc is positively correlated with heart rate. To optimally distinguish the effects of QT interval and heart rate on mortality, QT interval and heart rate were modeled separately and jointly in Pima Indians.

    Title Fine Mapping of Leishmania Major Susceptibility Locus Lmr2 and Evidence of a Role for Fli1 in Disease and Wound Healing.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Infection and Immunity
    Excerpt

    Genetic linkage studies of the host response to Leishmania major, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, have identified significant genetic complexity in humans and mice. In the mouse model, multiple loci have been implicated in susceptibility to infection, but to date, the genes underlying these loci have not been identified. We now describe the contribution of a novel candidate gene, Fli1, to both L. major resistance and enhanced wound healing. We have previously mapped the L. major response locus, lmr2, to proximal chromosome 9 in a genetic cross between the resistant C57BL/6 strain and the susceptible BALB/c strain. We now show that the presence of the resistant C57BL/6 lmr2 allele in susceptible BALB/c mice confers an enhanced L. major resistance and wound healing phenotype. Fine mapping of the lmr2 locus permitted the localization of the lmr2 quantitative trait locus to a 5-Mb interval comprising 21 genes, of which microarray analysis was able to identify differential expression in 1 gene-Fli1. Analysis of Fli1 expression in wounded and L. major-infected skin and naïve and infected lymph nodes validated the importance of Fli1 in lesion resolution and wound healing and identified 3 polymorphisms in the Fli1 promoter, among which a GA repeat element may be the important contributor.

    Title Downregulation of Adipose Glutathione S-transferase A4 Leads to Increased Protein Carbonylation, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Diabetes
    Excerpt

    Peripheral insulin resistance is linked to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading in part to the production of reactive lipid aldehydes that modify the side chains of protein amino acids in a reaction termed protein carbonylation. The primary enzymatic method for lipid aldehyde detoxification is via glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4) dependent glutathionylation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of GSTA4 and the role(s) of protein carbonylation in adipocyte function.

    Title Predictive Value of Albuminuria in American Indian Youth with or Without Type 2 Diabetes.
    Date April 2010
    Journal Pediatrics
    Excerpt

    To examine the prognostic significance of elevated albuminuria in youth with type 2 diabetes.

    Title Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look Ahead Study.
    Date January 2010
    Journal International Journal of Obesity (2005)
    Excerpt

    To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial.

    Title Change in the Distribution of Albuminuria According to Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Pima Indians with Type 2 Diabetes.
    Date December 2009
    Journal Diabetes Care
    Excerpt

    We examined secular trends in the frequency distribution of albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with type 2 diabetes in 1982-1988 and 2001-2006, two periods associated with major changes in the management of diabetes.

    Title Risk Assessment of Pneumothorax and Pulmonary Haemorrhage Complicating Percutaneous Co-axial Cutting Needle Lung Biopsy.
    Date June 2009
    Journal Respiratory Medicine
    Excerpt

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of radiologists to accurately estimate pneumothorax and pulmonary haemorrhage during percutaneous co-axial cutting needle CT-guided lung biopsy.

    Title Plasma Glucose Regulation and Mortality in Pima Indians.
    Date June 2008
    Journal Diabetes Care
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are associated with increased risk of mortality and prevalent ischemic heart disease (IHD) and to analyze if the increased risk of death is dependent on subsequent development of diabetes in Pima Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 2,993 Pima Indians aged >or=35 years were included. Prevalent IHD, defined by major ischemic electrocardiogram changes, was evaluated according to the following glucose/diabetes categories: normal glucose regulation (NGR), IFG and/or IGT, and diabetic groups by duration. During a median follow-up of 10.4 years, 780 subjects died from natural causes and 156 of these died from IHD. Mortality was analyzed according to the same glucose/diabetes categories at baseline and then as time-dependent variables. RESULTS: Only subjects with diabetes >or=15 years of duration have a higher prevalence of IHD (odds ratio 1.9 [95% CI 1.4-2.5]) relative to NGR. In baseline and time-dependent models, age- and sex-adjusted death rates from natural causes and from IHD were similar among the nondiabetic groups. Among diabetic subjects, natural mortality was higher in those with >or=15 years diabetes duration (death rate ratio [DRR] relative to NGR = 2.6 [95% CI 2.1-3.3]). IHD mortality was higher in subjects with long diabetes duration (DRR for diabetes 10-15 years = 3.8 [1.5-9.5]; DRR for diabetes >or=15 years = 8.6 [3.8-19.4]) in the time-dependent model. CONCLUSIONS: Natural and IHD mortality are not increased in Pima Indians with IFG and/or IGT. Only after the onset of diabetes do the rates of these events increase relative to NGR.

    Title Wound Healing Response is a Major Contributor to the Severity of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Ear Model of Infection.
    Date December 2007
    Journal Parasite Immunology
    Excerpt

    In the conventional mouse model for cutaneous leishmaniasis involving infection with stationary phase Leishmania major promastigotes at the base of the tail, mice congenic for leishmaniasis resistance loci designated lmr1,2,3 cured their lesions more rapidly and laid down more ordered collagen fibres than the susceptible parental BALB/c mice, while the opposite was the case for the congenic mice carrying the susceptibility loci on the resistant C57BL/6 background. In that model, we showed that wound healing and not T cell responses played a major role in determining the resolution of skin infection. Here, we show a similar disease phenotype in the mouse model that mimics more closely the situation in humans, that is, strictly intradermal infection in the ear pinna with small numbers of metacyclic promastigotes. The data show that at the site of infection the innate and adaptive immune responses act in concert to clear parasites, and induce tissue repair and wound healing. Importantly, the data show that the host responses controlled by the lmr loci, which act locally to control infection in the skin, are distinct from the host responses operating systemically in the draining lymph node.

    Title Major Clades of Agaricales: a Multilocus Phylogenetic Overview.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Mycologia
    Excerpt

    An overview of the phylogeny of the Agaricales is presented based on a multilocus analysis of a six-gene region supermatrix. Bayesian analyses of 5611 nucleotide characters of rpb1, rpb1-intron 2, rpb2 and 18S, 25S, and 5.8S ribosomal RNA genes recovered six major clades, which are recognized informally and labeled the Agaricoid, Tricholomatoid, Marasmioid, Pluteoid, Hygrophoroid and Plicaturopsidoid clades. Each clade is discussed in terms of key morphological and ecological traits. At least 11 origins of the ectomycorrhizal habit appear to have evolved in the Agaricales, with possibly as many as nine origins in the Agaricoid plus Tricholomatoid clade alone. A family-based phylogenetic classification is sketched for the Agaricales, in which 30 families, four unplaced tribes and two informally named clades are recognized.

    Title Effect of Periodontitis on Overt Nephropathy and End-stage Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Diabetes Care
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of periodontitis on development of overt nephropathy, defined as macroalbuminuria, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals residing in the Gila River Indian Community aged > or =25 years with type 2 diabetes, one or more periodontal examination, estimated glomerular filtration rate > or =60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and no macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or =300 mg/g) were identified. Periodontitis was classified as none/mild, moderate, severe, or edentulous using number of teeth and alveolar bone score. Subjects were followed to development of macroalbuminuria or ESRD, defined as onset of renal replacement therapy or death attributed to diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS: Of the 529 individuals, 107 (20%) had none/mild periodontitis, 200 (38%) had moderate periodontitis, 117 (22%) had severe periodontitis, and 105 (20%) were edentulous at baseline. During follow-up of up to 22 years, 193 individuals developed macroalbuminuria and 68 developed ESRD. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence of macroalbuminuria and ESRD increased with severity of periodontitis. After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, and smoking in a proportional hazards model, the incidences of macroalbuminuria were 2.0, 2.1, and 2.6 times as high in individuals with moderate or severe periodontitis or those who were edentulous, respectively, compared with those with none/mild periodontitis (P = 0.01). Incidences of ESRD in individuals with moderate or severe periodontitis or in those who were edentulous were 2.3, 3.5, and 4.9 times as high, respectively, compared with those with none/mild periodontitis (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis predicts development of overt nephropathy and ESRD in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Whether treatment of periodontitis will reduce the risk of diabetic kidney disease remains to be determined.

    Title Reduction in Weight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: One-year Results of the Look Ahead Trial.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Diabetes Care
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study consisted of a multicentered, randomized, controlled trial of 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 45-74 years, with BMI >25 kg/m2 (>27 kg/m2 if taking insulin). An intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) involving group and individual meetings to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity was compared with a diabetes support and education (DSE) condition. RESULTS: Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight vs. 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001). Mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9 vs. 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of ILI participants had reductions in diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering medicines. Mean A1C dropped from 7.3 to 6.6% in ILI (P < 0.001) vs. from 7.3 to 7.2% in DSE. Systolic and diastolic pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio improved significantly more in ILI than DSE participants (all P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: At 1 year, ILI resulted in clinically significant weight loss in people with type 2 diabetes. This was associated with improved diabetes control and CVD risk factors and reduced medicine use in ILI versus DSE. Continued intervention and follow-up will determine whether these changes are maintained and will reduce CVD risk.

    Title Reconstructing the Early Evolution of Fungi Using a Six-gene Phylogeny.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore flagellum, leading to the diversification of terrestrial fungi. Here we develop phylogenetic hypotheses for Fungi using data from six gene regions and nearly 200 species. Our results indicate that there may have been at least four independent losses of the flagellum in the kingdom Fungi. These losses of swimming spores coincided with the evolution of new mechanisms of spore dispersal, such as aerial dispersal in mycelial groups and polar tube eversion in the microsporidia (unicellular forms that lack mitochondria). The enigmatic microsporidia seem to be derived from an endoparasitic chytrid ancestor similar to Rozella allomycis, on the earliest diverging branch of the fungal phylogenetic tree.

    Title Myd88 is Essential for Clearance of Leishmania Major: Possible Role for Lipophosphoglycan and Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling.
    Date November 2003
    Journal European Journal of Immunology
    Excerpt

    Leishmania major is an obligate intracellular eukaryotic pathogen of mononuclear phagocytes. Invasive promastigotes gain entry into target cells by receptor-mediated phagocytosis, transform into non-motile amastigotes and establish in the phagolysosome. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a virulence factor and a major parasite molecule involved in this process. We observed that mice lacking the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway adaptor protein MyD88 were more susceptible to infection with L. major than wild-type C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating a central role for this innate immune recognition pathway in control of infection, and suggesting that L. major possesses a ligand for TLR. We sought to identify parasite molecules capable of activating the protective Toll pathway, and found that purified Leishmania LPG, but not other surface glycolipids, activate innate immune signaling pathways via TLR2. Activation of cytokine synthesis by LPG required the presence of the lipid anchor and a functional MyD88 adaptor protein. LPG also induced the expression of negative regulatory pathways mediated by members of thesuppressors of cytokine signaling family SOCS-1 and SOCS-3. Thus, the Toll pathway is required for resistance to L. major and LPG is a defined TLR agonist from this important human pathogen.

    Title Selections from the Buffet of Food Signs in Radiology.
    Date January 2003
    Journal Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
    Excerpt

    Certain pathologic conditions have classic radiologic manifestations that resemble various types of food. These "food signs" are highly memorable and easily recognizable and include findings that resemble various fruits and vegetables; meat, fish, and egg dishes; pasta, rice, grains, and bread (carbohydrates); desserts, cakes, and candy; and dishes, cutlery, condiments, and so on. It is important that radiologists recognize these classic signs, which will allow confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or narrowing of the differential diagnosis.

    Title Fish Oil Containing Phytosterol Esters Alters Blood Lipid Profiles and Left Ventricle Generation of Thromboxane A(2) in Adult Guinea Pigs.
    Date June 2002
    Journal The Journal of Nutrition
    Excerpt

    This study was designed to investigate the lipid-lowering ability of a novel dietary ingredient composed of phytosterols esterified to (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) [PS(n-3)]. Adult guinea pigs were fed a test diet supplemented with PS(n-3) (25 g/kg) and corn oil (CO, 5 g/kg), whereas the diet fed to control guinea pigs was supplemented with CO only (30 g/kg). Cholesterol was added to both diets (0.8 g/kg). After 3-4 wk of consuming the diets, serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in the PS(n-3) group were 36 and 29% lower, respectively, than levels in controls (P < 0.05). The lower TC levels in the PS(n-3) group reflected a 38% reduction in non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), whereas the HDL-C concentration was unaffected. Analysis of cardiac left ventricle indicated that generation of the proaggregatory, arrhythmic eicosanoid, thromboxane A(2), was >60% lower in the PS(n-3)-supplemented guinea pigs than in CO controls (P < 0.001). This study demonstrates that the TAG-lowering and eicosanoid-modifying properties of the fish oil (n-3) PUFA are retained when they are provided in the diet in ester linkage with hypocholesterolemic phytosterols.

    Title Silicone Gel Breast Implant Rupture Rates: Research Issues.
    Date February 2002
    Journal Annals of Plastic Surgery
    Excerpt

    Documenting the rate of rupture of silicone breast implants appears to be deceptively easy. Largely because of the phenomenon of "silent rupture," it isn't. The authors explore the various technical biases (selection, misclassification, and confounding) and methodological problems that have plagued much of the research conducted to date. By means of a series of illustrations, they argue that explantation has limited utility. Noninvasive techniques have to be used to gather the proper type of data on the timing and frequency of these events. Only with the proper incidence data will researchers be able to identify better the different mechanisms underlying implant rupture and the relative importance of each. The authors recommend that better and standardized definitions of implant rupture be developed, that greater recognition be given to the technical biases and a greater effort be made to eliminate them from investigations of implant rupture, and that more research be conducted by multidisciplinary teams. Because of the growing awareness of the complexity of this issue, the authors also recommend that properly constituted advisory teams be used to provide comprehensive oversight of future research projects from beginning to end.

    Title Characterization of Spirolides A, C, and 13-desmethyl C, New Marine Toxins Isolated from Toxic Plankton and Contaminated Shellfish.
    Date June 2001
    Journal Journal of Natural Products
    Excerpt

    Three additional marine toxins, spirolides A (1), C (3), and 13-desmethyl-C (7), were isolated from contaminated scallops and phytoplankton collections obtained from a Nova Scotian aquaculture site, as well as from batch cultures of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii obtained as a single-cell isolate from these phytoplankton assemblages. The structures of these new spirolide derivatives, characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR, indicate a close relationship with spirolides B (2) and D (4) isolated previously from contaminated shellfish in the same area. All of these compounds display "fast-acting" toxicity in the traditional bioassay used for monitoring shellfish, and this is related to the presence of a cyclic imine function in all these compounds. Those spirolides containing a vicinal dimethyl group in the seven-membered ring are resistant to oxalic acid hydrolysis, whereas those that do not are readily hydrolyzed. These observations suggest that the extra methyl group on the seven-membered imine ring of 3, 4, and 7 appears to block the process of imine hydrolysis perhaps by stereochemical interference.

    Title Sulfoquinovosyl Diacylglycerols from the Alga Heterosigma Carterae.
    Date December 1997
    Journal Lipids
    Excerpt

    An extract of the chloromonad Heterosigma carterae (Raphidophyceae), cultivated in natural seawater, contained a complex mixture of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols. Palmitoyl (16:0), three isomers of hexadecenoyl (16:1 cis delta 9, delta 11, delta 13), and eicosapentenoyl (20:5) were found to be the main fatty acyl substituents. Exact double-bond sites were determined by mass spectrometry analysis of the corresponding nicotinyl derivatives. Four major sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol components were partially purified and identified as 1-4 by interpretation of their nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral data. In addition, complete analysis of the H. carterae sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Title Resistance to Leishmania Major is Linked to the H2 Region on Chromosome 17 and to Chromosome 9.
    Date June 1997
    Journal The Journal of Experimental Medicine
    Excerpt

    In Leishmaniasis, as in many infectious diseases, clinical manifestations are determined by the interaction between the genetics of the host and of the parasite. Here we describe studies mapping two loci controlling resistance to murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mice infected with L. major show marked genetic differences in disease manifestations: BALB/c mice are susceptible, exhibiting enlarging lesions that progress to systemic disease and death, whereas C57BL/6 are resistant, developing small, self-healing lesions. F2 animals from a C57BL/6 X BALB/c cross showed a continuous distribution of lesion score. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped after a non-parametric QTL analysis on a genome-wide scan on 199 animals. QTLs identified were confirmed in a second cross of 271 animals. Linkage was confirmed to a chromosome 9 locus (D9Mit67-D9Mit71) and to a region including the H2 locus on chromosome 17. These have been named Imr2 and Imr1, respectively.

    Title Isolation and Structure of Prorocentrolide B, a Fast-acting Toxin from Prorocentrum Maculosum.
    Date February 1997
    Journal Journal of Natural Products
    Excerpt

    A new toxin, prorocentrolide B (1), has been isolated following bioassay-guided fractionation of a BuOH extract of the tropical dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum maculosum Faust. This compound produces a rapid toxic response in the mouse bioassay, a type of activity not accounted for by other diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins produced by P. maculosum. The structure 1 was established by NMR and MS and is similar to prorocentrolide (2), a toxin from a strain of Prorocentrum lima. NMR data and the modeling program ConGen have been used to establish the relative stereochemistry of some individual ether ring systems and the hexahydroisoquinoline ring.

    Title Potent Inhibitors of Cysteine Proteases from the Marine Fungus Microascus Longirostris.
    Date July 1996
    Journal The Journal of Antibiotics
    Title Colovesical Fistula After Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair.
    Date December 1994
    Journal The British Journal of Surgery
    Title Ricin-resistant Mutants of Leishmania Major Which Express Modified Lipophosphoglycan Remain Infective for Mice.
    Date July 1994
    Journal Parasitology
    Excerpt

    Glycosylation variants of the virulent Leishmania major clone V121 were generated by mutagenesis with N-methyl-N-nitroso-N-nitroguanidine and selected using the galactose-specific lectin Ricinus communis II (RCA II). Three mutants, 4B9, 1D1 and 1C12, which failed to bind RCA II, were found to have an altered expression of lipophosphoglycan (LPG), a molecule implicated in the attachment to host macrophages and survival within the phagolysosome. There were differences in the antigenicity, molecular weight and localization of LPG from mutant parasites as compared to V121. Expression of gp63, a surface molecule also implicated in attachment to macrophages, was unaltered. All 3 mutants caused disease when injected into genetically susceptible BALB/c mice but lesions developed at a much slower rate than those caused by the virulent V121 clone. This slow rate of lesion development did not correlate with promastigotes' ability to invade macrophages in vitro. Karyotype analysis showed that there was a reduction in the size of chromosome band number 2 in all 3 mutants. The differences in LPG and chromosome band 2 were retained by mutant clones following passage through mice, suggesting that these phenotypes are stable. Although the mutant parasites were infective and caused lesions, the changed structure of the LPG appeared to influence the virulence of the parasites.

    Title Effect of Counselors' Self-references on Subjects First Impressions in an Experimental Psychological Interview.
    Date March 1985
    Journal Psychological Reports

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