Gastroenterologists
14 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Kessler Park And Stevens Park
Digestive Health Assoc
221 W Colorado Blvd
Ste 630
Dallas, TX 75208
214-941-6891
Locations and availability (3)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
The University of Texas at Houston (1996)
  • Currently 3 of 4 apples
Top 50%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
One of America's Leading Experts on:
Extrahepatic Cholestasis
Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2012 - 2013)
Castle Connolly Top Doctors: Texas™ (2009)
Associations
American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Linder is affiliated with 7 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Methodist Medical Center
    1441 N Beckley Ave, Dallas, TX 75203
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Texas Specialty Hospital-Dallas
    7850 Brookhollow Rd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Select Specialty Hospital Dallas
    7 Medical Pkwy, Dallas, TX 75234
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Charlton Methodist Med Ctr
  • Digestive Health Associates of Texas
  • Methodist Dallas Medical Center *
  • Methodist Richardson Medical Center
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Linder has contributed to 25 publications.
    Title Expanding the Indications for Laparoscopic Gastric Resection for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
    Date September 2009
    Journal Jsls : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
    Excerpt

    Laparoscopic resection of large gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) has been controversial. This generally has been limited to small lesions. We hypothesize that laparoscopic mobilization and resection using, in some cases, extracorporeal anastomosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an oncologically safe alternative to open surgery even when tumors are large.

    Title Bile Duct Obstruction After Cholecystectomy Caused by Clips: Undo What Has Been Undone, then Do What You Normally Do.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Title Commitment, Confirmation, and Clearance: New Techniques for Nonradiation Ercp During Pregnancy (with Videos).
    Date April 2008
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic choledocholithiasis during pregnancy can be treated with ERCP, but fluoroscopy may pose a risk to the fetus. Nonradiation ERCP may be a safer form of treatment, but its performance has not been optimized. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate new methods of nonradiation ERCP during pregnancy, including wire-guided cannulation techniques to achieve bile-duct access without the use of fluoroscopy, and the use of peroral choledochoscopy to confirm ductal clearance. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of consecutive ERCPs performed on pregnant women. SETTING: Urban referral hospital. PATIENTS: Pregnant women with symptomatic choledocholithiasis. INTERVENTIONS: All patients underwent therapeutic ERCP without any use of fluoroscopy. Endoscopist-controlled wire-guided cannulation was performed to achieve biliary access. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The rate of successful biliary cannulation and short-term outcomes. LIMITATIONS: ERCP procedures were performed by a single endoscopist. RESULTS: Successful bile-duct cannulation with sphincterotomy and the removal of biliary stones or sludge was performed without fluoroscopy in 21 pregnant women. There was one case of mild post-ERCP pancreatitis. Choledochoscopy confirmed ductal clearance in 5 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Nonradiation ERCP is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic choledocholithiasis during pregnancy. Wire-guided biliary cannulation and choledochoscopy may enhance the performance of ERCP in this setting.

    Title Endoscopic Management of Acute Pancreatitis.
    Date September 2007
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    Acute pancreatitis represents numerous unique challenges to the practicing digestive disease specialist. Clinical presentations of acute pancreatitis vary from trivial pain to devastating acute illness with a significant risk of death. This article focuses on the diagnosis and endoscopic treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis.

    Title Cyst Fluid Analysis Obtained by Eus-guided Fna in the Evaluation of Discrete Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas: a Prospective Single-center Experience.
    Date February 2007
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of pancreatic cystic neoplasms is imperative before selecting available treatment options, such as surgical resection, drainage, or conservative therapy. Available modalities, CT and magnetic resonance imaging, have been inconsistent in diagnosis. Reports involving EUS and cyst fluid analysis have been encouraging, including studies of EUS features and/or cyst fluid analysis, which may differentiate pancreatic cystic neoplasms. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively determine cyst fluid characteristics that differentiate cystic neoplasms. DESIGN: Patient evaluation included (1) EUS features (reported elsewhere) and (2) cyst fluid analysis (carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA], carbohydrate antigen 19-9 [CA 19-9], amylase and lipase, viscosity [VIS], mucin stain, and cytology). Exclusion criteria included the following: intraductal papillary mucinous tumor lesions, bloody cyst aspirate, neuroendocrine tumors, and patients without surgical histopathology. SETTING: Pancreatic Biliary Center, St Luke's Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. PATIENTS: A total of 102 patients (60 women, 42 men; age, 23-76 years) presented for evaluation of pancreatic cystic neoplasm; 71 underwent surgical resection. RESULTS: Seventy-one of 102 patients who underwent surgery presented the following histopathologic correlates: 23 pseudocysts (PC), 13 serous cystadenoma (SCyA), 21 mucinous cystadenoma (MCyA), and 14 mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCyA-CA). Cyst fluid analysis of these patients showed the following: VIS was lower in PC (mean, 1.3) and SCyA (1.27) when compared with MCyA (1.84) and MCyA-CA (1.9). All mucinous neoplasms had VIS >1.6, whereas only 2 mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) had VIS = 1.6 (both PC). The CEA level was significantly higher in MCyA (adenoma [878 ng/mL], carcinoma [27,581 ng/mL]) vs PC (189 ng/mL), and SCyA (121 ng/mL). Amylase levels were higher in PC (7210 U/L) compared with cystic neoplasm (SCyA, 679 U/L; MCyA, 1605 U/L; MCyA-CA, 569 U/L). CONCLUSIONS: Differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasm is significantly enhanced by cyst fluid analysis. Elevated CEA (> or =480 ng/mL) and VIS (>1.6) accurately predict MCN from SCyA and PC. Malignant from benign MCN can be differentiated by CEA levels > or =6000 ng/mL.

    Title Acute Biliary Pancreatitis: What Have We Learned?
    Date September 2006
    Journal Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
    Title Endoscopic Minor Papilla Interventions in Patients Without Pancreas Divisum.
    Date July 2005
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Title Treatment of Symptomatic Distal Common Bile Duct Stenosis Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis: Comparison of Single Vs. Multiple Simultaneous Stents.
    Date March 2005
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Common bile duct stenosis occurs in up to 30% of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Most such stenoses are found incidentally during ERCP, but others manifest as obstructive jaundice, recurrent cholangitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis, or choledocholithiasis. Operative drainage has been the main treatment despite the potentially high morbidity in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic biliary drainage with a single stent has been successful in the short term. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term benefit of a single stent vs. multiple simultaneous stents for treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis and symptoms because of distal common bile duct stenosis. METHODS: Twelve consecutive patients with chronic pancreatitis and common bile duct stenosis underwent endoscopic placement of multiple simultaneous stents and were followed prospectively (Group II). Results were compared with a group of 34 patients in whom a single stent was placed before the start of the present study (Group I). All 46 patients (35 men, 11 women; age range 30-71 years) had chronic pancreatitis and common bile duct stenosis, and presented with symptoms indicative of obstruction (abdominal pain, jaundice, elevated biochemical tests of liver function, acute pancreatitis, cholangitis). The 34 patients in Group I had single stent (10F, 7-9 cm) placement, with exchange at 3 to 6 month intervals (1-4 exchanges) over a mean of 21 months. The 12 patients in Group II underwent placement of multiple simultaneous stents at 3-month intervals (single 10F stents added sequentially) over a mean of 14 months. Mean follow-up was 4.2 years in Group I and 3.9 years for Group II. Factors assessed included symptoms, biochemical tests of liver function, diameter of common bile duct stenosis, and complications. RESULTS: In Group I, (34 patients), a total of 162 single stent placement/exchanges were performed (mean 5/patient). In Group II (12 consecutive patients), 8 patients had 4 (10F) stents placed simultaneously, and 4 patients had 5 (10F) stents. At the end of the treatment period, near normalization of biochemical tests of liver function was observed for all patients in Group II, whereas only marginal benefit was noted for patients in Group I. Four patients in Group I had recurrent cholangitis (6 episodes), whereas no patient in Group II had post-procedure cholangitis. In the 12 patients with multiple stents, distal common bile duct stenosis diameter increased from a mean of 1.0 mm to 3.0 mm after treatment; no change in diameter was noted in patients treated with a single stent. CONCLUSIONS: Distal common bile duct stenosis secondary to chronic pancreatitis can be treated long term by stent placement. Multiple, simultaneous stents appear to be superior to single stent placement and may provide good long-term benefit. The former resulted in near normalization of biochemical tests of liver function and an increase in distal common bile duct diameter. Multiple stent placement may obviate the need for surgical diversion procedures.

    Title Duodenal Diverticulitis.
    Date March 2005
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Title Endoscopic Transpancreatic Papillary Septotomy for Inaccessible Obstructed Bile Ducts: Comparison with Standard Pre-cut Papillotomy.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Access to the pancreatic or the bile duct is paramount to the success of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP. Selective cannulation may be difficult because of the small size of the papilla and anatomic factors such as peripapillary diverticulum and gastrectomy with Billroth-II anastomosis. Currently, one of the techniques for gaining access in such cases is the pre-cut technique with a catheter that has a thin wire at the tip (needle knife). A less well-described pre-cut technique involves initial cannulation of the pancreatic duct with a "traction-type" papillotome and then incision through the "septum" toward the bile duct. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the success and the complication rates of needle-knife sphincterotomy and transpancreatic sphincterotomy in achieving cannulation of an otherwise inaccessible bile duct. METHODS: Sixty-three consecutive patients with inaccessible bile ducts underwent pre-cut sphincterotomy either by needle-knife sphincterotomy (n = 34) or transpancreatic septotomy (n = 29). In patients with an accessible pancreatic duct who undergo needle-knife sphincterotomy, a short (2-3 cm) stent (5F-7F) was placed in the pancreatic duct to act as a guide and to reduce the risk of post-procedure pancreatitis. All patients were hospitalized overnight for observation after pre-cut sphincterotomy. The outcomes measured were success rate and complications. Indications for pre-cut sphincterotomy were the following: suspected choledocholithiasis, 11 patients (17.5%); obstructive jaundice with negative CT findings, 19 patients (29.2%), or with positive CT findings, 13 patients (20.6%); abdominal pain with elevated biochemical tests of liver function, 15 patients (23.8%); and miscellaneous, 5 patients (7.9%). RESULTS: In 55 of 63 (87%) patients, the bile duct was selectively cannulated after pre-cut sphincterotomy. On a pre-protocol basis, the bile duct was cannulated in 29 of 29 (100%) patients randomized to transpancreatic septotomy sphincterotomy and 26 of 34 (77%) patients who underwent needle-knife sphincterotomy (p = 0.01). There were 7 complications, including bleeding (n = 2) and acute pancreatitis (n = 5). Complications were less frequent in the transpancreatic septotomy sphincterotomy group (1/29; 3.5%) compared with the needle-knife sphincterotomy group (6/34; 17.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Transpancreatic pre-cut sphincterotomy can be performed with a high degree of success in patients with inaccessible obstructed bile ducts. Compared with standard needle-knife sphincterotomy, transpancreatic septotomy sphincterotomy has a significantly higher rate of bile duct cannulation and a lower complication rate.

    Title Suspected Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction Type Ii: Empirical Biliary Sphincterotomy or Manometry-guided Therapy?
    Date June 2004
    Journal Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Sphincter of Oddi manometry is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD). Elevated basal sphincter pressures are found in about half of the patients with findings consistent with biliary type II SOD, and most of these patients will symptomatically improve after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Since manometric sphincter evaluation is not widely available, a decision analysis was used to compare the overall costs and outcomes of manometry-directed therapy with "empirical" sphincterotomy in patients with suspected biliary type II SOD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A decision analysis model was constructed using a software program. In a hypothetical cohort of 100 patients with suspected type II SOD, the following strategies were evaluated: a). endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with manometry followed by biliary sphincterotomy only if an elevated sphincter of Oddi basal pressure was found; and b). "empirical" biliary sphincterotomy without manometry. Data on the probability of an elevated sphincter of Oddi basal pressure at the time of ERCP in patients with suspected biliary SOD type II, the proportion of patients who improved after biliary sphincterotomy (with and without elevated basal pressures), the proportion of patients who improved without biliary sphincterotomy, complications, and death were obtained from the literature and from our center. The procedural and hospitalization costs represented the average Medicare reimbursement at our institution. The expected overall costs and numbers of patients improving with each strategy were compared.[nl] RESULTS: The strategy of ERCP with manometry resulted in total costs of US dollars 2790 per patient, whereas a strategy of "empirical" biliary sphincterotomy resulted in total costs of US dollars 2244. In a cohort of 100 patients with suspected SOD, 55 % of patients would be expected to improve if manometry were performed, compared to 60 % of patients improving with "empirical" biliary sphincterotomy. Univariate sensitivity analyses demonstrated that "empirical" biliary sphincterotomy continued to be a cost-saving strategy in comparison with ERCP with manometry as long as the probability of spontaneous improvement in patients with "normal" manometry was less than 41 %, the probability of complications associated with manometry was greater than 6 %, and the probability of complications due to biliary sphincterotomy was less than 19 %. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with suspected biliary SOD type II, empirical biliary sphincterotomy performed by experienced endoscopists appears to be cost-saving in comparison with a strategy based on the results of manometry.

    Title Endoscopic Management of Adenoma of the Major Duodenal Papilla.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that adenoma of the major duodenal papilla has a potential for malignant transformation. Standard treatment has been surgical (duodenotomy/local resection, pancreaticoduodenectomy). Endoscopic management is described, but there is no established consensus regarding the approach to papillectomy or the need for surveillance. This study describes endoscopic management and long-term follow-up of papillary tumors by 4 groups of expert pancreaticobiliary endoscopists. METHODS: Consecutive patients with papillary tumors referred to 4 pancreaticobiliary endoscopy centers for evaluation for endoscopic papillectomy were reviewed. For each patient, an extensive questionnaire was completed, which included 19 preoperative and 15 postoperative data points. A total of 103 patients (53 women, 50 men, age range 24-93) who underwent attempted endoscopic resection were included. Of these, 72 had sporadic adenoma, and the remaining patients had familial adenomatous polyposis, including Gardner's variant. Presenting symptoms were jaundice/cholangitis/pain (n=59), pancreatitis (n=18), and bleeding (n=12). Twenty-six patients were asymptomatic. RESULTS: Endoscopic treatment was successful, long term, in 83 patients (80%) and failed (initial failure or recurrent tumor) in 20 (20%) patients. Success was significantly associated with older age (54.7 [16.6] vs. 46.6 [21.7] years; p=0.08) and smaller lesions (21.1 [8.3] vs. 29.7 [7.2] mm; p<0.0001). Success rate was higher for sporadic lesions compared with genetically determined lesions (63 of 72 [86%] vs. 20 of 31 [67%]; p=0.02). There were 10 initial failures, which was more common for sporadic lesions (7 of 10). The overall success rate for papillectomy was similar in patients who had adjuvant thermal ablation (81%) compared with those who did not (78%). However, recurrence (n=10) was more common in the former group (9 of 10, [90%]; p=0.22). Complications (n=10) included acute pancreatitis (n=5), bleeding (n=2), and late papillary stenosis (n=3). Acute pancreatitis was more common in patients who did not have pancreatic duct stents placed (17% vs. 3.3%). Papillary stenosis was more frequent without short-term pancreatic duct stent placement (15.4% vs. 1.1%), although the difference was not statistically significant, because this complication was infrequent. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic treatment of papillary adenoma in selected patients appears to be highly successful. The majority can undergo complete resection after ERCP. In expert hands, complications are infrequent and may be avoided by routine placement of a pancreatic duct stent.

    Title Incomplete Response to Endoscopic Sphincterotomy in Patients with Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Evidence for a Chronic Pain Disorder.
    Date September 2003
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of endoscopic treatment of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) remains controversial. Although some studies have shown a positive impact on patient symptoms after treatment, these reports have been largely qualitative and evaluated on short-term response. The aim of our study was to quantitatively measure the long-term outcomes of endoscopic therapy in patients with SOD. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with suspected SOD underwent selective sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) of the biliary and/or pancreatic sphincter. Each patient completed a telephone-based survey measuring symptomatic pain before and after SOM +/- ES. The questioner was blinded to the results of SOM. The patients with normal SOM or SOD but who did not undergo ES served as controls. RESULTS: Of these 33 patients (27 women, mean age 48.7 yr, range 13-74), 19 (57.5%) were found to have SOD (12 biliary, six pancreatic, one both). The average follow-up was 18.1 months (range 7-34). Of the patients with SOD, 17 (89%) underwent ES. At follow-up of the 19 patients undergoing ES, five were taking narcotics for persistent pain, two were taking antidepressants, and 15 identified the endoscopic therapy as the reason for their relief. Of the 14 controls, seven were taking narcotics, seven were taking antidepressants, and two identified the endoscopy as the reason for their relief; some patients were taking both antidepressants and narcotics. CONCLUSIONS: Patients found to have SOD who undergo ES are more likely to be improved on long-term follow-up when compared with patients with suspected SOD but normal manometry without ES. However, almost uniformly, despite ES, patients continue to have pain, which is consistent with most chronic pain disorders and which suggests a multifactorial cause for the pain.

    Title Placement of a Biliary Catheter in the Pancreatic Duct to Aid Common Bile Duct Cannulation.
    Date July 2003
    Journal Endoscopy
    Title Endoscopic Removal of a Snare Entrapped Around a Polyp by Using a Dual Endoscope Technique and Needle-knife.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Title Cholangitis As a Result of Hydrophilic Guidewire Fracture.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Title Modified Rendezvous Technique for Biliary Cannulation.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Endoscopy
    Title Prevalence of Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Can Results from Specialized Centers Be Generalized?
    Date December 2002
    Journal Digestive Diseases and Sciences
    Excerpt

    Recent studies suggest a high prevalence of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) in patients referred to specialized centers for sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM). Whether these results can be generalized to other centers is unknown. From September 1998 to April 2000, patients undergoing SOM were prospectively identified. Patients were classified as having either biliary or pancreatic SOD, according to the modified Milwaukee classification, and underwent SOM of either the biliary or pancreatic sphincter based on clinical history. SOD was diagnosed when the mean basal sphincter pressure was >40 mm Hg. Standard cholangiography and/or pancreatography were performed following manometry. Fifty-one patients were studied (43 women, median age 46 years, range 7-74 years). Prior to SOM, patients were classified by the modified Milwaukee classification as biliary type I in 1 patient, type II in 8, and type III in 20; pancreatic type I in 4 patients, type II in 14, and type III in 3; and biliary type III and pancreatic type III in 1 patient. Indications for SOM included abdominal pain in 35 patients (69%), recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis in 12 (24%), chronic pancreatitis in 3 (7%), and acute pancreatitis in 1 (2%). Overall, 30 patients (59%; 95% CI 41.1-76.9%) were found to have SOD; abnormal biliary sphincter pressure in 16 of 29 patients (55%) undergoing biliary manometry, and abnormal pancreatic sphincter pressures in 14 of 21 patients (67%) undergoing pancreatic sphincter manometry, and abnormal biliary and pancreatic sphincter pressures in 1. SOD was diagnosed in 1 biliary type I patient (100%), 4 type II patients (50%), and 11 type III patients (52.4%) with a mean pressures of 92, 47, and 80 mm Hg, respectively. SOD was identified in 4 pancreatic type I patients (100%), 7 type II patients (50%), and 3 type III patients (100%) with mean sphincter pressures of 83 mm Hg, 96 mm Hg, and 102 mm Hg, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of SOD in patients with suspected biliary disease was 55%, suspected pancreatic disease 66%, yielding an overall prevalence of SOD of 59%. These results confirm the high prevalence of SOD in patients referred for SOM.

    Title Acid Peptic Disease in the Elderly.
    Date October 2001
    Journal Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    GERD and peptic ulcer disease are important diseases in the elderly. GERD presents similarly in the elderly and the young, although elderly patients may have less severe symptoms yet more severe mucosal disease and a higher prevalence of BE. Although the prevalence of H. pylori is falling, the elderly remain at risk for peptic ulcer because of the widespread use of NSAIDS. The presentation of peptic ulcer disease in the elderly can be subtle and atypical when compared with younger patients, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Because of comorbidity in the aged, peptic ulcer disease and its complications result in increased morbidity and mortality rates.

    Title Giant Cell Arteritis and Intestinal Angina.
    Date April 2001
    Journal Digestive Diseases and Sciences
    Title Streptococcus Bovis Bacteremia Associated with Strongyloides Stercoralis Colitis.
    Date January 2001
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Title Cocaine-associated Ischemic Colitis.
    Date October 2000
    Journal Southern Medical Journal
    Excerpt

    Cocaine use can result in various gastrointestinal complications, including gastric ulcerations, retroperitoneal fibrosis, visceral infarction, intestinal ischemia, and gastrointestinal tract perforation. We report cocaine-associated colonic ischemia in three patients and review the literature. Including ours, 28 cases have been reported, with a mean patient age of 32.6 years (range, 23 to 47 years); 53.5% were men and 46.5% were women. The interval between drug ingestion and onset of symptoms varied from 1 hour to 2 days. Cocaine is a potentially life-threatening cause of ischemic colitis and should be included in the differential diagnosis of any young adult or middle-aged patient with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea, especially in the absence of estrogen use or systemic disorders that can cause thromboembolic events, such as atrial fibrillation.

    Title Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor Celecoxib: a Possible Cause of Gastropathy and Hypoprothrombinemia.
    Date October 2000
    Journal Southern Medical Journal
    Excerpt

    Gastrointestinal side effects from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) result mainly from inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-1; it is responsible for the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which leads to increased mucosal blood flow, increased bicarbonate secretion, and mucus production, thus protecting the gastrointestinal mucosa. In inflammation, COX-2 is induced, causing synthesis of the prostaglandins in conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Two NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) with very high specificity for COX-2 and virtually no activity against COX-1 at therapeutic doses have been approved for clinical use. In trials of celecoxib and rofecoxib, only 0.02% of patients had clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding, compared to a 1% to 2% yearly incidence of severe gastrointestinal side effects with NSAIDs. Our patient had arthritis of the hips and chronic atrial fibrillation and was on warfarin therapy for stroke prevention; less than a week after starting celecoxib therapy, gastrointestinal bleeding and hypoprothrombinemia occurred.

    Title Nodal Sampling in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Does It Change Our Management?
    Date
    Journal Hpb : the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
    Excerpt

    Background. Lymph node involvement in periampullary malignancy is the single most important factor in predicting survival in pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The role of nodal sampling in PD has not been well evaluated. This study evaluates the utility of nodal sampling of nodal stations 8 and 12, which are easily dissected early in PD, in overall final nodal status. Patients and methods. Fifty patients underwent PD at a single institution by a one surgeon over a 15 month period. Nodal stations 8 and 12 were sent separately for pathologic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had a final diagnosis of periampullary malignancy. Demographic and pathologic data were collected retrospectively from patient charts. Positive and negative predictive values of nodes 8 and 12 were evaluated. Results. Eighteen of 28 patients with a diagnosis of periampullary malignancy had pathologically negative nodes 8 and 12, and a final nodal status (all peripancreatic lymph nodes) negative for nodal involvement. Nine of 28 patients had a negative nodal sampling result, but a positive final nodal status for metastatic tumor. The remaining four patients had both positive nodal sampling and final nodal status for metastatic tumor. The negative predictive value of negative nodes 8 and 12 was 0.625. Conclusion. The negative predictive of a negative node 8 and 12 of 0.625 suggests that the decision to proceed with or abort PD should not be based on intraoperative evaluation of these nodes. Performance of PD should be undertaken if technically feasible, and not based on intraoperative nodal assessment.

    Title Hepatopancreaticobiliary (hpb) Surgery: What is the Right Fellowship for the Right Training?
    Date
    Journal Journal of Surgical Education
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Reduced resident work hours over the last several years have led to inadequate exposure to hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) and complex upper gastrointestinal (UGI) surgical procedures. Therefore, residents are seeking additional training in this field. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of a new fellowship model in the training of general surgery residents in complex HPB/UGI diseases. METHODS: We propose a surgical training model in benign as well as malignant diseases of the UGI tract. The proposed model would focus on an integrated approach that involves allied specialties such as gastroenterology (GI) and radiology. RESULTS: The fellowship was set as 1-year duration with 1-month rotations on interventional GI and transplantation. The fellow spent the remaining 10 months on a UGI laparoscopic and open surgery service caring for complex benign and malignant disease of the esophagus, stomach, bile duct, pancreas, and liver. Didactic conferences were focused specifically at an organ-based approach to diseases of these organs. During a 12-month fellowship, exposure to complex diseases of the UGI tract was accomplished without negatively impacting the general surgery residency program. CONCLUSION: This new mode of advanced training provides a bridge between surgical oncology and transplantation, and it is an excellent model for postgraduate surgical training in UGI diseases.

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