Obstetrician & Gynecologist (OB/GYN)
18 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Northwest Dallas
UT Southwestern Medical Center
5939 Harry Hines Blvd
Ste 300
Dallas, TX 75235
214-645-3838
Locations and availability (3)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Yale University (1992)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Dashe is affiliated with 6 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - Zale Lipshy
    5151 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - St. Paul
    5909 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Dallas County Hospital District
  • UT Southwestern St Paul Hospital
  • UT Southwestern Zale Lipshy Hospital
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Dashe has contributed to 30 publications.
    Title Ultrasonographic Cervical Length and Risk of Hemorrhage in Pregnancies with Placenta Previa.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To estimate the relationship between cervical length and hemorrhage leading to preterm delivery in women with placenta previa.

    Title Central Nervous System Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Outcomes in Children with Spina Bifida.
    Date August 2010
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To estimate the relationship between fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of ventriculomegaly, cerebellar herniation, extraaxial space effacement and adverse outcomes in children with spina bifida.

    Title Maternal Obesity Limits the Ultrasound Evaluation of Fetal Anatomy.
    Date October 2009
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal habitus on adequate visualization of fetal anatomy during a standard second-trimester ultrasound examination.

    Title Effect of Maternal Obesity on the Ultrasound Detection of Anomalous Fetuses.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To estimate the effect of maternal habitus on detection of fetuses with major structural anomalies during second-trimester standard and targeted ultrasound examinations.

    Title Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Isolated Diaphragmatic Hernia: Volume of Herniated Liver and Neonatal Outcome.
    Date April 2009
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    We sought to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) to estimate percentage of fetal thorax occupied by lung, liver, and other abdominal organs in pregnancies with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

    Title Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Severe Fetal Renal Anomalies.
    Date April 2008
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in fetuses with severe renal anomalies. STUDY DESIGN: This was a case-control study that compared MRI findings in fetuses with suspected severe renal anomalies with gestational age-matched control fetuses. MRI was performed with T2-weighted single-shot fast-spin echo sequences. Each MRI was reviewed by an investigator who was blinded to clinical information. RESULTS: There were 2 cases of bilateral renal agenesis, 2 cases if bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney disease, 2 cases if unilateral renal agenesis and contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney disease, 2 cases if polycystic kidney disease, and 2 cases of early membrane rupture/normal kidneys. Fetuses with lethal renal anomalies had a characteristic bladder appearance (signal void [dark]), whereas control fetuses had bright signal in both bladder and renal pelvis (P < .001). Both cases of early membrane rupture/normal kidneys had bright bladder signal, but 1 case did not have bright signal in the renal pelvis. CONCLUSION: Fetuses with lethal renal anomalies had signal void in the bladder region on MRI.

    Title Outcomes of Pregnancies with Fetal Gastroschisis.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To describe pregnancy outcomes with fetal gastroschisis, including the associations of prenatal ultrasound findings with neonatal surgical complications and other morbidities. METHODS: This was a review of pregnancies complicated by fetal gastroschisis and delivered from January 1998 through June 2006. The last ultrasonogram before delivery was reviewed to determine stomach dilatation, bowel dilatation, or abnormalities of amniotic fluid volume. Neonatal records were reviewed to determine type of closure and any bowel complications. RESULTS: There were 66 pregnancies with gastroschisis, 1 per 2,000 deliveries. There were three stillbirths and three neonatal deaths. Delayed closure was necessary in 49% who underwent surgery. Birth weight below the third percentile, which occurred in 38%, was associated with need for delayed closure, 64% compared with 25% without growth restriction, P<.001, but was not associated with longer hospital stay or neonatal death. Fetal gastroschisis was diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography in 58 cases. Bowel complications requiring surgery were more frequent when ultrasonography had demonstrated stomach dilatation (five cases), 60% compared with 10%, P=.002. Fetuses with defects so large that no normal ventral wall could be visualized ultrasonographically (three cases) were at increased risk for neonatal death, 100% compared with 0%, P<.001. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound findings associated with adverse outcome in fetal gastroschisis included stomach dilatation and a defect so large that no normal ventral wall could be visualized. Fetal growth restriction was common, and such infants were more likely to require delayed gastroschisis closure. Despite more than 90% survival, morbidity with gastroschisis remains high. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

    Title Perinatal Significance of Isolated Maternal Hypothyroxinemia Identified in the First Half of Pregnancy.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To establish pregnancy-specific free thyroxine thresholds and to assess perinatal effects associated with isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia identified in the first half of pregnancy. METHODS: Stored serum samples from 17,298 women who previously underwent thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) screening in the first half of pregnancy were analyzed for free thyroxine (T(4)) concentrations and thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Women with a free T(4) below 0.86 ng/dL but a normal-range TSH were identified to have isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia. Pregnancy outcomes in these women were compared to those with a normal TSH and free T(4). Thyroid peroxidase antibody status and the relationship between TSH and free T(4) were analyzed for these women and women with subclinical hypothyroidism. RESULTS: Isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia was identified in 233 women (1.3%). There were not any excessive adverse pregnancy outcomes in these women. Positive thyroid peroxidase antibody assays (greater than 50 international units/mL) were similar in normal women (4%) and those with isolated hypothyroxinemia (5%) but were greater in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (31%, P<.001). There was a negative correlation between TSH and free T(4) in normal women (r(s)=-0.19, P<.001) and those with subclinical hypothyroidism (r(s)=-0.11, P=.007). The correlation in women with isolated hypothyroxinemia was not significant. CONCLUSION: Isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia has no adverse effects on perinatal outcome. Moreover, unlike subclinical hypothyroidism, there was a low prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies and no correlation between TSH and free T(4) levels in women with hypothyroxinemia, leading us to question its biological significance.

    Title Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity in Monochorionic and Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) values in monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in which MCA Doppler evaluation was performed in unselected twin pregnancies at time of routine sonography between 28 and 32 weeks. Pregnancies with known fetal anomalies, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, and red cell alloimmunization or other conditions associated with anemia were excluded. The intertwin MCA PSV difference, defined as the larger minus smaller PSV value within a pair, was compared in MC and DC pregnancies and was correlated with estimated fetal weight and birth weight discordance. Statistical analyses included Spearman correlation, analysis of variance, a t test, and a chi(2) test. RESULTS: Doppler indices were analyzed from 48 twin pregnancies, of which 32 (67%) were DC and 16 (33%) were MC. There was no difference in proportion of values above or below the singleton median for either the larger or smaller DC or MC twins (all P > or = .3). The median intertwin MCA PSV difference was 4.9 cm/s in MC pregnancies and 4.5 cm/s in DC pregnancies (P = .6). There was no significant correlation between the MCA PSV difference and either estimated fetal weight discordance or birth weight discordance in either MC or DC pregnancies (all P > or = .3). CONCLUSIONS: Middle cerebral artery PSV values in uncomplicated twin pregnancies are comparable with published singleton norms, with a median intertwin MCA PSV difference of approximately 5 cm/s. We found no significant correlation between the intertwin MCA PSV difference and discordance in MC or DC twin gestations.

    Title Alpha-fetoprotein Detection of Neural Tube Defects and the Impact of Standard Ultrasound.
    Date December 2006
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate neural tube defect (NTD) detection according to whether serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening or standard ultrasound are performed. STUDY DESIGN: Prenatal and neonatal datasets were reviewed to identify pregnancies with NTDs from 1 institution between January 2000 and December 2003. AFP screening was offered < 21 weeks and considered elevated if > or = 2.50 multiples of the median. Standard ultrasound was performed for specific indications in low-risk pregnancies. RESULTS: There were 66 NTDs, 1 per 950 deliveries. AFP sensitivity was 65%. If the gestational age used for AFP calculation was confirmed with ultrasound, sensitivity improved to 86%. The sensitivity of standard ultrasound was 100%, P < .001 compared with AFP screening. NTDs detected with standard ultrasound were identified later in gestation, as examinations were performed for other indications. CONCLUSION: Standard ultrasound improved NTD detection over AFP screening alone, by improving AFP test sensitivity and identifying NTDs in low-risk pregnancies.

    Title Subclinical Hyperthyroidism and Pregnancy Outcomes.
    Date April 2006
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Subclinical hyperthyroidism has long-term sequelae that include osteoporosis, cardiovascular morbidity, and progression to overt thyrotoxicosis or thyroid failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal free thyroxine (fT(4)) levels. METHODS: All women who presented to Parkland Hospital for prenatal care between November 1, 2000, and April 14, 2003, underwent thyroid screening by chemiluminescent TSH assay. Women with TSH values at or below the 2.5th percentile for gestational age and whose serum fT(4) levels were 1.75 ng/dL or less were identified to have subclinical hyperthyroidism. Those women screened and delivered of a singleton infant weighing 500 g or more were analyzed. Pregnancy outcomes in women identified with subclinical hyperthyroidism were compared with those in women whose TSH values were between the 5th and 95th percentiles. RESULTS: A total of 25,765 women underwent thyroid screening and were delivered of singleton infants. Of these, 433 (1.7%) were considered to have subclinical hyperthyroidism, which occurred more frequently in African-American and/or parous women. Pregnancies in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism were less likely to be complicated by hypertension (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.98). All other pregnancy complications and perinatal morbidity or mortality were not increased in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism. CONCLUSION: Subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our results indicate that identification of subclinical hyperthyroidism and treatment during pregnancy is unwarranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.

    Title Prenatal Diagnosis and Management of Hydronephrosis.
    Date March 2006
    Journal Early Human Development
    Excerpt

    Congenital hydronephrosis is frequently amenable to prenatal diagnosis, often as early as the second trimester. Most clinicians use a renal pelvis anterior-posterior (AP) diameter of 4 mm or more prior to 20 weeks of gestation as a threshold for identifying pyelectasis. If mild dilation of the renal pelvis is an isolated finding in the second trimester, evaluation performed later in gestation is used to guide postnatal management. Since the normal renal pelvis dimensions may increase with advancing gestation, thresholds for the diagnosis are larger in the third trimester. Neonatal follow-up is typically recommended only if the fetal renal pelvis diameter exceeds a specified cut-off (e.g. 7 or 10 mm) at or beyond 34 weeks. If the measurement is less, most deem the pyelectasis physiologic or normal. However, it has been suggested that fetuses with early renal pelvis dilation that resolved during pregnancy might also benefit from postnatal surveillance. The newborn evaluation for hydronephrosis may be time consuming, invasive, and costly; however, it can often prevent sequelae from congenital uropathy.

    Title Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Singleton and Twin Pregnancy: Importance of Gestational Age-specific Reference Ranges.
    Date November 2005
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate a normal reference range for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) at each point in gestation in singleton and twin pregnancies. METHODS: All women enrolling for prenatal care from December 2000 through November 2001 underwent prospective TSH screening at their first visit. Separate nomograms were constructed for singleton and twin pregnancies using regression analysis. Values were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) for singleton pregnancies at each week of gestation. RESULTS: Thyroid-stimulating hormone was evaluated in 13,599 singleton and 132 twin pregnancies. Thyroid-stimulating hormone decreased significantly during the first trimester, and the decrease was greater in twins (both P < .001). Had a nonpregnant reference (0.4-4.0 mU/L) been used rather than our nomogram, 28% of 342 singletons with TSH greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean would not have been identified. For singleton first-trimester pregnancies, the approximate upper limit of normal TSH was 4.0 MoM, and for twins, 3.5 MoM. Thereafter, the approximate upper limit was 2.5 MoM for singleton and twin pregnancies. CONCLUSION: If thyroid testing is performed during pregnancy, nomograms that adjust for fetal number and gestational age may greatly improve disease detection. Values expressed as multiples of the median may facilitate comparisons across different laboratories and populations.

    Title Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy Outcomes.
    Date March 2005
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Clinical thyroid dysfunction has been associated with pregnancy complications such as hypertension, preterm birth, low birth weight, placental abruption, and fetal death. The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes has not been well studied. We undertook this prospective thyroid screening study to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with elevated thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) and normal free thyroxine levels. METHODS: All women who presented to Parkland Hospital for prenatal care between November 1, 2000, and April 14, 2003, had thyroid screening using a chemiluminescent TSH assay. Women with TSH values at or above the 97.5th percentile for gestational age at screening and with free thyroxine more than 0.680 ng/dL were retrospectively identified with subclinical hypothyroidism. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with those in pregnant women with normal TSH values between the 5th and 95th percentiles. RESULTS: A total of 25,756 women underwent thyroid screening and were delivered of a singleton infant. There were 17,298 (67%) women enrolled for prenatal care at 20 weeks of gestation or less, and 404 (2.3%) of these were considered to have subclinical hypothyroidism. Pregnancies in women with subclinical hypothyroidism were 3 times more likely to be complicated by placental abruption (relative risk 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-8.2). Preterm birth, defined as delivery at or before 34 weeks of gestation, was almost 2-fold higher in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (relative risk, 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.9). CONCLUSION: We speculate that the previously reported reduction in intelligence quotient of offspring of women with subclinical hypothyroidism may be related to the effects of prematurity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.

    Title Association of Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein with Persistent Placenta Previa.
    Date February 2005
    Journal The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and the risk of persistent placenta previa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with sonographic evidence of placenta previa at 15-20 weeks' gestation, between October 1991 and August 2000. Only pregnancies with MSAFP determination at 15-20 weeks' gestation and non-anomalous live-born infants > or =24 weeks' gestation were included. Pregnancies in which Cesarean delivery was performed for placenta previa were considered persistent; this was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Of 275 women with previa at 15-20 weeks' gestation, 33 (12%) had previa at delivery. Trend analysis revealed a greater likelihood of persistent previa with increasing MSAFP values (p=0.01). Mid-trimester MSAFP <1 multiple of the median (MoM) was associated with a decreased incidence of persistence of 4%, significantly less than the risk at > or =1 MoM (16%; p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between increasing MSAFP values and greater likelihood of persistent placenta previa. An MSAFP value <1 MoM is associated with a reduction in the risk of persistence of previa to delivery.

    Title Improving the Management of Opioid-dependent Pregnancies.
    Date August 2004
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Title Relationship Between Maternal Methadone Dosage and Neonatal Withdrawal.
    Date January 2003
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether maternal methadone dosage affects duration and degree of neonatal narcotic withdrawal. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with opioid addiction who delivered live-born singletons between April 1990 and April 2001. Inpatient detoxification or outpatient methadone maintenance therapy was offered. Women who had a positive drug screen or whose neonate tested positive for opioids were considered to be supplementing. We evaluated indices of neonatal withdrawal according to the maximum daily methadone dosage in the last week of pregnancy. RESULTS: Seventy women with opioid addiction were followed. Median methadone dosage was 20 mg (range 0-150 mg), and 32 infants (46%) were treated for narcotic withdrawal. Among women who received less than 20 mg per day, 20-39 mg per day, and at least 40 mg per day of methadone, treatment for withdrawal occurred in 12%, 44%, and 90% of infants, respectively (P < 0.02). Methadone dosage was also correlated with both duration of neonatal hospitalization and neonatal abstinence score (r(s) =.70 and.73 respectively, both P <.001). Neonates were more likely to experience withdrawal if their mothers were supplementing with heroin, 68% versus 35% (P =.01). Regardless of supplementation, there was a significant relationship between methadone dosage and neonatal withdrawal (P <.05). CONCLUSION: Maternal methadone dosage was associated with duration of neonatal hospitalization, neonatal abstinence score, and treatment for withdrawal. Heroin supplementation did not alter this dose-response relationship. In selected pregnancies, lowering the maternal methadone dosage was associated with both decreased incidence and severity of neonatal withdrawal.

    Title Persistence of Placenta Previa According to Gestational Age at Ultrasound Detection.
    Date September 2002
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gestational age at ultrasound detection of placenta previa as a predictor of previa persistence until delivery, and to estimate the effects of previa type, parity, and prior cesarean delivery on previa persistence. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies with placenta previa detected during transabdominal or endovaginal ultrasound examination. Previa was categorized as complete if the placenta completely covered the internal cervical os or incomplete if the inferior placental edge partially covered or reached the margin of the os. Gestational age was grouped into 4-week intervals from 15 to 36 weeks. The outcome was cesarean delivery for persistent previa. RESULTS: Previa was detected during 940 ultrasound examinations in 714 pregnancies. Of those with placenta previa at 15-19 weeks, 20-23 weeks, 24-27 weeks, 28-31 weeks, and 32-35 weeks, previa persisted until delivery in 12%, 34%, 49%, 62%, and 73%, respectively. At each interval, complete previa was more likely to persist than incomplete previa, all P <.001. Prior cesarean delivery was an independent risk factor for persistent previa among women diagnosed with previa in the second trimester, P <.05. However, parity was not an independent risk factor for persistence at any gestational age interval after adjusting for prior cesarean delivery. CONCLUSION: Gestational age at ultrasound detection of placenta previa may be used to predict likelihood of previa persistence. After midpregnancy, risk of persistence appears to be higher than previously reported. Type of placentation and prior cesarean delivery are important factors that modify the risk that previa will complicate delivery.

    Title Hydramnios: Anomaly Prevalence and Sonographic Detection.
    Date August 2002
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence and ultrasound detection of fetal anomalies in pregnancies with hydramnios, and to estimate anomaly and aneuploidy risks when no sonographic abnormality is noted. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with hydramnios. Hydramnios was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe based on greatest amniotic fluid index of 25.0-29.9 cm, 30.0-34.9 cm, or 35.0 cm or more, respectively. Antenatal anomaly detection was compared with assessment in the immediate neonatal period. Aneuploidy and fetal deaths were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Hydramnios was diagnosed in 672 pregnancies, and 77 (11%) of neonates had one or more anomalies. Though more severe hydramnios was associated with higher likelihood of anomaly (P <.001), sonographic anomaly detection (79%) did not differ according to degree of hydramnios (P =.4). Of anomalies which eluded sonographic diagnosis, cardiac septal defects, cleft palate, imperforate anus, and tracheoesophageal fistula were the most frequent. If sonographic evaluation was normal, the risk of a major anomaly was 1% with mild hydramnios, 2% with moderate hydramnios, and 11% with severe hydramnios (P <.001). Aneuploidy was present in 10% of fetuses with sonographic anomalies and 1% without apparent sonographic anomalies. The fetal death rate was 4% in the setting of hydramnios; 60% of these cases had anomalies. CONCLUSION: The anomaly detection rate in pregnancies with hydramnios was nearly 80%, irrespective of the degree of amniotic fluid increase. Residual anomaly risk after normal sonographic evaluation was 2% or less if hydramnios was mild or moderate and 11% if severe.

    Title Subclinical Hypothyroidism.
    Date January 2002
    Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
    Title Utility of Doppler Velocimetry in Predicting Outcome in Twin Reversed-arterial Perfusion Sequence.
    Date August 2001
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe Doppler velocimetric findings in pregnancies complicated by the twin reversed-arterial perfusion sequence and to determine the association of these findings with pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Six twin pregnancies complicated by twin reversed-arterial perfusion sequence had ultrasonographic and Doppler studies performed between 1990 and 1997. Pulsatile vessels in the umbilical cords of the pump and acardiac twins were insonated, and reversal of flow was confirmed in all cases. Resistive index values were calculated, and the difference in resistive index between the pump and acardiac twin in each pair was evaluated as a marker of pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: Five of 6 pump twins survived the immediate neonatal period. Although 5 of the acardiac twins had abnormally elevated Doppler index values, no ratio of systolic to diastolic velocity or resistive index value of the acardiac twin alone was associated with either a good or poor prognosis for the pump twin. Among the 3 pump twins with good outcomes, all had a resistive index difference >0.20. Among the 3 pump twins with poor outcomes, all had small resistive index differences (<0.05). CONCLUSION: We found larger differences in resistive index to be associated with improved outcome of the pump twin in pregnancies complicated by twin reversed-arterial perfusion sequence. Smaller resistive index differences were associated with poor outcome, including cardiac failure and central nervous system hypoperfusion.

    Title Association Between Maternal Serum Alpha-fetoprotein and Adverse Outcomes in Pregnancies with Placenta Previa.
    Date February 2001
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) level at 15-20 weeks' gestation is a marker of adverse outcomes in women with placenta previa at delivery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, diagnosed sonographically, and confirmed at delivery. All women had MSAFP screening at 15-20 weeks' gestation and delivered nonanomalous live-born infants at or after 24 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: One hundred seven women with placenta previa delivered during the study. Fourteen (13%, 95% CI 7%, 21%) had MSAFP at least 2.0 multiples of the median (MoM). They were significantly more likely than those with lower MSAFP levels to have one or more of the following outcomes: hospitalization for antepartum bleeding before 30 weeks' gestation (50% versus 15%), delivery before 30 weeks' gestation (29% versus 5%), or preterm delivery for pregnancy-associated hypertension before 34 weeks' gestation (14% versus none). The MSAFP cutoff of 2.0 MoM provided the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for those outcomes, using receiver operating characteristic curves. CONCLUSION: Women with placenta previa who also have high MSAFP levels are at increased risk of bleeding in the early third trimester and preterm birth. We did not find women who required cesarean hysterectomy, including those with placenta accreta, to consistently have elevated MSAFP.

    Title Impact of Head-to-abdominal Circumference Asymmetry on Outcomes in Growth-discordant Twins.
    Date December 2000
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate head-to-abdominal circumference asymmetry as a marker for adverse outcomes in growth-discordant twins. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of asymmetric and symmetric twins with > or =25% growth discordance, comparing their outcomes with those in concordant symmetric twins. Growth was termed asymmetric on the basis of a head circumference/abdominal circumference ratio at > or =95th percentile on ultrasonography performed < or =4 weeks before delivery. RESULTS: We evaluated 572 twin pairs. Asymmetric discordant twins were more likely than symmetric concordant twins to be delivered at < or =34 weeks' gestation (57% vs. 27%), to require intubation (36% vs. 7%), to remain in intensive care >1 week (36% vs 3%), and to have an outcome composite that included respiratory morbidity, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, or neonatal death (29% vs 6%), all P<.05. Symmetric discordant and symmetric concordant twins had similar outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Discordant twins with head-to-abdominal circumference asymmetry have an increased risk of morbidity. Moreover, in the absence of asymmetry, outcomes are comparable among discordant and concordant twins.

    Title Effects of Symmetric and Asymmetric Fetal Growth on Pregnancy Outcomes.
    Date September 2000
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of head circumference to abdomen circumference (HC/AC) asymmetry among small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, and to determine the likelihood of adverse outcomes among asymmetric and symmetric SGA infants compared with their appropriate for gestational age (AGA) counterparts. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed consecutive live-born singletons of women who had antepartum sonography within 4 weeks of delivery and delivered between January 1, 1989 and September 30, 1996. A gestational age-specific HC/AC nomogram was derived from our sonographic database of 33,740 nonanomalous live-born singletons. Asymmetric HC/AC was defined as greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for gestational age. RESULTS: Among 1364 SGA infants, 20% had asymmetric HC/AC and 80% were symmetric. Asymmetric SGA infants were more likely to have major anomalies than symmetric SGA infants or AGA infants (14% versus 4% versus 3%, respectively; P <.001). After exclusion of anomalous infants, pregnancy-induced hypertension at or before 32 weeks' gestation and cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal heart rate were more common in the asymmetric SGA than the AGA group (7% versus 1% and 15% versus 3%, respectively; both P <.001). A neonatal outcome composite, including one or more of respiratory distress, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, or neonatal death, was more frequent among asymmetric SGA than AGA infants (14% versus 5%, P =.001). Symmetric SGA infants were not at increased risk of morbidity compared with AGA infants. CONCLUSION: The minority of SGA fetuses with HC/AC asymmetry are at increased risk for intrapartum and neonatal complications.

    Title Correlation Between Amniotic Fluid Glucose Concentration and Amniotic Fluid Volume in Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes.
    Date May 2000
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Pregnancies complicated by diabetes are frequently characterized by an increased volume of amniotic fluid, and the pathophysiologic mechanism of this increase is not known. Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between amniotic fluid glucose concentration and the amniotic fluid index in pregnancies complicated by insulin-treated diabetes and to compare it with that seen in normal pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Amniotic fluid index and amniotic fluid glucose levels were measured before elective repeated cesarean delivery in 41 women with insulin-treated diabetes and in 35 women without diabetes. Only singleton gestations without anomalous fetuses were included. Women with diabetes were hospitalized for approximately 4 weeks before delivery, during which time glycemic control was optimized. Amniotic fluid index and amniotic fluid glucose concentration were correlated with each other and were compared between the groups with and without diabetes. RESULTS: The mean amniotic fluid index was significantly increased in the diabetes group (16.6 +/- 5.0 cm in the diabetes group vs 13.4 +/- 3.5 cm in the control group; P =.002). The amniotic fluid glucose concentration was also significantly greater in the diabetes group than in the control group (39 +/- 17 mg/dL in the diabetes group vs 24 +/- 11 mg/dL in the control group; P <.001). Among women with diabetes the amniotic fluid glucose concentration was significantly correlated with the amniotic fluid index (r = 0.32; P =.04), a correlation not found among the control women. The mean fasting blood glucose concentration among the women with diabetes for the week before amniocentesis was 82 +/- 11 mg/dL. CONCLUSION: The amniotic fluid index parallels the amniotic fluid glucose level among women with diabetes. This finding raises the possibility that the hydramnios associated with diabetes is a result of increased amniotic fluid glucose concentration.

    Title Epidural Analgesia and Intrapartum Fever: Placental Findings.
    Date April 1999
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether epidural analgesia is associated with fever, independent of maternal infection, by evaluating the relationship between epidural analgesia and inflammation of the placenta. METHODS: Placentas collected prospectively from women with singleton gestations, who delivered 6 hours or more after membrane rupture, were evaluated systematically for histologic inflammation by an investigator blinded to all clinical information. Maternal and neonatal markers of infection were assessed in the cohorts who did and did not receive epidural analgesia. RESULTS: One hundred forty-nine consecutive placentas were analyzed, and 80 (54%) of these women received epidural analgesia. On univariate analysis, significant differences between epidural and no epidural groups were found with respect to maternal fever 38C or greater (46% versus 26%, P = .01), placenta inflammation (61% versus 36%, P = .002), and length of labor (11.8 hours versus 9.6 hours, P = .03). The combination of maternal fever plus placental inflammation was significantly more common in the epidural group (35% versus 17% P = .02). However, maternal fever in the absence of supporting evidence of infection, in the form of placental inflammation, was not increased after epidural analgesia (11% versus 9%, P = .61). CONCLUSION: Epidural analgesia is associated with intrapartum fever, but only in the presence of placental inflammation. This suggests that the fever reported with epidural analgesia is due to infection rather than the analgesia itself.

    Title Opioid Detoxification in Pregnancy.
    Date November 1998
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Opioid withdrawal has been associated with poor fetal growth, preterm delivery, and fetal death. We sought to evaluate the safety of antepartum opioid detoxification in selected gravidas. METHODS: Between 1990 and 1996, women with singleton gestations who reported opioid use were offered inpatient detoxification. Predetoxification sonography was performed to confirm gestational age and to exclude fetuses with growth restriction and oligohydramnios. Women with mild withdrawal symptoms were given clonidine initially, and methadone was substituted if symptoms persisted. Objective signs of withdrawal were treated with methadone from the outset. Antenatal testing was performed once gestations reached 24 weeks. Newborns were observed for signs of neonatal abstinence syndrome and were treated as necessary. Obstetric and neonatal outcome data were collected. RESULTS: Thirty-four gravidas elected to undergo opioid detoxification at a mean gestational age of 24 weeks. The median maximum dose of methadone was 20 mg per day (range 10-85 mg), and the median time to detoxification was 12 days (range 3-39 days). Overall, 20 women (59%) successfully underwent detoxification and did not relapse, ten (29%) resumed antenatal opioid use, and four (12%) did not complete detoxification and opted for methadone maintenance. There was no evidence of fetal distress during detoxification, no fetal death, and no delivery before 36 weeks. Fifteen percent of neonates were treated for narcotic withdrawal. CONCLUSION: In selected patients, opioid detoxification can be accomplished safely during pregnancy.

    Title The Long-term Consequences of Thrombotic Microangiopathy (thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome) in Pregnancy.
    Date May 1998
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize perinatal outcomes and long-term maternal complications from thrombotic microangiopathy manifested during pregnancy, and to review the clinical course and long-term follow-up of pregnant women with this condition at our institution over the past 25 years. METHODS: We identified prospectively pregnant women who met clinical and laboratory criteria for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or hemolytic uremic syndrome. Their clinical and laboratory findings, response to treatment, perinatal outcomes, and long-term sequelae were then analyzed. RESULTS: Between 1972 and 1997, 11 women had 13 pregnancies complicated by thrombotic microangiopathy, representing an incidence of one per 25,000 births. In three pregnancies (23%), severe and refractory disease developed before midpregnancy. In ten other pregnancies, disease developed either peripartum (62%) or several weeks postpartum (15%). In only two pregnancies with peripartum or postpartum onset of disease was there a clinical picture of severe preeclampsia. In general, the response to treatment was prompt. One woman died of her initial disease in early pregnancy, and mean follow-up of nine survivors was 8.7 years. Disease recurred at least once in 50% of these, two during a subsequent pregnancy. There was at least one serious long-term sequela in all but two survivors; these included recurrence of thrombotic microangiopathy, renal failure, severe hypertension, chronic blood-borne infections, and death. CONCLUSION: Thrombotic microangiopathy complicating pregnancy is rare, and with careful evaluation, it should not be confused with atypical preeclampsia. With prompt and aggressive treatment including plasma exchange, the likelihood of immediate survival is high; however, long-term morbidity and mortality are common.

    Title Antibiotic Use in Pregnancy.
    Date October 1997
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    With a few notable exceptions, most antibiotics can be used with relative safety during pregnancy. Moreover, none of the antibiotics to date has been shown to be teratogenic, although tetracycline may cause yellow-brown discoloration of the deciduous teeth (a fetal effect). Thus, antibiotics should not be withheld from the pregnant woman, especially when indicated for serious, life-threatening infections.

    Title Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use in Pregnancy and the Neonatal Behavioral Syndrome.
    Date
    Journal The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the severity of neonatal behavioral syndrome (NBS) in infants of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI)-treated pregnancies, compared with infants of women with psychiatric illness not treated with medication. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies followed in a prenatal clinic for women with psychiatric illness. Infants of women who received SRI medication through delivery (SRI-treated) were compared with those who did not receive treatment or discontinued medication before the last month of pregnancy (SRI-untreated). NBS was defined as one or more of the following: jitteriness, irritability, lethargy, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, apnea, respiratory distress, vomiting, poor feeding, or hypoglycemia. RESULTS: Findings of NBS were identified in 28% of 46 SRI-treated pregnancies and 17% of 59 untreated pregnancies. There were no differences in rates of prematurity (4% vs. 7%), fetal growth restriction (6% vs. 2%), transfer to a higher nursery for NBS (11% vs. 10%), respiratory abnormality (7% vs. 5%), or hospitalization duration among infants with NBS findings (2 vs. 6 days). CONCLUSIONS: Findings of NBS were identified in 28% of SRI-exposed neonates. However, these infants were not more likely than unexposed infants to be admitted to a higher nursery, experience respiratory abnormalities, or have prolonged hospitalization.


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