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Surgical Specialist
45 years of experience

Video profile

Credentials

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
New York University (1967)
  •  
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
One of America's Leading Experts on:
Crohn Disease
Ileostomy
Ulcerative Colitis
Patients' Choice Award (2008)
Appointments
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Clinical Professor
Mt Sinai School Of Medicine Of New York University, Ny, Ny (1967 - Present)
Mt Sinai School Of Medicine Of The City University Of Ny, Ny (1975 - Present)
Associations
American College of Gastroenterology
American Board of Surgery
American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery
American College of Surgeons

Affiliations ?

Dr. Bauer is affiliated with 1 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations

Score

Rankings

  • Mt Sinai Hospital
    1 Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029
    •  
    Top 50%
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Bauer has contributed to 123 publications.
    Title Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma in Crohn's Disease.
    Date September 2011
    Journal Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery : Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
    Excerpt

    An association between small bowel adenocarcinoma and Crohn's disease (CD) is well-established. We present our recent experience with this entity in order to further elucidate its clinicopathological features and update our series from 1991.

    Title Postoperative Mesenteric Pseudoaneurysm in a Patient Undergoing Bowel Resection for Crohn's Disease.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Colorectal Disease : the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
    Title Colorectal Carcinoma in Indeterminate Colitis.
    Date August 2009
    Journal Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    Excerpt

    For all the interest in the natural history of colorectal cancer (CRC) in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), surprisingly few data have been published regarding CRC in indeterminate colitis (IC). We present our experience with 15 cases of IC-associated CRC in order to assess their clinicopathological features and to determine their survival rates.

    Title Recurrence Patterns After First Resection for Stricturing or Penetrating Crohn's Disease.
    Date August 2009
    Journal Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    Excerpt

    Crohn's disease (CD) usually recurs after resection, but the factors associated with this risk remain obscure. We set out to determine the role of stricturing (Montreal Classification B2) versus penetrating (Classification B3) disease behavior in predicting early (<3 years) versus late (>or=3 years) postoperative recurrence.

    Title Evaluation of One-stage Laparoscopic-assisted Restorative Proctocolectomy at a Specialty Center: Comparison with the Open Approach.
    Date April 2009
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    This study compared outcomes after laparoscopically assisted and open restorative proctocolectomy performed as a one-stage procedure, including anorectal mucosectomy and omission of ileal diversion.

    Title Delayed Kock Pouch Nipple Valve Failure: is Revision Indicated?
    Date October 2008
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to review our experience with patients who, after more than 10 years of normal Kock pouch valve function, required repair of the valve. In addition, we describe the surgical techniques employed for valve repair. METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified 31 patients who underwent Kock pouch revision after a minimum time interval between previous pouch surgery and the current revision of 10 (average, 19.7) years. RESULTS: The intraoperative findings included slipped valve, valve prolapse, and internal nipple valve fistulas. The procedures performed included standard valve reconstruction, turnaround procedures, pedicle repair, wall stapling, and oversewing of fistula. Twelve of the 31 patients failed the initial revision and required additional operations, with an overall pouch salvage success rate of 93 percent. Only two patients required excision of the pouch and conversion to a Brooke ileostomy. The procedures were performed with minimal morbidity and no mortality. CONCLUSION: Surgical revision can be offered to patients with a continent ileostomy complicated by delayed valve dysfunction with low morbidity and good functional outcome.

    Title Septic Complications After Restorative Proctocolectomy Do Not Impair Functional Outcome: Long-term Follow-up from a Specialty Center.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: After restorative proctocolectomy, 7 to 8 percent of patients may have a pouch leak. Concern exists that pouch leak may be associated with impaired functional outcome. We evaluated patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy to determine whether pouch leak adversely affected long-term functional outcome and quality of life. METHODS: We queried our prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy for demographic and clinical data. We sent a long-term outcome questionnaire to patients, including the validated Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Cleveland Global Quality of Life scores. Pouch leak was identified by clinical or radiographic evidence of leak. Patients with leak were compared with those without to determine the impact on long-term functional outcome or quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 817 patients were available for follow-up and 374 patients (46 percent) completed questionnaires. The group with (n = 60; 16 percent) and without (n = 314; 84 percent) leak had similar demographics. The median Fecal Incontinence Severity Index score (15.3 vs. 14.7, P = 0.77), Cleveland Global Quality of Life score (0.79 vs. 0.81, P = 0.48), and bowel movements per 24 hours (7.92 vs. 7.88, P = 0.92) were similar. The pouch loss/permanent ileostomy rate was higher in those who leaked (13.3 vs. 0.9 percent, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Anastomotic leak after restorative proctocolectomy does not adversely affect long-term quality of life or functional outcome. However, pouch loss/permanent ileostomy is significantly more likely in patients who have had an anastomotic leak.

    Title Laparoscopic-assisted Ileocolic Resection for Crohn's Disease.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Jsls : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: This study reviews our experience with laparoscopic-assisted ileocolic resection in patients with Crohn's disease. The adequacy and safety of this procedure as measured by intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. Special attention was paid to the group in which laparoscopy was not feasible and conversion to laparotomy was necessary. METHODS: Between 1992 and 2005, 168 laparoscopic-assisted ileocolic resections were performed on 167 patients with Crohn's ileal or ileocolic disease. Follow-up data were complete in 158 patients. RESULTS: In 38 patients (24%), conversion to laparotomy was necessary. Previous resection was not a predictor of conversion to laparotomy. Average ileal and colonic length of resected specimens was 20.9 cm and 6.5 cm, respectively, in the laparoscopic group, versus 24.9 cm and 10.6 cm in the converted group. Twenty of 120 specimens (16.6%) in the laparoscopic group were found to have margins microscopically positive for active Crohn's disease. None of the 38 specimens in the converted group had positive ileal margins. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic-assisted ileocolic resection can be safely performed in patients with Crohn's disease ileitis. The finding of positive surgical margins following laparoscopic resections compared with none among conventional resections has to be thoroughly evaluated.

    Title Pelvic Cancer Ten Years After Restorative Proctocolectomy in Indeterminate Colitis: Report of a Case.
    Date June 2008
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Title Alvimopan Accelerates Gastrointestinal Recovery After Bowel Resection Regardless of Age, Gender, Race, or Concomitant Medication Use.
    Date December 2007
    Journal Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus is a transient cessation of bowel motility that occurs after bowel resection (BR). Alvimopan, a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist accelerated gastrointestinal (GI) recovery in 5 randomized, double-blind, phase III postoperative ileus trials. METHODS: Individual covariates (age, gender, race) were assessed separately using Cox proportional hazards models that included the main effects of treatment and covariate factor. Time-to-GI recovery (GI-3 [first toleration of solid food and first bowel movement or flatus]; GI-2 [first toleration of solid food and first bowel movement]) for patients who underwent open laparotomy for BR in the absence of epidural anesthesia and received alvimopan (12 mg) or placebo was analyzed within subgroups (age, gender, race, concomitant medication use) using Cox proportional hazards models to generate hazard ratios (HRs). P values were calculated with the Wald chi2 test. RESULTS: Elderly (>or=65 years), male, and nonwhite patients achieved GI-3 recovery later than younger (<65 years), female, and white patients (HR > 1 and P < .05 for all). Overall, alvimopan (12 mg) accelerated GI-3 recovery by 12 hours and GI-2 recovery by 17 hours compared with placebo. Within subgroups, regardless of covariate effect, patients who received alvimopan (12 mg) achieved GI-2 and GI-3 recovery sooner than patients who received placebo (HR > 1 and P < .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: These post hoc analyses support that alvimopan (12 mg) accelerates GI recovery across various patient populations.

    Title Mri-derived Body Segment Parameters of Children Differ from Age-based Estimates Derived Using Photogrammetry.
    Date November 2007
    Journal Journal of Biomechanics
    Excerpt

    Body segment parameters are required when researching joint kinetics using inverse dynamics models. However, the only regression equations for estimating pediatric body segment parameters across a wide age range were developed, using photogrammetry, based on 12 boys and have not been validated to date (Jensen, R.K., 1986. Body segment mass, radius and radius of gyration proportions of children. Journal of Biomechanics 19, 359-368). To assess whether these equations could validly be applied to girls, we asked whether body segment parameters estimated by the equations differ from parameters measured using a validated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method. If so, do the differences cause significant differences in joint kinetics during normal gait? Body segment parameters were estimated from axial MRIs of the left thigh and shank of 10 healthy girls (9.6 +/- 0.9 years) and compared to those from Jensen's equations. Kinematics and kinetics were collected for 10 walking trials. Extrema in hip and knee moments and powers were compared between the two sets of body segment parameters. With the exception of the shank mass center and radius of gyration, body segment parameters measured using MRI were significantly different from those estimated using regression equations. These systematic differences in body segment parameters resulted in significant differences in sagittal-plane joint moments and powers during gait. Nevertheless, it is doubtful that even the greatest differences in kinetics are practically meaningful (0.3% BW x HT and 0.7% BW x HT/s for moments and power at the hip, respectively). Therefore, body segment parameters estimated using Jensen's regression equations are a suitable substitute for more detailed anatomical imaging of 8-10-year-old girls when quantifying joint kinetics during gait.

    Title Physical Activity Beliefs and Behaviour of Adults with Physical Disabilities.
    Date October 2007
    Journal Disability and Rehabilitation
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to elicit the physical activity (PA) beliefs from adults with physical disabilities; and second, to examine their self-reported PA participation. METHOD: Participants were 223 adults (M age = 45.4 years, SD = 10.8), with self-reported physical disabilities who completed a web-based survey. Six open-ended questions were used to assess PA beliefs and the PA Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities measured self-reported PA. RESULTS: A qualitative analysis showed that the most accessible behavioural advantages are that PA improves emotional functioning and assists with weight management. The most accessible behavioural disadvantages are that PA causes pain or soreness and consumes time. The most accessible normative influences that approve of PA are family, friends, and healthcare professionals. The most accessible control beliefs obstructing PA are disability and associated symptoms, and a lack of access to adequate facilities, equipment, or programs. The most accessible control beliefs that facilitate PA are access to adequate facilities, equipment, or programs, and support or assistance. Finally, the average total PA score was 20.5 metabolic equivalent (METS)-hours/day (SD = 16.8). CONCLUSIONS: Adults with physical disabilities possess unique PA beliefs that can be used to design health promotion interventions to increase PA participation.

    Title Mucosal Dysplasia in Ileal Pelvic Pouches After Restorative Proctocolectomy.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Inflammation, villous atrophy, colonic metaplasia, and dysplasia have been observed within the mucosa of ileal pelvic pouches after restorative proctocolectomy. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of mucosal dysplasia in ileal pouch and any associated risk factors. METHODS: Prospectively registered patients having restorative proctocolectomy were recruited. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire focusing on disease history, functional results, and pouchitis after surgery. Participants underwent screening endoscopic pouch examination using sigmoidoscopy. Mucosal biopsies were taken from six specific locations in the pouch from proximal ileal-pouch (inflow) to ileoanal anastomosis. All biopsies were performed under strict surveillance protocol regardless of patients' symptoms. Biopsies were interpreted by two pathologists unaware of each other's report. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients completed the protocol. Colectomy specimens from restorative proctocolectomy showed chronic ulcerative colitis in 118 (85.6 percent), familial adenomatous polyposis in 10 (7.2 percent), Crohn's colitis in 2 (1.4 percent), and indeterminate colitis in 8 (5.8 percent) patients. Twenty-two patients (18.3 percent) had dysplasia and eight (6.7 percent) had invasive cancer found in colectomy specimens after restorative proctocolectomy. Median interval between proctocolectomy and pouch biopsy was 5.4 years. Inflammatory changes were present in a majority of specimens, but these did not correlate with clinical history of pouchitis. No villous atrophy was identified. Pouch biopsies from only one patient were indefinite for dysplasia. Subsequent biopsies were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and microscopic evidence of ileal-pouch inflammation is common. Ileal-pouch mucosal dysplasia is uncommon, occurring in only 1 of 138 patients. Villous atrophy and colonic metaplasia were not observed in this series. Routine pouch surveillance with biopsies may not be warranted.

    Title The Mediating Role of Intention and Stages of Change in Physical Activity Among Adults with Physical Disabilities: an Integrative Framework.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
    Excerpt

    The study's purpose was to identify the mediating role of intention and the stages of change (SOC) in physical activity (PA) over a 6-month period using two models (theory of planned behavior [TPB] and TPB/SOC). Participants were 143 adults with physical disabilities (70.68% response rate; M age = 46.03). The TPB constructs, SOC (time 1), and PA (time 2) were assessed using standardized self-report questionnaires. Based on path analyses, attitude had the highest effect on intention and SOC followed by perceived behavioral control within both well-fit models. The variance in PA explained by the first (TPB) and second (TPB/SOC) models was 16% and 28% respectively. In the just identified model of TPB/SOC, the direct effect of SOC on physical activity remained strong (gamma(soc.pa) = .45) and SOC approached full mediation through attitude. Health promotion interventions need to include both intention and behavior elements (SOC) reinforcing increased PA value and barrier elimination.

    Title Continuity and Change in the Life Story: a Longitudinal Study of Autobiographical Memories in Emerging Adulthood.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Journal of Personality
    Excerpt

    If a person's internalized and evolving life story (narrative identity) is to be considered an integral feature of personality itself, then aspects of that story should manifest some continuity over time while also providing evidence regarding important personality change. Accordingly, college freshmen and seniors provided detailed written accounts of 10 key scenes in their life stories, and they repeated the same procedure 3 months and then 3 years later. The accounts were content analyzed for reliable narrative indices employed in previous studies of life stories: emotional tone, motivational themes (agency, communion, personal growth), and narrative complexity. The results showed substantial continuity over time for narrative complexity and positive (vs. negative) emotional tone and moderate but still significant continuity for themes of agency and growth. In addition, emerging adults (1) constructed more emotionally positive stories and showed (2) greater levels of emotional nuance and self-differentiation and (3) greater understanding of their own personal development in the 4th year of the study compared to the 1st year. The study is the first to demonstrate both temporal continuity and developmental change in narrative identity over time in a broad sampling of personally meaningful life-story scenes.

    Title Crohn's-like Colitis, Enterocolitis and Perianal Disease in Hermansky-pudlak Syndrome.
    Date December 2006
    Journal Colorectal Disease : the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
    Excerpt

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder consisting of the triad of oculocutaneous tyrosinase-positive albinism, prolonged bleeding time secondary to platelet storage pool defect and ceroid depositions within the reticuloendothelial system. Some patients also reportedly have gastrointestinal (GI) complications related to chronic granulomatous colitis, enterocolitis and extensive granulomatous perianal disease, the later previously unreported in the literature. These observations suggest that the GI complications of HPS are due to the development of classical Crohn's disease. The implications for disease pathogenesis and surgical management are discussed.

    Title Vocal Responses to Unanticipated Perturbations in Voice Loudness Feedback: an Automatic Mechanism for Stabilizing Voice Amplitude.
    Date June 2006
    Journal The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
    Excerpt

    The present study tested whether subjects respond to unanticipated short perturbations in voice loudness feedback with compensatory responses in voice amplitude. The role of stimulus magnitude (+/- 1,3 vs 6 dB SPL), stimulus direction (up vs down), and the ongoing voice amplitude level (normal vs soft) were compared across compensations. Subjects responded to perturbations in voice loudness feedback with a compensatory change in voice amplitude 76% of the time. Mean latency of amplitude compensation was 157 ms. Mean response magnitudes were smallest for 1-dB stimulus perturbations (0.75 dB) and greatest for 6-dB conditions (0.98 dB). However, expressed as gain, responses for 1-dB perturbations were largest and almost approached 1.0. Response magnitudes were larger for the soft voice amplitude condition compared to the normal voice amplitude condition. A mathematical model of the audio-vocal system captured the main features of the compensations. Previous research has demonstrated that subjects can respond to an unanticipated perturbation in voice pitch feedback with an automatic compensatory response in voice fundamental frequency. Data from the present study suggest that voice loudness feedback can be used in a similar manner to monitor and stabilize voice amplitude around a desired loudness level.

    Title Reduction in Adhesive Small-bowel Obstruction by Seprafilm Adhesion Barrier After Intestinal Resection.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    INTRODUCTION: Although Seprafilm has been demonstrated to reduce adhesion formation, it is not known whether its usage would translate into a reduction in adhesive small-bowel obstruction. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, multinational, single-blind, controlled study. This report focuses on those patients who underwent intestinal resection (n = 1,701). Before closure of the abdomen, patients were randomized to receive Seprafilm or no treatment. Seprafilm was applied to adhesiogenic tissues throughout the abdomen. The incidence and type of bowel obstruction was compared between the two groups. Time to first adhesive small-bowel obstruction was compared during the course of the study by using survival analysis methods. The mean follow-up time for the occurrence of adhesive small-bowel obstruction was 3.5 years. RESULTS: There was no difference between the treatment and control group in overall rate of bowel obstruction. The incidence of adhesive small-bowel obstruction requiring reoperation was significantly lower for Seprafilm patients compared with no-treatment patients: 1.8 vs. 3.4 percent (P < 0.05). This finding represents an absolute reduction in adhesive small-bowel obstruction requiring reoperation of 1.6 percent and a relative reduction of 47 percent. In addition, a stepwise multivariate analysis indicated that the use of Seprafilm was the only predictive factor for reducing adhesive small-bowel obstruction requiring reoperation. In both groups, 50 percent of first adhesive small-bowel obstruction episodes occurred within 6 months after the initial surgery with nearly 30 percent occurring within the first 30 days. Additionally no first adhesive small-bowel obstruction events were reported in Years 4 and 5 of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The overall bowel obstruction rate was unchanged; however, adhesive small-bowel obstruction requiring reoperation was significantly reduced by the use of Seprafilm, which was the only factor that predicted this outcome.

    Title Innate Immune Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms in Pouchitis: is Card15 a Susceptibility Factor?
    Date January 2006
    Journal Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Pouchitis is a frequent complication after ileal pouch-anal anastamosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the innate immune receptors toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and caspase activation and recruitment domain family member 15 (CARD15) genes are associated with pouchitis. METHODS: From a retrospectively ascertained cohort of patients with UC 5 to 12 years after IPAA (n = 101), subjects were classified into 3 groups: no pouchitis (n = 52); 1 to 2 episodes per year (n = 11), and more than 2 episodes per year (n = 38). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the tlr4 gene (D299G, T399I) were determined by a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based fluorogenic probe technique; and card15 polymorphisms (L1007fsinsC, R702W, G908R) were determined by pyrosequencing. RESULTS: Pouchitis affected 49% (49/101) of the study population. No correlation between pouchitis and the presence of TLR4 polymorphisms was found. The percentage of patients who harbored CARD15 mutations was significantly higher in patients with pouchitis than in patients without pouchitis (18% versus 8%; P < 0.05); 24% of pouchitis patients with more than 2 episodes per year harbored CARD15 mutations (P < 0.01 compared with the no pouchitis group). The CARD15 insertion mutation L1007fsinsC was present in 14% of patients with pouchitis and in 0% without pouchitis (P < 0.05). All patients who carried L1007fsinsC developed more than 2 episodes per year. CONCLUSIONS: CARD15 polymorphisms are seen in greater frequency in patients with pouchitis after IPAA for UC. These findings, if borne out in prospective analyses, suggest that CARD15 mutations, particularly L1007fsinsC, may predispose to the development of pouchitis after IPAA for UC.

    Title Crystallization of Desire and Crystallization of Discontent in Narratives of Life-changing Decisions.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Journal of Personality
    Excerpt

    Two studies of adults examined personal narratives of life-changing decisions in relation to personality and well-being. Participants whose decision narratives emphasized a crystallization of desire (i.e., approaching a desired future) rather than a crystallization of discontent (i.e., escaping an undesired past; Baumeister, 1991, 1994) reported higher well-being, fewer avoidance strivings, lower Neuroticism (in Study 1 only), and better decision outcomes (in Study 2). However, neither strivings, traits, nor outcomes accounted for the relationship between crystallization of desire and well-being. The discussion considers the roles of life-changing decisions and personal narratives in research on personality, well-being, and positive personal development.

    Title Voice Responses to Changes in Pitch of Voice or Tone Auditory Feedback.
    Date July 2005
    Journal The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
    Excerpt

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject's voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a triangular-shaped tone (experiment 1) or a pure tone (experiment 2). However, response latencies did not differ across voice or tone conditions. Data suggest that subjects responded to the change in F0 rather than harmonic frequencies of auditory feedback because voice F0 response prevalence, magnitude, or latency did not statistically differ across triangular-shaped tone or pure-tone feedback. Results indicate the audio-vocal system is sensitive to the change in pitch of a variety of sounds, which may represent a flexible system capable of adapting to changes in the subject's voice. However, lower prevalence and smaller responses to tone pitch-shifted signals suggest that the audio-vocal system may resist changes to the pitch of other environmental sounds when voice feedback is present.

    Title Prevention of Postoperative Abdominal Adhesions by a Novel, Glycerol/sodium Hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose-based Bioresorbable Membrane: a Prospective, Randomized, Evaluator-blinded Multicenter Study.
    Date July 2005
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    INTRODUCTION: Postoperative abdominal adhesions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, placing a substantial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Development of a bioresorbable membrane containing up to 23 percent glycerol and chemically modified sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose offers ease of handling and has been shown to provide significant postoperative adhesion prevention in animals. This study was designed to assess the safety of glycerol hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose and to evaluate its efficacy in reducing the incidence, extent, and severity of postoperative adhesion development in surgical patients. METHODS: Twelve centers enrolled 120 patients with ulcerative colitis or familial polyposis who were scheduled for a restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with diverting loop ileostomy. Before surgical closure, patients were randomized to no anti-adhesion treatment (control) or treatment with glycerol hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose membrane under the midline incision. At ileostomy closure, laparoscopy was used to evaluate the incidence, extent, and severity of adhesion formation to the midline incision. RESULTS: Data were analyzed using the intent-to-treat population. Treatment with glycerol hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose resulted in 19 of 58 patients (33 percent) with no adhesions compared with 6 of 60 adhesion-free patients (10 percent) in the no treatment control group (P = 0.002). The mean extent of postoperative adhesions to the midline incision was significantly lower among patients treated with glycerol hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose compared with patients in the control group (P < 0.001). The severity of postoperative adhesions to the midline incision was significantly less with glycerol hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose than with control (P < 0.001). Adverse events were similar between treatment and no treatment control groups with the exception of abscess and incisional wound complications were more frequently observed with glycerol hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose. CONCLUSIONS: Glycerol hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose was shown to effectively reduce adhesions to the midline incision and adhesions between the omentum and small bowel after abdominal surgery. Safety profiles for the treatment and no treatment control groups were similar with the exception of more infection complications associated with glycerol hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose use. Animal models did not predict these complications.

    Title Interpreting the Good Life: Growth Memories in the Lives of Mature, Happy People.
    Date June 2005
    Journal Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
    Excerpt

    In 2 studies, the authors examined autobiographical memories for the presence of 2 growth orientations that were expected to correspond differentially to maturity and well-being, which are considered to be key facets of "the good life" by L. A. King (2001). Mature participants emphasized integrative memories (conceptual integration and learning), whereas happy participants emphasized intrinsic memories (humanistic concerns). Both kinds of growth memories correlated more strongly with eudaimonic than with hedonic measures of well-being. Growth memories were largely independent of Big Five traits in relation to maturity and well-being. Finally, older participants were more likely than younger participants to have greater maturity (marginally) and well-being, but this was in part explained by older participants' greater tendency to have growth memories. The discussion considers the role of growth memories in the intentional cultivation of the good life.

    Title What is the Prescription for Healthy Bones?
    Date May 2005
    Journal Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
    Title Compensation for Pitch-shifted Auditory Feedback During the Production of Mandarin Tone Sequences.
    Date February 2005
    Journal The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
    Excerpt

    Recent research has found that while speaking, subjects react to perturbations in pitch of voice auditory feedback by changing their voice fundamental frequency (F0) to compensate for the perceived pitch-shift. The long response latencies (150-200 ms) suggest they may be too slow to assist in on-line control of the local pitch contour patterns associated with lexical tones on a syllable-to-syllable basis. In the present study, we introduced pitch-shifted auditory feedback to native speakers of Mandarin Chinese while they produced disyllabic sequences /ma ma/ with different tonal combinations at a natural speaking rate. Voice F0 response latencies (100-150 ms) to the pitch perturbations were shorter than syllable durations reported elsewhere. Response magnitudes increased from 50 cents during static tone to 85 cents during dynamic tone productions. Response latencies and peak times decreased in phrases involving a dynamic change in F0. The larger response magnitudes and shorter latency and peak times in tasks requiring accurate, dynamic control of F0, indicate this automatic system for regulation of voice F0 may be task-dependent. These findings suggest that auditory feedback may be used to help regulate voice F0 during production of bi-tonal Mandarin phrases.

    Title Liver Abscess in Crohn's Disease: a Report of Three Cases.
    Date December 2004
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Excerpt

    Liver abscess is a rare complication of Crohn's disease and must be considered part of the differential diagnosis. We present three case reports and a review of the literature. The incidence of liver abscess is higher in patients with Crohn's disease than in the general population. Since Crohn's disease patients who present with a liver abscess generally do not respond to medical management alone, surgical or percutaneous drainage of the abscess is necessary.

    Title Restorative Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis Complicated by Colorectal Cancer.
    Date October 2004
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is widely accepted as the procedure of choice for patients requiring surgery for chronic ulcerative colitis. The role of restorative proctocolectomy in the setting of chronic ulcerative colitis complicated by colorectal carcinoma is not clear. This study was undertaken to explore the clinical outcomes of chronic ulcerative colitis patients with coexisting colorectal carcinoma who underwent restorative proctocolectomy. METHODS: A total of 756 patients with chronic ulcerative colitis were followed prospectively after restorative proctocolectomy. Forty-five (5.9 percent) were found to have invasive carcinoma of the colon (n = 31) or rectum (n = 14). These patients were followed with special attention to cancer stage, adjuvant therapy, oncologic outcome, and functional results after restorative proctocolectomy. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (45.6 percent) had staged surgery (colon, 14; rectum, 7). Twenty-seven patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (colon, 22; rectum, 5). Fourteen patients (51.8 percent) who received chemotherapy were not diverted during this treatment. Two node-positive rectal cancer patients had pelvic radiotherapy: one before restorative proctocolectomy and one after restorative proctocolectomy. Mean time to restoration of intestinal continuity among staged patients did not differ between cancer and noncancer patients. Six patients died of metastatic disease (colon, 3; rectum, 3). Five deaths occurred among patients with Stage III disease (colon, 3/13, 23.1 percent; rectum, 2/3, 66.7 percent). One patient with Stage I cancer at the time of restorative proctocolectomy died. Thirty-nine patients are alive without evidence of disease at a mean interval from surgery of 76.5 months. Thirty-six patients have functioning pelvic pouches. Bowel frequency, continence, and complication rates are similar among restorative proctocolectomy patients with and without cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Restorative proctocolectomy as a single or staged procedure is a viable therapeutic option for selected chronic ulcerative colitis patients with associated colorectal cancers. Prognosis seems to be related to cancer stage. Adjuvant chemotherapy can safely be given to nondiverted patients. Appropriate use of preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer patients who are otherwise candidates for restorative proctocolectomy is unknown. Long-term functional results for cancer patients are similar to those seen in chronic ulcerative colitis patients without cancer.

    Title Personal Growth in Adults' Stories of Life Transitions.
    Date August 2004
    Journal Journal of Personality
    Excerpt

    Abstract This study identified four themes of personal growth (integrative, intrinsic, agentic, and communal) in adults' stories of life transitions in careers and religions. Specific themes were expected to relate differentially to two forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being) and to transition satisfaction. Integrative themes correlated primarily with social-cognitive maturity (ego development; Loevinger, 1976), whereas intrinsic themes correlated primarily with social-emotional well-being. Agentic-growth themes correlated primarily with transition satisfaction, whereas communal-growth themes correlated primarily with global well-being. Themes of agentic and communal growth also differentiated the two types of transitions studied-changes in careers and changes in religions-in ways that both supported and contradicted traditional notions of those transitions. We discuss these findings in terms of narrative meaning making, the mature and happy person, and intentional self-development via life transitions.

    Title Growth Goals, Maturity, and Well-being.
    Date July 2004
    Journal Developmental Psychology
    Excerpt

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths.

    Title Are Panca, Asca, or Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Pouchitis? Long-term Follow-up in 102 Ulcerative Colitis Patients.
    Date May 2004
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Pouchitis is the most frequent complication after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. This study aims to analyze the frequency and characteristics of pouchitis in long-term follow-up in a large population, and to determine whether a significant association exists between five immunogenetic markers and pouchitis. METHODS: From a population of over 500 ulcerative colitis patients who had undergone ileal pouch-anal anastamosis 5-12 yr earlier, 102 subjects participated in the study. Using clinical data obtained from interviews and chart reviews, patients were classified into three groups: no pouchitis; 1-2 episodes per year; and >2 episodes per year. Coded sera from the patients were analyzed for ulcerative colitis-associated perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and Crohn's disease-associated anti-saccharomyces cerevesiae antibodies. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and lymphotoxin beta (lymphotoxin) polymorphisms were also analyzed. RESULTS: Pouchitis affected 49% of the study population. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, anti-saccharomyces cerevesiae antibodies, and lymphotoxin-beta polymorphisms were not associated with pouchitis. Carriage of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist allele 2 was significantly greater among those without pouchitis than those with pouchitis. Patients without pouchitis had a significantly greater carriage rate of TNF allele 2. CONCLUSIONS: Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-saccharomyces cerevesiae antibodies are not correlated with pouchitis, but interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and TNF may play a role in its development. Further evaluation of these markers in pouchitis will require larger populations, long-term prospective observation, and studies that correlate polymorphisms with specific immunologic functions.

    Title The Role of Auditory Feedback in Sustaining Vocal Vibrato.
    Date January 2004
    Journal The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
    Excerpt

    Vocal vibrato and tremor are characterized by oscillations in voice fundamental frequency (F0). These oscillations may be sustained by a control loop within the auditory system. One component of the control loop is the pitch-shift reflex (PSR). The PSR is a closed loop negative feedback reflex that is triggered in response to discrepancies between intended and perceived pitch with a latency of approximately 100 ms. Consecutive compensatory reflexive responses lead to oscillations in pitch every approximately 200 ms, resulting in approximately 5-Hz modulation of F0. Pitch-shift reflexes were elicited experimentally in six subjects while they sustained /u/ vowels at a comfortable pitch and loudness. Auditory feedback was sinusoidally modulated at discrete integer frequencies (1 to 10 Hz) with +/- 25 cents amplitude. Modulated auditory feedback induced oscillations in voice F0 output of all subjects at rates consistent with vocal vibrato and tremor. Transfer functions revealed peak gains at 4 to 7 Hz in all subjects, with an average peak gain at 5 Hz. These gains occurred in the modulation frequency region where the voice output and auditory feedback signals were in phase. A control loop in the auditory system may sustain vocal vibrato and tremorlike oscillations in voice F0.

    Title Long-term Results of Salvage Surgery for Septic Complications After Restorative Proctocolectomy: Does Fecal Diversion Improve Outcome?
    Date November 2003
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Septic complications related to the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis after restorative proctocolectomy have been reported in up to 16 percent of patients in major series. Management strategies are not well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of salvage surgery and to assess the impact diversion had on the outcome. METHODS: Patients who developed ileal pouch-anal anastomosis-related septic complications after restorative proctocolectomy were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Surgical procedures and follow-up data were obtained at the time of hospital and office visits. Successful salvage was defined as the absence of clinical evidence of fistula, sinus, or abscess at least three months after salvage surgery or closure of ileostomy. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis-related sepsis were identified. All patients had sinus or fistulous tracts from pouch-anal anastomoses. Eighty-nine salvage procedures were performed among these 51 patients (range, 1-4 procedures per patient). Forty-eight transanal anastomotic revisions were performed in nondiverted patients. Thirty-seven transanal revisions and four abdominoperineal revisions were performed in diverted patients. At a median follow-up of 65.2 (range, 3 to 166) months after salvage surgery or closure of the diverting stoma, 21 patients (41 percent) had complete resolution of their septic problems. Bowel frequency and continence for these patients were similar to patients who had not had ileal pouch-anal anastomotic problems. Eleven (29.7 percent) of 37 transanal procedures with diversion succeeded, whereas 10 (20.8 percent) of 48 nondiverted procedures succeeded. This difference was not significant (11/37 vs. 10/48; P = 0.448). None of the four abdominoperineal revisions succeeded. Of 51 patients, 34 (66.7 percent) retained their pouches and 21 (41.2 percent) were successfully revised. Seventeen patients (33.3 percent) had pouch excision. Five (9.8 percent) had persistent fistulas and remained diverted, and 8 (15.7 percent) had persistent fistulas and were not diverted. Thus, pouch function was retained in 29 patients (56.9 percent). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that anastomotic failure after restorative proctocolectomy is associated with a high rate of pouch failure. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis-related fistula or sinus warrants an aggressive surgical approach in selected, highly motivated patients because acceptable functional results are possible. Multiple procedures may often be necessary to achieve complete healing. Successful repair can be achieved after one or more unsuccessful attempts. Repeat procedures can be performed safely without adversely affecting ultimate outcome.

    Title Audio-vocal Responses to Repetitive Pitch-shift Stimulation During a Sustained Vocalization: Improvements in Methodology for the Pitch-shifting Technique.
    Date October 2003
    Journal The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
    Excerpt

    The pitch-shift reflex is a sophisticated system that produces a "compensatory" response in voice F0 that is opposite in direction to a change in voice pitch feedback (pitch-shift stimulus), thus correcting for the discrepancy between the intended voice F0 and the feedback pitch. In order to more fully exploit the pitch-shift reflex as a tool for studying the influence of sensory feedback mechanisms underlying voice control, the optimal characteristics of the pitch-shift stimulus must be understood. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of altering the duration of the interstimulus interval (ISI) and the number of trials comprising an average on measures of the pitch-shift reflex. Pitch-shift stimuli were presented to vocalizing subjects with ISI of 5.0, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 s to determine if an increase in ISI altered response properties. With each ISI, measures of event-related averages of the first 10, 15, 20, or 30 pitch-shift reflex responses were compared to see if increases in the number of responses comprising an event-related average altered response properties. Measures of response latency, peak time, magnitude, and prevalence were obtained for all ISI and average conditions. While quantitative measures were similar across ISI and averaging conditions, we observed more instances of "non-responses" with averages of ten trials as well as at an ISI of 0.5 s. These findings suggest an ISI of 1.0 s and an average consisting of at least 15 trials produce optimal results. Future studies using these stimulus parameters may produce more reliable data due to the fivefold decrease in subject participation time and a concomitant decrease in fatigue, boredom, and inattention.

    Title Primary Hormonal Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Experience with 135 Consecutive Psa-era Patients from a Tertiary Care Military Medical Center.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
    Excerpt

    The use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the 1990s has brought on a stage migration of prostate cancer. Despite that, many men have still presented with metastatic prostate cancer in the past decade. The use of primary hormone therapy in the PSA era at a tertiary care Army Medical Center is studied in this paper. Charts were reviewed of 135 men who were diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer and treated with hormone therapy as a primary treatment between 1989 and 1995. Statistical analysis was used to determine significant predictor variables on the time to disease progression. In univariate analysis clinical stage, pretreatment alkaline phosphatase and nadir PSA values were significant predictors of time to progression. Race and type of treatment were not. In multivariate analysis the relative risk of progression was 3.2 for patients with an alkaline phosphatase >252 and 16.5 for patients with a nadir >2.0. This study supports the argument that racial disparities in prostate cancer outcomes are due to access to care. Furthermore, the survival rate for patients with D-2 disease is better than in the pre PSA studies. Clinical stage, pretreatment alkaline phosphatase and PSA nadir can be used to predict response for those men presenting with metastatic prostate cancer.

    Title Investigating the Distribution of Prostate Cancer Using Three-dimensional Computer Simulation.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
    Excerpt

    The objective of this work was to investigate the distribution of prostate cancer using three-dimensional (3-D) computer simulation. Two hundred and eighty-one 3-D computer prostate models were constructed from radical prostatectomy specimens. An algorithm was developed which divided each model into 24 symmetrical regions, and it then detected the presence of tumor within an individual region. The distribution rate of prostate cancer was assessed within each region of all 281 prostate models, and the difference between the rates was statistically analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel methodology. There was a statistically significant higher distribution rate of cancer in the posterior half (57.2%) compared to the anterior half ( 40.5%; P=0.001). The base regions (36.8%) had a statistically significant lower distribution rate than either the mid regions (56.3%; P=0.001) or the apical regions (53.5%; P=0.001). The mid regions did have a statistically significant higher distribution rate compared to the apical regions (P=0.032). There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution rate on the left half (48.5%) compared to that on the right half (49.2%; P=0.494). The spatial distribution of prostate cancer can be analyzed using 3-D computer prostate models. The results illustrate that prostate cancer is least commonly located in the anterior half and base regions of the prostate. Through an analysis of the spatial distribution of prostate cancer, we believe that new optimal biopsy strategies and techniques can be developed.

    Title Rives-stoppa Procedure for Repair of Large Incisional Hernias: Experience with 57 Patients.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Hernia : the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The use of prosthetic materials in tension-free incisional hernia repairs has diminished reherniation rates markedly; however, infection, intestinal fistulization, and seroma formation have been reported after repairs. Use of the Rives-Stoppa procedure for incisional hernia repair, in which the prosthesis is placed between the rectus abdominis muscle and the posterior sheath, may reduce occurrence of these problems. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Over a 6-year period 57 open abdominal wall incisional hernia repairs were performed using the Rives-Stoppa technique; 15 (26.3%) had previously undergone incisional hernia repair. The prosthetic materials used were polypropylene, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), and ePTFE with perforations. The prosthesis size ranged from 8x8 cm to 20x28 cm (mean area 199.6 cm(2)). Follow-up consisted of an office visit 12 months postoperatively and at least one subsequent office visit or telephone interview; mean follow-up time was 34.9 months (range 11.7-81.9). RESULTS: There were no hernia recurrences (except in one patient whose prosthesis was removed), gastrointestinal complications, fistulas, or deaths. Seromas occurred postoperatively in seven patients (12.3%). Two patients (3.5%) had wound infections that required removal of the prosthesis. CONCLUSIONS: In this series the Rives-Stoppa technique had excellent long-term results, with minimal morbidity, in patients with large primary or recurrent incisional hernias. The absence of serious complications and hernia recurrences in patients with grafts in place suggests that the Rives-Stoppa procedure is the repair of choice in such patients.

    Title Early Postoperative Small-bowel Obstruction: a Prospective Evaluation in 242 Consecutive Abdominal Operations.
    Date October 2002
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Early postoperative small-bowel obstruction is a common but poorly defined complication of abdominal surgery. This prospective cohort study was undertaken to examine a reproducible definition of early postoperative small-bowel obstruction, determine its incidence, evaluate potential risk factors for its development, and delineate management strategies. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-five patients undergoing 242 consecutive abdominal operations during a 9-month period were prospectively evaluated from the time of admission until Postoperative Day 30. Early postoperative small-bowel obstruction was present if, within 30 days of surgery, all of the following criteria were met after the return of intestinal function: development of crampy abdominal pain, vomiting, and radiographic findings consistent with intestinal obstruction. Patients with early postoperative small-bowel obstruction were followed up until discharge or reexploration. All patients with early postoperative small-bowel obstruction were initially treated with nasogastric decompression. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-two abdominal procedures were performed on 119 males and 123 females aged 13 to 98 (mean, 51) years. Ulcerative colitis (n = 70), malignancy (n = 59), and Crohn's disease (n = 41) were the most common diagnoses. One hundred nineteen patients (49.2 percent) had undergone previous laparotomy, and 45 patients (18.6 percent) had previously been diagnosed with intestinal obstruction. Early postoperative small-bowel obstruction occurred in 23 cases (9.5 percent). Patients with and without early postoperative small-bowel obstruction were similar with respect to diagnosis, preoperative immunosuppression, previous laparotomy or obstruction, surgery performed, and time to return of intestinal function. Twenty episodes (87 percent) resolved with nasogastric decompression alone; all but one resolved within six days or less. Three patients (13 percent) required relaparotomy; one required small-bowel resection. Two of three patients whose symptoms did not resolve with six days of nasogastric decompression required reexploration. There were no deaths and no major morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Early postoperative small-bowel obstruction, defined by an objective data set, was observed in 9.5 percent of cases. No independent risk factors predisposing to early postoperative small-bowel obstruction were identified. Early postoperative small-bowel obstruction was safely and effectively managed by nasogastric decompression in the majority of cases, with low morbidity and no mortality. In general, reexploration should be reserved for those patients whose symptoms do not resolve within six days of nasogastric decompression.

    Title Doing and Being Well (for the Most Part): Adaptive Patterns of Narrative Self-evaluation During Bereavement.
    Date February 2002
    Journal Journal of Personality
    Excerpt

    Narrative self-evaluation patterns were studied in relation to longitudinal measures of adaptation to the death of a spouse in midlife. Narrative self-evaluations, identified in open-ended interview transcripts at 6 months post-loss, were coded as either positive or negative and as either doing-based (evaluations of "what one does") or being-based (evaluations of "what one is"). These narrative variables were then compared with separate, clinical-interview measures of grief at 6, 14, and 25 months post-loss. Results confirmed 3 predictions. First, participants who made an optimal proportion of positive to negative self-evaluations (approximately a 5:1 positive-to-negative ratio) had lower grief levels over time than did those who made either higher or lower proportions. Second, the tendency to focus on evaluations of what one does rather than what one is predicted lower grief levels over time. Third, participants who directly integrated doing-based and being-based self-evaluations had lower grief levels over time than those who did not link the 2 evaluations. Implications for the narrative construction of personal meaning and identity in relation to adaptation are discussed.

    Title Comparison of Voice F0 Responses to Pitch-shift Onset and Offset Conditions.
    Date January 2002
    Journal The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
    Title Ulcerative Colitis and Sarcoidosis.
    Date December 2001
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Excerpt

    A 38-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis subsequently developed sarcoidosis. After ten years of recurrent episodes of colitis, she had presented with respiratory symptoms. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was confirmed by mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Her respiratory symptoms gradually resolved without any specific treatment. Within the remission period of sarcoidosis, she underwent uneventful subtotal colectomy due to refractory colitis. Alterations in immune function and genetic susceptibility have been suggested to be present in both ulcerative colitis and sarcoidosis. However, the occurrence of both in the same patient has been rare. This is only the nineteenth case reported in the literature.

    Title Predicting Risk of Prostate Specific Antigen Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy with the Center for Prostate Disease Research and Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor Databases.
    Date December 2001
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Biostatistical models to predict stage or outcome in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with pretreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason sum on biopsy or prostatectomy specimen, clinical or pathological stage and other variables, including ethnicity, have been developed. However, to date models have relied on small subsets from academic centers or military populations that may not be representative. Our study validates and updates a model published previously with the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE, UCSF, Urology Outcomes Research Group and TAP Pharmaceutical Products, Inc.), a large multicenter, community based prostate cancer database and Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR), a large military database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We validated a biostatistical model that includes pretreatment PSA, highest Gleason sum on prostatectomy specimen, prostatectomy organ confinement status and ethnicity, including white and black patients. We then revised it with the Cox regression analysis of the combined 503 PSA era surgical cases from the CPDR prospective cancer database and 1,012 from the CaPSURE prostate cancer outcomes database. RESULTS: The original equation with 3 risk groups stratified CaPSURE cases into distinct categories with 7-year disease-free survival rates of 72%, 42.1% and 27.6% for low, intermediate and high risk men, respectively. Parameter estimates obtained from a Cox regression analysis provided a revised model equation that calculated the relative risk of recurrence as: exponent (exp)[(0.54 x Race) + (0.05 x sigmoidal transformation of PSA [PSA(ST)]) + (0.23 x Postop Gleason) + (0.69 x Pathologic stage). The relative risk of recurrence, as calculated by the aforementioned equation, was used to stratify the cases into 4 risk groups. Very low-4.7 or less, low-4.7 to 7.1, high-7.1 to 16.7 and very high-greater than 16.7, and patients at risk had 7-year disease-free survival rates of 85.4%, 66.0%, 50.6% and 21.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: With a broad cohort of community based, academic and military cases, we developed an equation that stratifies men into 4 discrete risk groups of recurrence after radical prostatectomy and confirmed use of a prior 3 risk group model. Although the variables of ethnicity, pretreatment PSA, highest Gleason sum on prostatectomy specimen and organ confinement status on surgical pathology upon which the model is based are easily obtained, more refined modeling with additional variables are needed to improve prediction of intermediate risk in individuals.

    Title Military Medical Modeling and Simulation in the 21st Century.
    Date June 2001
    Journal Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    Excerpt

    As we enter the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues. One of the most important issues is how to train medical personnel in peace for the realities of war. In April, 1998, The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported, "Military medical personnel have almost no chance during peacetime to practice battlefield trauma care skills. As a result, physicians both within and outside the Department of Defense (DOD) believe that military medical personnel are not prepared to provide trauma care to the severely injured soldiers in wartime. With some of today's training methods disappearing, the challenge of providing both initial; and sustainment training for almost 100,000 military medical personnel is becoming insurmountable. The "training gap" is huge and impediments to training are mounting. For example, restrictions on animal use are increasing and the cost of conducting live mass casualty exercises is prohibitive. Many medical simulation visionaries believe that four categories of medical simulation are emerging to address these challenges. These categories include PC-based multimedia, digital mannequins, virtual workbenches, and total immersion virtual reality (TIVR). The use of simulation training can provide a risk = free realistic learning environment for the spectrum of medical skills training, from buddy-aid to trauma surgery procedures. This will, in turn, enhance limited hands on training opportunities and revolutionize the way we train in peace to deliver medicine in war. High-fidelity modeling will permit manufacturers to prototype new devices before manufacture. Also, engineers will be able to test a device for themselves in a variety of simulated anatomical representations, permitting them to "practice medicine".

    Title Changing Trends in Partial Nephrectomy at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
    Date June 2001
    Journal Military Medicine
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the change in indications, frequency, complications, and outcome in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy at a single institution during a 25-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who underwent partial nephrectomy at Walter Reed Army Medical Center from 1970 to 1995. A total of 309 patient records were reviewed for patient age, sex, and primary diagnosis. A more detailed analysis was performed on 47 records of patients who underwent partial nephrectomy from 1986 to 1996. RESULTS: The number of partial nephrectomies declined from the 1970s to the 1990s, demonstrating the trend away from nephron-sparing surgery for benign disease. Partial nephrectomies for renal cell carcinoma increased during the same period. Fifty-seven percent (12 of 21) of patients from 1986 to 1996 underwent partial nephrectomy for incidentally discovered renal tumors. Complications occurred in 25% (11 of 44) of patients, with acute renal insufficiency occurring in 4.5% (2 of 44). Twenty-two of 25 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma were followed for a mean of 45.6 months. The cancer-specific 5-year survival rate for partial nephrectomy was 88.1%. CONCLUSION: Trends in nephron-sparing surgery showed a movement away from performing ablating surgery for benign disease and toward nephron-sparing surgery for renal masses. Despite a higher complication rate, the curative ability of partial nephrectomy is similar to that of radical nephrectomy.

    Title Jumping Improves Hip and Lumbar Spine Bone Mass in Prepubescent Children: a Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Date February 2001
    Journal Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
    Excerpt

    Physical activity during childhood is advocated as one strategy for enhancing peak bone mass (bone mineral content [BMC]) as a means to reduce osteoporosis-related fractures. Thus, we investigated the effects of high-intensity jumping on hip and lumbar spine bone mass in children. Eighty-nine prepubescent children between the ages of 5.9 and 9.8 years were randomized into a jumping (n = 25 boys and n = 20 girls) or control group (n = 26 boys and n = 18 girls). Both groups participated in the 7-month exercise intervention during the school day three times per week. The jumping group performed 100, two-footed jumps off 61-cm boxes each session, while the control group performed nonimpact stretching exercises. BMC (g), bone area (BA; cm2), and bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) of the left proximal femoral neck and lumbar spine (L1-L4) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Hologic QDR/4500-A). Peak ground reaction forces were calculated across 100, two-footed jumps from a 61-cm box. In addition, anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, and body fat), physical activity, and dietary calcium intake were assessed. At baseline there were no differences between groups for anthropometric characteristics, dietary calcium intake, or bone variables. After 7 months, jumpers and controls had similar increases in height, weight, and body fat. Using repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA; covariates, initial age and bone values, and changes in height and weight) for BMC, the primary outcome variable, jumpers had significantly greater 7-month changes at the femoral neck and lumbar spine than controls (4.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In repeated measures ANCOVA of secondary outcomes (BMD and BA), BMD at the lumbar spine was significantly greater in jumpers than in controls (2.0%) and approached statistical significance at the femoral neck (1.4%; p = 0.085). For BA, jumpers had significantly greater increases at the femoral neck area than controls (2.9%) but were not different at the spine. Our data indicate that jumping at ground reaction forces of eight times body weight is a safe, effective, and simple method of improving bone mass at the hip and spine in children. This program could be easily incorporated into physical education classes.

    Title Prostate Cancer in Men Age 50 Years or Younger: a Review of the Department of Defense Center for Prostate Disease Research Multicenter Prostate Cancer Database.
    Date January 2001
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Prostate cancer in men age 50 years or younger traditionally has accounted for approximately 1% of those diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prior studies of prostate cancer in men of this age led many clinicians to believe that they have a less favorable outcome than older men. Most of these studies were conducted before the advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening programs. We evaluated a surgically treated cohort of men age 50 years or younger to determine whether disease recurred more frequently among them than in those 51 to 69 years old in the PSA era. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 477 men who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1988 and 1997. Age, ethnicity, preoperative PSA, clinical and pathological stage, margin and seminal vesicle involvement, and recurrence were compared between 79 men age 50 years or younger (study group) and 398, 51 to 69 years old (comparison group). Disease-free survival rates were compared using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression techniques. RESULTS: There were 6 (7.6%) recurrences in the study group (79) and 107 (26.9%) in the comparison group (398). The disease-free survival curves were significantly different (log-rank p = 0.010). Age remained a significant prognostic factor (Wald p = 0.033) in multivariate Cox regression analyses that controlled for race, clinical and pathological stage, and pretreatment PSA. Similar results were found when the comparison group was limited to 116 patients 51 to 59 years old (log-rank p = 0.034, Wald p = 0.069). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that patients in the PSA era who underwent radical prostatectomy and were age 50 years or younger have a more favorable disease-free outcome compared to older men.

    Title Feasibility of Telementoring Between Baltimore (usa) and Rome (italy): the First Five Cases.
    Date December 2000
    Journal Journal of Endourology / Endourological Society
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication technology to deliver healthcare. Telementoring has been developed to allow a surgeon at a remote site to offer guidance and assistance to a less-experienced surgeon. We report on our experience during laparoscopic urologic procedures with mentoring between Rome, Italy, and Baltimore, USA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over a period of 3 months, two laparoscopic left spermatic vein ligations, one retroperitoneal renal biopsy, one laparoscopic nephrectomy, and one percutaneous access to the kidney were telementored. Transperitoneal laparoscopic cases were performed with the use of AESOP, a robotic for remote manipulation of the endoscopic camera. A second robot, PAKY, was used to perform radiologically guided needle orientation and insertion for percutaneous renal access. In addition to controlling the robotic devices, the system provided real-time video display for either the laparoscope or an externally mounted camera located in the operating room, full duplex audio, telestration over live video, and access to electrocautery for tissue cutting or hemostasis. RESULTS: All procedures were accomplished with an uneventful postoperative course. One technical failure occurred because the robotic device was not properly positioned on the operating table. The round-trip delay of image transmission was less than 1 second. CONCLUSION: International telementoring is a feasible technique that can enhance surgeon education and decrease the likelihood of complications attributable to inexperience with new operative techniques.

    Title Implementation of a Web-based Prostate Cancer Decision Site.
    Date December 2000
    Journal Seminars in Urologic Oncology
    Excerpt

    Carcinoma of the prostate is the most common form of cancer in males in the United States, second only to skin cancer. Recently, there has been increased public awareness of cancer-related diseases and specifically prostate cancer. As a result, more individuals are routinely screened and diagnosed with prostate cancer. When a man first discovers he has prostate cancer, he is faced with a multitude of questions. Health care providers realize in counseling patients that there is no single treatment choice best suited for every patient. Because of multiple treatment choices for prostate cancer and complex counseling needs due to a varied side effect profiles of the different options, the Internet may be an ideal tool to extend the health care provider. Furthermore, because men may be reluctant to discuss issues with the health care provider directly, the anonymity of the Internet may be of particular value in the disease. The Internet has created a massive body of information with an estimated 320 million Web sites. The provider can use the Internet as a patient educational tool thus affording the patient time to absorb sometimes complicated information. The Internet can help patients focus on specific aspects of their disease making the patient-provider encounter more productive and allow the patient to take an active role in the treatment decision-making process. More knowledgeable patients can make better decisions about treatment options and have more realistic expectations of their outcomes. We have developed an Internet-based decision for prostate cancer available to both patients and physicians.

    Title Dysplasia Complicating Chronic Ulcerative Colitis: is Immediate Colectomy Warranted?
    Date December 2000
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease surveillance strategies are designed to identify patients at greater than average risk for the development of invasive colonic carcinoma. Colonoscopic detection of mucosal dysplasia is considered the best available surveillance tool. However, the usefulness of dysplasia as a marker for cancer is uncertain. Furthermore, when dysplasia is found some suggest immediate colectomy, whereas others opt for continued surveillance. The aim of this study is to determine whether an association between dysplasia grade and cancer exists in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis, to ascertain the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of dysplasia as a cancer marker, and to clarify what action to take once dysplasia is discovered. METHODS: The pathology reports of 590 patients who underwent total proctocolectomy or restorative proctocolectomy for chronic ulcerative colitis were reviewed for dysplasia, grade of dysplasia, presence of carcinoma, and tumor stage. One hundred sixty of these patients had undergone colonoscopic examination within the year before surgery. Findings from these studies were also reviewed. RESULTS: Seventy-seven specimens (13.1 percent) contained at least one focus of dysplasia. Invasive cancers were found in 38 specimens (6.4 percent). Cancers were significantly more common among specimens with dysplastic changes (33/77 vs. 5/513; P < 0.001). Specimens with dysplasia of any grade were 36 times more likely to harbor invasive carcinoma. Stage III disease was found in association with indefinite or low-grade dysplasia in 5 of 26 (19.2 percent) of cases. Tumor stage did not correlate with dysplasia grade. Preoperative colonoscopy identified neoplastic changes in 57 (69.5 percent) cases. Dysplasia, cancer or both were missed in 25 cases. Lesions were correctly identified in only 31 (39.7 percent) of cases. Colonoscopically diagnosed dysplasia as a marker for synchronous cancer had a sensitivity of 81 percent and a specificity of 79 percent. The positive predictive value of a finding of preoperative dysplasia of any grade was 50 percent. The positive predictive value of a finding of low-grade dysplasia was 70 percent. CONCLUSIONS: Dysplasia is an unreliable marker for the detection of synchronous carcinoma. However, when dysplasia of any grade is discovered at colonoscopy, the probability of a coexistent carcinoma is relatively high. Colonoscopic evidence of low-grade dysplasia has a higher positive predictive value than either dysplasia associated mass or lesion or high-grade dysplasia. Dysplasia grade does not predict tumor stage. Because advanced cancer can be found in association with dysplastic changes of any grade, confirmed dysplasia of any grade is an indication for colectomy.

    Title Surgical Implications of Multicentricity in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Date October 2000
    Journal Military Medicine
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and metastatic pattern of multifocal renal cell carcinoma in radical nephrectomy specimens and to use these findings to guide the choice of operative procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathology reports for 161 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy at Walter Reed Army Medical Center between 1980 and 1995 were reviewed to evaluate tumor size, stage, and incidence of multifocal tumors. RESULTS: Multicentric neoplasms occurred in 16 of 161 (9.9%) radical nephrectomy specimens from the same institution. Thirteen of the 16 multifocal tumors had cross-sectional diameters > or = 3.5 cm. Of the 16 multifocal carcinomas, 11 were noted in stage I tumors. Multifocal neoplasms were not identified with primary tumors of < 2 cm. CONCLUSION: Our data support previous reports that the incidence of multicentric renal malignancy is low and suggest that patients with small, unilateral masses (< 2 cm) can undergo kidney-sparing surgery with little risk of local recurrence.

    Title 3-d Computer Visualization and Interactive Prostate Biopsy Simulation Leads to an Improved Systematic Technique for the Detection of Prostate Cancer: Clinical Correlation.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. Recent data based upon whole-mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3-D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator suggests that an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was shown to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This pattern includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer detection rate obtained using the 10-core biopsy pattern in a small cohort of patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core biopsy pattern. The frequency of positive biopsy was determined for each core. Additionally, the sextant and 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. RESULTS: Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3% (19/35) were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7% (16/35) of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. The laterally placed biopsies had the highest frequency of positive biopsies when compared to the sextant cores. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the apex and mid portion of the gland are the most important.

    Title Preop Endoscopy Simulator: from Bronchoscopy to Ureteroscopy.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    Excerpt

    The high cost of virtual reality simulators has posed a major obstacle to the widespread adoption of simulators for medical training. HT Medical broke through this cost barrier by developing the PreOp Flexible Bronchoscopy simulator, a realistic training simulation system that integrates force feedback, multimedia, and 3D graphics on a PC. We are currently extending the PreOp platform so that it can simulate other endoscopic procedures. This paper discusses our efforts to extend the platform to simulate flexible sigmoidoscopy and ureteroscopy.

    Title Investigating 3d Tumor Distribution for Optimized Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    Excerpt

    Transrectal Ultrasonography (TRUS) based systematic needle biopsy of the prostate has been widely used clinically in the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Current protocols for prostate biopsy, such as the Sextant Protocol, however, have been proven to be insufficient in cancer detection since these protocols were built without having accurate information on 3D distribution of prostate cancers. In this research, our goal is to optimize prostate biopsy protocols by statistically investigating spatial distributions of prostate cancers. Based on the low-resolution nature of ultrasound imaging and the current clinical conventions, we propose to divide each individual prostate gland into different zones that are can be recognized and accessed by the urologists with ultrasound images during biopsy. By calculating cancer appearance inside each of these zones using a large number of prostate samples, we get the overall distributions of prostate cancers based on which an optimal biopsy protocol can be developed.

    Title Does Clinical Exposure Affect Medical Student Examination Performance?
    Date August 2000
    Journal American Journal of Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Traditionally important components of the surgical clerkship curriculum include lectures, small-group sessions, readings, clinical exposure, and testing. Time constraints require compromise among all these elements. At our institution, clinical exposure of medical students varies according to their team assignments. They differ primarily in exposure to such topics as trauma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and vascular surgery. Purpose: The goal of this study was to quantify the influence of clinical exposure on medical student education, testing whether it influences examination performance. METHODS: At the beginning of the clerkship, students were given a written multiple-choice examination covering these three topics. They completed two 4-week blocks on surgery services in various settings. At the end of the clerkship, they were reexamined. Differences between pretest and posttest overall mean rank were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Differences in improvement based on clinical exposure were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement was seen in overall examination performance, as well as in each of the subsections. However, these improvements could not be accounted for by clinical exposure. There was no statistically significant difference in mean rank in improvement based on clinical exposure to vascular, IBD, or trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Student examination scores improved over the course of the clerkship. No improvement could be attributed to greater clinical exposure to a topic.

    Title Is Hartmann's Procedure Safe in Crohn's Disease? Report of Three Cases.
    Date May 2000
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease-associated colorectal cancer may occur in an area of defunctioning bowel. Some patients with Crohn's colitis undergo subtotal colectomy, ileostomy, and low Hartmann's procedure in an effort to preserve the rectum. This procedure has also been advocated for patients with severe anorectal Crohn's disease, in whom nonhealing of the perineal wound after proctectomy occurs with alarming frequency. The authors present a review of the literature and three cases of cancer developing in the defunctioning rectal stump despite surveillance proctoscopy. METHODS: Twenty-five patients underwent low Hartmann's procedure for severe anorectal Crohn's disease. Surveillance proctoscopy was performed as follow-up. Development of cancer in the rectal remnant or anus or recurrence of symptoms was managed by resection and adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: One patient developed squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal, underwent resection and adjuvant therapy, and was disease free at the time of this study. Two patients developed adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Both underwent resection and adjuvant therapy. One patient died and the other developed a recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The authors recommend interval perineal proctectomy in all patients undergoing low Hartmann's procedure for severe anorectal Crohn's disease in whom rectal preservation is not possible. Regularly scheduled interim surveillance proctoscopy performed every two years, with biopsies of macroscopically normal-appearing and abnormal-appearing rectal mucosa and curetting of fistulous tracts, is also recommended to decrease the possibility of missing occult malignancies.

    Title Gallstone Ileus and Crohn's Disease Without Biliary-enteric Fistula: Report of a Unique Case.
    Date April 2000
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Excerpt

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction, accounting for fewer than 3% of laparotomies for intestinal obstruction. Patients with long-standing Crohn's disease have an increased risk of developing gallstone disease. However, gallstone ileus is not common in these patients. We report the case of a 70-year-old female with Crohn's disease who presented with gallstone ileus, and present a review of the literature. We discuss the association between gallstone ileus and Crohn's disease, and the treatment options for these patients. We emphasize the importance of including gallstone ileus in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with intestinal obstruction, especially patients with long-standing Crohn's disease. We advocate the early utilization of computerized tomography to confirm the diagnosis, and prompt early surgical intervention.

    Title P53 and Bcl-2 Immunohistochemistry in Pretreatment Prostate Needle Biopsies to Predict Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date January 2000
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Immunohistochemical staining of radical prostatectomy specimens for p53 and bcl-2 proteins has been shown to correlate with prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence in a series of patients at our institution. We analyzed the relationship between staining of diagnostic prostate needle biopsies for p53 and bcl-2, and PSA recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1986 to 1993, 335 radical prostatectomies were performed at our hospital. Of the prostatectomy specimens 199 had been evaluated for p53 and bcl-2 proteins in a prior series. Of 139 patients with biopsy material available for analysis 129 had enough for evaluation of 1 or both markers. Prospectively obtained clinical followup data were available, with a mean followup of 6 years. Commercially available antibodies were used for immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The overall PSA recurrence rate was 37.6% for 199 radical prostatectomy cases and 37.9% for 129 with biopsy immunohistochemical staining. Staining of prostatectomies correlated well with PSA recurrence for p53 (p = 0.004) and bcl-2 (p = 0.001). However, biopsy staining did not correlate with prostatectomy staining or PSA recurrence for either marker. CONCLUSIONS: The p53 and bcl-2 biomarkers appear to be important to predict recurrence of prostate cancer when prostatectomy specimens are analyzed but this usefulness is not apparent with immunohistochemical staining of prostate biopsies. This difference may reflect sampling error and/or the heterogeneous nature of prostate cancers, and deserves further study.

    Title Randomized Trial of Safety and Efficacy of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Using Contact Laser Versus Electrocautery.
    Date January 2000
    Journal Techniques in Urology
    Excerpt

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of contact laser ablation of the prostate (CLAP) vs. transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in symptomatic benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). During a 1-year period (1995-1996), 37 males 50 years of age or older were randomized to either CLAP using Nd:YAG laser treatment or TURP. Patients with Qmax <15 mL/s, American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score >12, and postvoid residual (PVR) >125 mL were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had prior surgical treatment for BPH or known conditions that could affect bladder function. Comparisons of preoperative and postoperative symptom scores, Qmax, PVR, total catheter time, hospital stay, complications, and hematocrit changes were performed. A 2:1 randomization was used, which resulted in 26 CLAP and 12 TURP patients. One-year follow-up data were available for 21 CLAP and 7 TURP patients. The mean prostate volume, age, AUA symptom score, and Qmax were not significantly different between the two arms. Significant differences in favor of CLAP were shorter catheter time (27.2 vs. 40.4 hours; p < .05) and shorter hospital stays (28.5 vs. 60.0 hours; p < .05). The only other significant difference between the two arms was a lower AUA symptom score in favor of TURP at 1 year (4.7 vs. 8.4; p < .05). Qmax, PVR, and postoperative hematocrit were similar between the groups. The only complications included recatheterizations, which occurred more frequently in the TURP patients (25% vs. 14%). CLAP appears to be slightly less effective in AUA symptom score reduction; however, it is equally safe and is superior for shortening catheter time and hospital stay compared to TURP.

    Title Laparoscopic Versus Open Pyeloplasty: Assessment of Objective and Subjective Outcome.
    Date September 1999
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We determine the subjective and objective durability of laparoscopic versus open pyeloplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From August 1993 to April 1997, 42 patients underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty (laparoscopy group) with a minimum clinical followup of 12 months (mean 22). Subjective outcomes and objective findings were compared to those of 35 patients who underwent open pyeloplasty (open surgery group) from August 1986 to April 1997 with a minimum clinical followup of 12 months (mean 58). We assessed clinical outcome based on responses to a subjective analog pain and activity scale. In addition, radiographic outcome was assessed based on the results of the most recent radiographic study. RESULTS: Of the 42 laparoscopy group patients 90% (38) were pain-free (26, 62%) or had significant improvement in flank pain (12, 29%) after surgery. Two patients had only minor improvement and 2 had no improvement in pain. Surgery failed in only 1 patient with complete obstruction. A patent ureteropelvic junction was demonstrated in 98% (41 of 42 patients) of the laparoscopy group on the most recent radiographic study (mean radiographic followup 15 months). Of the 35 open surgery group patients 91% were pain-free (21, 60%) or significantly improved (11, 31%) after surgery. One patient had only minor improvement and 2 were worse. CONCLUSIONS: Pain relief, improved activity level and relief of obstruction outcomes are equivalent for laparoscopic and open pyeloplasty.

    Title A Telementored Trans-rectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy.
    Date August 1999
    Journal Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of a real-time telementored transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. The physician (P) was located at a remote site while the physician's extender (PE) was with the patient at another location. The (P) directed and guided the (PE) through the biopsy procedures utilizing video and audio contact, and viewing electronically transmitted ultrasound images. This procedure occurred at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC where the patient and (PE) were located in a surgical suite, and the (P) was located in another part of the hospital. Audio, video and ultrasound images were transmitted via a simulated T1 line. The success of this procedure demonstrates both feasibility and efficacy of invasive procedures telementored by a (P) from a remote location while the (PE) is with the patient and receiving remote instruction. The achievement of a real-time telementored biopsy has significance in increasing access to care by those populations living in geographically remote areas or urban socioeconomically isolated areas. It also has significance for physicians whose primary clinical responsibilities are in urban or university environments who also desire to provide care to these underserved, difficult to serve or expensive to serve populations. This telementored procedure was the first step in development of a large program with the Medical University of South Carolina. The intent of the program is to conduct prostate screening and biopsy where the physician and patient can maintain visual and audio contact for consultation while the physician is simultaneously viewing ultrasound images and electronic patient records. The overall effectiveness of the program will be evaluated in terms of improvement in clinical process of care, improved health outcomes, improved access to care, and patient/physician satisfaction with the experience.

    Title Three-dimensional Computer-simulated Prostate Models: Lateral Prostate Biopsies Increase the Detection Rate of Prostate Cancer.
    Date May 1999
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) computer-assisted prostate biopsy simulator based on whole-mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. METHODS: We obtained digital images of 201 step-sectioned whole-mounted radical prostatectomy specimens. 3D computer simulation software was developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. Additional peripheral devices were incorporated into the system to perform interactive prostate biopsies. We obtained 18 biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. RESULTS: The 10- and 12-pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0% detection rate; the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6%. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5% detection rate and the 14-pattern, which includes all the biopsies used in the patterns above, only added 1 additional positive case (99.5%). Transitional zone and seminal vesicle biopsies did not result in a significantly increased detection rate when added to the patterns above. Only one positive model was obtained when the transitional zone biopsies were added. The lateral sextant pattern had a detection rate of 95.5%, and the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5% detection rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based on the 5-region anatomic model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

    Title Twelve-year Experience with Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene in the Repair of Abdominal Wall Defects.
    Date March 1999
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: A prosthetic device must be used to repair ventral hernias in patients with insufficient tissue for a tension-free primary closure. Several prosthetic materials have been employed for this purpose, with varying results. We here review a long experience with the use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) patches in the open repair of large abdominal wall defects. METHODS: Demographic, operative, follow-up, and histologic data were recorded and analyzed for all patients in a surgical practice who were treated for large abdominal wall defects with open repair using ePTFE patches between November 1983 and March 1996. RESULTS: Ventral hernia repairs using an ePTFE patch were performed in 98 patients. In 48 (49%), the patient had already undergone at least one previous ventral hernia repair. Of the 98 operations, 78 were full-thickness repairs, 11 were Rives-Stoppa procedures, and 9 were onlay operations. Complications included 5 seromas, 3 fistulas related to removal of a previously implanted prosthesis, and 9 infections. In addition, 10 patients developed recurrent hernias not related to explantation of the patch because of infection or fistula. In 3 patients, infections were treated successfully without removal of the patch. There were no complications related to adhesions, erosion of the patch into the viscera, or bowel obstruction. Histologic studies of longterm ePTFE implants showed excellent fibrous tissue ingrowth and minimal foreign body response. CONCLUSIONS: Our long-term clinical experience indicates that prosthetic patches of ePTFE are safe and effective when used in the repair of large abdominal wall defects that cannot be closed primarily. Operative complications were within acceptable limits, as was the reherniation rate.

    Title P53 Nuclear Protein Expression is an Independent Prognostic Marker in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date February 1999
    Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
    Excerpt

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for p53 protein nuclear expression was evaluated in archival paraffin-embedded radical prostatectomy specimens from 139 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer followed up from 1 to 8 (mean, 4) years. Elevated nuclear p53 protein expression was detected in 85 (61%) of 139 patients, being heterogeneous and focal in the majority of specimens. Only four specimens displayed homogeneous nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Disease progression, most commonly prostate-specific antigen elevation, was noted in 46 (33%) patients, with 39 (85%) having positive p53 protein IHC stains. Conversely, 93 (67%) of 139 have not recurred, with 46 (49%) having positive p53. Of all 54 p53-negative patients, 47 (87%) have had no disease recurrence. An increased p53 protein IHC stain was associated with a higher pathological stage (T1 and T2, 51% versus >/=T3, 69%) and Gleason score 2-4, 17%; 5-7, 72%; and 8-10, 87.5%). Despite these associations, p53 IHC staining was an independent predictor of disease-free survival in a multivariate analysis of p53, age, race, stage, and grade. This study revealed that a majority of clinically localized prostate cancers heterogeneously express elevated nuclear levels of p53 protein in at least a subset of malignant cells, and that this expression is an independent predictor of disease progression in prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy.

    Title Prostate-specific Antigen to Predict Outcome of External Beam Radiation for Prostate Cancer: Walter Reed Army Medical Center Experience, 1988-1995.
    Date February 1999
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of pretreatment and post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements, clinical tumor stage, tumor grade, Gleason sum, race, age, and radiation dose to predict the recurrence of prostate cancer following external beam radiation therapy (XRT) since the introduction of PSA as a tumor marker at one tertiary care center. METHODS: The recurrence of prostate cancer among 371 evaluable patients of 389 patients treated with XRT at Walter Reed Army Medical Center was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival methodology and Cox multivariable regression models. Serologic (PSA) recurrence was determined using three consecutive rises in PSA after a nadir value. Clinical recurrence was defined as local recurrence (palpable or positive biopsy) and/or distant (radiographically evident) recurrence. Mean and median follow-up is 40.2 and 39.4 months, respectively (range 3.0 to 89.5), and minimum follow-up is 18 months for patients who were alive at the time of analysis. No patient received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Potential prognostic factors evaluated are pretreatment PSA, PSA nadir, age, race, clinical tumor stage, tumor grade, Gleason sum, and radiation dose. RESULTS: Of the 371 evaluable patients, 125 had disease recurrence. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates for significant pretreatment variables in univariate analyses are as follows: pretreatment PSA less than 4 (79%), 4.1 to 10 (67%), 10.1 to 20 (57%), 20.1 to 50 (27%), and more than 50 (0%); for clinical tumor Stage T1a-T1c (84%), T2a-T2c (51 %), and T3-T4 (29%); for tumor grade well (58%), moderate (58%), and poor (30%). Four-year DFS rates for Gleason sum are 2 to 4 (82%), 5 (72%), 6 (56%), and 7 to 10 (48%). In multivariable Cox regression analysis with backward elimination of nonsignificant variables, age, race, tumor grade, and radiation dose were eliminated, leaving pretreatment PSA, clinical tumor stage, and Gleason sum as significant prognostic factors. Analysis of a Cox model that included nadir PSA as a time-dependent variable showed it to be the strongest prognostic factor variable in the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: XRT remains a suitable treatment modality for patients with pretreatment PSA less than 20.0, clinical tumor Stages T1-T2, and Gleason sum 2 to 6 prostate cancer. Patients achieving a nadir value less than 0.5 have more durable treatment outcomes.

    Title Statistical Modeling Using Preoperative Prognostic Variables in Predicting Extracapsular Extension and Progression After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer.
    Date October 1998
    Journal Military Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To predict the risk of extracapsular extension and postoperative recurrence before radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. METHODS: We performed multivariate Cox regression analysis on preoperative variables in 260 clinically localized prostate cancer patients who underwent RP. With these data, we constructed a relative risk of recurrence (Rr) equation and an equation to predict the probability of extracapsular extension (PECE) before RP. RESULTS: Rr is calculated as exp[(0.47 x race + 0.14 x PSAST) + (0.13 x worst biopsy Gleason sum) + (1.03 x stage T1c) + (1.55 x stage T2b,c)], where PSAST indicates a sigmoidal transformation of prostate-specific antigen. PECE is calculated as 1/[1 + exp(-Z)], where Z = -2.47 + 0.15 (PSAST) + 0.31 (worst biopsy Gleason sum) + 0.18 (race) + 0.16 (stage T1c) + 0.38 (stage T2b,c). CONCLUSION: These two equations can be used preoperatively to predict the probability of extracapsular disease and the risk of prostate-specific antigen recurrence in patients undergoing RP.

    Title Cd34 Immunohistochemical Assessment of Angiogenesis As a Prognostic Marker for Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date August 1998
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We assess the neovascularity of clinically localized prostate cancer by immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibody CD34 in an attempt to identify associations between angiogenesis and disease progression following radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microvascularity was evaluated using the CD34 monoclonal antibody in archival paraffin embedded radical prostatectomy specimens from 149 patients followed from 3 to 10 years (mean 6.6). Vessels were quantified by counting a minimum of 2 selected microscopic fields (200x, 0.754 mm.2) from each tumor, area of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic hyperplasia, and given a numerical value representing the microvessel density count. RESULTS: Mean microvessel density count did not vary significantly with age or race. There was a significant association between the count and nuclear grade, Gleason sum and pathological stage. Cox survival analysis shows that microvessel density is significantly related to time to recurrence when considered as a continuous variable (p=0.03) as well as dichotomous variable (p=0.007) (microvessel density count less than 90 and 90 or greater). The 5-year recurrence-free survival was significantly higher for patients with a count less than 90 (71%) than for those with a count 90 or greater (51%) (p=0.006). The 5-year recurrence-free survival was also significantly different when microvessel density was used as a continuous variable (p=0.02). Controlling for stage, Gleason sum, race and nuclear grade, microvessel density remained significant in predicting recurrence (p=0.03) but when pretreatment prostate specific antigen was included in the model the count was no longer significant. The microvessel density count in the tumor area significantly increased with increasing Gleason sum and nuclear grade but it did not increase significantly in the adjacent benign prostate or areas of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the same specimen. CONCLUSIONS: Microvascularity or neovascularity as measured by the CD34 antigen may be a prognostic marker of recurrence for prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy but more study in prostate specific antigen era patients with sufficient followup is needed.

    Title Laparoscopy for the Acute Abdomen in the Postoperative Urologic Patient.
    Date June 1998
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: Exploratory laparotomy offers the greatest diagnostic accuracy of intra-abdominal pathologic processes, but can be associated with significant morbidity. Laparoscopy provides diagnostic capabilities equivalent to that of open exploration, but with potentially less morbidity. We present 3 cases in which laparoscopy was used to diagnose and manage urologic patients with an acute abdomen in a postoperative period. METHODS: Three patients underwent laparoscopy between 1 and 14 days postoperatively for an acute abdomen (fever, elevated white blood cell count, and peritoneal signs). The initial procedures included a pubovaginal sling repair with fascia lata, endoscopic placement of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, and a laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for a distal stone. RESULTS: In each of the 3 patients laparoscopy revealed misplacement or malfunction of a previously placed tube. In all cases, the patient was managed laparoscopically without the need for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: These cases demonstrate the feasibility of laparoscopy to provide diagnostic and therapeutic solutions to postoperative urologic patients presenting with an acute abdomen.

    Title Significance of Familial History of Prostate Cancer to Traditional Prognostic Variables, Genetic Biomarkers, and Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date June 1998
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) has a familial predisposition imparting an increased risk of developing the disease in those with a family history. The pathologic characteristics are similar to sporadic cases; however, the disease-free survival rates of hereditary PCa have recently been disputed, with one major study suggesting that familial cases have higher recurrence rates. Our study seeks to support or refute this association and to evaluate the genetic biomarkers p53, bcl-2, Ki-67, and neovascularity between familial and sporadic disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of 573 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy over an 11-year period. Of these, 474 patients had known family history data. Univariable statistical analysis using the Pearson chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival analysis was performed to identify any correlation between the tested variables and family history. Smaller subsets of this cohort that had available archival material for immunohistochemical staining and family history data were analyzed in a similar manner. RESULTS: The preoperative variables (prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, clinical stage, highest biopsy Gleason sum, and glandular differentiation) and postoperative variables (stage, highest Gleason sum, and glandular differentiation) did not correlate with family history. Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival analysis revealed no differences between sporadic and familial cases. The analysis of p53, bcl-2, Ki-67, and angiogenesis revealed that only increasing p53 expression and positive family history of PCa approached significance (P = 0.057). CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic variables routinely used in PCa and selected genetic biomarker immunostaining abnormalities are not significantly different in men with and without a family history of PCa. Disease-free survival after radical prostatectomy is also unaffected by family history.

    Title Hepatic Subcapsular Extension of Pelvic Lymphocele After Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy.
    Date June 1998
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    Lymphoceles are a rare symptomatic complication after radical prostatectomy occurring in less than 5% of cases. We present a case of a symptomatic lymphocele that occurred after a radical retropubic prostatectomy and obturator lymphadenectomy. The lymphocele dissected along the retroperitoneum and extended into the hepatic subcapsular space and became secondarily infected with Candida albicans.

    Title Re: P53 Protein and Gene Alterations in Pathological Stage C Prostate Carcinoma.
    Date April 1998
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title Biostatistical Modeling Using Traditional Preoperative and Pathological Prognostic Variables in the Selection of Men at High Risk for Disease Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer.
    Date March 1998
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Biostatistical models predicting the risk of recurrence after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer are necessary. Identifying these high risk patients shortly after surgery, while tumor burden is minimal, makes them candidates for possible adjuvant therapy and/or investigational phase II clinical trials. This study builds on previously proposed models that predict the likelihood of early recurrence after radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our analysis we evaluate age, race, prostatic acid phosphatase and nuclear grade with the established prognostic variables of pretreatment prostate specific antigen, postoperative Gleason sum and pathological stage. RESULTS: After multivariable Cox regression analysis using only statistically significant variables that predicted recurrence we developed an equation that calculates the relative risk of recurrence (Rr) as: Rr = exp[(0.51 x Race) + (0.12 x PSAST) + (0.25 x Postop Gleason sum) + (0.89 x Organ Conf.). These cases are then categorized into 3 distinct risk groups of relative risk of recurrence of low (< 10.0), intermediate (10.0 to 30.0) and high (> 30.0). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of these 3 risk groups reveals that each category has significantly different risks of recurrence (p < 0.05). This model is validated with an independent cohort of radical prostatectomy patients treated at a different medical center by multiple primary surgeons. CONCLUSIONS: This model suggests that race, preoperative prostate specific antigen, postoperative Gleason sum and pathological stage are important independent prognosticators of recurrence after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Race should be considered in future models that attempt to predict the likelihood of recurrence after surgery.

    Title Immediate Radical Prostatectomy for Incidentally Found Prostate Cancer After Open Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Techniques in Urology
    Excerpt

    We describe the case report and detailed operative findings of a 57-year-old man who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for incidental prostate cancer 2 weeks after open prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We advocate an open cystotomy at the time of RRP to identify the ureters and assure that the bladder neck margin is free of prostatic tissue. We offer this therapy as a safe curative treatment modality in the early postoperative period after prior prostate surgery.

    Title Perineal Seeding of Prostate Cancer As the Only Evidence of Clinical Recurrence 14 Years After Needle Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy: Molecular Correlation.
    Date February 1998
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    Perineal needle tract seeding of prostate cancer is an unusual complication of perineal prostate biopsy. We report a case with the longest known interval from biopsy to perineal recurrence--14 years. The prostate-specific antigen did not become detectable until 12 years after biopsy and no other metastases were apparent, suggesting that the patient's perineal disease was an isolated recurrence. Immunohistochemical staining of the perineal recurrence and the original biopsy and prostate for the p53 tumor suppressor gene and bcl-2 oncogene proteins revealed rare/absent p53 expression but marked increased bcl-2 expression. This unusual molecular pedigree may help to explain this rare clinical scenario.

    Title Incidence of Stool Guaiac Conversion Following Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy.
    Date September 1997
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To study, in a prospective fashion, acute traumatic effects on the gastrointestinal tract of patients treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). METHODS: Stool samples from each of 54 patients were tested before and after ESWL for conversion to hemoccult positive. A minimum of one negative pre-ESWL stool guaiac test was required for inclusion into the study. A minimum of two stool guaiac tests were done after ESWL to verify negativity. Patients who converted to a positive hemoccult test after ESWL were then evaluated by colonoscopy for the source of bleeding. RESULTS: Fifty patients completed the study. A single patient (2.0%) converted to a positive post-ESWL hemoccult test and was evaluated with colonoscopy. This patient was found to have two benign adenomatous polyps in the sigmoid and descending colon after treatment for a left renal pelvis calculus. An additional patient with a slightly positive post-ESWL conversion refused further evaluation. The overall post-ESWL conversion rate to guaiac positive, therefore, was less than 4% (2 of 51 patients). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of significant trauma or detectable bleeding in the normal gastrointestinal tract caused by ESWL as measured by postprocedure stool guaiac testing. Guaiac testing of the stool after ESWL may unmask pre-existing gastrointestinal disease. Therefore a positive guaiac test after ESWL warrants further evaluation. This study reaffirms that ESWL is a safe, minimally invasive technique for the treatment of urolithiasis, without significant adverse side effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

    Title Restorative Proctocolectomy in Patients Older Than Fifty Years.
    Date June 1997
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to compare functional results, complications, preoperative durations of disease, and rates of dysplasia and neoplasia between older and younger chronic ulcerative colitis patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with mucosectomy. METHODS: A total of 392 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of chronic ulcerative colitis underwent elective RPC with mucosection and handsewn ileoanal anastomosis. Pathologic reports were reviewed, with specific reference to findings of dysplasia or cancer. Functional results concerning the number of bowel movements per 24 hour period and the incidence of fecal soilage were obtained by direct or telephone patient interview. FINDINGS: Group I consisted of 326 patients aged 5 to 49 (mean, 30.9) years and 160 women. Group II comprised 66 patients aged 50 to 74 (mean, 56.9) years and 29 women. Duration of disease was significantly longer in the older group (6.2 vs. 15.6 years; P < 0.001). The older group had significantly higher rates of dysplasia (29/326 vs. 19/66; P < 0.0001) and malignancy (14/326 vs. 9/66; P = 0.003). Rates of complication, hospital days following RPC, and total hospital days for all causes were comparable between groups. Perfect day-time continence was observed in 81.6 percent of Group I and 80 percent of Group II patients (213/261 vs. 40/50; P = 0.79). Perfect continence during sleep was observed in 65.1 percent of Group I and 62 percent of Group II patients (170/261 vs. 31/50; P = 0.67). Mean number of bowel movements per 24 hour period for Group I was 6.3 +/- 0.2 and for Group II was 7.4 +/- 0.5. Mean difference, one movement per 24 hours, was not significant (95 percent confidence interval, -0.02 to 2.1; t = 1.95, P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that patients older than 50 years are suitable candidates for RPC with mucosectomy. Functional results and complication rates are similar to those observed among younger patients. Patients older than 50 years have a significantly higher rate of concurrent dysplasia and malignant degeneration than younger patients, most probably because of a longer duration of disease. RPC with mucosal excision potentially lowers this risk by elimination of all colorectal mucosa.

    Title Biostatistical Modeling Using Traditional Variables and Genetic Biomarkers for Predicting the Risk of Prostate Carcinoma Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date March 1997
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 50-60% of patients treated with radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate carcinoma are found to have microscopic disease that is not organ-confined, and a significant portion of these patients will relapse. Multiple studies have attempted to identify these high risk patients by evaluating many potential prognostic variables. These studies, however, have not included the more recent molecular biomarkers found to be independent predictors of disease recurrence. METHODS: One hundred thirty-two patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at one center between 1986 and 1993 were subjected to a multivariable Cox regression analysis to determine the preoperative and postoperative variables that remain significant predictors for the likelihood of serologic recurrence. The preoperative variables included in the model were age, race, and prostate specific antigen(PSA); the postoperative variables were Gleason sum, nuclear grade, pathologic stage (capsular status), p53 tumor suppressor gene expression, bcl-2 protooncogene expression, and proliferative biomarker Ki-67 expression. Biomarkers were also evaluated separately. RESULTS: A model was developed using only variables that remained significant predictors for the likelihood of recurrence. The following equation calculated the relative risk of recurrence: Rw = exp [(0.70 x Race) + (0.79 x PSA[4.1-10]) + (1.34 x PSA[>10]) + ( 0.91 x Organ confinement) + (0.65 x p53[1,2+]) + (1.45 x p53[3,4+]) + (0.70 x bcl-2)]. This equation categorized men into 3 distinct risk groups (low: Rr < 5.0; intermediate: Rr = 5.0-15.0; high risk: Rr > 15.0). CONCLUSIONS: This equation allows patients at high risk for PSA recurrence to be identified shortly after radical surgery. These patients at high risk for serologic recurrence and eventual progression may be considered for currently accepted adjuvant therapy or enrollment in clinical trials for the newer investigational therapies for locally advanced prostate carcinoma.

    Title Prostate Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Experience at One Tertiary-care Military Medical Center, 1989 and 1994.
    Date February 1997
    Journal Military Medicine
    Excerpt

    Prostate cancer is a significant health care problem in this country. With an aging population of men, increased public awareness, and use of prostate-specific antigen screening programs, this disease will continue to increase in incidence. This paper addresses the recent dramatically increased incidence and stage migration to earlier disease, the implications of these trends, and specific comparisons about the evolving therapies between 1989 and 1994 at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. A basic review of diagnosis and treatment options are outlined for use by the non-urologist. New and exciting developments in the field are also discussed.

    Title The Role of the P53 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Prostate Cancer: a Possible Biomarker?
    Date January 1997
    Journal Urology
    Title Laparoscopic-assisted Intestinal Resection for Crohn's Disease. Which Patients Are Good Candidates?
    Date December 1996
    Journal Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
    Excerpt

    This study was undertaken to determine preoperative criteria indicating which patients with Crohn's disease are most amenable to minimally invasive intestinal resection. Laparoscopic-assisted intestinal resection was attempted in 25 patients with Crohn's disease. Preoperative assessment of all patients included physical examination and contrast radiography. Laparoscopic intestinal resection was successfully completed in 19 patients. Four patients in whom both palpable mass and fistulous disease were present required conversion to open surgery. One patient found during surgery to have a fistula required conversion, as did one patient who had undergone previous ileocolic resection. In patients treated laparoscopically, oral alimentation, discontinuation of parenteral narcotics, and hospital discharge were possible at an average of 3.4, 4.2, and 6.5 days postsurgery, respectively. Patients operated upon using open techniques stayed in the hospital an average of 8.5 days. Laparoscopic-assisted intestinal resection is beneficial to selected patients with Crohn's disease. The presence of both a fixed mass and fistula on preoperative evaluation is predictive of conversion to open laparotomy and should be considered a relative contraindication. Patients with either a fixed mass or a fistula alone are more amenable to laparoscopic-assisted intestinal resection, while patients with primary uncomplicated Crohn's disease appear to be ideally suited to minimally invasive surgery.

    Title Gastrointestinal Histoplasmosis in a Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
    Date December 1996
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Excerpt

    In otherwise healthy individuals, disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum manifests itself as a self-limiting pulmonary infection. Dissemination of the organisms may occur in a setting of compromised cellular immunity. Gastrointestinal involvement occurs in many such cases, but rarely it is clinically obvious and the disease seldom comes to the attention of the general surgeon. However, with the increasing incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndromes, general surgeons are managing more of these patients than in the past. In our report, we describe a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with gastrointestinal histoplasmosis.

    Title Elevated Levels of Apoptosis Regulator Proteins P53 and Bcl-2 Are Independent Prognostic Biomarkers in Surgically Treated Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer.
    Date November 1996
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: The tumor suppressor gene (TSG) p53 and the proto-oncogene bcl-2 have been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis and have been implicated in hormone refractory prostate cancer (PC) and poor prognosis. The goal of this study was to determine the clinical utility of the presence of p53 and bcl-2 immunohistochemical (IHC) protein in the primary tumor as predictors of disease progression following radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of p53 and bcl-2 was evaluated in archival paraffin-embedded RP specimens from 175 patients followed from 1 to 9 years (mean = 4.6 years) and correlated with stage, grade, race and serologic (PSA) recurrence following surgery. RESULTS: Overexpression of bcl-2 was noted in 47 of 175 (26.9%) patients; these patients had a significantly higher 5-year failure rate than those who did not overexpress bcl-2 (67.0% versus 30.7%). Expression of p53 was noted in 114 of 175 (65.1%) patients with a 5-year failure rate of 51.1% compared with a 5-year failure rate of only 22% in p53 negative patients. When expression rates for p53 and bcl-2 were combined, the 5-year failure rate was 75.3%. Conversely, when both p53 and bcl-2 IHC staining were negative, the 5-year failure rate was 20.4%. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a statistically significant difference between p53 and bcl-2 positive and negative patients (p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox Regression Analysis with backward elimination controlling for age, race, stage and grade showed both p53 (p = .0185) and bcl-2 (p = .004) to be independent predictors of disease-free survival. CONCLUSION: p53 and bcl-2 appear to be important biomarkers that predict recurrence in clinically localized PC after RP.

    Title Protein Expression of P53, Bcl-2, and Ki-67 (mib-1) As Prognostic Biomarkers in Patients with Surgically Treated, Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer.
    Date September 1996
    Journal Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Protein expression in the primary tumor of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the proto-oncogene bcl-2 have been shown to be prognostic biomarkers of cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Cancer cell proliferation as measured by immunohistochemical markers such as the MIB-1 antibody for Ki-67 has recently been suggested to be of prognostic value in prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the clinical use of p53, Ki-67 (MIB-1), and bcl-2 immunohistochemical protein expression in the primary tumor as combined predictors of disease progression after radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: Protein expressions of p53, Ki-67, and bcl-2 were evaluated in archival paraffin-embedded RP specimens from 162 patients monitored from 1 to 10 years (mean, 4.5 years) and correlated to stage, grade, race, and serologic (prostate-specific antigen) recurrence after operation. RESULTS: Expression was detected in 112 (69.1%), 44 (27.2%), and 62 (38.3%) of 162 patients for p53 (1+ or greater), bcl-2 (1+ or greater), and Ki-67 (2+ or greater), respectively. Biomarker expressions were not correlated to age and race; however, all increased with increasing stage and grade. The degree of expression by percentage of malignant cells staining correlated to recurrence for p53 and Ki-67 but not for bcl-2. All three markers were correlated to raw and Kaplan-Meier recurrence by means of univariate analysis with recurrence estimates at 6 years of 60.7% versus 24.2%, 84.2% versus 38.6%, and 72.4% versus 30.6% comparing positive versus negative expression of p53, bcl-2, and Ki-67, respectively. p53 and bcl-2 remained as independent prognostic markers by Cox multivariate regression analysis. Although Ki-67 did not remain an independent marker, it added prognostic use in certain subsets of patients. CONCLUSIONS: p53, bcl-2, and Ki-67 (MIB-1) appear to be important biomarkers to predict recurrence in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer after RP, and all three biomarkers deserve further study.

    Title Ki-67 Expression is a Prognostic Marker of Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy.
    Date September 1996
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We assessed the cellular proliferation of clinically localized prostate cancer by immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibody MIB to Ki-67 antigen in an attempt to identify associations between proliferative indexes and disease progression following radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ki-67 proliferative antigen was evaluated using MIB 1 monoclonal antibody in archival paraffin embedded radical prostatectomy specimens from 180 patients followed for 1 to 9 years (mean 4.4). The percentage of tumor nuclei expressing Ki-67 antigen was measured and assigned and MIB 1 score (none or rare--negative, 1+--low score and 2 to 4+--high score) and analyzed for prostate specific antigen, stage, age, race, grade and serological recurrence postoperatively. RESULTS: There was a significant association between MIB 1 score and nuclear grade (p < 0.001), Gleason score (p < 0.001) and pathological stage (p = 0.01). Patients with a high MIB 1 score had earlier progression and a lower 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (44%) than those with negative MIB 1 scores (71%, p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis with backward elimination, pathological stage (p < 0.01), pretreatment prostate specific antigen (p = 0.04) and MIB 1 score (p = 0.05) were statistically significant predictors of disease-free survival, and patients with a high MIB 1 score were 3.1 times as likely to have recurrence as those with a negative score. Controlling for stage, patients with organ confined disease and a high MIB 1 score had a lower 5-year disease-free survival rate (68%) than those with a low MIB 1 score (95%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Proliferative activity as measured by the Ki-67 proliferative antigen, MIB 1, appears to be a prognostic marker of recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.

    Title Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Volvulus.
    Date October 1995
    Journal Surgical Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    Torsion of the gallbladder is a rare entity. Approximately 300 cases have been reported since it was first described in 1898 by Wendel (Ann. Surg. 1898; 27:199). The condition occurs most often in the elderly. Although the etiology is unknown, a constant finding is the presence of the gallbladder on a mobile mesentery ("floating" gallbladder). Torsion, or volvulus, of the gallbladder occurs when this gallbladder twists axially, with subsequent occlusion of bile and/or blood flow. We present a case of gallbladder volvulus diagnosed and treated laparoscopically. This is the first reported laparoscopic cholecystectomy for volvulus of the gallbladder.

    Title Laparoscopic-assisted Intestinal Resection for Crohn's Disease.
    Date August 1995
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: The inflammatory process associated with Crohn's disease often makes dissection difficult, even in "open" surgery. This study was undertaken to determine if dissection and resection could be performed laparoscopically and whether it would benefit this group of patients. METHODS: Between November 1992 and November 1994, laparoscopic-assisted intestinal resection was attempted in 18 patients with Crohn's disease and was successfully completed in 14. One patient had ileal disease, requiring ileal resection with ileoileal anastomosis. The remainder had disease requiring ileocolic resections. Muscle-splitting incisions averaging 5 cm in length were made to facilitate removal of specimens. RESULTS: Commencement of oral alimentation was possible at an average of 3.6 (range, 1-7) days postoperatively. Discharge occurred at an average of 6.6 (range, 4-9) postoperative days. In comparison, 14 patients operated on by the authors for the same disease in the open manner during the past six months stayed an average of 8.5 (range, 5-14) postoperative days. Postoperative complications were minimal. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of this initial study, it appears that laparoscopic-assisted intestinal resection can be readily performed in patients with Crohn's disease. In our early experience, we have found that laparoscopic mobilization and resection may be difficult or impossible in patients with large fixed masses, multiple complex fistulas, or recurrent Crohn's disease. Extraction incisions are frequently so large in these patients that they do not derive the same benefits from laparoscopic surgery that are enjoyed by patients without these findings. Most patients having laparoscopic resections eat earlier, may require fewer narcotics, and are able to be discharged from the hospital an average of two days earlier than patients operated on in an open manner. In addition, it appears that laparoscopic-assisted intestinal resection results in a shorter, easier convalescence and an earlier return to full activity.

    Title Subtotal Colectomy with Hartmann's Pouch for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
    Date July 1995
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Fulminant or unremitting colitis caused by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is effectively managed by subtotal colectomy (STC) and standard ileostomy. However, controversy exists regarding the optimal management of the retained rectum. We reviewed our experience with intraperitoneal Hartmann's closure to determine whether this is an acceptable way to handle the rectal remnant. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed hospital and office records of 114 consecutive patients with IBD colitis who underwent STC with Hartmann's pouch since 1988. Patient demographic data, operative details, and postoperative complications were recorded. In patients who underwent subsequent surgery, technical difficulty and complications related to rectal dissection were documented. RESULTS: There were three instances of pelvic sepsis secondary to leakage from the Hartmann's pouch, an overall incidence of 2.6 percent. Two of these patients required exploratory surgery. The third patient responded dramatically to antibiotics and transanal catheter decompression of the Hartmann's pouch. Subsequent to this experience, patients undergoing STC and Hartmann's closure for IBD colitis had transanal catheter drainage of the rectal remnant as a routine part of their postoperative care. There were no instances of leakage among the 41 patients who underwent rectal decompression. There were two reports (3 percent) of technical difficulty in locating or mobilizing the intraperitoneal rectal remnant at 60 subsequent surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal Hartmann's closure of the rectum is the preferred management in patients with intractable IBD colitis requiring STC.

    Title Myxoid Liposarcoma of the Scrotal Wall.
    Date June 1995
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Liposarcomas of the scrotum are rare with 5 cases reported previously. We report a case of myxoid liposarcoma of the scrotal wall, and discuss pathological classification and treatment of genitourinary liposarcomas.

    Title Checklist Self-evaluation in a Standardized Patient Exercise.
    Date April 1995
    Journal American Journal of Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Standardized patient (SP) exercises are expensive and time consuming. We hypothesized that self-evaluation would further the goals of teaching and evaluation for a group of medical students. METHODS: Students were given self-evaluation checklists (essentially identical to those filled out by the SPs) and completed them prior to reviewing the SP checklists. Agreement between student and SP checklists (whether each item was checked or not) and the extent of agreement on the interactional skills rating scales were assessed. RESULTS: Overall agreement was 93%, with 98% agreement on interactional items, 92% on physical examination items, and 89% on history items. Disagreements tended to be clustered on a few items in each scale. Scores on the interactional skills rating scales also showed strong agreement. CONCLUSION: The use of checklists and rating scales in this context is well established. At virtually no cost, a self-evaluation tool adds a valuable dimension to the exercise.

    Title Restorative Proctocolectomy Without Diverting Ileostomy.
    Date March 1995
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) by abdominal colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in the setting of chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has gained widespread popularity among surgeons and patients. Traditionally, temporary loop ileostomy has been established proximal to the ileal pouch in an effort to mitigate the effects of any suture line complications that may occur. This study compares functional results and complications encountered after RPC with mucosectomy with and without temporary ileostomy. METHODS: One hundred forty-three consecutive patients with either CUC or FAP underwent RPC including mucosectomy and ileal "J" reservoir. Proximal loop ileostomy was performed in 69 patients, and ileostomy was omitted in 74. Ileostomy was omitted if the patient was taking no immunosuppressives and less than 20 mg of prednisone daily in the month preceding surgery, the anastomosis was absolutely tension-free, and blood supply to the pouch was excellent. RESULTS: There were no perioperative deaths. There were two instances of pelvic abscess, one in the diverted group and one in the nondiverted group. Occurrence of IPAA suture line dehiscence was not significantly different between the two groups (ileostomy, 4/69 (6 percent), vs. no ileostomy, 6/74 (8 percent); P > 0.05). Comparison of 129 patients with colitis with and without diversion also failed to demonstrate a significant difference with regard to IPAA suture line dehiscence (ileostomy, 4/69 (6 percent) vs. 4/60 (7 percent); P > 0.05). Frequency of bowel movements and continence were the same in both groups and were comparable with results obtained without mucosectomy. Mean hospital stay at time of RPC for the nondiverted group was significantly longer (12 days vs. 10 days; P = 0.0004). Significantly fewer patients without an ileostomy were hospitalized for partial intestinal obstruction (ileostomy, 13/69 (19 percent), vs. no ileostomy, 3/74 (4 percent); P = 0.02), and significantly fewer required enterolysis (ileostomy, 7/69 (10 percent), vs. no ileostomy, 1/74 (1 percent); P = 0.04). On average, patients without an ileostomy spent significantly fewer total days in the hospital (17 vs. 24; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Restorative proctocolectomy with mucosectomy and without ileostomy is the procedure of choice for selected patients with FAP and CUC. Septic complications and functional results are similar to those seen in patients managed with a stoma. Anastomotic leakage, when it occurs, can be safely managed in most cases without surgery. RPC without ileostomy results in significantly fewer episodes of intestinal obstruction, fewer instances of re-exploration, and fewer total days in the hospital.

    Title Adoptive Cellular Therapy of Human Breast and Colorectal Tumor Targets Using Ex Vivo Activated Memory T Lymphocytes with Potentiation by Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(ii).
    Date May 1994
    Journal Journal of Surgical Oncology
    Excerpt

    Autolymphocyte therapy (ALT) is adoptive cellular therapy of cancer using ex vivo activation of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Memory T cells are the principal effector population in ALT, with in vivo activity in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and melanoma, and ex vivo cytotoxicity against autologous tumor targets. However, the noncytolytic lymphocyte portion of ex vivo-activated memory T cells (ALT cells) may also contribute as antitumor effectors. Pretreatment of murine and human tumor cells ex vivo with chemotherapeutic agents can enhance their susceptibility to antitumor lymphocytes ex vivo and in vivo. To determine whether cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP) could enhance ex vivo antitumor effects of ALT cells by immunomodulation, human breast and colorectal carcinoma target cells were derived from both primary and metastatic surgical specimens and incubated in complete medium (CM) with DDP or in CM alone (control group). Viability of each group was confirmed by trypan blue-dye exclusion test. ALT cells were prepared from autologous PBL at surgery. Primary and metastatic tumor cells from each group were used as targets for ALT cells and levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) release were measured as a determination of antitumor effect and recognition. Primary tumor target cells incubated in DDP showed enhanced antitumor effects and recognition by autologous ALT cells, as measured by the IFN-gamma assay compared to non-DDP-treated controls. Metastatic autologous tumor target cells demonstrated less IFN-gamma release than did the primary targets, although this was enhanced by pre-treating metastatic tumor targets with DDP. ALT cells demonstrated minimal IFN-gamma release when incubated with allogeneic tumor targets. These data suggest that autotumor recognition of metastatic tumor targets is comparable to that of primary lesions following ex vivo pretreatment of metastatic cells with nonlethal doses of certain chemotherapeutic agents. DDP may somehow alter the physical properties of target cells, rendering them susceptible to immune-mediated attack and the combination of ALT and DDP may lead to increased therapeutic efficacy in patients with metastatic breast and colon cancer.

    Title Low Hartmann's Procedure for Severe Anorectal Crohn's Disease.
    Date October 1992
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    Perineal wounds often fail to heal following proctectomy for Crohn's disease. Twenty-five patients with severe anorectal Crohn's disease and perineal fistulas, necessitating excisional surgery, underwent a low Hartmann's procedure in lieu of a standard proctectomy. Fifteen of the 25 (60 percent) patients had a completely healed perineum and required no further surgical therapy. Although perineal disease persisted in the other 10 patients, their perinea were much improved compared with the initial presentation. Following a low Hartmann's procedure, the rectal stump becomes atrophic and anoperineal disease regresses, thereby permitting subsequent perineal proctectomy in less inflamed tissues. Since only a 3-cm to 5-cm cuff of rectum was retained from the initial surgery, a perineal intersphincteric approach could be employed and no abdominal dissection was necessary. Of the 10 patients who subsequently underwent perineal proctectomies, three patients still have an unhealed perineum. Twenty-two of the 25 (88 percent) patients have a completely healed perineum (mean follow-up period, 69.1 months). No attempt was made to establish intestinal continuity in any of the 25 patients. We conclude that the problem of the unhealed perineal wound can be averted with this approach, thereby reducing the long-term morbidity to the patient.

    Title Surgical Repair of Rectovaginal Fistulas in Patients with Crohn's Disease: Transvaginal Approach.
    Date August 1991
    Journal Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
    Excerpt

    The surgical management of rectovaginal fistulas complicating Crohn's disease has been associated with unacceptably high failure rates. We sought to modify the available surgical techniques to provide a solution to this challenging problem. Between December 1983 and January 1990, 14 patients with Crohn's disease underwent repair of a rectovaginal fistula. A modified transvaginal approach was employed by the authors. A diverting loop ileostomy was performed on all patients, either as the initial step in the staged management of intractable perianal disease or concurrent with the repair of the rectovaginal fistula. The fistula was completely eradicated in 13 of the 14 women and did not recur during the mean follow-up period of 55.0 months (range, 3-77 months). Intestinal continuity was reestablished in these 13 patients within 6 months after the initial fistula repair. One patient with a very low-lying fistula constituted our only failure. We have found the transvaginal method preferable to the transanal approach because of the relative ease in raising the vaginal flap as compared with a flap of fibrotic and inflamed anorectal mucosa. On the basis of this study, we conclude that a modified transvaginal approach is an effective method for repair of rectovaginal fistulas secondary to Crohn's disease.

    Title Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: an Initial Report.
    Date April 1991
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    Sixty consecutive patients underwent an elective attempt at laparoscopic cholecystectomy between March 15 and July 31, 1990 at the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. Fifty-two patients had successful completion of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (87%). The reasons for conversion to open cholecystectomy were acute cholecystitis (four patients), inability to define the cystic duct-common duct junction (three patients), and one patient with an unexpected choledochal cyst variant. Forty patients (77%) were discharged on the first post-operative day, and the remaining 12 patients on the second post-operative day. Thirty-three patients (63%) required only oral pain medication, and 11 patients (21%) needed no pain medication post-operatively. Fifty-one patients (98%) had resumed normal activities by the seventh post-operative day. Cholecystectomy remains the treatment of choice for biliary colic. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy minimizes length of stay in the hospital, lessens post-operative pain, allows quicker return to normal activities, and has a superior cosmetic result.

    Title Transvaginal Approach for Repair of Rectovaginal Fistulae Complicating Crohn's Disease.
    Date March 1991
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    The management of rectovaginal fistulae complicating Crohn's disease is difficult and often unsatisfactory. Between December 1983 and November 1988, 13 patients with Crohn's disease underwent repair of rectovaginal fistulae via a transvaginal approach. All patients had a diverting intestinal stoma either as part of the initial step in the staged management of intractable perianal disease or concurrent with the repair of the rectovaginal fistula. Each of the patients had low or mid septal fistulae; high fistulae generally are treated transabdominally and are not the focus of this discussion. Fistulae were eradicated in 12 of the 13 women and did not recur during the follow-up period, which averaged 50 months (range, 9 to 68 months). The only treatment failure was a patient who had a markedly diseased colon from the cecum to the rectum and a very low-lying fistula. It is concluded that a modified transvaginal approach is an effective method for repair of rectovaginal fistulae secondary to Crohn's disease.

    Title The Use of Laparoscopy in Retroperitoneal Pathology.
    Date August 1988
    Journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
    Excerpt

    Laparoscopy is usually not performed for retroperitoneal disease. However, if the retroperitoneal process is palpable or displaces viscera, laparoscopy may allow visualization and directed biopsy. In a personal series of 316 laparoscopies reviewed retrospectively, 19 (6%) were performed primarily for retroperitoneal pathology. All patients had CT scans documenting a retroperitoneal process. A confirmed histologic diagnosis was obtained on directed laparoscopic biopsy in 16 patients, including 9 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. There was no mortality or morbidity in this series. Laparoscopy is a useful modality in selected patients with retroperitoneal diseases, and its use should be considered when a histologic diagnosis is necessary.

    Title Repair of Large Abdominal Wall Defects with Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene (ptfe).
    Date January 1988
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Most abdominal wall incisional hernias can be repaired by primary closure. However, where the defect is large or there is tension on the closure, the use of a prosthetic material is indicated. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patches were used to repair incisional hernias in 28 patients between November 1983 and December 1986. Twelve of these patients (43%) had a prior failure of a primary repair. Reherniation occurred in three patients (10.7%). Wound infections developed in two patients (7.1%), both of whom had existing intestinal stomas, one with an intercurrent pelvic abscess. The prosthetic patch was removed in the patient with the abscess, but the infection was resolved in the other without sequelae. Septic complications did not occur after any operations performed in uncontaminated fields. None of the patients exhibited any undue discomfort, wound pain, erythema, or induration. Complications related to adhesions, erosion of the patch material into the viscera, bowel obstruction, or fistula formation did not occur. Based on this clinical experience, the authors believe that the PTFE patch appears to represent an advance in synthetic abdominal wall substitutes.

    Title Small Intestinal Obstruction Secondary to Obturation by a Garren Gastric Bubble.
    Date February 1987
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology
    Excerpt

    A case of small intestinal obstruction by obturation of a Garren gastric bubble, not retrieved after gastroscopy, is presented. The literature is reviewed regarding both the use of and the complications inherent in such balloon devices. Some specific suggestions are made to provide for effective retrieval and radiological localization and monitoring of displaced balloons.

    Title Anal Melanoma: Case Report and Review.
    Date November 1986
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Title Proctectomy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
    Date February 1986
    Journal American Journal of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Between July 1973 and October 1984, we performed proctectomy either as part of a primary proctocolectomy or as a secondary staged procedure in 388 patients with ulcerative colitis and in 39 patients with Crohn's disease. The proctectomies were performed using a two-team synchronous approach. An intersphincteric or perimuscular technique was employed. All perineal wounds were closed and drained by suction drainage and the pelvic peritoneum was closed in all cases. Two patients died in the early postoperative period, one from a pulmonary embolus and one from sepsis. Three patients had to be reexplored for postoperative hemorrhage, in all cases from a branch of the superior hemorrhoidal artery. Postoperative perineal hematoma developed in two patients and perineal abscess developed in four patients which necessitated opening of the perineal skin wound. Nonhealing of the perineal wound occurred in 3 of 388 patients with ulcerative colitis and in 5 of 39 patients with Crohn's disease. No perineal dehiscence or hernias were seen. Postoperatively, one man was permanently impotent and two had prolonged but temporary impotence. Three patients had retrograde ejaculation at last follow-up.

    Title Use of the Long Tube in the Management of Patients with Small-intestinal Obstruction Due to Adhesions.
    Date September 1985
    Journal Archives of Surgery (chicago, Ill. : 1960)
    Excerpt

    A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients admitted to our hospital over a six-year period with a diagnosis of small-intestinal obstruction due to adhesions, to assess the efficacy of treatment with long-tube decompression. Of 127 episodes of obstruction, two thirds responded to nonoperative treatment. Factors that were associated with a greater likelihood of success with long-tube decompression included incomplete obstruction, recurrent obstruction, and passage of the tube beyond the pylorus. Clinical findings were relatively reliable as diagnostic indicators of strangulation. The overall mortality was 1.5%, with no deaths due to a delay in operative intervention. A trial of long-tube decompression is recommended in patients presenting with a diagnosis of small-intestinal obstruction due to adhesions in the absence of clinical evidence of strangulation.

    Title Rectourethroperineal Fistula in Crohn's Disease.
    Date March 1985
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology
    Excerpt

    We report the ninth case of a rectourethral fistula in Crohn's disease. The patient had undergone numerous surgical procedures for complications of severe ileocolitis before developing a rectourethroperineal fistula. His symptoms were confined to urine leaking from the perineal opening; the most common symptom of rectourethral fistula in Crohn's disease. He underwent surgical repair by an abdominoperineal approach and has been free of recurrence for a period of 2 years. The literature suggests that the incidence of rectourethral fistulae in patients with Crohn's disease is approximately 0.3% and that this complication comprises 6.2-11.1% of all genitourinary fistulae in Crohn's disease.

    Title Is Routine Postoperative Nasogastric Decompression Really Necessary?
    Date March 1985
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Controversy exists regarding the need for nasogastric tube decompression and the incidence of complications resulting from its use following major intra-abdominal surgery. To determine the value of such tubes, 100 patients were managed after surgery with a nasogastric tube in situ until the passage of flatus per rectum (Group I). In a second group of 100 patients, no nasogastric tube was placed after surgery unless vomiting, gross distention, or overt obstruction occurred (Group II). In Group I, the nasogastric tube remained in place an average of 6 days and five patients required replacement of the tube after its initial removal. In Group II, nasogastric intubation was required at some point after surgery in six patients. No aspiration pneumonia, nasal septum necrosis, anastomotic leak, or wound dehiscence was seen in either group. There were three wound infections in Group I and two in Group II. The most obvious difference was the increased comfort and mobility of the group of patients treated without routine nasogastric decompression (Group II). Routine use of the nasogastric tube adjunct to patient care following gastrointestinal tract surgery may be safely eliminated.

    Title Continent Ileostomy.
    Date December 1984
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Title Pyoderma Gangrenosum in Crohn's Disease.
    Date February 1984
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Title Sexual Dysfunction After Colectomy.
    Date July 1983
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Title Splenectomy for Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.
    Date June 1983
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Title The Magnetic Stoma Cap: a Continent Colostomy Current Status.
    Date May 1983
    Journal Current Surgery
    Title Sexual Dysfunction Following Proctocolectomy for Benign Disease of the Colon and Rectum.
    Date April 1983
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Standard surgical therapy for the treatment of chronic ulcerative colitis is total extirpation of the colon and rectum. Since ulcerative colitis is primarily a disease of young adults affecting many people at the inception or height of their sexually active years, postoperative sexual dysfunction is an extremely disconcerting complication. Between July 1973 and May 1981, 291 proctectomies for benign disease of the colon and rectum were performed by the authors. This included 135 men and 156 women. Resection of the rectum was performed using an intrasphincteric technique with dissection kept extremely close to the wall of the rectosigmoid, rectum, and anus. Proctectomy was performed in this manner to prevent significant disruption of the nerves carrying stimuli to the genital organs. Of the 135 males undergoing a proctectomy, four (3%) had a permanent deficit in sexual function. Two men, aged 32 and 30, could sustain an erection but had retrograde ejaculation. Two patients, age 19 and 44, have remained impotent for 1 1/2 and two years, respectively. One hundred fifty-two of the 156 females are sexually active and only two (1.3%) have complained of any physical sexual dysfunction. Each had temporary dyspareunia lasting between nine months and one year after operation.

    Title Volvulus of the Gallbladder.
    Date March 1983
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology
    Excerpt

    Torsion of volvulus of the gallbladder is a rare condition. Approximately 300 cases have been reported since the first description by Wendel in 1898 (Ann Surg 1898; 27: 199). This entity appears most often in the elderly, with either acute, or recurrent, subacute symptoms. Such symptoms may mimic a number of other more common intraabdominal emergencies. Although the etiology is unknown, certain predisposing factors have been identified. Of these, the only one that is constant is the presence of the gallbladder on a mobile mesentery ("floating" gallbladder). Torsion occurs when this gallbladder twists around the cystic duct and artery, with subsequent occlusion of bile and blood flow. Diagnosed early and treated with cholecystectomy, this disease has a low mortality rate, between 3 and 5%. We have treated a case of acute torsion of the gall bladder at the Mount Sinai Hospital and have reviewed the existing literature.

    Title Ruptured Hepatic Abscess: a Rare Cause of Spontaneous Pneumoperitoneum.
    Date December 1982
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology
    Excerpt

    A 68-yr-old woman who developed an acute abdomen with clinical and radiological evidence of pneumoperitoneum is is described. At surgery, multiple left lobe hepatic abscesses were identified. Perforation of one abscess was apparent. Bacteriological studies revealed Streptococcus faecalis and gas-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from the abscess cavities. Spontaneous pneumoperitoneum secondary to a ruptured hepatic abscess has to our knowledge never been reported.

    Title Experience with the Flexible Fiberoptic Choledochoscope.
    Date September 1981
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Despite significant effort on the part of surgeons, the incidence of retained calculi after common duct exploration still remains unacceptably high. It seems likely that the best way to reduce the incidence of retained calculi would be a more complete exploration of the common duct at the time of the initial operation. We report our experience with a flexible fiber optic endoscope used intraoperatively in 52 patients and postoperatively in one case to visualize the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. In addition to visualization of stones, the choledochoscope has a channel through which various instruments can be passed to facilitate stone removal. Flexible choledochoscopy has been performed 53 times in 52 patients between July 1978 and November 1980. In one patient, the choledochoscope was used to explore the bile ducts via the T-tube tract after operation. In 52 patients, the scope was used intraoperatively: a) two patients demonstrated bile duct tumors, b) in 14, stones were not found on exploration. Of these, one had stenosis at the papilla of Vater and one had external compression of the duct by a pancreatic pseudocyst. All of these findings were confirmed by choledochoscopy, c) in 26 patients choledochoscopy confirmed complete surgical removal of all stones, d) in six patients, multiple stones were removed using routine common duct exploration but additional stones were seen with the choledochoscope, e) in three patients no stones were retrieved on routine duct exploration but were seen using the choledochoscope. In groups (d) and (e) the scope facilitated removal of the remaining stones. In eight cases stones were either grasped or crushed using the accessories of the choledochoscope. In one patient calculi were missed both by routine surgical exploration and choledochoscopy. No septic complications were seen in any of these patients.

    Title Pneumatosis Cystoides Intestinalis: a Complication of Systemic Chemotherapy.
    Date September 1981
    Journal The American Journal of Gastroenterology
    Excerpt

    A case of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis following administration of chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease is presented. Because of a poor response to nonoperative management, a subtotal colectomy was performed. Although the pathogenesis of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is not entirely clear, it seems likely that, in this case, mucosal ulceration secondary to methyl-gag allowed intraluminal air to dissect into the intestinal wall and surrounding retroperitoneal tissues. Because pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is often reversible and self-limited, fecal diversion in lieu of bowel resection is entertained as a possible alternative in the operative management of selected cases. In the case presented resection was performed because of extent of the pathologic process.

    Title Postoperative Pneumoperitoneum: an Unusual Etiology.
    Date March 1979
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Although postoperative pneumoperitoneum is a common finding, it is particularly disturbing when there is an increase in the amount of postoperative pneumoperitoneum or when the radiographic finding of pneumoperitoneum is accompanied by such physical findings as increased abdominal tenderness, peritoneal signs or paralytic ileus. Four patients operated upon at the Mount Sinai Hospital are presented. All patients underwent abdominal surgery for treatment of some form of inflammatory bowel disease and all were receiving systemic corticosteroids in the postoperative period. Abdominal findings of tenderness, ileus and peritoneal irritation developed shortly after the removal of Penrose drains in the postoperative period. Pneumoperitoneum was confirmed by abdominal roentgenographs. The first patient in this group underwent a laparotomy with essentially negative findings other than a freely open drain tract. The subsequent three patients were managed by close observation and frequent abdominal radiographs. These three patients had contrast roentgenographic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract to rule out perforation of a peptic ulcer, and in the patient upon whom reservoir ileostomy had been performed, a contrast study of the reservoir was performed. All patients recovered fully with this management and there were no sequelae. The mechanism for the appearance of pneumoperitoneum after removal of drains, particularly when the patient is receiving systemic corticosteroids, is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need to consider and rule out perforation of a hollow viscus in this situation before accepting drain removal as the sole cause of post-operative pneumoperitoneum.

    Title A Continent Colostomy: The Magnetic Stoma Cap.
    Date October 1977
    Journal American Journal of Surgery
    Excerpt

    An apparatus to create continence in an end left-sided colostomy in dogs is assessed. The device consists of a samarium-cobalt magnetic ring encased in methyl methacrylate and a magnetic cap. The ring is implanted in the abdominal wall and the colon delivered through it and matured to the skin. The stoma is later obturated by the magnetic cap to provide continence. Ten dogs exposed to "uncoated" samarium-cobalt magnets for periods of up to eight months showed no elevation of cobalt levels in the serum or tissues and no histopathologic changes on postmortem examination. In twelve dogs, magnetic rings were used to create continent colostomies. Eleven of twelve dogs followed for periods up to eight months were continent and tolerated the appliance well. One ring was extruded after a peristomal skin dehiscence occurred. Two skin strictures appeared and were readily controlled by digital dilatation. Sinus, fistula, or infection were not seen. Clinical application of this device is discussed.

    Title The Continent Ileostomy in the Pediatric Patient.
    Date July 1977
    Journal Hospital Practice
    Title The Reservoir Ileostomy: Early Experience with 54 Patients.
    Date March 1977
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Reservoir and ileostomies were performed in 54 patients between 1972 and 1975. Primary colonic pathology included chronic ulcerative colitis in 47 patients, Crohn's colitis in one, familial polyposes in 5 and Gardner's Syndrome in one. Followup is complete and varies from 6 months to three years. All but three patients are completely continent to feces; only one of these three requires the occasional use of a stomal appliance. There were no mortalities. Complications included suture line dehiscences, small intestinal obstruction or prolonged paralytic ileus, and hemorrhage from the reservoir. All complications were successfully treated and removal of the ileal reservoir was not required in any patient. These complications and steps which may be taken to avoid them are discussed. In addition, indications and contraindications for surgery are enumerated. It is well documented that both the colonic polyposes and long standing chronic ulcerative colitis are premalignant diseases. The availability of a continent, reservoir ileostomy as an alternative to the standard, incontinent, stoma has significantly reduced patient resistance to colectomy, and permitted earlier surgery.

    Title Pancreatic Pseudocyst: is Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Contraindicated?
    Date January 1977
    Journal The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
    Title Continent Ileostomy in the Pediatric Patient.
    Date January 1977
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Surgery
    Excerpt

    Continent ileostomies have been performed in 10 juvenile patients. The operative technique and postoperative management are described. Nine patients wear only small dressings to cover the stoma. One patient is partially incontinent and frequently wears an appliance. Criteria for patient selection and contraindications are discussed.

    Title Sweat Gland Carcinoma. Current Concepts of Surgical Management.
    Date September 1976
    Journal Archives of Surgery (chicago, Ill. : 1960)
    Excerpt

    In three new cases of sweat gland carcinoma that we observed within recent years, the sites were the axilla, back, and arm. Axillary lymph node dissections were performed in two of the patients and the nodes were normal. Preoperative diagnoses were hydroadenitis, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and pyogenic granuloma. In one patient who was followed up for four years, there has been no recurrence; the follow-up period for the other two has been short. Sweat gland carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm that occurs mostly in the older age groups. It may be very slow growing and is extremely difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Lymph node metastases are frequent and overall survival is poor. Prognosis is related to histologic cell type and presence or absence of lymph node metastases. Treatment by wide local excision of the lesion and primary regional node dissection is recommended.

    Title Portosystemic Shunting in Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: a Good Risk Disease.
    Date June 1976
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Excerpt

    Five patients with primary biliary cirrhosis underwent portosystemic shunting for the control of variceal bleeding. Three procedures were emergencies and two were elective. There was no operative mortality; all patients were followed until the present or until death. One patient is alive 4 years and another, 2 years postoperatively. One patient died 4 years after operation and another died 16 months postoperatively. Another patient survived for 8 years following her shunt and eventually died as a result of a cerebrovascular accident. This group of patients is compared to a larger group undergoing portosystemic shunting because of portal hypertension secondary to other forms of liver disease. The absence of operative mortality and the fact that several of these patients had moderately long postoperative survival despite apparently poor liver function suggest that the usual criteria for the assessment of operative risk are not valid in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Title The Use of the Sengstaken-blakemore Tube for Immediate Control of Bleeding Esophageal Varices.
    Date April 1974
    Journal Annals of Surgery
    Title Stercoraceous Perforation of the Colon.
    Date September 1972
    Journal The Surgical Clinics of North America
    Title Lateral Biopsies Added to the Traditional Sextant Prostate Biopsy Pattern Increases the Detection Rate of Prostate Cancer.
    Date
    Journal Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
    Excerpt

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error and data based upon whole-mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a three-dimensional computer-assisted prostate biopsy simulator suggests that an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. The simulated 10-core biopsy pattern (traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland) was shown to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. The objective of this pilot study was to confirm the higher prostate cancer detection rate obtained using the 10-core biopsy pattern in patients. We reviewed data on 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core biopsy pattern. The frequency of positive biopsy was determined for each core. Additionally, the sextant and 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3%(19/35) were diagnosed by the sextant biopsy only. The 10-core pattern resulted in an additional 45.7%(16/35) of patients being diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. The laterally placed biopsies had the highest frequency of positive biopsies when compared to the sextant cores. In conclusion, biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 43-46

    Title Outcome and Long-term Function of Restorative Proctocolectomy for Crohn's Disease: Comparison to Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.
    Date
    Journal Colorectal Disease : the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
    Excerpt

    Aim  Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) is the most common operation for chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC), as it provides excellent functional outcome. However, among patients with Crohn's disease (CD), RPC is generally not recommended, as outcome and long-term function may be poor. Our purpose was to compare matched cohorts of CD and CUC patients to determine whether there are differences in outcome or function. Method  We queried our prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent RPC from 1991 to 2008. We identified patients who underwent RPC for CD and compared them with a matched cohort of patients who underwent RPC for CUC. Results  We identified 13 patients with CD (seven women, median age 34 years) and 39 patients with CUC (21 women, median age 35 years). The patients were well matched for gender, clinical and demographic variables. Seven patients (54%) with CD had proctitis, but none had perianal or ileal disease. There were four (30.8%) postoperative complications and no anastomotic leaks. The CD group experienced significantly fewer median daily bowel movements (P = 0.02), incontinence for liquids (P < 0.01) and pouchitis (P < 0.01). With a median follow up of 44 months, pouch excision rate was significantly higher in the Crohn's group (2 vs 0%, P < 0.01). Conclusion  In patients with CD, RPC may result in fewer daily bowel movements, less liquid incontinence and a lower incidence of pouchitis compared with CUC patients who undergo RPC. However, risk of pouch loss is higher in patients with CD. Therefore, in properly selected patients with CD, RPC provides an acceptable long-term functional outcome.

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