Internists, Geriatric Specialist (elderly care)
32 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Northeast Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center
2215 Fuller Rd
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
734-769-7100
Locations and availability (9)

Education ?

Medical School
University Of Lagos (1978)
Foreign school

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Nnodim is affiliated with 4 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • University of Michigan Hospitals & Health Centers
    1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center
    2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105
  • San Juan Regional Medical Center
  • University of Michigan Health System
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Nnodim has contributed to 21 publications.
    Title Dynamic Balance and Stepping Versus Tai Chi Training to Improve Balance and Stepping in At-risk Older Adults.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of two 10-week balance training programs, Combined Balance and Step Training (CBST) versus tai chi (TC), on balance and stepping measures. DESIGN: Prospective intervention trial. SETTING: Local senior centers and congregate housing facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Aged 65 and older with at least mild impairment in the ability to perform unipedal stance and tandem walk. INTERVENTION: Participants were allocated to TC (n = 107, mean age 78) or CBST, an intervention focused on improving dynamic balance and stepping (n = 106, mean age 78). MEASUREMENTS: At baseline and 10 weeks, participants were tested in their static balance (Unipedal Stance and Tandem Stance (TS)), stepping (Maximum Step Length, Rapid Step Test), and Timed Up and Go (TUG). RESULTS: Performance improved more with CBST than TC, ranging from 5% to 10% for the stepping tests (Maximum Step Length and Rapid Step Test) and 9% for TUG. The improvement in TUG represented an improvement of more than 1 second. Greater improvements were also seen in static balance ability (in TS) with CBST than TC. CONCLUSION: Of the two training programs, in which variants of each program have been proven to reduce falls, CBST results in modest improvements in balance, stepping, and functional mobility versus TC over a 10-week period. Future research should include a prospective comparison of fall rates in response to these two balance training programs.

    Title Assessing Falls in Older Adults: a Comprehensive Fall Evaluation to Reduce Fall Risk in Older Adults.
    Date November 2005
    Journal Geriatrics
    Excerpt

    Falls account for significant morbidity and mortality in the older adult population. A comprehensive fall evaluation (CFE) is proposed, particularly for use in recurrent fallers, those who seek medical attention for a fall, and those with a gait and/or balance disorder. The CFE focuses on key factors in the medical and fall history, review of systems, and physical examination. Interventions utilize a multifactorial model, although balance exercise may be the most critical component. While some components may be marginally successful when presented individually as an intervention (such as correction of vision impairment or environmental hazard reduction), when presented together, fall risk can be significantly reduced.

    Title Testosterone Mediates Satellite Cell Activation in Denervated Rat Levator Ani Muscle.
    Date August 2001
    Journal The Anatomical Record
    Excerpt

    Denervation stimulates quiescent satellite cells in skeletal muscle to reenter the cell cycle. In the androgen-sensitive rat levator ani muscle (LA), this mitotic response to loss of neural input fails to occur in castrated animals. To elucidate the role of androgens in denervation-induced satellite cell proliferation, the denervated LA of castrated rats (Group A) was compared with that of animals infixed with testosterone implants after castration (Group B). Mean myofiber cross-sectional areas (Group A: 362.95 microm(2) +/- 27.74; Group B: 403.13 microm(2) +/- 53.87) and linear nuclear densities (Group A: 74.07 mm(-1) +/- 17.58; Group B: 104.13 mm(-1) +/- 4.06) were similar (P > 0.05) in both groups. The androgen-deprived myofibers of Group A, however, had a significantly lower nuclear content (271.0 +/- 74.91 vs. 1,285.80 +/- 81.74 in Group B; P < 0.05) on account of their considerably shorter mean length (3.44 mm +/- 0.29 vs. 12.31 mm +/- 0.92 in Group B; P < 0.05). The proportional representation of satellite cells in hormone-replaced, denervated muscle was more than twice that in the untreated group (Group B: 5.15 +/- 0.83% vs. Group A: 2.28 +/- 0.23%; P < 0.05). In absolute terms, the satellite cell number in Group B was approximately an order of magnitude greater than in Group A (408.4 x 10(3) vs. 38.08 x 10(3)). The results confirm the absence of testosterone as the factor responsible for the inability of satellite cells in the LA of castrated rats to respond mitotically to the withdrawal of neural input after denervation.

    Title Satellite Cell Numbers in Senile Rat Levator Ani Muscle.
    Date March 2000
    Journal Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
    Excerpt

    Ageing in skeletal muscle results in motor frailty and a reduced capacity for self repair after injury. The contractile characteristics of muscle are determined principally by the myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of its myofibers. During the restorative process, satellite cells play a central role. The present study compares the levator ani muscle of very old (32 months) and young (4 months) male WI/HicksCar rats in terms of structural integrity, MHC and satellite cell content. Myofiber typing was carried out by indirect immunohistochemistry using a panel of anti-MHC antibodies. Single myofibers for nuclear enumeration were isolated by an enzymatic technique while fiber cross-sectional areas and satellite cell frequencies were determined by computerized planimetry and electron microscopy. In both groups of rats, the myofiber population was homogeneously MHC type IIb-reactive. Cross-sectional data reflected a marked degree of atrophy in the muscle of the senile rats (710.05 +/- 63.6 microm2, compared with 1519.98 +/- 79.0 microm2 in young). The myofiber population was reduced by only about 6.7% with ageing and the representation of satellite cells, as a fraction of total sublaminal nuclei, was relatively stable (1.15 versus 1.91% in young; P > 0.05). The results indicate that ageing had a considerable atrophic effect on the levator ani muscle but induced neither MHC isoform transition nor massive depletion of the satellite cell pool. They suggest that the well-documented impairment of the restorative capacity of senile muscle could be due more to alterations in the nature of microenvironmental cues than to quantitative aspects of its cellular capacity to respond.

    Title Quantitative Study of the Effects of Denervation and Castration on the Levator Ani Muscle of the Rat.
    Date September 1999
    Journal The Anatomical Record
    Excerpt

    The levator ani muscle (LA) of the rat is highly androgen-sensitive and, like all skeletal muscles, deteriorates structurally and functionally when denervated. In order to elucidate the interplay of neural and endocrine influences, the separate and combined effects of denervation and castration on myofiber cross-sectional area and nuclear populations were quantitatively studied. In one group of 4-month-old male rats (A), the LA was denervated. Another group (B) was surgically castrated and a third group (C) was both denervated and castrated. The control rats (D) remained both gonad- and nerve-intact. After two months, the LA was obtained for myofiber and nuclear enumeration, cross-sectional area and satellite cell frequency determination. In the denervated muscle of gonad-intact rats (Group A), myofiber cross-sectional area was markedly diminished (265.84+/-11.38 microm2; compared with controls [Group D]: 1519.98+/-79.41 microm2; P < 0.05). Satellite cell nuclei, as a percentage of total sublaminar nuclei (i.e., satellite cell ratio), increased significantly (4.26%, from a control value of 1.91%). Castration alone (Group B) resulted in pronounced myofiber atrophy (mean cross-sectional area: 754.03+/-89.63 microm2) but had no significant effect on satellite cell ratio (2.36%). The combination of castration and denervation (Group C) elicited the same degree of myofiber atrophy as denervation alone (Group A) but had no significant impact on satellite cell ratio. Instead, the nuclear count per myofiber declined to about a third of the control level (300.5+/-38.49 compared with 861.7+/-24.8; P < 0.05). The results indicate that the atrophic effects of denervation and castration on the LA are non-synergistic and mechanistically similar. They also show that the inability of satellite cells to respond mitotically to the withdrawal of neural input under disandrogenized conditions is a factor in the myonuclear depletion of the denervated muscle of castrated rats.

    Title A Controlled Trial of Peer-teaching in Practical Gross Anatomy.
    Date May 1997
    Journal Clinical Anatomy (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    The present study is an evaluation of a peer-teaching program in practical gross anatomy involving 80 volunteer second-year medical students. They were assigned 20 per cadaver, but divided into two subgroups of 10 each. The subgroup which dissects during a given session would demonstrate their accomplishments to the other subgroup at the commencement of the next dissecting session, before withdrawing to study independently. The other subgroup would then proceed to dissect during the rest of the session and, on the next practical day, demonstrate their work to their peers in the complementary subgroup. Thus, each subgroup performed only half of the 36 work units on the trunk, relying on their peers for instruction on the other half. Eighty students with similar entry-level qualifications were selected from the rest of the class to serve as controls. Their student-to-cadaver ratio was also 20:1 but every member was in attendance at all dissecting sessions. In the experimental and control programs, each student was actively engaged in dissection for an average of 5.4 hours. A 200-item two-choice theory paper and a 50-station practical test comprising specimen-based questions were administered at the end of the study. Students in the peer-teaching program performed significantly better than their full-time dissecting counterparts. The peer-teaching program was well-received by the students: it reduced the crowding at dissecting tables considerably and offered them opportunities to hone their communication skills. The non-dissecting time was also much-valued and well-utilized.

    Title A Follow-up Comparative Study of Two Modes of Learning Human Anatomy: by Dissection and from Prosections.
    Date November 1996
    Journal Clinical Anatomy (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    Two groups of medical students (traditional and experimental), who had studied the gross anatomy of the lower limb by different methods (by dissection and from prosections, respectively) 5 years earlier, were re-assessed without warning. The objective was to determine whether or not the learning mode had any implications for the subsequent recall of the material studied. Three tests were administered: a 100-item two-choice theory paper, a practical test consisting of 18 time stations with specimen-based questions, and a standardized oral examination. Both qualitative and quantitative assessments were made in the practical and oral examinations. Although the numerical scores gained by both groups in the practical test were statistically similar, the incidence of random guesswork was significantly less among students on the experimental program. The same group was also adjudged to have performed better in the oral examination by two of the investigators who were blind to the group affiliations of the students. The results suggest that on testing 5 years after a practical learning experience in gross anatomy, the numerical scores gained by students who had studied from prosections were similar to those of their peers who had carried out dissections but that, by some qualitative considerations, the recall ability of the non-dissecting students was superior. Furthermore, the program of study from prosections lasted only 74% of the duration of the dissection course and is thus more efficient. The results recommend the program to institutions faced with unfavorable student-to-cadver ratios. The time it liberates may be dedicated to such other imaginative pedagogical purposes as autonomous student learning, clinical demonstrations, and problem-solving team exercises.

    Title Preclinical Student Reactions to Dissection, Death, and Dying.
    Date October 1996
    Journal Clinical Anatomy (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    The objective of the present study was to determine the reactions of preclinical medical students to dissection; cognate issues. A questionnaire was administered to a class of 148 students; the stimulus items inquired about the frequency of mental and physical symptoms, causes of stress, degree of upset occasioned by dissection, previous encounters with death, mental preparedness at the commencement of the course, reactions to dissecting room activities, coping strategies, and the desirability of a course on death and dying. Nearly a quarter of the sample reported an increase in the frequency of mental and physical symptoms. A third of the students identified the dissecting room as a "very important" stressor. Only for female respondents were "dissecting room" and "great difficulty of work" significantly associated as causes of stress. Over three-quarters of the students were upset at the beginning of dissection and about a third remained disturbed after 101.5 hours. Sixty students had seen a dead body previously and 30 students had been bereaved within the 2 years preceding the study. However, neither prior exposure to a dead body nor bereavement was a safeguard against persistent upset by dissection. The initial reactions were mostly negative, but neutral and positive attitudes later supervened. The coping strategies cited did not suggest any significant distortion attributable to the unseemly origins of the cadavers. A compulsory formal course on death and dying during both preclinical and clinical stages was considered desirable by the majority of respondents, more for personal and clinical reasons than for dissection-related ones.

    Title Comparison of Medical and Non-medical Student Attitudes to Social Issues in Medicine.
    Date April 1996
    Journal Medical Education
    Excerpt

    A 63-item questionnaire on attitudes to psychosocial issues in medicine was administered to final-year students in the Faculties of Medicine (n = 104), Pharmacy (n = 57) and Arts and Social Sciences (n = 75) of the University of Benin. The responses given were analysed by the summation and Cornell scalogram techniques for content and intensity. On aggregate, the pharmacy students scored significantly higher than their medical and arts/social science counterparts (P < 0.001). The advantage over medical students was on only one subscale: paramedical cooperation. The scores of the pharmacy and arts/social science groups were significantly lowe than those of medical students on the social factors subscale. On issues that threaten to diminish the traditional role and status of the medical profession (e.g. paramedical cooperation and government intervention), the attitude of medical students was either unenthusiastic or clearly resentful. However, they shared the same orientation as the other groups towards matters which did not challenge the prerogatives of medical doctors (e.g. preventive medicine and doctor-patient relationship). It is suggested that measures be adopted to raise the level of awareness of non-health professionals vis--vis the non-biological antecedents of disease and also to bridge the gap in attitudes among groups in the health care team.

    Title Predicting Performance in Anatomy Using Antecedent Academic Criteria.
    Date August 1994
    Journal Medical Education
    Excerpt

    The performance of two multivariate prediction models (equal and differential weights) at forecasting the outcome of the comprehensive examination in preclinical anatomy is reported. The models were devised by regression analysis, using scores in two antecedent examinations which correlated highly with the criterion variable, namely the science aggregate at the Joint Matriculation Examination and the premedical science aggregate. Five years of data were considered and the scores for each year were computed using the formula derived from scores of the preceding year. The average failure rate for the period covered by the study was 31.28%. The correlation between actual and predicted scores was positive and moderately high (Pearson r = 0.47 and 0.49 for the equal- and differential-weights models respectively). On average, the equal-weights model correctly predicted 33.9% of failures, with a false alarm rate of 28.4%, compared with 44.3% and 38.9% respectively for the differential-weights model. In predicting candidates whose scores would fall in the bottom half and bottom third of the class, no statistically significant difference was noted between the hit rates achieved by both models. The equal-weights model is simple to formulate and efficient in operation. Although its hit rate at the pass/fail boundary was lower than that of the differential-weights model, it yielded a significantly lower false alarm rate (28.4% vs 38.9%). The relevance and application of performance prediction to the planning of remedial instruction are discussed.

    Title Multiple-choice Testing in Anatomy.
    Date August 1992
    Journal Medical Education
    Excerpt

    An analysis of 596 multiple-choice questions (MCQs) on human anatomy given at three First Professional Examinations for medical students is reported. The MCQ paper at each examination was 200 items long and consisted of three item-types: A, K and T/F. Each A-type item comprised a stem and five options, only one of the latter being the correct or best answer. Items of the K-type consisted of a stem and four responses, any number of which may be correct. The T/F items were of the three-response kind, the available options being 'true', 'false' and 'don't know'. Test reliability was computed by internal analysis, using the Kuder-Richardson 20 formula. Measures of concurrent validity were obtained by correlating the scores in the MCQ papers with the overall outcome of the First Professional Examination. Indices of item facility, discrimination and abstention were calculated. The effects of item-type and the availability of the 'don't know' option on examinee performance were also determined. Reliability (alpha) and concurrent validity (Pearson r) coefficients in the ranges of 0.71-0.85 and 0.80-0.93 (P less than 0.05) respectively were recorded. Regression analysis revealed the MCQ papers to be less sensitive predictors of the aggregate performance than the essay papers. The proportion of highly discriminatory and excessively difficult items was highest for the K-type. When the same K-type questions were re-exhibited in the indeterminate format, the examinees performed significantly better. Higher scores were also recorded when candidates were required to respond to all the questions than when they were offered the 'don't know' option and the percentage gain was higher for the low-scoring examinees. The appropriateness of multiple-choice testing as a tool for assessing student achievement in human anatomy is discussed.

    Title The Occurrence of Brown Adipose in Man Inhabiting the Tropics.
    Date May 1991
    Journal Zeitschrift Für Mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung
    Excerpt

    Samples of cervical, mediastinal and perirenal fat tissue were obtained from eight subjects (ages: 17 days to 56 years) at necropsy. After formol fixation, the specimens were processed for sectioning and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid--Schiff, or Holmes' silver techniques for light microscopy. All the tissue samples showed lobular organisation and a rich vascularity, with argentaffin (putative nerve) fibres at paravascular and parenchymal sites. Three histological forms of brown adipose tissue (BAT) were recognised: homogeneous lobules of multilocular adipocytes (Type I); mixed lobules consisting of islets of multilocular adipocytes surrounded by large unilocular cells (Type II); and lobules consisting mainly of small (less than 40 microns diameter) unilocular adipocytes (Type III). In two subjects (ages 17 days and 52 years), BAT (Types I and II respectively) was observed in tissue samples from all three sites. Perirenal samples from three other donors (ages 26-35 years) showed the presence of Type II or III BAT. Mediastinal BAT (Type II) was found in two subjects (26- and 35-years old). The significance of BAT in man inhabiting a warm environment is discussed.

    Title Learning Human Anatomy: by Dissection or from Prosections?
    Date October 1990
    Journal Medical Education
    Excerpt

    Two matched groups of first-year preclinical medical students studied the gross anatomy of the lower limb by different methods. One group dissected in the traditional manner (as in the existing curriculum) while the other worked according to an experimental programme which excluded dissection by students. Preparatory study guides were supplied to the experimental group and each of their practical classes on soft tissues began with a priming session at which the structures to be encountered were introduced. The instructor then demonstrated these structures to the group on a prosected wet specimen and bones. Thereafter, the students were allowed to handle and discuss the specimens without staff supervision. At the end of the programme, both groups submitted to a 300-item two-choice paper and a practical test. A debriefing questionnaire was also completed by the experimental group. In both tests, the experimental group performed better than the traditional group and the difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.05) in the theory paper. Further, the experimental programme was completed in about 74% of the time taken by the traditional programme. All the participants commented positively on the experimental programme and expressed the opinion that it had helped them understand the lower limb better than dissection had done for the upper limb. These results suggest that working from prosections is a very effective way of learning human gross anatomy. Such a programme is worthy of consideration by departments having to contend with unfavourable student:cadaver ratios and curtailed teaching time.

    Title Neural and Vascular Provisions of Rat Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue.
    Date February 1989
    Journal The American Journal of Anatomy
    Excerpt

    The innervation of rat interscapular brown adipose tissue has been studied by light and fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy after treatment with "false" adrenergic neurotransmitters 5- and 6-hydroxydopamine. The vascular markers neoprene latex and thioflavin S were used to define the blood vascular arrangements within the around the tissue. Catecholaminergic innervation was revealed by fluorescence microscopy at both parenchymal and vasomotor sites. In animals injected with 6-hydroxydopamine, this catecholaminergic fluorescence was extinguished in the parenchymal nerve distribution and markedly reduced in the vasomotor plexus. Identification of an extensive network of noradrenergic vasomotor and parenchymal nerve terminals was established by electron microscopy after 5- and 6-hydroxydopamine administration, but unmarked terminals were also observed in both distributions. These unmarked terminals might represent an additional nonnoradrenergic nerve supply to interscapular brown adipose tissue. The thoracodorsal veins draining the fat pads are directly tributary to a large median perforating vein, which joins the azygos vein, and are also continuous with the axillary vein. In addition to the recognized vascular distribution pattern of lobular arteries supplying an abundant capillary plexus drained by lobular veins, direct arteriovenous anastomoses were observed within the interscapular brown fat pad. It is postulated that these additional vascular arrangements are determinant in the phenomenal increase in blood flow through brown adipose tissue during metabolic stimulation.

    Title Learning Human Anatomy: Student Preferences of Methods in a Nigerian Medical School.
    Date February 1989
    Journal Medical Education
    Excerpt

    The present study evaluates the usefulness, as perceived by students, of the various methods by which anatomical information is presented during the preclinical part of the medical course. Assessments of these learning methods were elicited from a cohort of medical students at the University of Benin by a questionnaire based on their selection of questions to attempt in Anatomy Paper 2 (Essays) of the First Professional examination (= 2nd MB). An algorithm was provided to enable the quantification of the preferences expressed and hence the derivation of a utility index for each learning method. The results showed that reading/private study, formal lectures, informal discussions with peers and practical work were the learning methods from which the students had benefited, in descending order of usefulness. These findings are discussed in the context of the teaching and learning of human anatomy in the particular circumstances studied.

    Title Stereological Assessment of Age-related Changes in Lipid Droplet Surface Area and Vascular Volume in Rat Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue.
    Date July 1988
    Journal The Anatomical Record
    Excerpt

    The surface area of stored triglyceride and the volume of capillaries in the interscapular brown fat pad of the rat have been adopted as morphological indices of the overall thermogenic capability of the tissue. The present study examines the relationship between the chronological profiles of these parameters and reported senile changes in the biochemical and physiological characteristics of brown adipose tissue. Lipid droplet surface density and vascular volume density were estimated by computer-assisted planimetry with electron micrographs prepared from interscapular brown adipose tissue samples obtained from rats of various ages. The volumes of the fat pad at these ages were also determined and used to calculate droplet surface areas and vascular volumes. Triglyceride surface area showed a 20-fold enhancement in the early postnatal period (0.44 X 10(2) cm2 at birth; 9.43 X 10(2) cm2 at 4 weeks). A further but less remarkable increase occurred in adulthood (11.67 X 10(2) cm2 at 6 months) and, in old age, only a slight fall was noted (9.66 X 10(2) cm2 at 2 years). Intralobular capillary volume also rose sharply early during the first week after birth, reaching a peak at 4 weeks (2.40 X 10(-2) cm3). The values recorded in adulthood and old age (1.90 X 10(-2) cm3 at 6 months; 1.76 X 10(-2) cm3 at 2 years) were not significantly different from that obtained at 4 weeks of age. These results show that the attainment of maximum values of lipid droplet surface area and vascular volume in rat interscapular brown adipose tissue coincides with the period of the tissue's peak metabolic capacity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Learning Human Anatomy: Does Learning Occur During a Lecture?
    Date June 1988
    Journal Medical Education
    Excerpt

    Information uptake during a formal lecture was evaluated using a sample of 43 second-year medical students to whom a topic on human developmental anatomy was presented. The sample was divided into two groups: Blue (group B) (21 students) and Red (group R) (22 students). Prior to the lecture, a pre-test of 20 multiple choice questions was administered to each group. The lecture was then delivered over 50 minutes. Both in its preparation and presentation, the lecture conformed to the principles of programmed instruction. After a 10-minute students' question-and-answer session, a post-test was served. For group B, this was group R's pretest while group R, in turn, received group B's pretest. No question in the pre-test was repeated in the post-test. Intergroup comparisons of pre-test scores and of post-test scores revealed non-significant differences (P greater than 0.05), thus confirming that the pre- and the post-tests were of comparable difficulty. In each group, the mean post-test score was significantly higher than the pre-test score (P less than 0.001). The pooled scores indicated that the percentage mastery of material presented during the lecture increased from -1.8% to 58.4%. These results demonstrate that significant learning can occur during a lecture prepared and delivered in accordance with sound pedagogical principles.

    Title Development of Adipose Tissues.
    Date June 1988
    Journal The Anatomical Record
    Excerpt

    Studies on the development of brown and white adipose tissues and their relationship to ordinary connective tissue are the subject of the present review, which is updated to the fall of 1985. Primordial entities described as "primitive organs" have been noted at sites of adipose tissue development by numerous investigators. These "primitive organs" are clearly delineated from surrounding connective tissue and possess a well-defined vascular network in the interstices of which cellular organization takes place. The precursor cells of brown and white adipocytes appear to acquire their distinctive cytogenetic properties at a very early stage in the embryo. These progenitor cells temporarily exhibit structural similarities to fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This resemblance has led to speculation that fibroblasts and/or endothelial cells may be ancestral to adipocytes. However, recent in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that the brown adipose precursor cell is morphogenetically distinct from the white adipose precursor cell on one hand, and from fibroblasts and endothelial cells on the other. In vitro studies have also shown that the pericytic elements present in both brown and white adipose tissue depots in the adult are quiescent precursor cells that may be recruited under certain circumstances. Areas for further inquiry by means of recently developed techniques are indicated.

    Title Arteriovenous Anastomoses in Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue in the Rat.
    Date February 1988
    Journal Journal of Anatomy
    Title Demonstration of a Catecholaminergic Innervation in Human Perirenal Brown Adipose Tissue at Various Ages in the Adult.
    Date September 1986
    Journal The Anatomical Record
    Excerpt

    From light and electron microscopic studies on perirenal fat from human donors 27, 39 and 47 years old, unequivocal evidence is found for the presence of islands of multilocular adipocytes. After glyoxylic acid condensation for visualisation of biogenic amines, catecholaminergic nerve plexuses were demonstrated around the arteries of supply to these islands and within the intercellular spaces between their constituent adipocytes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the cytology of these adipocytes to be similar to that of brown adipocytes in rodents. These findings are viewed in the light of a possible energetic potential for brown adipose tissue in the human adult.

    Title The Pre- and Postnatal Development and Ageing of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue in the Rat.
    Date February 1986
    Journal Anatomy and Embryology
    Excerpt

    Development and ageing changes in interscapular brown adipose tissue have been studied in white Wistar rats by light, fluorescence and electron microscopy. Cellular aggregation was noted in the fetal interscapular area on the 15th day of gestation and vascularised primitive lobules of brown adipose tissue became unequivocally identifiable on the 17th day in utero. Brown adipocyte precursors appeared to be derived directly from mesenchymal cells and were uniquely characterised by larger (0.8-1.7 micrometer diameter) mitochondria. Numbers of these precursors cells (pre-adipocytes) were seen in mitosis during intrauterine life. Pericapillary cells similar in appearance to embryonic pre-adipocytes were regularly observed within brown fat lobules throughout later life. Cardinal features noted in mature brown adipose tissue were parenchymal cells with a multilocular lipid distribution and numerous large mitochondria with distinctive in-parallel cristae, as well as an extensive vascular network and a dense catecholaminergic vasomotor and parenchymal innervation. Brown adipocytes generally retained a multilocular lipid distribution into old age, and although the catecholaminergic fluorescence of the nerves supplying the tissue was reduced, a widespread distribution of noradrenergic vasomotor and parenchymal nerves and of nexuses between brown adipocytes continued to be demonstrable by electron microscopy in the brown adipose tissue of senile rats.


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