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Obstetrician & Gynecologist (OB/GYN), Endocrinologist (diabetes, hormones)
31 years of experience

Video profile


Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
The University of Texas Southwestern (1981)
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
American Society for Reproductive Medicine
Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (2004)
D Magazine Best Doctors (2012)
Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (2005)
American Society for Reproductive Medicine (2001)
Castle Connolly America's Top Doctors® (2009, 2012 - 2015)
American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology
American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Bradshaw is affiliated with 11 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - St. Paul
    5909 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    Top 25%
  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - Zale Lipshy
    5151 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    Top 25%
  • Children's Medical Center of Dallas
    Obstetrician & Gynecologist
    1935 Motor St, Dallas, TX 75235
    Top 50%
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
  • UT Southwestern Zale Lipshy Hospital
  • Univ TX Southwestern Med Ctr
    5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390
  • Zale University Hospital
  • UT Southwestern St. Paul Hospital
  • Dallas County Hospital District
  • UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas *
  • University Hospital - St Paul
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Bradshaw has contributed to 20 publications.
    Title Autophosphorylation of Alphacamkii is Not a General Requirement for Nmda Receptor-dependent Ltp in the Adult Mouse.
    Date September 2006
    Journal The Journal of Physiology

    Autophosphorylation of alpha-Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (alphaCaMKII) at Thr286 is thought to be a general effector mechanism for sustaining transcription-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) at pathways where LTP is NMDA receptor-dependent. We have compared LTP at two such hippocampal pathways in mutant mice with a disabling point mutation at the Thr286 autophosphorylation site. We find that autophosphorylation of alphaCaMKII is essential for induction of LTP at Schaffer commissural-CA1 synapses in vivo, but is not required for LTP that can be sustained over days at medial perforant path-granule cell synapses in awake mice. At these latter synapses LTP is supported by cyclic AMP-dependent signalling in the absence of alphaCaMKII signalling. Thus, the autophosphorylation of alphaCaMKII is not a general requirement for NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in the adult mouse.

    Title The Post-menopausal Ovary Displays a Unique Pattern of Steroidogenic Enzyme Expression.
    Date February 2006
    Journal Human Reproduction (oxford, England)

    BACKGROUND: While menopause results in the loss of cyclic steroid production, evidence exists for persistent, albeit reduced, ovarian androgen production. In order to continue to synthesize ovarian androgens, the steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis must be present. Few studies have selectively analysed some of the steroidogenic enzymes present in the post-menopausal ovary (PMO), and a comprehensive study of this matter has never been undertaken. METHODS: RNA and protein were obtained from PMO, pre-menopausal ovarian stroma, corpora lutea (CL), ovarian follicles, placenta, and myometrium. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed to compare the gene expression profiles of PMO with pre-menopausal ovarian stroma. Real-time RT-PCR was performed for LH/HCG receptor (LHCGR), steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (CYP11A), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (HSD3B1) and type II (HSD3B2, 3betaHSD), 17a-hydroxylase (CYP17), cytochrome b5 (CytB5), and aromatase (CYP19). Western blot analysis was performed for StAR, CYP11A, CYP17,and 3betaHSD. RESULTS: The PMO and pre-menopausal ovarian stroma had a similar pattern of steroidogenic enzyme expression. The PMO had persistent, but reduced, levels of LHCGR and most steroidogenic enzymes. CYP19 and HSD3B2 mRNA were greatly reduced in PMO in comparison with CL (50-fold and 2000-fold less respectively). HSD3B2 was not detectable in PMO by western analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the idea that the PMO retains some steroidogenic capacity. However, based on steroidogenic enzyme expression, the PMO has a unique pattern of steroidogenic enzyme expression that favors Delta5 steroid formation over Delta4 steroid formation.

    Title A Survey of the Practices and Opinions of the Domestic Members of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Fertility and Sterility

    OBJECTIVE: To learn how the domestic members of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) use its services and to survey their opinions regarding clinical practices and research in reproductive medicine. DESIGN: A self-administered mail survey. SETTING: Members of a professional organization. SUBJECT(S): A total of 1,291 members responded. Of these, 80% were physicians, embryologists, or nurses. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Demographics, use of ASRM services, and opinions. RESULT(S): Eighty-five percent of the respondents provided some type of clinical care for individuals with fertility problems. Two thirds read the ASRM News, and more than half used ASRM Practice Committee statements, Ethics Committee opinions, and patient education materials. Eighty-three percent reported that they followed the Ethics Committee opinions. Whereas 78% did not support reproductive cloning, two thirds supported somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce stem cells for research. The majority opposed governmental regulation of assisted reproductive technologies. CONCLUSION(S): The domestic membership of the ASRM is diverse in terms of demographics, practices, and opinions. In addition, they find the services of the ASRM to be of value.

    Title Disorders of Pubertal Development: Precocious Puberty.
    Date July 2004
    Journal Seminars in Reproductive Medicine

    Puberty is a complex developmental process culminating in sexual maturity. This transitional period begins in late childhood and is characterized by maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics, acceleration of growth, and, ultimately, the capacity for fertility. Significant endocrinologic changes accompany these developmental events. Disorders of pubertal development may occur at any of the steps of the maturational process leading to either precocious or delayed puberty. A thorough understanding of the normal pubertal process is important to the accurate diagnosis and treatment of pubertal disorders.

    Title Delayed Puberty and Amenorrhea.
    Date July 2004
    Journal Seminars in Reproductive Medicine

    The ability to diagnose and manage disorders that cause delayed puberty requires a thorough understanding of the physical and hormonal events of puberty. Wide variation exists within normal pubertal maturation, but most adolescent girls in the United States have begun to mature by the age of 13. Delayed puberty, a rare condition in girls, occurs in only approximately 2.5% of the population. Constitutional delay, genetic defects, or hypothalamic-pituitary disorders are common causes. Amenorrhea, often found as a symptom of delayed puberty, may be due to congenital genital tract anomalies, ovarian failure, or chronic anovulation with estrogen presence or with estrogen absence.

    Title A Role for Dendritic Protein Synthesis in Hippocampal Late Ltp.
    Date January 2004
    Journal The European Journal of Neuroscience

    The late temporal component of long-term potentiation (LTP), a putative neural mechanism for information storage in the brain, is protein synthesis-dependent, but the site of obligatory protein synthesis is not known. Here we show that when the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine is applied locally to the apical dendritic field of CA1 pyramidal cells in the murine hippocampus, late LTP is impaired at apical but not at basal dendrites, and conversely when emetine is applied locally to basal dendrites, late LTP is impaired only at basal dendrites. Thus, local protein synthesis modulates the expression of tetanically induced late LTP at Schaffer-commissural synapses on CA1 pyramidal cells.

    Title Effect of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist and Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Calcium Metabolism: a Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Trial.
    Date December 2003
    Journal Fertility and Sterility

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the effectiveness of administering medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 20 mg/d) in either the first (protocol A) or last (protocol B) 12-week period as well as a 6-month course of the GnRH agonist (GnRH-a; leuprolide acetate; 1 mg/d, SC) on calcium (Ca) metabolism. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Clinical research center, university hospital. PATIENT(S): Twenty women were randomized into protocol A or B, received either MPA or placebo along with GnRH-a, and were then crossed over at 12 weeks to placebo or MPA, for the final 12-week interval of GnRH-a therapy. INTERVENTION(S): Collection of serum and urine samples and measurement of bone density.Sex hormone, calcitropic hormone, and bone density studies were performed at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. RESULT(S): In both protocol A and B, LH and E(2) levels declined by 79%-81% and 83%-90% of the baseline, respectively, at 12 and 24 weeks. Serum Ca, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin; 2-h fasting and 24-h urinary Ca excretion; and urinary hydroxyproline levels all increased significantly during GnRH-a treatment alone. Estimated Ca balance decreased significantly during GnRH-a treatment alone. The addition of MPA attenuated the increases in phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and 2-h fasting and 24-h urinary Ca excretion, and the decrease in estimated Ca balance. Comparison of phase order demonstrated that MPA prevented 24-h urinary Ca excretion and urinary hydroxyproline loss and decline in estimated Ca balance when it was added back during the second 12 weeks (protocol B) but not during the first 12 weeks (protocol A). CONCLUSION (S): We conclude that sequential MPA appears to reverse in part the negative effects of GnRH-a on calcitropic hormones and estimated Ca balance.

    Title Effect of Low-dose Oral Contraceptives on Androgenic Markers and Acne.
    Date April 2000
    Journal Contraception

    Oral contraceptives (OC) suppress excess androgen production; however, different progestins in combination with low-dose estrogens produce divergent effects on sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone that may influence clinical outcomes. This multicenter, open-label, randomized study compared biochemical androgen profiles and clinical outcomes associated with two OC containing the same amounts of ethinyl estradiol (EE, 20 micrograms) but different progestins, levonorgestrel (LNG, 100 micrograms), and norethindrone acetate (NETA, 1000 micrograms). Fifty-eight healthy women (18-28 years old) received three cycles of treatment with LNG/EE (n = 30) or NETA/EE (n = 28). The results showed that LNG reduced androgen levels in three compartments--adrenal, ovarian, and peripheral. NETA reduced only adrenal and peripheral androgens. Despite a 2.2-fold greater relative increase in SHBG with NETA than LNG, bioavailable testosterone (T) was reduced by the same amount with LNG and NETA. Both treatments improved acne and were well tolerated. Low-dose OC (EE, 20 micrograms) are effective in reducing circulating androgens and acne lesions without causing weight gain. Although LNG and NETA affected secondary markers differently, both OC formulations produced an equivalent decrease in bioavailable.

    Title Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents.
    Date March 2000
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America

    Irregular bleeding is a common complaint of adolescents and is responsible for approximately 50% of gynecologic visits in that age group. Most abnormal bleeding in adolescents is caused by immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis resulting in anovulation. Approximately 20% of adolescents have an underlying disorder requiring targeted diagnostic testing. A thorough history and physical examination and laboratory findings will often reveal the source of abnormal bleeding. Appropriate treatment is then directed to the underlying cause.

    Title Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumor in a 13-year-old Girl with Enchondromatosis (ollier's Disease): a Case Report.
    Date October 1998
    Journal Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) of the ovary has been reported to occur rarely in conjunction with Ollier's disease. We report a case of a 13-year-old girl who was noted to have a large abdominal mass at the time of excision of a symptomatic enchondroma of the right femur. Subsequent laparotomy at a tertiary care children's medical center identified a JGCT confined to the right ovary. Review of the literature reveals eight previous cases of JGCT in patients with Ollier's disease. The pathophysiology and possible common causes of both disorders is discussed.

    Title Male Pseudohermaphroditism Caused by Mutations of Testicular 17 Beta-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 3.
    Date October 1994
    Journal Nature Genetics

    Defects in the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone in the fetal testes by the enzyme 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) give rise to genetic males with female external genitalia. We have used expression cloning to isolate cDNAs encoding a microsomal 17 beta-HSD type 3 isozyme that shares 23% sequence identity with other 17 beta-HSD enzymes, uses NADPh as a cofactor, and is expressed predominantly in the testes. The 17 beta HSD3 gene on chromosome 9q22 contains 11 exons. Four substitution and two splice junction mutations were identified in the 17 beta HSD3 genes of five unrelated male pseudohermaphrodites. The substitution mutations severely compromised the activity of the 17 beta-HSD type 3 isozyme.

    Title Steroid Secretory Characteristics of a Virilizing Adrenal Adenoma in a Woman.
    Date May 1994
    Journal The Journal of Endocrinology

    A tumour of the left adrenal gland was identified in a woman who presented with virilization and secondary amenorrhea. Preoperatively, the plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol were elevated two- to fourfold whereas those of urinary 17-ketosteroids were elevated more than tenfold. The production rate of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was more than 16 times that in normal women whereas those of dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and androstenedione were approximately twofold greater; plasma testosterone was derived almost entirely from the peripheral conversion of androstenedione. Blood was obtained by catheterization of the ovarian veins, left adrenal gland vein and inferior vena cava (at two different sites) and plasma steroid levels were determined: testosterone and cortisol levels were elevated in all blood samples whereas those of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and 11-desoxycortisol were approximately six- to eightfold, 1.5-fold and nine- to 22-fold higher in the effluent on the left adrenal gland/tumour compared with the levels in the other compartments. Blood was collected hourly for 24 h to determine steroid levels under basal conditions and, also, after ACTH treatment. Plasma cortisol levels increased markedly upon ACTH administration and fell to very low levels 11 h later, but those of androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate were not affected by ACTH treatment. A histological diagnosis of cortical adenoma of the extirpated tumour was made. Tissue explants and adenoma cells were maintained in culture to characterize the steroid-metabolizing properties of the tumour. The secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate by tissue explants was highly initially, but declined to almost undetectable levels after 5 days in culture. In the presence of ACTH, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate secretion remained elevated throughout the entire study up to 5 days. Basal secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, 11-desoxycortisol, cortisol, testosterone and 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione by adenoma cells was either very low or undetectable. In the presence of ACTH, dibutyryl cyclic AMP or cholera toxin the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione and 11-desoxycortisol increased markedly with time in culture up to 3 days, whereas the other steroids were undetected in the medium. A homogenate of adenoma tissue metabolized testosterone to androstenedione, but the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was minimal. The findings of this study served to establish that virilization in this woman was due at least in part, to excess testosterone--and testosterone-derived 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone--produced at extra-adrenal tissue sites almost exclusively through metabolism of tumour-secreted androstenedione.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    Title An Evaluation of the Effect of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analogs and Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Uterine Leiomyomata Volume by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: a Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Trial.
    Date June 1993
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the effectiveness of administering medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 20 mg/day) in either the first (protocol A) or last (protocol B) 12-week period along with a 6-month course of the GnRH analog (GnRH-a; leuprolide acetate; 1 mg/day, sc) on uterine and leiomyomata volumes and hormone (estradiol, LH, and FSH) and serum lipid (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high and low density lipoprotein) levels. Sixteen women were randomized into protocol A or B, received either MPA or placebo along with GnRH-a, respectively, and were then crossed over at 12 weeks to placebo or MPA, respectively, for the final 12-week interval of GnRH-a therapy. Total, myoma, and nonmyoma uterine volumes were determined by magnetic resonance imaging, and serum studies were performed at the beginning of the study and at 12 and 24 weeks. In both protocols, LH and estradiol levels declined by 80-90% (P < 0.03) and 55-72% (P < 0.02) of the baseline, respectively, at 12 weeks and remained at this level at 24 weeks. There were no significant changes in the other laboratory tests between protocols or longitudinally over time. Total uterine volume decreased to 73% of the baseline at 12 weeks in protocol B (P < 0.04), but did not change in protocol A. After crossover at 12 weeks, the total uterine volume of women in protocol A decreased to 74% of the baseline (P < 0.02) at 24 weeks. Between-protocol comparisons demonstrated a greater decline in total uterine volume in protocol B than A at 12 weeks, but after cross-over, MPA addition was associated with a significant increase in total uterine volume (protocol B) compared to a decrease in protocol A at 24 weeks (P < 0.005). In contrast, although myoma volume declined in both protocols, no significant changes in myoma volume were detected within or between groups over the treatment period. Nonmyoma volume changes in protocols A and B roughly paralleled total uterine volume changes, with MPA coadministration showing a correlation with a reversal in the GnRH-a-associated decrease in nonmyomatous tissue volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    Title Comparison of Bicarbonate and Hepes-buffered Media on Pregnancy Rates After Intrauterine Insemination with Cryopreserved Donor Sperm.
    Date October 1991
    Journal Fertility and Sterility

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the pregnancy rates (PRs) after intrauterine insemination (IUI) with frozen donor sperm prepared in Ham's F-10 medium (Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA) with bicarbonate buffer and synthetic human tubal fluid with HEPES buffer (Irvine Scientific). DESIGN: Women (n = 101) were randomized upon entry into the program, receiving sperm prepared in either Ham's F-10 or human tubal fluid medium their first treatment cycle. If pregnancy did not occur, the alternate medium was used to prepared sperm for the following cycle. SETTING: All patients were treated in our private care center. PATIENTS: Patients entering this study were normally ovulating women undergoing IUI with frozen donor sperm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pregnancy was used as our main outcome measure of success. RESULTS: After 324 cycles of treatment, the PR per cycle of IUI was 17.5% with sperm prepared in human tubal fluid which was significantly different (P = 0.05) from the PR (9.8%) after insemination with sperm prepared in Ham's F-10. There was no statistical difference in the number of motile cells inseminated in each of these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Transitory exposure of the sperm in Ham's F-10 medium to the environment during preparation for insemination may result in an alkalinization of the medium that has a lasting influence on sperm fertility.

    Title Characterization of Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acid for Human Adrenocortical 17 Alpha-hydroxylase: a Probe for Analysis of 17 Alpha-hydroxylase Deficiency.
    Date September 1990
    Journal Molecular Endocrinology (baltimore, Md.)

    To provide a basis for investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormonal regulation of steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P-450 17 alpha) activity in adrenal, ovary, and testis as well as human 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, we have isolated from a human fetal adrenal cDNA library a cDNA sequence complementary to the mRNA that encodes the human P-450 17 alpha enzyme. Of 75,000 colonies from the library that were screened by use of a nick-translated 5'-specific bovine P-450 17 alpha cDNA probe, 10 positive colonies were isolated and the clone with the longest insert (pcD-17 alpha H) was selected for further characterization. pcD-17 alpha H encodes the complete human P-450 17 alpha protein having approximately 78% homology at the nucleotide level and 71% homology at the amino acid level when the sequence of pcD-17 alpha H is compared to the bovine P-450 17 alpha cDNA sequence. By transient expression of the human P-450 17 alpha cDNA clone in COS 1 cells, we have demonstrated that the 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities reside within the same human P-450 17 alpha polypeptide chain. The insert was also used as a probe to investigate, by means of Southern blot analysis, possible alterations in the P-450 17 alpha gene sequence in DNA isolated from skin fibroblasts from three patients with clinically characterized 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiencies. No changes were detected in the DNA of any of the patients by this analysis.

    Title Cumulative Pregnancy Rates for Donor Insemination According to Ovulatory Function and Tubal Status.
    Date January 1988
    Journal Fertility and Sterility

    From our study of 234 cases of AID with fresh semen, we conclude the following: (1) women who do not have other infertility problems, such as ovulatory dysfunction or evidence of tubal disease, have approximately a 90% chance of pregnancy if they stay in the program for up to 12 cycles; (2) with even greater persistence (i.e., greater than 12 cycles), it is predicted that virtually 100% of these women would conceive, but this conclusion is based on extrapolated data and therefore must be interpreted with caution; (3) women with ovulatory dysfunction who are treated with CC during their AID cycles ultimately achieve the same likelihood of pregnancy as women with normal ovulatory function, but at a slower rate; and (4) women with one patent tube (possibly a marker for generalized tubal damage) have a poorer outcome from AID than those with bilaterally patent tubes, from the standpoint of both the ultimate likelihood of pregnancy and the pregnancy rate per cycle.

    Title Placental Sulfatase Deficiency: Maternal and Fetal Expression of Steroid Sulfatase Deficiency and X-linked Ichthyosis.
    Date October 1986
    Journal Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey

    PSD-X-linked ichthyosis are manifestations of a similar disorder of an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a deficiency of steroid sulfatase. The decreased enzyme activity is due to the absence of the expression of enzyme (steroid sulfatase) protein. Affected individuals with this disorder are males (X-linked inheritance) with a frequency of 1/2000 to 1/6000 births. Homozygous females from cosanguineous marriages have been reported with this disorder. The diagnosis is suspected and confirmed by: Low estriol excretion; Negative DHEAS loading test Increased DHEAS in amnionic fluid; Normal DHEAS in cord plasma; Possible delayed or abnormal labor patterns; Decreased sulfatase activity in the placenta, fibroblast, erythrocytes, lymphocytes or leukocytes of affected individuals; Development of ichthyosis in male infants at 2 to 3 months of age.

    Title Ovarian and Tubal Inguinal Hernia.
    Date September 1986
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology

    An inguinal hernia containing an ovary and fallopian tube is an extremely rare occurrence in a woman of reproductive age. When ovarian and fallopian tube inguinal hernias are found, they are commonly associated with defects in genital tract development. In this report a woman with primary amenorrhea, 46XX karyotype, mullerian agenesis, and an inguinal hernia consisting of an ovary and a fallopian tube is presented. The defect in embryologic development that leads to this disorder and a review of previous reports of ovarian and tubal inguinal hernias are discussed.

    Title Endocrine Studies in a Pregnancy Complicated by Ovarian Theca Lutein Cysts and Hyperreactio Luteinalis.
    Date March 1986
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Severe virilization developed in a pregnant woman in association with the occurrence of theca lutein cysts and hyperreactio luteinalis of the ovaries. At term, maternal serum levels of androstenedione (58 ng/mL) and testosterone (20 ng/mL) were elevated massively; estrone (24 ng/mL) and estradiol-17 beta (23 ng/mL) levels were increased moderately. Maternal serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) just before delivery, 22,276 mlU/mL, though twice the mean for normal women at term, were within the normal range. The levels of androstenedione (1.06 ng/mL) and testosterone (0.26 ng/mL) in umbilical cord serum of her normal newborn female infant were normal. The levels of androstenedione and testosterone in serum of this woman declined slowly, but progressively, during the first two months after delivery; the serum levels of androstenedione and testosterone increased substantially, however, after she was treated with hCG eight weeks postpartum. These results are suggestive that, for reasons unknown, markedly increased androgen production with theca lutein cysts and hyperreactio luteinalis in some pregnant women results ultimately because of increased ovarian sensitivity to hCG.

    Title Pelvic Masses.
    Journal The Medical Clinics of North America

    Pelvic masses develop commonly in women of all ages and states of health. Despite the variety of masses that exist, general guidelines for diagnosis and management allow most masses to be treated in a generalist setting. This article is intended to guide non-obstetric and non-gynecologic physicians through diagnosis and treatment of nonmalignant pelvic masses. It includes information on physical examination, appropriate imaging techniques, laboratory tests, and variations in treatment for adolescents and pre- and postmenopausal women. It also addresses referral guidelines for suspected malignant masses.

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