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Urologist, Pediatric Specialist
42 years of experience
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Education ?

Medical School Score
State University of New York Downstate (1968)
  • Currently 1 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Appointments
Suny Health Science Center At Brooklyn College Of Medicine, Brooklyn, Ny (1976 - Present)
Suny Downstate Medical Center College Of Medicine, Brooklyn, Ny (1976 - Present)
New York-presbyterian Hospital
Associations
American Board of Urology
American Urological Association

Affiliations ?

Dr. Glassberg is affiliated with 22 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • New York Presbyterian Hospital / Columbia
    Urology
    630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10032
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Staten Island University South
    Urology
    375 Seguine Ave, Staten Island, NY 10309
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Maimonides Medical Center
    Urology
    4802 10th Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11219
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Staten Island University Hospital North
    Urology
    475 Seaview Ave, Staten Island, NY 10305
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • New York Methodist Hospital
    506 6th St, Brooklyn, NY 11215
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Kings County Hospital Center
    451 Clarkson Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11203
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Brooklyn University Hospital
    445 Lenox Rd, Brooklyn, NY 11203
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • SVCMC St Vincent's Hospital Richmond
    75 Vanderbilt Ave, Staten Island, NY 10304
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • University Hospital of Brooklyn at Long Island Hospital
    Urology
    340 Henry St, Brooklyn, NY 11201
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • New York Presbyterian / Westchester
    21 Bloomingdale Rd, White Plains, NY 10605
  • New York Harbor Healthcare System
    423 E 23rd St, New York, NY 10010
  • Nyp-Columbia
  • SVCMC-St Vincents Westchester
  • Richmond University Medical Center
    355 Bard Ave, Staten Island, NY 10310
  • Richmond University Medical Center
  • NewYork-PresbyterianColumbia
  • NewYork-PresbyterianMorgan Stanley Children`s Hospital
  • Children`s Hospital of New York
  • Mediplex Surgical Center
  • United Memorial Medical Center Bank Street
  • NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia
  • New York-Presbyterian Hospital / Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital *
    3959 Broadway, New York, NY 10032
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Glassberg has contributed to 32 publications.
    Title Adolescent Varicocele: Influence of Tanner Stage at Presentation on the Presence, Development, Worsening And/or Improvement of Testicular Hypotrophy Without Surgical Intervention.
    Date October 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Testicular asymmetry in adolescents with varicocele can worsen, remain unchanged or decrease on followup. We determined the incidence of testicular asymmetry at presentation by Tanner stage and the correlation between Tanner stage at presentation and subsequent changes in percent asymmetry (ability for catch-up growth or progressive asymmetry) without surgical intervention.

    Title Testicular Asymmetry and Adolescent Varicoceles Managed Expectantly.
    Date February 2010
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Adolescent varicocele is often associated with testicular asymmetry. Depending on the degree of asymmetry, some physicians will recommend surgery. However, given the possibility that asynchronous growth may be transient, others advocate for a period of observation. We reviewed our outcomes in such patients who were initially treated expectantly.

    Title Peak Retrograde Flow: a Novel Predictor of Persistent, Progressive and New Onset Asymmetry in Adolescent Varicocele.
    Date June 2009
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    The major indication for adolescent left varicocelectomy is testicular asymmetry. However, a period of observation is often recommended preoperatively to determine if the asymmetry resolves, persists or progresses. We investigated whether varicocele grade or the duplex Doppler ultrasound measurements of peak retrograde flow and mean vein diameter could be used as predictors of persistent, progressive or new onset asymmetry.

    Title Adolescent Varicocelectomy: Postoperative Catch-up Growth is Not Secondary to Lymphatic Ligation.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Journal of Pediatric Urology
    Excerpt

    The major indication for adolescent varicocelectomy is testicular asymmetry with the left testicle smaller than the right. Catch-up growth following surgery is one of the parameters used to assess efficacy of surgery. However, it is not clear whether this represents true tissue growth or increased interstitial fluid secondary to lymphatic obstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare catch-up growth in patients who underwent varicocelectomy with and without lymphatic preservation.

    Title Laparoscopic Lymphatic Sparing Varicocelectomy in Adolescents.
    Date August 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Laparoscopic varicocelectomy is similar to an open Palomo repair. Both procedures involve en masse ligation of the internal spermatic cord, and both are associated with a 1% to 3% incidence of recurrence and up to a 30% incidence of hydroceles. We sought to determine the impact of lymphatic preservation on hydrocele formation and the success of varicocelectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 191 patients with a mean age of 15.2 years who underwent laparoscopic varicocelectomy and at least 6 months of followup. Patients were divided into 2 groups-those who had undergone a lymphatic sparing procedure and those who had undergone a nonlymphatic sparing technique. The incidence of recurrence/persistence, postoperative hydrocele formation and postoperative hydrocele requiring surgery or aspiration was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 174 laparoscopic lymphatic sparing procedures (132 patients, 42 bilateral) and 88 nonlymphatic sparing repairs (59 patients, 29 bilateral) were performed, with a mean followup of 26.1 months. Lymphatic sparing surgery was associated with a decreased incidence of postoperative hydrocele (3.4% vs 11.4%, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference in incidence of persistent or recurrent varicocele requiring reoperation following lymphatic sparing (5 sides, 2.9%) vs nonlymphatic sparing (4 sides, 4.5%) varicocelectomy (p = 0.736). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic lymphatic sparing varicocelectomy is preferable to an open or laparoscopic Palomo repair that does not preserve the lymphatics. It has a significantly lower incidence of postoperative hydroceles, especially those requiring surgical intervention, and still maintains a low incidence of persistence/recurrence. The procedure is especially advantageous for bilateral varicocelectomy.

    Title Rehabilitating the Neurogenic Bladder: the Role of Artificial Neural Reflex Pathways in Children with Spina Bifida.
    Date July 2006
    Journal Current Urology Reports
    Title Primary Bladder Neck Dysfunction: an Overlooked Entity in Children.
    Date May 2005
    Journal Current Urology Reports
    Excerpt

    Primary bladder neck dysfunction is a non-neurogenic voiding disorder commonly diagnosed in young and middle age adult men, but frequently overlooked in children. Because these children typically present with lower urinary tract symptoms that also are associated with other more common forms of dysfunctional voiding, the diagnosis may be missed and treated with a variety of empiric modalities that ultimately fail. Although its underlying pathogenesis remains debated, the hallmark of the diagnosis is a failure of the bladder neck to properly open and allow for unimpeded urine flow. Videourodynamic evaluation is the only diagnostic tool that can urodynamically document the obstructive pressure/flow parameters of the condition while simultaneously localizing the functional obstruction to the bladder neck fluoroscopically. This article reviews the clinical and urodynamic findings of this entity in children and adolescents and our experience with a adrenergic antagonists, the current approach in medical therapy.

    Title Paternity After Adolescent Varicocele Repair.
    Date April 2005
    Journal Pediatrics
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Varicocelectomy has long been a therapeutic modality used in the treatment of male infertility. In the past decade, adolescent varicocelectomy has become a frequent procedure to preserve testicular growth and to help prevent future infertility. Because our clinical population includes a large portion of orthodox Jews who traditionally marry early and are forbidden to use birth control by religious law, we thought that by studying our patients, we might be able to accelerate our follow-up regarding paternity. In addition, we wanted to learn whether adolescent varicocelectomy might have any negative impact. METHODS: Questionnaires inquiring as to the marital and paternity status, postoperative course, and complications were sent to 50 patients who had undergone a unilateral or bilateral varicocele repair during adolescence and who were at least 21 years old at the time of this review. In addition, a careful chart review was performed to examine the perioperative and postoperative parameters of each respondent. RESULTS: Of the 43 responses (86% response rate), 18 of 18 patients who had attempted to father a child were successful. The remaining 25 were not married or had never attempted to father a child. In the paternity group, 10 of the fathers had undergone an Ivanissevich repair; the remaining 8 had a Palomo repair. Sixteen of the 18 had unilateral varicocelectomies, and 2 underwent bilateral repairs. Of those with a unilateral varicocele, the indication for surgery in 10 was a grade 2 to 3 varicocele associated with a >20% volume difference when compared with the right testicle. Three had 10% to 20% volume loss, whereas the remaining three had unusually large grade 3 varicoceles without concurrent volume difference. CONCLUSIONS: Varicocelectomy in the adolescent population has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention to preserve both fertility and testicular growth. Although not showing a cause-and-effect relationship, it is our contention that varicocelectomy in adolescence at worst does no harm and at best preserves fertility.

    Title When Can Persistent Hydroureteronephrosis in Posterior Urethral Valve Disease Be Considered Residual Stretching?
    Date August 2004
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Persistent hydroureteronephrosis (HUN) is often seen in boys with a history of a posterior urethral valve even years after valve ablation and it is often assumed to represent residual stretching. We determined the association of HUN with urodynamic abnormalities, the effect on HUN of treating these abnormalities and when persistent HUN could be considered residual stretching. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 71 patients with a posterior urethral valve evaluated after valve ablation 20 (28.2%) had persistent HUN in a total of 32 renal units (RUs). The degree of HUN was graded as mild, moderate or severe. Videourodynamics were performed in all patients with persistent HUN and abnormal urodynamic findings were aggressively treated. HUN was then reassessed and categorized as resolved, improved or unchanged. RESULTS: Abnormal urodynamic findings, primarily hypocompliance and instability, were noted in all 20 patients with HUN. All patients compliant with treatment showed dramatic improvement or complete resolution of abnormal urodynamic parameters. The 32 RUs with persistent HUN were initially graded as mild (8), moderate (13) and severe (11). HUN resolved in 15 RUs and improved to a lower grade in 11 in 26 of the 27 RUs (96.3%) in the 17 patients compliant with treatment. The 3 boys (5 RUs) who were noncompliant with treatment had neither decreased HUN nor improved urodynamic parameters. The 12 of 27 RUs (44.4%) in the treatment group in which HUN failed to resolve completely had no distal ureteral obstruction or identifiable persistent urodynamic abnormality and, thus, they can be labeled as having residual stretching. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent HUN following valve ablation should not be considered residual dilatation until a thorough urodynamic evaluation has been done and any abnormal parameters are addressed. With correction of these abnormal parameters one can expect significant lessening of HUN and hopefully improved long-term preservation of renal function.

    Title Myogenic Failure in Posterior Urethral Valve Disease: Real or Imagined?
    Date October 2002
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: It has been suggested that hypocontractility or myogenic failure develops in older boys with a history of 9 posterior urethral valved as the hyperactive, poorly compliant bladders decompensate with age. Also a much higher prevalence of myogenic failure has been reported than we have observed. We determine the prevalence of myogenic failure in boys with a posterior urethral valve and whether myogenic failure was a consequence of earlier detrusor instability or diminished compliance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the urodynamic findings of 51 boys after transurethral ablation of a posterior urethral valve. Group 1 (longitudinal group) consisted of 11 boys 12 to 19 years old who had undergone at least 1 serial urodynamic study before and 1 after age 10 years. Group 2 (younger group) included 33 boys whose urodynamic testing was performed before age 10 years. Group 3 (older group) comprised 7 previously treated boys whose initial urodynamic study was done after age 12 years. RESULTS: Overall, myogenic failure was noted in 3 (all group 1) of 51 (5.9%) patients. Each of the 3 boys initially had a hypocompliant bladder, and myogenic failure developed only after institution of anticholinergic therapy and resolved once anticholinergics were discontinued. An additional 34 boys treated with anticholinergics did not have myogenic failure. No tendency towards myogenic failure or marked increase in bladder capacity for age was noted in the older boys. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience myogenic failure is uncommon and more likely secondary to anticholinergic therapy than a preordained consequence of valve disease. We postulate that our proactive, early aggressive use of urodynamic studies and pharmacotherapy to identify and manage the secondary effects of valve disease reduces the incidence of myogenic failure.

    Title The Adolescent Varicocele. Ii: the Incidence of Hydrocele and Delayed Recurrent Varicocele After Varicocelectomy in a Long-term Follow-up.
    Date May 2001
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To determine, in adolescent boys after varicocelectomy, the incidence of hydroceles, when they develop and whether the development is procedure-related. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records were retrospectively reviewed of 77 boys who underwent 95 varicocelectomies and had an examination at > or = 6 months after surgery. Fifty-six patients underwent a standard Palomo procedure (45 left and 11 bilateral) and 21 a modified Ivanissevich repair (14 left and seven bilateral). The mean (range) age of the patients at surgery was 14.1 (10-22) years and the mean follow-up 25.5 (6-84) months. RESULTS: Of the 67 Palomo varicocelectomies 19 (24%) were complicated by hydroceles after surgery, compared with four of 28 (14%) Ivanissevich procedures (P = 0.034). Of the Ivanissevich repairs, none of the 14 unilateral repairs developed hydroceles. Three hydroceles (one bilateral and one left) developed in two of seven patients after bilateral varicocelectomy. Of the Palomo repairs, 12 of 45 unilateral repairs were complicated by hydroceles, and seven developed in five of 11 patients after bilateral varicocelectomy. Although more hydroceles developed after bilateral varicocelectomy, there was no significant difference from the unilateral group. However, patients who developed hydroceles after bilateral varicocelectomy were more likely to require hydrocelectomy (P = 0.013, Fisher's exact test), implying that hydroceles developing after bilateral repair tend to be larger. Of the hydroceles, two were detected in the first 6 months after surgery, nine at 6-12 months, three at 13-18 months, five at 19-24 months and four at > 2 years after surgery. Three patients had late varicocele recurrence, i.e. 15, 37 and 76 months after surgery; these patients had not had varicoceles on palpation after surgery at 3, 14 and 63 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hydroceles are detected infrequently within 6 months of varicocelectomy, with most occurring after 6 months and even appearing after 3 years. They occur significantly more often after a Palomo repair. More hydroceles develop after bilateral repair regardless of the technique used, but not significantly so. Because hydroceles often develop, a lymphatic-sparing procedure should be used, especially for bilateral repair. Recurrent varicoceles may appear as late as 76 months after varicocelectomy in patients where none had been detected at a mean of 27 months after surgery.

    Title Laparoscopic Partial Upper Pole Nephrectomy in Infants and Children.
    Date May 2001
    Journal Bju International
    Excerpt

    To retrospectively review 5 years' experience of transperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in infants and children.

    Title The Management of Unilateral Poorly Functioning Kidneys in Patients with Posterior Urethral Valves.
    Date September 1997
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: There is no uniform agreement on how to manage the unilateral nonfunctioning or poorly functioning kidney associated with posterior urethral valves. We studied the results of treatment of our patients to make recommendations regarding management of these kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 13 boys with a history of posterior urethral valves and a unilateral nonfunctioning or poorly functioning kidney, defined as less than 10% of total renal function on 99mtechnetium dimercapto-succinic acid renal scans. Variables investigated included pyelonephritis, hypertension, vesicoureteral reflux, nephroureterectomy, ureteral reimplantation and spontaneous cessation of reflux. We also evaluated how the management of abnormal urodynamic parameters influenced the results of reimplantation or medically induced cessation of reflux. RESULTS: Three of the 6 boys with grade 5 reflux ipsilateral to the poorly functioning kidney required nephroureterectomy at a mean age of 21 months because of recurrent urinary tract infections. Another 4 boys underwent successful ureteral reimplantation, including 2 who had bilateral grade 5 reflux, and 2 who had ipsilateral grade 4 reflux, and grade 3 (1) and grade 2 (1) contralateral reflux. Of 4 boys ipsilateral grade 3 reflux in 3 and bilateral grade 5 reflux in 1 disappeared without surgery after treatment of urodynamic abnormalities. Two patients with poorly functioning kidneys and no reflux did not undergo surgery. Overall 10 of the 13 poorly functioning renal units were not removed, and these patients were free of pyelonephritis and hypertension. Ureteral reimplantation (4 ipsilateral and 3 contralateral) was performed only after urodynamic abnormalities were addressed. All reimplantations were successful. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results we believed that unilateral poorly functioning kidneys in patients with posterior urethral valves can be safely preserved in select patients without hypertension and pyelonephritis. Reimplantation to correct reflux may be preferable to nephroureterectomy in specific situations, such as when contralateral function is suboptimal and the contralateral ureter needs reimplantation. When indicated, reimplantation can be performed successfully if abnormal urodynamic parameters are addressed preoperatively. In fact, treating abnormal urodynamic findings may lead to spontaneous reflux resolution.

    Title Management of Posterior Urethral Valves on the Basis of Urodynamic Findings.
    Date September 1997
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Abnormal urodynamic findings are common in boys with a history of posterior urethral valves. However, to our knowledge there are few reports on the results of treating these abnormal findings. We analyzed the treatment of abnormal urodynamic parameters and its outcome in 21 boys who underwent valve ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After valve ablation multichannel urodynamic studies were performed in 31 boys, including 21 in whom studies were done before and after therapy was started for abnormal parameters. Detrusor instability and impaired bladder compliance were treated with anticholinergics or augmentation cystoplasty, and impaired detrusor contractility was managed with clean intermittent catheterization. RESULTS: Before therapy 17 of 21 boys had impaired compliance and detrusor instability, 2 had impaired compliance without instability and 2 had instability alone. After treatment 8 boys had impaired compliance and 4 had detrusor instability. After anticholinergics were initiated new onset myogenic failure in 2 boys necessitated clean intermittent catheterization. Of the 13 patients who presented with urinary incontinence 10 became dry and 3 had improvement with therapy. Vesicoureteral reflux in 10 boys at the time of the initial urodynamic study resolved in 7 with anticholinergic medication and in 1 after clean intermittent catheterization was begun for severely impaired compliance. All 21 boys were treated with anticholinergics and 2 were ultimately treated with augmentation cystoplasty. Clean intermittent catheterization was also instituted in 5 patients, including the 2 who required clean intermittent catheterization after myogenic failure developed. Five boys with high voiding pressures were found to have outlet obstruction due to residual valve tissue in 2, bladder neck obstruction in 2 and urethral stricture in 1 despite normal flow rates in 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urodynamic studies are helpful in guiding therapy in boys after valve ablation. Anticholinergic therapy can improve compliance, decrease detrusor instability, improve continence and eliminate vesicoureteral reflux in the majority of boys, although there is an associated risk of myogenic failure. Flow rates and fluoroscopic voiding studies are often unable to detect outlet obstruction and must be obtained in conjunction with voiding pressure measurements to make this diagnosis.

    Title Comparative Urodynamic Findings After Primary Valve Ablation, Vesicostomy or Proximal Diversion.
    Date August 1996
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: There is little known about the effect of urinary diversion on the bladder of children with posterior urethral valves. There is a fear that diversion may result in contracted noncompliant bladders. We wished to compare urodynamic parameters in patients who underwent primary ablation of posterior urethral valves and in those who underwent diversion in the form of vesicostomy or pyelostomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamics were done in 32 boys with a history of posterior urethral valves divided into 3 groups based on initial treatment: 1) transurethral valve ablation; 2) cutaneous vesicostomy, subsequent closure and valve ablation, and 3) proximal cutaneous pyelostomy, subsequent reconstitution and valve ablation. RESULTS: Patients who underwent initial diversion with vesicostomy or pyelostomy had bladders with larger functional capacity, better compliance and less instability. Chronic renal failure developed in 25% of the patients who underwent primary valve ablation and 33% of those who underwent diversion. Average period of diversion in vesicostomy and pyelostomy patients was 25 months. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings temporary diversion does not seem to damage bladders. On the contrary, placing a damaged bladder at rest may help to improve bladder function. Bladder function following reconstitution correlated poorly with ultimate outcome and progression to renal failure. While we do not recommend temporary diversion as the treatment of choice for patients with posterior urethral valves, we believe that when chosen as treatment, it can be safely performed with little risk of further damage to the bladder.

    Title Circumcision: Successful Glanular Reconstruction and Survival Following Traumatic Amputation.
    Date August 1996
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Circumcision remains the most common operation performed on male individuals in the United States. Unfortunately various complications may occur during circumcision ranging from trivial to tragic. We report 7 cases of traumatic amputation of the glans penis and/or urethra during circumcision. In addition, errors in circumcision technique as probable mechanisms of injury, principles of repair and limits of tissue viability are discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of 7 patients who underwent traumatic circumcision amputation of the glans penis and/or urethra were reviewed. Glanular amputation occurred in 6, 8-day-old neonates during ritual circumcision and in 1, 5-month-old infant circumcised by a physician. RESULTS: Excised glanular tissue remained viable up to 8 hours after injury. Followup ranged from 8.5 to 108 months. All patients had an acceptable cosmetic result. No long-term complications developed in the 8-day-old group but a distal urethral fistula formed in the 5-month-old patient. CONCLUSIONS: Careful selection of technique and device as well as strict attention to detail at circumcision should eliminate most injuries. On the basis of our results we recommend reanastomosis of the glans and/or urethra following distal amputation even when there is a delay in surgical repair of up to 8 hours.

    Title Penile Scintigraphy for Priapism in Sickle Cell Disease.
    Date September 1995
    Journal Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
    Excerpt

    Penile scintigraphy with [99mTc]pertechnetate/99mTc-RBCs was performed in patients with sickle cell disease patients who had priapism to assess the role of this imaging procedure in directing the clinical management of these patients. METHODS: Fifteen studies were performed in 13 patients who were treated according to a protocol not dependent on the imaging results. The scintigraphic findings of penile vascular perfusion (stagnant or nonstagnant patterns) were collated retrospectively with the form of treatment needed for relief of the condition. RESULTS: Four of five patients with the nonstagnant perfusion pattern responded to analgesics and intravenous hydration. Four of eight patients with the stagnant pattern did not require any aggressive interventions such as corporeal aspiration/irrigation, intracorporeal epinephrine or glans-cavernosa shunt. CONCLUSION: Whereas the nonstagnant scintigraphic finding appeared to be a favorable indicator for conservative treatment, the stagnant finding was apparently noncontributory. In addition, no correlation was found between these two types of scintigraphic patterns and the subsequent sexual potency of these patients.

    Title Priapism in Children with Sickle Cell Disease.
    Date August 1995
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    A review of hospital admissions during 80 months revealed only 8 patients with episodes of priapism of approximately 400 pediatric male patients with sickle cell disease. The patients, who ranged in age from 5 to 19 years, underwent a 99mtechnetium penile scan, and 4 had a low and 4 had a high flow scan. Three cases resolved with hydration alone. Five patients received exchange transfusion of whom 3 subsequently underwent shunt procedures. One patient with a 5-year history of recurrent stuttering episodes was placed on transfusion therapy for 6 months and stuttering episodes have not recurred. One patient had a cerebrovascular accident 1 day after hospital discharge and another had priapism while on chronic transfusion therapy for a cerebrovascular accident. Each postpubertal patient had a severe clinical course; 1 had temporary impotence for 3 months and another had impotence at 2 weeks but was lost to followup. While 99mtechnetium penile scans may help clarify the severity of vascular stagnation, in our small group they were not helpful in predicting clinical course.

    Title Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis and Dysgenetic Male Pseudohermaphroditism.
    Date March 1995
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis and dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism are 2 forms of male pseudohermaphroditism that present with absent müllerian regression and ambiguous genitalia. We present a retrospective analysis of 10 patients with the diagnosis of either mixed gonadal dysgenesis or dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism encountered during a 16-year period at our institution. We assigned a female gender to 4 patients and a male gender to 3. Three patients were assigned a male gender before referral (2 for whom we would have preferred female assignment). All intra-abdominal gonads were removed except in 2 patients assigned a male gender who underwent bilateral orchiopexy. Patients underwent hypospadias repair or feminizing genitoplasty depending upon the gender assigned. Although female gender assignment is usually preferred, male assignment is a justifiable alternative in instances of extreme virilization and a descended testis. However, in these male assigned patients, consideration must be given to the role of periodic testicular biopsies. In light of tumor potential, all intra-abdominal gonads should be removed. When necessary, appropriate surgical genitoplasty should be performed at an early patient age.

    Title Unilateral Multicystic Dysplasia in 1 Component of a Horseshoe Kidney: Case Reports and Review of the Literature.
    Date November 1994
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We report on 3 pediatric patients with multicystic dysplasia involving 1 component of a horseshoe kidney. Including our cases, 18 cases of unilateral multicystic dysplasia in a horseshoe kidney have been reported. The clinical, radiological and pathological features of these cases are briefly reviewed. The association of multicystic dysplastic kidney and horseshoe kidney presents a unique diagnostic challenge. Because of the rarity of unilateral multicystic dysplasia in a horseshoe kidney and the size of the dysplastic component, which crossed the midline in our patients, we chose to excise that component. Cross-sectional imaging techniques, that is computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, were helpful in diagnosis and in planning operative treatment.

    Title Posterior Urethral Valve: Transperineal Us for Imaging and Diagnosis in Male Infants.
    Date July 1994
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To compare routine pelvic and transperineal scanning in the ultrasonographic (US) diagnosis of posterior urethral valve (PUV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Longitudinal and transverse transperineal views were obtained in addition to routine renal and transvesicle views in the prospective US evaluation of 10 male infants (aged 2 days to 6 weeks) clinically suspected of having PUV. High-frequency (5.0- and 7.5-MHz) transducers were used. RESULTS: Five of the boys proved to have PUV. Each had urethral dilation clearly imaged at transperineal US. Only two of these boys had urethral dilatation imaged with the transvesicle approach. In three of the boys, a linear area of echogenicity, consistent with a valve, was imaged, but only with the transperineal approach. The other five boys had no urethral dilatation noted at transperineal or transvesicle US and proved to not have PUV. CONCLUSION: Transperineal imaging can aid in the diagnosis of PUV at US. Transperineal US may enable imaging of the valve itself.

    Title Localized Non-hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Testis in a Child.
    Date November 1993
    Journal The American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
    Title Precocious Puberty in a Child with Unilateral Leydig Cell Tumor of the Testis Following Orchiopexy.
    Date November 1993
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    A case of right testicular Leydig cell tumor in a 10 1/2-year-old child with precocious puberty is reported. Significant history included right orchiopexy for cryptorchidism when the boy was 7 years old. The literature is reviewed and this disease entity is discussed.

    Title Unilateral Single Vaginal Ectopic Ureter with Ipsilateral Hypoplastic Pelvic Kidney and Bicornuate Uterus.
    Date May 1993
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We report on 2 patients with a unilateral vaginal ectopic ureter associated with a single system, ipsilateral hypoplastic pelvic kidney and bicornuate uterus. Although there are many reports of concomitant urinary and reproductive system malformations, a review of the literature shows these unique associations in the same patient to be extremely rare. These findings provide further evidence of the intricate interaction between mesonephric (wolffian) and paramesonephric (müllerian) ducts in the development of the urogenital system. Embryological aspects as well as clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and treatment applicable to this group are discussed.

    Title Testicular Scintigraphic Findings Two to Three Months After Torsion. Correlation with Sonography and Histopathology.
    Date April 1991
    Journal Clinical Nuclear Medicine
    Excerpt

    A patient with a nontender testicular mass had sonographic abnormalities compatible with but not entirely typical of a chronic torsion. His scintigraphic studies, done on the same day as ultrasonography and 1 month later, revealed only findings consistent with a very mild subsiding scrotal inflammatory process. On surgical exploration and pathologic examination, it was found that he had an organizing infarct of the testicle secondary to torsion. The clinical history, diagnostic studies, and microscopic slides of the surgical specimen were reviewed. It appeared that tissue granulation and lipogranulomatous changes in the epididymis, known histologic sequelae to the unusually prolonged testicular torsion of 2-3 months, produced scintigraphic findings different from those which have been described for a late or an atrophic torsion.

    Title The Sting Procedure and Its Complications: Sonographic Evaluation.
    Date July 1990
    Journal Journal of Clinical Ultrasound : Jcu
    Title Renal Dysgenesis and Cystic Disease of the Kidney: a Report of the Committee on Terminology, Nomenclature and Classification, Section on Urology, American Academy of Pediatrics.
    Date November 1987
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We believe that the confusion regarding abnormal renal development could be reduced by more precise terminology. Therefore, we suggest precise definitions for dysgenesis, hypoplasia, dysplasia, hypodysplasia, aplasia and agenesis of the kidney. We suggest the term reflux nephropathy be a generic label for any instance of abnormal renal morphology (gross or microscopic) associated with vesicoureteral reflux. Hypoplasia and hypodysplasia can be subclassified on the basis of associated urological criteria. There have been many previous attempts to classify cystic disease of the kidney but none has been accepted collectively by pathologists, urologists, nephrologists and radiologists. On the basis of known patterns of inheritance, a classification is outlined in which renal cystic disease is divided into 2 major groups: genetic and nongenetic. Each entity is discussed.

    Title Transverse Ureteral Advancement Technique of Ureteroneocystostomy (cohen Reimplant) and a Modification for Difficult Cases (experience with 121 Ureters).
    Date September 1985
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    We reimplanted 121 ureters by the Cohen technique. A modification is introduced for difficult cases, making the Cohen technique more adaptable for dilated ureters and small bladders. Radiographic studies obtained at least 6 months after reimplantation revealed only 1 case of persistent reflux (grade I), no case of contralateral reflux and no obstruction. Even though the series included 35 ureters with grade V primary reflux and 7 primary obstructive megaureters, only 7 ureters were tapered. This finding suggests that the Cohen method might require tapering in a smaller percentage of cases compared to other reimplantation techniques.

    Title Suggested Terminology for Duplex Systems, Ectopic Ureters and Ureteroceles.
    Date December 1984
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Recommendations are made for the standardization of nomenclature describing duplex systems, ectopic ureters and ureteroceles. The elimination of some terms and redefinition of others are proposed in the hope to eliminate the ambiguity and confusion that exist currently.

    Title The Pseudo-obstructed Bladder in Enuretic Children.
    Date October 1979
    Journal British Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    In a minority of enuretic children with severe day symptoms, and especially when there is urinary infection, there a bladder diverticula and trabeculation and possbily also harmful vesicoureteric reflux which suggest the presence of an infravesical obstruction. However, in 11 children with this syndrome who underwent urodynamic studies, no anatomical or functional obstruction was demonstrable. It is contended that the obstructive signs are the result of uninhibited detrusor contractions being voluntarily resisted by contraction of the external urethral sphincter so that abnormallay high intravesical pressures result. Management involves the use of detrusor-inhibitory drugs. Ureteric reimplantation may be needed for reflux. In the majority of cases symptoms improve with time but the bladder diverticula persist.

    Title Pelvic Hydronephrosis in Children: a Review of 219 Personal Cases.
    Date February 1977
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    A series of 238 hydronephrotic kidneys in 219 children is reported. The condition was more common in the male than in the female subject and occurred more frequently on the left side. It was often bilateral, especially in infants, with an abdominal mass as the common presenting feature. Loin or abdominal pain was the most frequent complaint in older children. In some cases hydronephrosis presented as a ruptured kidney following trauma. Only 1 patient was hypertensive. The lesion was asymptomatic in 18 cases and the incidence of urinary infection was low. Dismembered pyeloureteroplasty was the procedure of choice for reconstruction. Preliminary nephrostomy was used rarely and nephrectomy was done in 10 per cent of the kidneys. Of the 7 reoperations 4 were for persistent obstruction and 3 were because stones had formed after the pyeloplasty. The late results, assessed clinically and radiologically, have been entirely satisfactory. Many kidneys of initially doubtful value showed useful improvement after reconstructive operation and no secondary nephrectomies were performed. The only death in the series occurred 2 1/2 years postoperatively and was unrelated to the urinary tract.

    Title Intrarenal Reflux and Its Relationship to Renal Scarring.
    Date May 1975
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Intrarenal reflux found during voiding cystourethrography in children has been suggested to be a significant factor in the production of renal damage. To investigate its incidence and effect on renal growth the records and roentgenograms of 150 children with known vesicoureteral reflux were reviewed. Of these children 15 had evidence of intrarenal reflux. Their IVPs were studied for signs of renal parenchymal damage at the time of the initial voiding cystogram as well as up to 4 years later. Evidence of renal damage was seen in 4 of the 15 patients with intrarenal reflux. These same 4 children had gross vesicoureteral reflux.

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