Obstetrician & Gynecologist (OB/GYN), Radiologist
9 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Oak Lawn
5303 Harry Hines Blvd
Dallas, TX 75390
214-645-2080
Locations and availability (3)

Education ?

Medical School Score
The University of Texas Southwestern (2001)
  • Currently 1 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Worley is affiliated with 4 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - Zale Lipshy
    5151 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • UT Southwestern University Hospital - St. Paul
    5909 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Parkland Health & Hospital System
    5201 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75235
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • UT Southwestern St. Paul Hospital
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Worley has contributed to 46 publications.
    Title A High-resolution Map of Human Evolutionary Constraint Using 29 Mammals.
    Date January 2012
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering ∼4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparisons with experimental data sets to suggest candidate functions for ∼60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements and more than 1,000 primate- and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease.

    Title Characterization of Single-nucleotide Variation in Indian-origin Rhesus Macaques (macaca Mulatta).
    Date November 2011
    Journal Bmc Genomics
    Excerpt

    Rhesus macaques are the most widely utilized nonhuman primate model in biomedical research. Previous efforts have validated fewer than 900 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this species, which limits opportunities for genetic studies related to health and disease. Extensive information about SNPs and other genetic variation in rhesus macaques would facilitate valuable genetic analyses, as well as provide markers for genome-wide linkage analysis and the genetic management of captive breeding colonies.

    Title Extensive Thrombosis and First-trimester Pregnancy Loss Caused by Sticky Platelet Syndrome.
    Date March 2011
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    Sticky platelet syndrome is an autosomal-dominant thrombophilia characterized by platelet hyperaggregability in the presence of adenosine diphosphate or epinephrine. The result clinically can be widespread thromboses, often arterial, in patients without apparent risk factors for thrombotic disease. Limited data exist regarding its role in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Title Comparative and Demographic Analysis of Orang-utan Genomes.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities in evolutionary genomics, insights into hominid biology, and an extensive database of variation for conservation efforts.

    Title A Catalog of Reference Genomes from the Human Microbiome.
    Date June 2010
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms, including prokaryotes, viruses, and microbial eukaryotes, that populate the human body. The National Institutes of Health launched an initiative that focuses on describing the diversity of microbial species that are associated with health and disease. The first phase of this initiative includes the sequencing of hundreds of microbial reference genomes, coupled to metagenomic sequencing from multiple body sites. Here we present results from an initial reference genome sequencing of 178 microbial genomes. From 547,968 predicted polypeptides that correspond to the gene complement of these strains, previously unidentified ("novel") polypeptides that had both unmasked sequence length greater than 100 amino acids and no BLASTP match to any nonreference entry in the nonredundant subset were defined. This analysis resulted in a set of 30,867 polypeptides, of which 29,987 (approximately 97%) were unique. In addition, this set of microbial genomes allows for approximately 40% of random sequences from the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract to be associated with organisms based on the match criteria used. Insights into pan-genome analysis suggest that we are still far from saturating microbial species genetic data sets. In addition, the associated metrics and standards used by our group for quality assurance are presented.

    Title Functional and Evolutionary Insights from the Genomes of Three Parasitoid Nasonia Species.
    Date January 2010
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    We report here genome sequences and comparative analyses of three closely related parasitoid wasps: Nasonia vitripennis, N. giraulti, and N. longicornis. Parasitoids are important regulators of arthropod populations, including major agricultural pests and disease vectors, and Nasonia is an emerging genetic model, particularly for evolutionary and developmental genetics. Key findings include the identification of a functional DNA methylation tool kit; hymenopteran-specific genes including diverse venoms; lateral gene transfers among Pox viruses, Wolbachia, and Nasonia; and the rapid evolution of genes involved in nuclear-mitochondrial interactions that are implicated in speciation. Newly developed genome resources advance Nasonia for genetic research, accelerate mapping and cloning of quantitative trait loci, and will ultimately provide tools and knowledge for further increasing the utility of parasitoids as pest insect-control agents.

    Title Prepublication Data Sharing.
    Date October 2009
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    Rapid release of prepublication data has served the field of genomics well. Attendees at a workshop in Toronto recommend extending the practice to other biological data sets.

    Title The Prognosis for Spontaneous Labor in Women with Uncomplicated Term Pregnancies: Implications for Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    To assess the prognosis for vaginal delivery in women with entirely normal pregnancies who began spontaneous labor at term.

    Title The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: a Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.

    Title Genome-wide Survey of Snp Variation Uncovers the Genetic Structure of Cattle Breeds.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    The imprints of domestication and breed development on the genomes of livestock likely differ from those of companion animals. A deep draft sequence assembly of shotgun reads from a single Hereford female and comparative sequences sampled from six additional breeds were used to develop probes to interrogate 37,470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 497 cattle from 19 geographically and biologically diverse breeds. These data show that cattle have undergone a rapid recent decrease in effective population size from a very large ancestral population, possibly due to bottlenecks associated with domestication, selection, and breed formation. Domestication and artificial selection appear to have left detectable signatures of selection within the cattle genome, yet the current levels of diversity within breeds are at least as great as exists within humans.

    Title Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Isolated Diaphragmatic Hernia: Volume of Herniated Liver and Neonatal Outcome.
    Date April 2009
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    We sought to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) to estimate percentage of fetal thorax occupied by lung, liver, and other abdominal organs in pregnancies with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

    Title Conservative Management of Placenta Percreta: Experiences in Two Cases.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The management of an abnormally invaded placenta presents a challenging obstetric problem. Recent reports have suggested that a conservative approach to the treatment of this condition is appropriate in selected cases. We present the courses of two women with suspected placenta percreta who were managed conservatively and the complications that ensued. CASES: Two multiparous women underwent elective repeat cesarean deliveries and were found to have clinical evidence of placenta percreta with bladder invasion. In both cases, the placenta was left in situ and medical management was attempted with methotrexate. Both women developed significant delayed complications requiring reoperation and hysterectomy, and both required multiple transfusions. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of the abnormally invaded placenta should be undertaken with caution, and complications should be anticipated.

    Title The Metabolism and Transplacental Transfer of Oseltamivir in the Ex Vivo Human Model.
    Date July 2008
    Journal Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    Oseltamivir phosphate is extensively metabolized in the ex vivo human placenta model, and the transplacental passage of the metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate is incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the metabolism and transplacental transfer of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in the ex vivo human placental model. STUDY DESIGN: Perfusion studies were performed in six placentas from term, uncomplicated deliveries. Concentrations of oseltamivir phosphate (OP) that were 5-6 fold, 20-30 fold, and 600-800 fold above the therapeutic peak were tested, as neither OP nor its active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), could be detected at near-therapeutic concentrations. The transplacental transfer and accumulation of OC were assessed using the (14)C antipyrine reference method. RESULTS: OP was extensively metabolized to OC. In the 4 placentas with the highest concentration of OP, OC had a mean clearance index of 0.13 +/- 0.08, suggesting that transplacental passage occurs at a relatively low rate. Measurable fetal accumulation occurred in the two placentas with the highest initial concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Oseltamivir phosphate was extensively metabolized in the ex vivo model. Transplacental transfer of the metabolite was incomplete and accumulation was minimal.

    Title What Everybody Should Know About the Rat Genome and Its Online Resources.
    Date May 2008
    Journal Nature Genetics
    Excerpt

    It has been four years since the original publication of the draft sequence of the rat genome. Five groups are now working together to assemble, annotate and release an updated version of the rat genome. As the prevailing model for physiology, complex disease and pharmacological studies, there is an acute need for the rat's genomic resources to keep pace with the rat's prominence in the laboratory. In this commentary, we describe the current status of the rat genome sequence and the plans for its impending 'upgrade'. We then cover the key online resources providing access to the rat genome, including the new SNP views at Ensembl, the RefSeq and Genes databases at the US National Center for Biotechnology Information, Genome Browser at the University of California Santa Cruz and the disease portals for cardiovascular disease and obesity at the Rat Genome Database.

    Title Rats in the Genomic Era.
    Date April 2008
    Journal Physiological Genomics
    Excerpt

    The rat genome project and the resources that it has generated are transforming the translation of rat biology to human medicine. The rat genome was sequenced to a high quality "draft," the structure and location of the genes were predicted, and a global assessment was published (Gibbs RA et al., Nature 428: 493-521, 2004). Since that time, researchers have made use of the genome sequence and annotations and related resources. We take this opportunity to review the currently available rat genome resources and to discuss the progress and future plans for the rat genome.

    Title Advanced Extrauterine Pregnancy: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges.
    Date April 2008
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify women with advanced extrauterine pregnancy, specifically assessing the problems encountered with their diagnosis and management, preoperative evaluation, and surgical removal. STUDY DESIGN: This was a case series including women diagnosed with an extrauterine pregnancy of 18 weeks' gestation or greater at our institution from 1980 to 2005. RESULTS: We identified 10 women with advanced extrauterine pregnancies during the study period. Diagnosis was not optimal, and only 6 were discovered preoperatively. Despite the fact that only 3 of 10 women met diagnostic criteria for an abdominal pregnancy, surgical dissection was universally difficult, and hemorrhage was common with 9 of 10 patients requiring blood transfusions. In 2 women, the placenta was left in situ, and both developed serious complications. All 5 viable fetuses survived, but their courses were long and complicated. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of placental implantation site, an advanced extrauterine pregnancy is a serious condition. The currently accepted definition of abdominal pregnancy is too exclusive.

    Title Analyses of Deep Mammalian Sequence Alignments and Constraint Predictions for 1% of the Human Genome.
    Date August 2007
    Journal Genome Research
    Excerpt

    A key component of the ongoing ENCODE project involves rigorous comparative sequence analyses for the initially targeted 1% of the human genome. Here, we present orthologous sequence generation, alignment, and evolutionary constraint analyses of 23 mammalian species for all ENCODE targets. Alignments were generated using four different methods; comparisons of these methods reveal large-scale consistency but substantial differences in terms of small genomic rearrangements, sensitivity (sequence coverage), and specificity (alignment accuracy). We describe the quantitative and qualitative trade-offs concomitant with alignment method choice and the levels of technical error that need to be accounted for in applications that require multisequence alignments. Using the generated alignments, we identified constrained regions using three different methods. While the different constraint-detecting methods are in general agreement, there are important discrepancies relating to both the underlying alignments and the specific algorithms. However, by integrating the results across the alignments and constraint-detecting methods, we produced constraint annotations that were found to be robust based on multiple independent measures. Analyses of these annotations illustrate that most classes of experimentally annotated functional elements are enriched for constrained sequences; however, large portions of each class (with the exception of protein-coding sequences) do not overlap constrained regions. The latter elements might not be under primary sequence constraint, might not be constrained across all mammals, or might have expendable molecular functions. Conversely, 40% of the constrained sequences do not overlap any of the functional elements that have been experimentally identified. Together, these findings demonstrate and quantify how many genomic functional elements await basic molecular characterization.

    Title Identification and Analysis of Functional Elements in 1% of the Human Genome by the Encode Pilot Project.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about human genome function in several major areas. First, our studies provide convincing evidence that the genome is pervasively transcribed, such that the majority of its bases can be found in primary transcripts, including non-protein-coding transcripts, and those that extensively overlap one another. Second, systematic examination of transcriptional regulation has yielded new understanding about transcription start sites, including their relationship to specific regulatory sequences and features of chromatin accessibility and histone modification. Third, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure has emerged, including its inter-relationship with DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. Finally, integration of these new sources of information, in particular with respect to mammalian evolution based on inter- and intra-species sequence comparisons, has yielded new mechanistic and evolutionary insights concerning the functional landscape of the human genome. Together, these studies are defining a path for pursuit of a more comprehensive characterization of human genome function.

    Title The Genome of Apis Mellifera: Dialog Between Linkage Mapping and Sequence Assembly.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Genome Biology
    Excerpt

    Two independent genome projects for the honey bee, a microsatellite linkage map and a genome sequence assembly, interactively produced an almost complete organization of the euchromatic genome. Assembly 4.0 now includes 626 scaffolds that were ordered and oriented into chromosomes according to the framework provided by the third-generation linkage map (AmelMap3). Each construct was used to control the quality of the other. The co-linearity of markers in the sequence and the map is almost perfect and argues in favor of the high quality of both.

    Title Evolutionary and Biomedical Insights from the Rhesus Macaque Genome.
    Date April 2007
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

    Title Community Annotation: Procedures, Protocols, and Supporting Tools.
    Date December 2006
    Journal Genome Research
    Excerpt

    Investigators at the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center (BCM-HGSC) and BeeBase organized a community-wide effort to manually annotate the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome. Although various strategies for manual annotation have been used in the past, the value of dispersed community annotation has not yet been demonstrated. Here we make a case for the merit of dispersed community annotation. We present annotation procedures, standard protocols, and tools used for sequence analysis, data submission, and data management. We also report lessons learned from this dispersed community annotation effort for a metazoan genome.

    Title The Dna Sequence, Annotation and Analysis of Human Chromosome 3.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    After the completion of a draft human genome sequence, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium has proceeded to finish and annotate each of the 24 chromosomes comprising the human genome. Here we describe the sequencing and analysis of human chromosome 3, one of the largest human chromosomes. Chromosome 3 comprises just four contigs, one of which currently represents the longest unbroken stretch of finished DNA sequence known so far. The chromosome is remarkable in having the lowest rate of segmental duplication in the genome. It also includes a chemokine receptor gene cluster as well as numerous loci involved in multiple human cancers such as the gene encoding FHIT, which contains the most common constitutive fragile site in the genome, FRA3B. Using genomic sequence from chimpanzee and rhesus macaque, we were able to characterize the breakpoints defining a large pericentric inversion that occurred some time after the split of Homininae from Ponginae, and propose an evolutionary history of the inversion.

    Title The Finished Dna Sequence of Human Chromosome 12.
    Date April 2006
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    Human chromosome 12 contains more than 1,400 coding genes and 487 loci that have been directly implicated in human disease. The q arm of chromosome 12 contains one of the largest blocks of linkage disequilibrium found in the human genome. Here we present the finished sequence of human chromosome 12, which has been finished to high quality and spans approximately 132 megabases, representing approximately 4.5% of the human genome. Alignment of the human chromosome 12 sequence across vertebrates reveals the origin of individual segments in chicken, and a unique history of rearrangement through rodent and primate lineages. The rate of base substitutions in recent evolutionary history shows an overall slowing in hominids compared with primates and rodents.

    Title Comparative Genome Sequencing of Drosophila Pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, Gene, and Cis-element Evolution.
    Date April 2005
    Journal Genome Research
    Excerpt

    We have sequenced the genome of a second Drosophila species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, and compared this to the genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster, a primary model organism. Throughout evolution the vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same chromosome arm, but within each arm gene order has been extensively reshuffled, leading to a minimum of 921 syntenic blocks shared between the species. A repetitive sequence is found in the D. pseudoobscura genome at many junctions between adjacent syntenic blocks. Analysis of this novel repetitive element family suggests that recombination between offset elements may have given rise to many paracentric inversions, thereby contributing to the shuffling of gene order in the D. pseudoobscura lineage. Based on sequence similarity and synteny, 10,516 putative orthologs have been identified as a core gene set conserved over 25-55 million years (Myr) since the pseudoobscura/melanogaster divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome-wide average, consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than random and nearby sequences between the species--but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a pattern of repeat-mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high coadaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence between these species of Drosophila.

    Title The Dna Sequence of the Human X Chromosome.
    Date March 2005
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.

    Title A Bioinformatics Analysis of Memory Consolidation Reveals Involvement of the Transcription Factor C-rel.
    Date August 2004
    Journal The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
    Excerpt

    Consolidation of long-term memory (LTM) is a complex process requiring synthesis of new mRNAs and proteins. Many studies have characterized the requirement for de novo mRNA and protein synthesis; however, few studies have comprehensively identified genes regulated during LTM consolidation. We show that consolidation of long-term contextual memory in the hippocampus triggers altered expression of numerous genes encompassing many aspects of neuronal function. Like contextual memory formation, this altered gene expression required NMDA receptor activation and was specific for situations in which the animal formed an association between a physical context and a sensory stimulus. Using a bioinformatics approach, we found that regulatory elements for several transcription factors are over-represented in the upstream region of genes regulated during consolidation of LTM. Using a knock-out mouse, we found that c-rel, one of the transcription factors identified in our bioinformatics study, is necessary for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory formation.

    Title Concatenation Cdna Sequencing for Transcriptome Analysis.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Comptes Rendus Biologies
    Excerpt

    We describe a high-throughput cDNA sequencing pipeline (http://www.hgsc.bcm.tmc.edu/projects/cdna) built in response to the emerging need for rapid sequencing of large cDNA collections. Using this strategy cDNA inserts are purified and joined through concatenation into large molecules. These 'pseudo-BACs' are subjected to random shotgun sequencing whereby the majority of cDNA inserts in the pool are sequenced. Using this concatenation cDNA sequencing platform, we have contributed more than 13000 full-length cDNA sequences from human and mouse to the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Title Genome Sequence of the Brown Norway Rat Yields Insights into Mammalian Evolution.
    Date April 2004
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.

    Title Generation and Initial Analysis of More Than 15,000 Full-length Human and Mouse Cdna Sequences.
    Date January 2003
    Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Excerpt

    The National Institutes of Health Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) Program is a multiinstitutional effort to identify and sequence a cDNA clone containing a complete ORF for each human and mouse gene. ESTs were generated from libraries enriched for full-length cDNAs and analyzed to identify candidate full-ORF clones, which then were sequenced to high accuracy. The MGC has currently sequenced and verified the full ORF for a nonredundant set of >9,000 human and >6,000 mouse genes. Candidate full-ORF clones for an additional 7,800 human and 3,500 mouse genes also have been identified. All MGC sequences and clones are available without restriction through public databases and clone distribution networks (see http:mgc.nci.nih.gov).

    Title Initial Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Mouse Genome.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

    Title A Computational/functional Genomics Approach for the Enrichment of the Retinal Transcriptome and the Identification of Positional Candidate Retinopathy Genes.
    Date December 2002
    Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Excerpt

    Grouping genes by virtue of their sequence similarity, functional association, or spatiotemporal distribution is an important first step in investigating function. Given the recent identification of >30,000 human genes either by analyses of genomic sequence or by derivation/assembly of ESTs, automated means of discerning gene function and association with disease are critical for the efficient processing of this large volume of data. We have designed a series of computational tools to manipulate the EST sequence database (dbEST) to predict EST clusters likely representing genes expressed exclusively or preferentially in a specific tissue. We implemented this tool by extracting 40,000 human retinal ESTs and performing in silico subtraction against 1.4 million human ESTs. This process yielded 925 ESTs likely to be specifically or preferentially expressed in the retina. We mapped all retinal-specific/predominant sequences in the human genome and produced a web-based searchable map of the retina transcriptome, onto which we overlaid the positions of all mapped but uncloned retinopathy genes. This resource has provided positional candidates for 42 of 51 uncloned retinopathies and may expedite substantially the identification of disease-associated genes. More importantly, the ability to systematically group ESTs according to their predicted expression profile is likely to be an important resource for studying gene function in a wide range of tissues and physiological systems and to identify positional candidate genes for human disorders whose phenotypic manifestations are restricted to specific tissues/organs/cell types.

    Title An Evaluation of the Draft Human Genome Sequence.
    Date September 2001
    Journal Nature Genetics
    Excerpt

    The completed draft version of the human genome, comprised of multiple short contigs encompassing 85% or more of euchromatin, was announced in June of 2000 (ref. 1). The detailed findings of the sequencing consortium were reported several months later. The draft sequence has provided insight into global characteristics, such as the total number of genes and a more accurate definition of gene families. Also of importance are genome positional details such as local genome architecture, regional gene density and the location of transcribed units that are critical for disease gene identification. We carried out a series of mapping and computational experiments using a nonredundant collection of 925 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and sections of the public draft genome sequence that were available at different timepoints between April 2000 and April 2001. We found discrepancies in both the reported coverage of the human genome and the accuracy of mapping of genomic clones, suggesting some limitations of the draft genome sequence in providing accurate positional information and detailed characterization of chromosomal subregions.

    Title Initial Sequencing and Analysis of the Human Genome.
    Date March 2001
    Journal Nature
    Excerpt

    The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.

    Title The Genome Sequence of Drosophila Melanogaster.
    Date March 2000
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. Efforts are under way to close the remaining gaps; however, the sequence is of sufficient accuracy and contiguity to be declared substantially complete and to support an initial analysis of genome structure and preliminary gene annotation and interpretation. The genome encodes approximately 13,600 genes, somewhat fewer than the smaller Caenorhabditis elegans genome, but with comparable functional diversity.

    Title Beauty-x: Enhanced Blast Searches for Dna Queries.
    Date March 1999
    Journal Bioinformatics (oxford, England)
    Excerpt

    SUMMARY: BEAUTY (BLAST Enhanced Alignment Utility) is an enhanced version of the BLAST database search tool that facilitates identification of the functions of matched sequences. Three recent improvements to the BEAUTY program described here make the enhanced output (1) available for DNA queries, (2) available for searches of any protein database, and (3) more up-to-date, with periodic updates of the domain information. AVAILABILITY: BEAUTY searches of the NCBI and EMBL non-redundant protein sequence databases are available from the BCM Search Launcher Web pages (http://gc.bcm.tmc. edu:8088/search-launcher/launcher.html). BEAUTY Post-Processing of submitted search results is available using the BCM Search Launcher Batch Client (version 2.6) (ftp://gc.bcm.tmc. edu/pub/software/search-launcher/). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Example figures are available at http://dot.bcm.tmc. edu:9331/papers/beautypp.html CONTACT: (kworley,culpep)@bcm.tmc.edu

    Title Large-scale Concatenation Cdna Sequencing.
    Date June 1997
    Journal Genome Research
    Excerpt

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Title Beauty: an Enhanced Blast-based Search Tool That Integrates Multiple Biological Information Resources into Sequence Similarity Search Results.
    Date April 1997
    Journal Genome Research
    Excerpt

    BEAUTY (BLAST enhanced alignment utility) is an enhanced version of the NCBI's BLAST data base search tool that facilitates identification of the functions of matched sequences. We have created new data bases of conserved regions and functional domains for protein sequences in NCBI's Entrez data base, and BEAUTY allows this information to be incorporated directly into BLAST search results. A Conserved Regions Data Base, containing the locations of conserved regions within Entrez protein sequences, was constructed by (1) clustering the entire data base into families, (2) aligning each family using our PIMA multiple sequence alignment program, and (3) scanning the multiple alignments to locate the conserved regions within each aligned sequence. A separate Annotated Domains Data Base was constructed by extracting the locations of all annotated domains and sites from sequences represented in the Entrez, PROSITE, BLOCKS, and PRINTS data bases. BEAUTY performs a BLAST search of those Entrez sequences with conserved regions and/or annotated domains. BEAUTY then uses the information from the Conserved Regions and Annotated Domains data bases to generate, for each matched sequence, a schematic display that allows one to directly compare the relative locations of (1) the conserved regions, (2) annotated domains and sites, and (3) the locally aligned regions matched in the BLAST search. In addition, BEAUTY search results include World-Wide Web hypertext links to a number of external data bases that provide a variety of additional types of information on the function of matched sequences. This convenient integration of protein families, conserved regions, annotated domains, alignment displays, and World-Wide Web resources greatly enhances the biological informativeness of sequence similarity searches. BEAUTY searches can be performed remotely on our system using the "BCM Search Launcher" World-Wide Web pages (URL is < http:/ /gc.bcm.tmc.edu:8088/ search-launcher/launcher.html > ).

    Title A Comparative Transcription Map of the Murine Bare Patches (bpa) and Striated (str) Critical Regions and Human Xq28.
    Date December 1996
    Journal Genome Research
    Excerpt

    The X-linked developmental mouse mutations bare patches (Bpa) and striated (Str) may be homologous to human X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2) and incontinentia pigmenti (IP2), respectively, based on their genetic mapping and clinical phenotypes. Bpa and Str have been localized to an overlapping critical region of 600 kb that demonstrates conserved gene order with loci in human Xq28 between DXS1104 and DXS52. As part of efforts to isolate the genes involved in these disorders, we have begun to develop a comparative transcription map spanning this region in both species. Using techniques of cross-species conservation and hybridization, exon trapping, and cDNA selection we have identified four known genes or members of gene families--caltractin, a member of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor gene family, a member of the melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family, and several members of the murine-specific, X-linked lymphocyte regulated gene (Xlr3) family. Trapped exons and, in some cases, longer cDNAs have been isolated for potentially 7-9 additional genes. One cDNA demonstrates highly significant homology with members of the Krüppel family of zinc finger transcription factors. A second novel cDNA demonstrates homology at the 3' end of the predicted amino acid sequence to a LIM domain consensus. Gene order appears conserved among those cDNAs determined to be present in both human and mouse. Three of the murine transcripts appear to be present in multiple copies within the Bpa/Str critical region and could be associated with a predisposition to genomic rearrangements. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Northern analysis demonstrate that several of the transcripts are expressed in mid-gestation murine embryos and neonatal skin, making them candidates for the Bpa and Str mutations and their respective homologous human disorders.

    Title Bcm Search Launcher--an Integrated Interface to Molecular Biology Data Base Search and Analysis Services Available on the World Wide Web.
    Date November 1996
    Journal Genome Research
    Excerpt

    The BCM Search Launcher is an integrated set of World Wide Web (WWW) pages that organize molecular biology-related search and analysis services available on the WWW by function, and provide a single point of entry for related searches. The Protein Sequence Search Page, for example, provides a single sequence entry form for submitting sequences to WWW servers that offer remote access to a variety of different protein sequence search tools, including BLAST, FASTA, Smith-Waterman, BEAUTY, PROSITE, and BLOCKS searches. Other Launch pages provide access to (1) nucleic acid sequence searches, (2) multiple and pair-wise sequence alignments, (3) gene feature searches, (4) protein secondary structure prediction, and (5) miscellaneous sequence utilities (e.g., six-frame translation). The BCM Search Launcher also provides a mechanism to extend the utility of other WWW services by adding supplementary hypertext links to results returned by remote servers. For example, links to the NCBI's Entrez data base and to the Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) are added to search results returned by the NCBI's WWW BLAST server. These links provide easy access to auxiliary information, such as Medline abstracts, that can be extremely helpful when analyzing BLAST data base hits. For new or infrequent users of sequence data base search tools, we have preset the default search parameters to provide the most informative first-pass sequence analysis possible. We have also developed a batch client interface for Unix and Macintosh computers that allows multiple input sequences to be searched automatically as a background task, with the results returned as individual HTML documents directly to the user's system. The BCM Search Launcher and batch client are available on the WWW at URL http:@gc.bcm.tmc.edu:8088/search-launcher.html.

    Title Identification of New Members of a Carbohydrate Kinase-encoding Gene Family.
    Date January 1996
    Journal Journal of Computational Biology : a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
    Excerpt

    In a sequence database search using the human glycerol kinase-encoding sequence (HUMGLYKINB) as a query, we identified six previously unidentified carbohydrate kinase sequences. Five of the six newly identified sequences appear to be known types of carbohydrate kinases, four are glycerol kinases and one is a gluconokinase. The sixth newly identified sequence, the Caenorhabditis elegans gene, CER08D7.7-CEF59B2.1, shows similarity to the family of carbohydrate kinases including other glycerol kinases, xylulokinases, gluconokinases, ribulokinases, rhamnulokinases, and fucokinases. A phylogenetic comparison of this newly identified Caenorhabditis elegans gene with the other members of the carbohydrate kinase family demonstrated that this sequence cannot be assigned to one of the known classes of carbohydrate kinases.

    Title Rapid Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of X-chromosomal Microdeletions: Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (fish) for Complex Glycerol Kinase Deficiency.
    Date November 1995
    Journal American Journal of Medical Genetics
    Excerpt

    Diagnosis of X-chromosomal microdeletions has relied upon the traditional methods of Southern blotting and DNA amplification, with carrier identification requiring time-consuming and unreliable dosage calculations. In this report, we describe rapid molecular cytogenetic identification of deleted DNA in affected males with the Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome (complex glycerol kinase deficiency, CGKD) and female carriers for this disorder. CGKD deletions involve the genes for glycerol kinase, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and/or adrenal hypoplasia congenita. We report an improved method for diagnosis of deletions in individuals with CGKD and for identification of female carriers within their families, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cosmid marker (cosmid 35) within the glycerol kinase gene. When used in combination with an Xq control probe, affected males demonstrate a single signal from the control probe, while female carriers demonstrate a normal chromosome with two signals, as well as a deleted chromosome with a single signal from the control probe. FISH analysis for CGKD provides the advantages of speed and accuracy for evaluation of submicroscopic X-chromosomal deletions, particularly in identification of female carriers. In addition to improving carrier evaluation, FISH will make prenatal diagnosis of CGKD more readily available.

    Title A Dosage Sensitive Locus at Chromosome Xp21 is Involved in Male to Female Sex Reversal.
    Date December 1994
    Journal Nature Genetics
    Excerpt

    Male to female sex reversal has been observed in individuals with duplications of the short arm of the X chromosome. Here we demonstrate that sex reversal results from the presence of two active copies of an Xp locus rather than from its rearrangement and that alterations at this locus constitute one of the causes of sex reversal in individuals with a normal 46,XY karyotype. We have named this locus DSS (Dosage Sensitive Sex reversal) and localized it to a 160 kilobase region of chromosome Xp21, adjacent to the adrenal hypoplasia congenita locus. The identification of male individuals deleted for DSS suggests that this locus is not required for testis differentiation. We propose that DSS has a role in ovarian development and/or functions as a link between ovary and testis formation.

    Title Yeast Artificial Chromosome Cloning in the Glycerol Kinase and Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita Region of Xp21.
    Date July 1993
    Journal Genomics
    Excerpt

    The adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and glycerol kinase (GK) loci are telomeric to the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus in Xp21. We developed a pair of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contigs spanning at least 1.2 Mb and encompassing the region from the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus to beyond YHX39 (DXS727), including the genes for AHC and GK. The centromeric contig consists of 13 YACs reaching more than 600 kb from DMD through GK. The telomeric contig group consists of 8 YACs containing more than 600 kb including the markers YHX39 (DXS727) and QST-59 (DXS319). Patient deletion breakpoints in the region of the two YAC contigs define at least eight intervals, and seven deletion breakpoints are contained within these contigs. In addition to the probes developed from YAC ends, we have mapped eight Alu-PCR probes amplified from a radiation-reduced somatic cell hybrid, two anonymous DNA probes, and one Alu-PCR product amplified from a cosmid end, for a total of 26 new markers within this region of 2 Mb or less. One YAC in the centromeric contig contains an insert encompassing the minimum interval for GK deficiency defined by patient deletion breakpoints, and this clone includes all or part of the GK gene.

    Title Identification of New Markers in Xp21 Between Dxs28 (c7) and Dmd.
    Date September 1992
    Journal Genomics
    Excerpt

    Characterization of Xp21 distal to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in the region containing the genes for adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) has been limited due to a paucity of probes. Two probes were localized between DXS28 (C7) and AHC, the yeast artificial chromosome insert YHX39 (DXS727) and the polymorphic phage clone QST59 (DXS319). A genomic clone, FT1 (DXS726), 3' to DMD, was also characterized. Portions of the three probes were sequenced and primer pairs were generated to amplify a sequence-tagged site within each probe. Amplification of DNA from patients confirmed the deletion results obtained by Southern blot analysis, and these three sequence-tagged sites were successfully combined for triplex PCR. In addition to facilitating molecular genetic diagnosis in Xp21, these probes can be used to identify additional YACs and other probes to further increase the genomic information and diagnostic capabilities in this region.

    Title Characterization of Human Genomic Yeast Artificial Chromosome Inserts Containing Hexokinase 1 Coding Information on Chromosome 10.
    Date August 1992
    Journal Biochemical Medicine and Metabolic Biology
    Excerpt

    Hexokinase 1 (HK1) is one of four mammalian HK isoenzymes and maps to human chromosome 10. Two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) were identified in the Washington University human YAC library using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers designed with knowledge of the human HK1 cDNA sequence. YAC B129B12 is 120 kb in length and maps entirely to chromosome 10. YAC A159D5 is 400 kb in length and appears to have resulted from a recombination of chromosome 10 with non-chromosome 10 material. We report these YACs as potential resources for those interested in HK1 gene organization and mapping, as well as those desiring additional genomic information and markers on chromosome 10.

    Title Reply.
    Date
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

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