Obstetrician & Gynecologist (OB/GYN), Surgical Specialist, Urologists
31 years of experience

Accepting new patients
1900 Lombard St
Rittenhouse Square, Philadelphia, PA 19146
215-893-2457
Locations and availability (4)

Education ?

Medical School Score
Drexel University (1979)
  • Currently 2 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2013)
Patients' Choice Award (2008)
Top Ten Doctors (2012)
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center City East, Philadelphia, PA
Appointments
Drexel University School of Medicine
Associations
American Urogynecologic Society
Member
American Urological Association
Member
American College of Surgeons
Member
American Urological Association (urologyhealth.org)
Member

Affiliations ?

Dr. Whitmore is affiliated with 10 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Chestnut Hill Hospital
    8835 Germantown Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19118
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
    Urology
    111 S 11th St, Philadelphia, PA 19107
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • University of PA Medical Center/Presbyterian
    Urology
    51 N 39th St, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Hahnemann University Hospital *
    230 N Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19102
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Graduate Hospital *
    1800 Lombard St, Philadelphia, PA 19146
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Cooper University Hospital
    Urology
    1 Cooper Plz, Camden, NJ 08103
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • 1986
  • Presbyterian Medical Center Of The University Of Pennsylvania Health System
  • Graduate Hosp, Philadelphia, Pa
  • Cooper Hospital University Medical Center
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Whitmore has contributed to 29 publications.
    Title When to Suspect Interstitial Cystitis.
    Date September 2011
    Journal The Journal of Family Practice
    Excerpt

    The symptom profile and comorbidities associated with this painful condition can make it difficult to diagnose--unless you know what to look for.

    Title Complementary and Alternative Therapies As Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis.
    Date July 2011
    Journal Reviews in Urology
    Excerpt

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC.

    Title Urodynamic Testing and Interstitial Cystitis/painful Bladder Syndrome.
    Date March 2010
    Journal International Urogynecology Journal
    Excerpt

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between symptom severity in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, urodynamic testing (UDT), and cystoscopy.

    Title Bilateral S3 Stimulator in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis.
    Date April 2007
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    To show the value of placing bilateral sacral nerve stimulators in patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis with the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain.

    Title Modified Thiele Massage As Therapeutic Intervention for Female Patients with Interstitial Cystitis and High-tone Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.
    Date November 2005
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of transvaginal manual therapy of the pelvic floor musculature (Thiele massage) in symptomatic female patients with interstitial cystitis and high-tone dysfunction of the pelvic floor. METHODS: A total of 21 women with documented interstitial cystitis and high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction underwent transvaginal massage using the Thiele technique twice a week for 5 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated before massage, at protocol conclusion, and at a mean of 4.5 months after therapy completion (long-term follow-up). The response to treatment was evaluated through the O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indexes, Likert Visual Analogue Scales for urgency and pain, and Short-Form 12-item (SF-12) Quality-of-Life Scale, and through changes in the physical examination findings using a 5-point modified Oxford Scale to document pelvic floor tenderness. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement was seen in the Symptom and Problem Indexes of the O'Leary-Sant Questionnaire (P = 0.015 and P = 0.039, respectively), Likert Visual Analogue Scales for urgency and pain (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively), the Physical and Mental Component Summary from the SF-12 Quality-of-Life Scale (P = 0.049 and P = 0.044, respectively), and the modified Oxford Scale (P <0.05) after protocol completion. At long-term follow-up, the O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indexes (P = 0.049 and P = 0.02, respectively), Likert Visual Analogue Scales for urgency and pain (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively), and modified Oxford Scale for three of four muscles in the pelvic floor (P <0.05) remained significantly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Thiele massage appears to be very helpful in improving irritative bladder symptoms in patients with interstitial cystitis and high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction in addition to decreasing pelvic floor muscle tone.

    Title Capsaicin for the Treatment of Vulvar Vestibulitis.
    Date June 2005
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of local capsaicin cream as an effective treatment for patients with documented vulvar vestibulitis syndrome.

    Title Intravesical Resiniferatoxin for the Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Trial.
    Date May 2005
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Interstitial cystitis is a painful bladder condition of unknown etiology and poorly understood pathophysiology. Current therapies have met with limited success. Vanilloid receptor agonists such as resiniferatoxin (RTX) desensitize C-fibers that transmit pain; it is hypothesized that such drugs will be effective in the treatment of interstitial cystitis and painful bladder syndrome by decreasing the pain that leads to urinary frequency and urgency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted in 163 patients with interstitial cystitis. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single intravesical dose of 50 ml of either RTX 0.01 microM, 0.05 microM, 0.10 microM, or placebo. Safety and efficacy was evaluated over 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the Global Response Assessment, a 7-point scale rating overall change in symptoms of interstitial cystitis after 4 weeks. Secondary efficacy endpoints included reduction in pain, urgency, frequency, nocturia, average void volume, and the O'Leary-Sant Symptom and Problem Indexes. RESULTS: RTX did not improve overall symptoms, pain, urgency, frequency, nocturia, or average void volume during 12 weeks followup. RTX resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of instillation pain, but was otherwise generally well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest prospective, randomized clinical trial reported to date with intravesical vanilloid therapy, single administration of RTX at doses of 0.01 microM to 0.10 microM was not effective in patients with interstitial cystitis.

    Title Interstitial Cystitis and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: a Comprehensive Review.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Pain Medicine (malden, Mass.)
    Excerpt

    Interstitial cystitis is a clinical condition occurring predominantly in women and is characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, and pain. Patient symptoms have the potential to significantly affect quality of life, posing a challenge to some to perform activities of daily living. This article comprehensively reviews the literature on the epidemiology, etiology, evaluation, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, and considers commonly associated pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Title Sacral Neuromodulation in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis: a Multicenter Clinical Trial.
    Date April 2004
    Journal International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
    Excerpt

    Female patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) unresponsive to standard oral and intravesical therapy were enrolled at three clinical sites for percutaneous sacral nerve root stimulation (PNS) in a prospective, observational pilot study. Evaluation was in the form of a 3-day voiding diary completed both prior to and following the commencement of sacral nerve root stimulation. Symptoms were also assessed by the O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indices (ICSI and ICPI). Baseline and test stimulation values for voiding diary parameters and O'Leary-Sant scores were compared to determine treatment efficacy. A total of 33 patients were enrolled. Statistically significant improvements were seen in frequency, pain, average voided volume and maximum voided volume. Significant improvements were also seen in ICSI and ICPI scores. Subacute PNS appears to be effective in reducing symptom severity and increasing voided volumes in patients with IC previously unresponsive to standard therapy.

    Title Current Management of Interstitial Cystitis.
    Date December 2002
    Journal The Urologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    The management of patients with IC remains a challenge because no single agent has proven universally effective. DMSO and PPS have been evaluated through early placebo-controlled trials, and these two agents are FDA approved treatments for IC. BCG is currently undergoing a large placebo-controlled trial, and hyaluronic acid is receiving similar clinical evaluation. Sacral nerve root stimulation shows promise with early favorable results. As with any treatment algorithm, it is reasonable to begin with conservative treatment using time-dependent milestones, allowing adequate trials of successive therapy while ensuring an appropriate pace for timely symptom resolution.

    Title Pelvic Floor Muscle Re-education Treatment of the Overactive Bladder and Painful Bladder Syndrome.
    Date April 2002
    Journal Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Title The Efficacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate in the Prevention of Food-related Flares in Interstitial Cystitis.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Urology
    Title Sacral Nerve Stimulation As a Treatment for Urge Incontinence and Associated Pelvic Floor Disorders at a Pelvic Floor Center: a Follow-up Study.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Urology
    Title Hydrogel/silver Ion-coated Urinary Catheter Reduces Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infection Rates in Intensive Care Unit Patients: a Multicenter Study.
    Date January 2000
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    Indwelling urinary catheters are the leading source of nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs). The Bardex I.C. catheter is a hydrogel latex Foley catheter with a monolayer of silver metal applied to the inner and outer surfaces of the catheter. We investigated the Bardex I.C. catheter for its ability to decrease the NUTI rate in critical care units.

    Title Antiproliferative Activity is Present in Bladder but Not Renal Pelvic Urine from Interstitial Cystitis Patients.
    Date October 1999
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To determine whether an antiproliferative urine factor that we previously discovered to be specific for urine from interstitial cystitis (IC) patients originated in the lower urinary tract or a more proximal site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sequential catheterized urine specimens were collected under sterile conditions from the bladder and renal pelvis of 20 IC patients and one control patient (with stress incontinence). Antiproliferative activity was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation of primary normal adult bladder epithelial cells cultured with pH- and osmolality-corrected bladder or ureteral urine specimens; significant inhibition was defined as a change in 3H-thymidine incorporation greater than 2 standard deviations from the mean of control cells. RESULTS: Bladder urine specimens from 19 of 20 IC patients significantly inhibited 3H-thymidine incorporation as compared to cell medium alone (mean change for bladder specimens = -68.7+/-7.5%), while a renal pelvic specimen from only 1 of 20 IC patients inhibited proliferation significantly (mean change for renal pelvic specimens = 3.2+/-3.4%) (p<.001 by Fisher's exact test). The one inhibitory IC renal pelvic specimen inhibited by 31% while a bladder specimen obtained during the same procedure inhibited by 94%. In comparison, neither bladder nor renal pelvic urine from the control patient had inhibitory activity. CONCLUSIONS: The antiproliferative factor previously found in the urine of IC patients appears to be made and/or activated in the distal ureter or urinary bladder.

    Title Lack of Effect Following Repeated in Vivo Exposure of the Rabbit Urinary Bladder to Urine from Interstitial Cystitis Patients at Low Infusion Volumes.
    Date May 1998
    Journal Neurourology and Urodynamics
    Excerpt

    We reported previously that substances in interstitial cystitis urine, when infused into the rabbit bladder, induce changes that resemble bladders of interstitial cystitis (IC) patients. Here we report our investigation of the effect of additional molecular weight subfractions of IC urine and lower infusion volume in this rabbit bladder bioassay. Urine was pooled from symptomatic IC patients, asymptomatic IC patients (in remission), and normal volunteers. Two fractions of 20x concentrated urine were obtained for each of the 3 groups: a 10-100-kD fraction and a fraction > 100 kD but <0.22 microm. Six rabbits per group were infused twice per week with 6 ml of 1 of these 6 urine fractions or saline as a control. After 6 weeks, each rabbit was cystoscoped before and after hydrodistension, bladder capacity and urea permeability were determined, and the bladder was removed for histologic examination. A questionnaire revealed a significant difference (P < 0.01) regarding voiding symptom severity between symptomatic IC patients and both normal volunteers and IC patients in remission. There was no statistically significant difference among groups of rabbits in cystoscopic bladder appearance, bladder capacity, urea permeability, or bladder histology. If a urine-borne factor is in part responsible for IC symptoms, the rabbit bladder must be filled with urine to near capacity to be able to detect a difference between IC and normal urine in this rabbit bladder bioassay.

    Title The Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index.
    Date June 1997
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To develop 2 brief self-administered indices for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact in patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). METHODS: An initial set of questions was developed and evaluated in focus groups. The index was revised, shortened, and validated with patients diagnosed in 3 large urologic practices with experience in interstitial cystitis (N = 45). Controls were recruited from a group of healthy volunteers in a gynecology clinic (N = 67). Internal consistency, construct validity, and test-retest reliability were evaluated. RESULTS: The IC symptom index and the IC problem index measure urinary and pain symptoms and assesses how problematic symptoms are for patients with interstitial cystitis. Psychometric performance of both instruments is good, with the symptom index demonstrating excellent ability to discriminate characteristics between patients and controls. CONCLUSION: Both indices should be useful in the evaluation and management of patients with IC and should be particularly useful in clinical trials of new therapies for this condition, where reliable, validated, and reproducible outcome measures are critically important.

    Title Pelvic Floor Electrical Stimulation in the Treatment of Genuine Stress Incontinence: a Multicenter, Placebo-controlled Trial.
    Date September 1995
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the efficacy of transvaginal electrical stimulation in treating genuine stress incontinence. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 15-week trial comparing the use of an active pelvic floor stimulator with a sham device. Thirty-five women used an active unit and 17 control subjects used sham devices. Weekly and daily voiding diaries were recorded throughout the trial. Urodynamic testing, including pad test and subtracted cystometry, was done before and at the end of device use. Pelvic muscle strength was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Patients scored their symptoms on visual analog scales and completed quality-of-life questionnaires before and after therapy. RESULTS: Significant improvements from baseline were found in patients using active devices but not in controls. Comparisons of changes from baseline between active-device and control patients showed that active-device patients had significantly greater improvement in weekly (p = 0.009) and daily (p = 0.04) leakage episodes, pad testing (p = 0.005), and vaginal muscle strength (p = 0.02) when compared with control subjects. Significantly greater improvement was also found for both visual analog scores of urinary incontinence (p = 0.007) and stress incontinence (p = 0.02), as well as for subjective reporting of frequency of urine loss (p = 0.002), and urine loss with sneezing, coughing, or laughing (p = 0.02), when compared with controls. Pad testing showed that stress incontinence was improved by at least 50% in 62% of patients using an active device compared with only 19% of patients using sham devices (p = 0.01). Voiding diaries showed at least 50% improvement in 48% of active-device patients compared with 13% of women using the sham device (p = 0.02). No irreversible adverse effects were noted in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Transvaginal pelvic floor electrical stimulation was found to be a safe and effective therapy for genuine stress incontinence.

    Title Bladder Infection.
    Date September 1994
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Title Self-care Regimens for Patients with Interstitial Cystitis.
    Date February 1994
    Journal The Urologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    For those who suffer from interstitial cystitis, living with the condition is a challenge that requires creativity, patience, determination, and a sound set of coping mechanisms. Because of the high percentage of gynecologic and systemic manifestations of interstitial cystitis, a customized treatment regimen is often necessary to achieve the therapeutic goal of a remission in symptoms. Treatment philosophies should be based on the proposed causative mechanisms, and a multimodality approach to therapy is usually successful. Self-care regimens give the patient a sense of control by active participation in treatment, which often improves coping mechanisms. Treatment of the sequelae of chronic pain (anxiety and depression) often improves response to overall therapy. Remission is the goal, coping is the key, and creativity opens the door to treating this most perplexing of conditions.

    Title Effect of Repeated Instillation of Interstitial Cystitis Urine on the Rabbit Urinary Bladder.
    Date January 1994
    Journal Urology
    Excerpt

    One theory for the etiology of interstitial cystitis (IC) proposes toxic substances in the urine. This hypothesis was tested in our laboratory by infusing urine into the bladders of rabbits twice weekly for six weeks. For the first study rabbits were treated by one-hour biweekly intravesical exposure to urine from a symptomatic interstitial cystitis patient, a normal volunteer, or physiologic saline. For the second study, animals were exposed to both a high and a low molecular weight fraction of urine pooled from 7 interstitial cystitis patients, 7 normal female volunteers, and physiologic saline. At the end of six weeks the animals were cystoscoped and the bladder was removed the following day for histologic and contractile studies. Post-distention glomerulations were observed in 3 of the 4 whole IC urine-treated animals and an ulcer identical to the classic "Hunner's ulcer" was seen in one of these animals. Post-distention petechial hemorrhages were also noted in all 5 of the high molecular weight IC urine-treated animals but in none of the others, suggesting a difference between IC and normal urine. These IC urine-treated groups also showed the greatest degree of histologic changes including edema and plasma cell infiltrates in the lamina propria, submucosa and perivascular tissue. However, there was no statistically significant difference in bladder capacity, micturition patterns, or contractile response of bladder strips. These results indicate that there are substances with nominal molecular weight greater than 10 kD in interstitial cystitis urine that induce changes in the rabbit bladder that resemble bladders of interstitial cystitis patients.

    Title Traumatic Rupture of the Corpus Cavernosum: Evaluation and Management.
    Date October 1990
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Rupture of the corpus cavernosum is a rare but probably under-reported entity. It truly represents a urological emergency and current recommendations are for early surgical intervention. We review 5 cases with evaluation, treatment and followup. Delays in treatment lead to long-term complications, such as erectile dysfunction and penile curvature.

    Title Masson's Tumor of the Kidney: a New Renal Lesion.
    Date February 1990
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) is a rare benign reactive lesion usually found in thrombosed subcutaneous blood vessels. We report a case of Masson's tumor of the kidney, and discuss the relevant clinical, radiographical and pathological aspects.

    Title Functional and Biochemical Alterations in the Rabbit Urinary Bladder Following Ileocystoplasty.
    Date October 1989
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Although the use of ileocystoplasty has increased significantly in recent years, very little is known concerning the smooth muscle properties of the implanted bowel segment. In a previous study, preliminary evidence was presented which indicated that the pharmacological response of the cytoplastic ileal segment to autonomic agonists changed toward that of the bladder. The present study extends and expands these preliminary observations on the physiology and pharmacology of augmentation cystoplasty. Augmentation cystoplasty with detubularized ileum was carried out in 16 rabbits. In vivo and in vitro physiological and pharmacological studies were carried out one and three months after surgery. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) in-vivo CMG at one month was similar to that of the preoperative bladder, but at three months there was a 24% increase in capacity, with the presence of multiple phasic contractions beginning at a volume of approximately 65% of capacity. 2) The frequency and magnitude of spontaneous activity in the cystoplastic ileum did not significantly alter from that of the normal ileum. 3) Cystoplastic ileum responded to muscarinic stimulation differently from the normal ileum. The bladder responded with an increase in the tension whereas the ileum responded with an increase in the frequency and amplitude of phasic contractions. The cystoplastic ileum responded with a pronounced sustained contraction with phasic contractions superimposed. The tonic contraction at three months was of a significantly greater magnitude than that at one month. 4) The qualitative and quantitative response to field stimulation of the cystoplastic ileum was altered from that of the ileum towards that of the bladder. 5) The normal bladder contains greater amount of creatine phosphate and lesser amounts of creatine than the normal ileum. Cystoplasty, after three months induced a change in the ileal segment towards the bladder (increased creatine phosphate and decreased creatine). 6) The normal ileum was found to have greater number of muscarinic receptors than the normal bladder whereas the cystoplastic ileum at three months was intermediate.

    Title Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis and Amyloidosis: a Rare Association.
    Date July 1989
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    The coincidence of systemic amyloidosis and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis has been reported previously only once. Clinical findings, such as the nephrotic syndrome, cardiac and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and adrenal insufficiency, are suggestive and a thorough investigation to rule out other causes of secondary amyloidosis is warranted. We report a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with secondary systemic amyloidosis and the nephrotic syndrome. Treatment consisted of nephrectomy and intensive supportive care. The unique clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of this case are discussed.

    Title Office Urodynamics.
    Date December 1988
    Journal The Urologic Clinics of North America
    Excerpt

    Each urologist can best form his or her own set of indications for and techniques of urodynamic evaluation or referral. Thus, what constitutes "office urodynamics" in one practice does not in another. The practicing urologist should at least have access to filling cystometry, flowmetry, residual urine determination, and voiding cystourethrography. All but the last named are certainly compatible with any office practice.

    Title Bladder Calculi in Women After Urethrovesical Suspension.
    Date May 1988
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    There have been a number of reports recently on vesical calculi in women with a history of gynecological procedures. Within 1 year we encountered 2 patients with vesical calculi after vesicourethral suspension performed with concomitant hysterectomy. These calculi formed on a retained intravesical suture and a monofilament knitted polypropylene pledget, and they produced interesting pathological and radiographic findings.

    Title Vascular Integrity of the Distal Ureter Following Combined Tapering and Cross Trigonal Reimplantation.
    Date March 1988
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Massive unilateral hydroureteronephrosis was created in 20 female dogs by ligating the urographically normal prevesical ureter. Over a 14-day period the obstructed ureter dilated to an average of 15.3 mm. A ureteral tapering procedure was performed by lateral darting and posterior folding of the resultant flap, followed by a cross-trigonal reimplantation. One anastomotic stricture resulted; in the remaining 19 animals, ureteral peristalsis was restored, the ureteral diameter was reduced 61.9 per cent and hydronephrosis was resolved. Histological studies on the tapered segments of these 19 animals showed that the subadventitial blood supply was preserved with fibrotic occlusion of the folded flaps. These results demonstrate that no significant vascular compromise after ureteral tapering and cross-trigonal reimplantation occurs. Success rates comparable to those of conventional ureteral tailoring can be achieved by this technically simplified form of reconstructive surgery.

    Title Murine Hybridoma Antibodies Against Human Transitional Carcinoma-associated Antigens.
    Date July 1984
    Journal The Journal of Urology
    Excerpt

    Spleen cells from mice immunized with the human urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line 647V have been fused with a syngeneic myeloma cell line to produce hybridomas. Screening of supernatants from 40 hybridomas which reacted with the immunizing cell line identified antibodies recognizing a variety of common, shared and tumor-associated antigens as well as newborn calf serum dependent antigens. Three hybridoma antibodies, 9A7 , 2E1 and 2A6 , recognize antigens found on all the human transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and tissue preparations tested, but the antigens were not found on normal human tissue (including urothelium), thus demonstrating the capability of the antibodies to distinguish normal from malignant bladder transitional epithelium. These antibodies, however, otherwise differ in their patterns of reactivity, with 1 recognizing an antigen which is also expressed on highly anaplastic malignant non-transitional cell carcinoma cell lines and tumors, while the other 2 demonstrate reactivities which are far more restricted to transitional cell carcinoma.

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