Otolaryngologist (ear, nose, throat), Pediatrician, Surgical Specialist
35 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Childrens Healthcare Associates Inc.
210 Mall Blvd
King Of Prussia, PA 19406
610-337-3232
Locations and availability (4)

Education ?

Medical School
Tulane University (1975)

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
One of America's Leading Experts on:
Tonsillectomy
Associations
American Rhinologic Society
Member

Affiliations ?

Dr. Tom is affiliated with 6 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Hospital of the University of PA
    Otolaryngology
    3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Pennsylvania Hospital University PA Health System
    Otolaryngology
    800 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19107
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
    324 S 34th St, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Pennsylvania Hospital
  • Graduate Hospital
  • Chop Clinical Associates
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Tom has contributed to 54 publications.
    Title Delayed Facial Paresis Following Tympanomastoid Surgery in a Pediatric Patient.
    Date December 2010
    Journal Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
    Excerpt

    Despite the presence of normal facial nerve function in the immediate postoperative period, patients may develop facial nerve dysfunction anywhere from several hours to several days after otologic surgery. This delayed facial paresis, following a broad range of otologic surgeries, has been well described in adults but not in pediatric patients. Viral reactivation is increasingly implicated as the underlying etiology of delayed facial paresis. We present a case of delayed facial paresis in a pediatric patient with a clinical course consistent with viral reactivation.

    Title Management of Hypopharyngeal and Esophageal Perforations in Children: Three Case Reports and a Review of the Literature.
    Date April 2008
    Journal Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
    Excerpt

    We report 2 cases of pediatric hypopharyngeal perforation that occurred during endoscopy and 1 case of esophageal perforation that developed during nasogastric tube insertion at a tertiary care academic medical center. These cases were identified during a retrospective chart review. All 3 patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics and nasogastric tube feedings, and none experienced further sequelae. Perforations of the hypopharynx and esophagus in children during endoscopy or insertion of endotracheal and nasogastric tubes are not uncommon. Many affected children can be managed conservatively without surgical drainage, depending on the cause and specific location of the perforation and the timing of the diagnosis. We discuss the clinical criteria for various management options, and we offer an algorithm that outlines important clinical considerations in the decision-making process. Our aim in presenting these cases is to increase awa reness of the management options for children with hypopharyngeal and esophageal perforations and to demonstrate the effectiveness of nonsurgical management in selected cases.

    Title Intracranial Complications of Sinusitis in Children and Adolescents and Their Outcomes.
    Date October 2006
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into patterns of presentation, imaging, microbiological aspects, therapy, disease course, and outcome of intracranial complications of sinusitis (ICS), which are challenging conditions with the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. We reviewed our experience with ICS in children and adolescents. DESIGN: Consecutive case series with a mean follow-up of 12 months. SETTING: Tertiary pediatric referral center. PATIENTS: Consecutive sample of 25 children and adolescents treated for 35 intracranial complications (mean age, 13.2 years [range, 4-18 years]). INTERVENTIONS: Medical and surgical management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival and temporary and permanent neurologic sequelae. RESULTS: Most patients were adolescents (n = 19; 76%) and male (n = 19; 76%). Epidural abscess was most common (13 complications), followed by subdural empyema (n = 9), meningitis (n = 6), encephalitis (n = 2), intracerebral abscess (n = 2), and dural sinus thrombophlebitis (n = 2). Abscesses were primarily located in the frontal or frontoparietal regions. Magnetic resonance imaging was extensively used and was superior to contrast computed tomography in diagnosis. All patients received intravenous antibiotics, 21 underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, and 13 underwent neurosurgical drainage. Only 1 death occurred from sepsis secondary to meningitis (mortality, 4%). Overall, neurologic outcome was excellent. Although 10 patients (40%) had neurologic deficits, most resolved within 2 months. Only 2 patients had permanent neurologic sequelae. Among ICS, epidural abscess appeared to be a distinct clinical entity. Epidural abscesses typically presented without specific neurologic symptoms or signs, were more often associated with orbital complications, and had outcomes considerably better than the other ICS. CONCLUSION: Intracranial complications of sinusitis are challenging, but prognosis can be favorable in children and adolescents by using aggressive medical and surgical management.

    Title Trends in the Management of Pediatric Chronic Sinusitis: Survey of the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology.
    Date February 2005
    Journal The Laryngoscope
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The management of chronic sinusitis (CS) in children has yet to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to assess practice trends within the pediatric otolaryngology community for the management of children with CS. METHODS: A multiple choice survey of the members of the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) was performed to assess for various factors related to the management of CS in children. RESULTS: A total of 175 ASPO members responded to the survey. The majority of respondents initially treat patients medically with oral antibiotics (95%), topical steroids (90%), and nasal saline sprays (68%). Fifty-five percent performed adenoidectomy as part of the treatment of CS, with 81% performing the operation before endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Compared with 3 years before the survey, 47% of respondents performed approximately the same number of ESS cases, whereas 35% reported doing fewer cases annually. Seventy-two percent of practitioners do not routinely perform a second-look surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of pediatric otolaryngologists use oral antibiotics, nasal steroids, and saline lavage, and will perform adenoidectomy when managing patients with CS. More than a third of pediatric otolaryngologists are using more stringent criteria for surgery and performing less extensive surgery than 3 years before the survey. Surgical outcomes for CS do not appear to have changed over the past 3 years.

    Title Pediatric Intraparotid Castleman's Disease.
    Date October 2003
    Journal The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
    Excerpt

    Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare, benign lymphoepithelial disease of unknown cause that presents most commonly in the mediastinum. There are 2 histologic types of CD: the hyaline vascular type and the plasma cell type. In the head and neck, 98% of these lesions are of the hyaline vascular type. The differential diagnosis of CD includes reactive lymphadenopathy, lymphoproliferative disorders, lymph node metastasis, and other conditions. Approximately 80 cases of CD have been reported in children; head and neck involvement in children is extremely rare. A case of a child with intraparotid CD is presented; the clinical course, histopathologic presentation, radiographic findings, and management of CD are reviewed.

    Title Revisiting Outpatient Tonsillectomy in Young Children.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Postoperative same-day discharge is safe for most children undergoing tonsillectomy. However, young children with upper airway obstruction have a higher risk of postoperative complications. We review our tonsillectomy experience in children under 36 months to evaluate the safety of outpatient tonsillectomy in this population. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a retrospective study of all children under 36 months who underwent tonsillectomy during a recent 2-year period at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. RESULTS: The indication for tonsillectomy in 96% of 421 children was upper airway obstruction. Eighteen percent required postoperative treatment to prevent respiratory compromise; 56% of these patients had no associated medical comorbidity. Patients younger than 24 months and those with medical comorbidities were more likely to require intervention. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: It is not possible to preoperatively anticipate which children will have postsurgical complications. We recommend planning an overnight admission for children younger than 36 months undergoing tonsillectomy.

    Title Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment.
    Date October 2000
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    With the multi-faceted approach to head and neck cancer today, maintaining caloric intake by long-term enteral hyperalimentation is commonplace. Along with the tremendous advantages of this form of nutrition, the disadvantage of hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic acidotic coma is present. Mortality rates are quoted from 40% to 70% according to the literature reviewed. Therefore, prevention is the best form of treatment. The cause, diagnosis, and treatment will be discussed.

    Title Ototoxicity of Common Topical Antimycotic Preparations.
    Date April 2000
    Journal The Laryngoscope
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the ototoxic effects of five commonly used topical antimycotic agents-clotrimazole, miconazole, nystatin, tolnaftate, and gentian violet-in the guinea pig. DESIGN: A controlled animal study in which the ototoxicity of commonly used topical antifungal agents was investigated by measurement of hair cell loss. METHODS: Several readily available topical antimycotic preparations were instilled into the middle ears of female Hartley guinea pigs over a 1-week period. Two weeks after the last instillation, the animals were euthanized. An active control group was treated with neomycin to confirm the adequacy of the treatment in delivering a known ototoxin; an untreated control group defined the normal distribution of hair cells. The temporal bones were removed, and the cochleas were fixed and dissected. The basilar membranes were examined under the scanning electron microscope. A map of hair cell survival was made for each row in segments of each turn. RESULTS: The untreated control animals had no discernible hair cell loss in the two lower turns. In the apical turn and sometimes the third turn, loss of hair cells was a common finding, this is a known effect of aging in this species. The animals treated with neomycin had damage consistently in the basal turn, sometimes extending into the second turn, as well as the expected hair cell loss in the apical turn. Clotrimazole, miconazole, or tolnaftate did not cause any hair cell loss in the first two turns. Hair cell loss in the third and fourth turns was similar to that of the untreated control group. Likewise, nystatin exhibited no evidence of ototoxicity. Of note, however, the preparation used in this study left a persistent residue in the round window niche. Of the first four animals treated with gentian violet, three developed pronounced behavioral signs of vestibular damage, and three demonstrated extensive middle ear inflammation and extensive new bone growth. Hair cell counts were not attempted because the extreme bone growth interfered with successful perfusion and dissection. CONCLUSIONS: Extrapolating from guinea pigs to humans requires caution. However, it is likely that guinea pigs are, if anything, more susceptible to topical ototoxins than are humans. The specific antimycotics clotrimazole, miconazole, and tolnaftate appear to be safe. Gentian violet has the potential for severe damage. The persistent residue left by the nystatin preparation is cause for concern and is a reminder that both the active ingredient and vehicle must be considered in evaluation of safety.

    Title Bilateral Sternocleidomastoid Tumors of Infancy.
    Date January 2000
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Excerpt

    The sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy (STOI) is a relatively uncommon condition. Typically, it presents as a firm, well circumscribed mass within the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in infants 1-8 weeks of age and may be associated with torticollis. This condition must be considered in any infant with a lateral neck mass. The diagnosis can often be made clinically, but unusual presentations may present diagnostic challenges. Although bilateral involvement is rare, it does occur. The second reported case, a 2-week old female with bilateral STOIs and torticollis, is reported. Although many of the characteristics of the masses suggested the condition, the bilateral nature added uncertainty to the clinical impression, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to confirm the diagnosis. The clinical presentation and management of the STOI are reviewed, and the unusual features of this case are discussed.

    Title Surgical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children with Cerebral Palsy.
    Date October 1999
    Journal The Laryngoscope
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea in children with cerebral palsy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of 27 children with cerebral palsy who underwent surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Charts were reviewed. Data gathered included primary complaint, coexisting illnesses, initial procedure performed, age at initial surgery, number of days the child was monitored postoperatively in the intensive care unit, notation of postoperative respiratory distress and management, and outcome. RESULTS: Nineteen children underwent adenotonsillectomy for initial treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Three of these children also had a uvulectomy. Six children had an adenoidectomy alone as their initial procedure. Neither uvulopalatopharyngoplasty nor tracheostomy was performed as an initial procedure. Mean follow-up was 34 months. Seventy-six percent of these children have not required any further surgery. Of the six children who have undergone further surgery, one has required a revision adenoidectomy, and another underwent a tonsillectomy and uvulectomy 2 months after the initial adenoidectomy. Four children ultimately required a tracheotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Eighty-four percent of these children were successfully managed without a tracheotomy. We recommend tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy for initial surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children with cerebral palsy.

    Title Pediatric Tracheostomy: a Changing Procedure?
    Date August 1999
    Journal The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
    Excerpt

    In 1982, the experience with tracheostomy at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was reported for 1971 through 1980. We have now reviewed 450 cases for the period from 1981 through 1992, and compared the characteristics of these cases with those in the previous review. Long-term follow-up was available on 83% of cases, and the median follow-up was 2.96 years. Patients received a tracheostomy for airway obstruction (38%), chronic ventilation (53%), or multiple indications (9%). The mean duration of tracheotomy (adjusted for death and loss to follow-up) was 2.13 years. The tracheostomy-related mortality was 0.5%, and the nontracheostomy-related mortality was 22%. Nineteen percent of patients had complications in the first postoperative week, and 58% had 1 or more late complications. In comparison with the previous study from our institution, there was a great increase in long-term tracheostomy and a continuing trend away from tracheostomy for short-term airway management. Better monitoring and improvements in parental teaching may have contributed to a decrease in tracheostomy-related mortality.

    Title Development of the Paranasal Sinuses in Children with Sinus Disease.
    Date May 1999
    Journal American Journal of Rhinology
    Excerpt

    In a previous report, the authors defined the normal development of the paranasal sinuses. Landmarks and dimensions relevant to functional endoscopic sinus surgery were measured on the computed-tomography images of 145 children who were free of significant sinusitis. The present study compares those normal values to the same measurements in 235 cases of sinus disease. No significant difference was found between normal and diseased groups in any of the 10 dimensions originally reported or in six derived measures. There appears to be no association between sinus disease and any of these dimensions. The previously reported norms are applicable to cases of pediatric sinus disease.

    Title Kawasaki Disease: a Diagnostic Dilemma.
    Date October 1998
    Journal American Journal of Otolaryngology
    Title An Unusual Presentation of the Sternocleidomastoid Tumor of Infancy.
    Date January 1998
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Title Complications of Frontal Sinusitis in Adolescents: Case Presentations and Treatment Options.
    Date October 1997
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Excerpt

    Frontal sinusitis in adolescents can be a serious condition because of the severity of potential complications and rapid progression of disease. These complications may arise as a result of extension of the infection intracranially, to the frontal bone, and to the orbit. Infection may spread hematogenously or by direct extension. A series of seven adolescent patients with complications of frontal sinusitis is presented. Surgical options are necessitated by the location and extent of infection and include trephination, frontal sinus obliteration, and craniotomy. Recent advances in endoscopic sinus surgery have provided surgeons another access to the frontal recess. However, a combined otolaryngological/neurosurgical approach is essential for patients with intracranial complications.

    Title Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Cervical Adenitis.
    Date August 1997
    Journal Clinical Pediatrics
    Excerpt

    Granulomatous inflammation is a common finding in pathologic evaluation of surgically excised chronic lymphadenopathy in children. Confusion exists regarding diagnosis and management of these lesions. Over a 10-year period at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, a total of 81 children were identified with biopsy-confirmed granulomatous lesions of the head and neck, with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) accounting for 67 of the cases. The typical presentation was that of a nontender mass in the cervicofacial area present for weeks to months, unresponsive to antimicrobials. All underwent surgical excision, which was curative in 54 patients; 13 children required additional procedures. This paper reviews NTM, its typical clinical presentation, difficulty in diagnosis, and the methods of treatment.

    Title Development of the Paranasal Sinuses in Children.
    Date August 1997
    Journal American Journal of Rhinology
    Excerpt

    The development of computed tomography and functional endoscopic sinus surgery has improved diagnosis and management of sinusitis. It has also renewed interest in the developmental anatomy of the paranasal sinuses. There are significant differences between adult and pediatric sinus anatomy, and to safely perform functional endoscopic sinus surgery in children, the surgeon must be aware of these differences. To define the developmental anatomy of the paranasal sinuses, we analyzed 145 computed tomograms from patients under 18 years of age. The study emphasized landmarks at the level of the maxillary sinus ostium. In addition, distances and angles from the nasal spine to various points in the sinuses were determined. The structures were identified and traced on a digitizing tablet. Means and standard deviations were calculated for each measure as a function of age. This study can aid a better understanding of sinus development in children and provide guidance to the endoscopic sinus surgeon.

    Title The Effects of Gelatin Film Stents in the Middle Meatus.
    Date August 1997
    Journal American Journal of Rhinology
    Excerpt

    Controversy exists regarding the management of the middle meatus after pediatric functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). To prevent adhesions following pediatric FESS, gelatin film stenting of the middle meatus has been recommended. The effects of stenting, however, have not been established. Fifty-one children with similar degrees of bilateral sinus disease had a gelatin film stent placed in one middle meatus on completion of FESS, while the opposite meatus was not stented. Two to three weeks later at the time of a second, staged procedure, the sides were compared for the presence of the stent, adhesions, granulaion tissue, and patency of the maxillary sinus ostia. In 11 children the postoperative findings were more severe in the side without the stent, whereas in 29 children they were more severe in the stented side. There was no difference between the sides in 11 children. Although gelatin film stenting benefits some children, it should not be used routinely following pediatric FESS but should be reserved for children who are predisposed to develop adhesions or have poor prognostic factors, such as immunodeficiency and ciliary dyskinesia.

    Title Periauricular Cysts and Sinuses.
    Date August 1997
    Journal The Laryngoscope
    Excerpt

    Periauricular cysts, sinuses, and fistulas occur commonly in the pediatric population. They arise from developmental defects of the first branchial cleft and first branchial arch. In most instances the diagnosis and management of these conditions are straightforward, but exceptional presentations sometimes occur. Failure to recognize these unusual cases may result in inadequate treatment and subsequent recurrence, and even if the correct diagnosis is made, surgical management of these lesions may be complicated. A series of 15 cases of periauricular congenital lesions is reviewed, of which three cases illustrating a diagnostic or surgical challenge are presented. The embryology, presentation, and management of these anomalies are discussed. This is one of the largest series of first branchial cleft anomalies reported in the literature, and our paper uniquely discusses first branchial cleft anomalies and preauricular sinuses together, with an emphasis on the surgical management of facial nerve, external ear, and middle ear involvement.

    Title Dexamethasone in Adenotonsillectomy.
    Date February 1997
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Excerpt

    Edema contributes substantially to the postoperative discomfort and morbidity of adenotonsillectomy. In a double-blind study, 58 children undergoing adenotonsillectomy were given a single intraoperative dose of either dexamethasone or saline. The steroid markedly affected the postoperative course in the first day after surgery. According to parental reports, the percentage of patients vomiting was reduced from 48 to 4%. Severe throat pain was reported in 57% of controls and only 20% of dexamethasone patients. Twice as many steroid patients as controls tolerated some soft food on the first postoperative day. It appears that dexamethasone can greatly improve patient diet and comfort after adenotonsillectomy.

    Title Depression in Children After Tonsillectomy.
    Date January 1995
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Postoperative depression has been reported in adults undergoing open heart surgery and mastectomy. Tonsillectomy is a commonly performed procedure and can be associated with significant morbidity including pain, difficulty swallowing, dehydration, and bleeding. While adults may be able to express their feelings about the postoperative course, children often are unable to express themselves. Because postoperative depression may manifest itself in unusual behavior that is dismissed as "expected," it may go unrecognized. We present three case reports in which the child demonstrated signs of depression following tonsillectomy. We believe that depression following tonsillectomy occurs more frequently than has been recognized. We describe the diagnosis and management of posttonsillectomy depression to increase the otolaryngologist's awareness of this entity.

    Title Effect of Anesthetic Gas on Middle Ear Fluid.
    Date August 1994
    Journal The Laryngoscope
    Excerpt

    Tympanometry was performed before (preoperative) and after (intraoperative) the administration of inhalation anesthesia including nitrous oxide and halothane on 109 children undergoing myringotomy with pressure equalization tube insertion. A total of 213 preoperative tympanograms were compared with their intraoperative counterparts and the presence or absence of middle ear effusion at myringotomy. When preoperative tympanograms were consistent with pneumatized middle ears, intraoperative findings demonstrated a mean middle ear pressure increase of +147 daPa. When preoperative tympanometry suggested middle ear effusion, less than 1% demonstrated intraoperative tympanometric changes and/or findings at surgery that would support anesthesia clearing middle ear effusion. Preoperative tympanometric data were poor predictors of the presence or absence of effusion at myringotomy. The relationship between inhalation anesthetics (i.e., nitrous oxide and halothane) and middle ear fluids, and the reliability of tympanometry to predict middle ear effusion are discussed.

    Title Congenital Tracheal Stenosis. The Otolaryngologist's Perspective.
    Date May 1994
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Congenital tracheal stenosis is a rare congenital anomaly, with less than 70 reported cases in the literature. The presenting signs and symptoms of stridor, recurrent pneumonia, and respiratory distress are commonly seen in other conditions. The rarity of congenital tracheal stenosis and the diverse presentations make accurate early diagnosis difficult and frequently lead to inappropriate treatment. We treated three patients with congenital tracheal stenosis who presented with different sites of stenosis. Each patient displayed different symptoms and required individualized management. The treatment of congenital tracheal stenosis depends on identifying the site and extent of the stenosis. We reviewed the embryogenesis and treatment of this abnormality and developed a new classification system that will aid in the management of congenital tracheal stenosis.

    Title Tracheobronchomalacia in Children.
    Date March 1994
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is an important cause of airway distress during infancy, but it generally resolves as the airway enlarges. To assess the origin and natural history of TBM, a chart review and telephone survey were conducted for 50 patients with TBM at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pa). This study revealed that TBM is a relatively common airway abnormality and is found on 15% of all diagnostic bronchoscopies. Prematurity, low birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and prolonged ventilation predispose patients to the most severe symptoms. In our study, a tracheotomy with continuous positive airway pressure was required by 75% of the premature infants and 25% of the full-term infants with TBM. Seventy-one percent of all patients underwent decannulation without any other surgical intervention and remained nearly asymptomatic. Some patients could not undergo decannulation because of other airway lesions. In most instances, TBM is a self-limited disease that resolves without surgery.

    Title Second Branchial Cleft Anomalies Presenting As Pharyngeal Masses.
    Date December 1993
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Title Endoscopic Assessment in Children with Tracheotomies.
    Date March 1993
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Pediatric tracheotomy is a safe procedure, and the tube can be maintained for a prolonged period. There are, however, few guidelines regarding the endoscopic assessment of the airway following tracheotomy. From January 1988 through December 1989, the Division of Otolaryngology of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pa) performed tracheotomies on 81 patients. Thirty-two children had direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy at the time of the procedure, 1 week later, and at 6-month intervals for a minimum of 18 months. Four children had normal airways while 21 had intraluminal stomal granulomas, 16 had development of subglottic stenosis, nine had collapse of the anterior tracheal wall, and three had development of distal tracheal granulations. Sixteen children had multiple lesions. Anatomic changes occur in the airways of the majority of children with long-term tracheotomies, and endoscopic evaluation is an essential part of their care.

    Title Intramuscular Hemangioma of the Head and Neck.
    Date March 1993
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Intramuscular hemangiomas (IMH) are uncommon tumors in the head and neck region, occurring most often in the trunk and extremities. Preoperative misdiagnosis is common because of the deep location of these tumors. Ten recent cases of head and neck IMH are presented, five of which involve the masseter muscle--the most frequent site of involvement in the head and neck. Masseter IMH occurred almost exclusively in the pediatric age group. The clinical presentation, radiographic and histologic findings, treatment, complications, and outcome of these patients are presented. The vital role of preoperative diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is discussed, as well as a review of the natural history of IMH and indications for surgical intervention.

    Title Recurrent Meningitis and a Congenital Perilymph Fistula.
    Date September 1992
    Journal Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
    Excerpt

    In any child with recurrent meningitis, the presence of a congenital perilymph fistula must be entertained. All of the patients must have an audiologic assessment, and if a sensorineural loss is demonstrated, CT of the temporal bones should be performed. CT is excellent in identifying malformations within the temporal bones, fistulous tracts, soft tissue densities in the middle ear, and defects in the tegmen tympani. Although MRI may provide superior discrimination of the audiovestibular and facial nerves and cerebellopontine angle, presently it does not offer any distinct advantages over CT in evaluation of the inner ear. When a fistula is suspected, an exploratory tympanotomy is recommended, and any CSF leak is sealed with muscle.

    Title Nasopharyngeal Malignancies in Children.
    Date June 1992
    Journal The Laryngoscope
    Excerpt

    A retrospective analysis identified 29 children with nasopharyngeal malignancies who were evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 1970 through 1989. Rhabdomyosarcoma (15) and carcinoma (9) were the most common tumor types, and there were distinct differences in the clinical presentations of these two malignancies. Patients with rhabdomyosarcoma were generally younger than those with carcinoma and enjoyed longer survival. Six (67%) of the children with carcinoma were black; all of the patients with rhabdomyosarcoma were white. Patients with carcinoma were also more likely to present with cervical metastases. The presentation, evaluation, and methods of treatment for pediatric nasopharyngeal malignancies are discussed.

    Title Ventilation Tube Removal. Indications for Paper Patch Myringoplasty.
    Date May 1992
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Paper patch myringoplasties are commonly performed in children at the time of ventilation tube removal, yet no series documenting their efficacy appears in the otolaryngology literature. Over an 18-month period at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pa), 163 ventilation tube removals were performed on 131 children aged 1 to 18 years. In 95 of these ears, a paper patch myringoplasty was performed after tube removal. No significant difference (87% vs 85%) in the overall healing rate at 6 months was shown between these two groups. An analysis of the variables potentially affecting outcome revealed that healing following simple tube removal was influenced by the frequency of tube placement and by tube size. Paper patch myringoplasty significantly improved outcome (93% vs 61%) in ears with more than three previous tube placements.

    Title Usefulness of Computed Tomographic Scan in the Evaluation of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Children.
    Date May 1992
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    A retrospective chart study was conducted to determine the diagnostic yield of temporal bone imaging for children with sensorineural hearing loss of unknown cause. Seventy consecutive cases, spanning 4.5 years, were identified and individual computed tomography films reviewed. Cases were analyzed with respect to patients' age, duration of hearing loss, sudden onset vs progressive loss, unilateral vs bilateral, and other symptoms. Of the 70 computed tomographic scans, nine showed temporal bone or other intracranial abnormalities. The majority of these findings were localized to structures in the posterior and middle cranial fossae. No eight nerve tumors were identified. Congenital hearing loss and hearing loss secondary to viral infections are the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss when discovered in early childhood and, often, have no radiographic abnormality. The decision to explore an ear for a presumed perilymph fistula is based almost exclusively on the history and physical examination, and not on the demonstration of any radiographic findings. For the children presenting with stable hearing impairment in the absence of other findings, computed tomographic scans were either negative or did not contribute to diagnosis. Since tumors of the eighth nerve are rare in children under 16 years of age (without neurofibromatosis), and radiologic studies have a low yield in identifying perilymph fistulas, the routine use of computed tomographic imaging in such children may be unjustified.

    Title Is Outpatient Tonsillectomy Appropriate for Young Children?
    Date April 1992
    Journal The Laryngoscope
    Excerpt

    The current literature suggests that outpatient tonsillectomy is a safe, cost-effective procedure. These reports have based their conclusions on the low rates of postoperative bleeding and dehydration. Generally, they have not examined other factors that may influence the postoperative course or identified groups of patients in whom outpatient management may not be appropriate. The literature regarding tonsillectomy in young children is conflicting. A retrospective analysis of the records of 223 children, 36 months of age and younger who had tonsillectomies, was performed. Postoperative airway complications including oxygen desaturation and airway obstruction developed in 115 patients. Seventeen (7.6%) children required postoperative care in an intensive care unit while an additional 117 (52.5%) patients received more than standard management. Preoperative apnea, an age of less than 12 months, and the presence of accompanying medical conditions were associated with a higher incidence of postoperative airway complications. It is recommended that tonsillectomy in patients under 36 months of age be planned as an inpatient procedure.

    Title First Branchial Cleft Anomalies Involving the Tympanic Membrane and Middle Ear.
    Date November 1991
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    First branchial cleft anomalies may involve the tympanic membrane or middle ear. A complete otologic examination must be performed in any patient with a suspected first branchial cleft anomaly. A surgeon treating such a defect must be prepared to perform both the excision of the lesion and reconstructive otologic surgery.

    Title Torticollis in Children.
    Date October 1991
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Torticollis is a common clinical sign that is found in a variety of disorders. Childhood torticollis differs from the adult form in that congenital types are common and many frequently encountered disorders found in adults are unusual. Pediatric torticollis related to otolaryngologic conditions is reviewed, and three illustrative cases are presented.

    Title Radial Versus Circumferential Incision in Myringotomy and Tube Placement.
    Date September 1991
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Excerpt

    Pressure equalization tubes are a well-recognized treatment for persistent otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media. Ideally, the tube should remain in place until the Eustachian tube function returns. Efforts to improve the functional life expectancy of tubes have concentrated on tube design with little attention directed at modification of the surgical technique. Some authors have noted that a radial incision offers theoretical advantages over a circumferential incision. A randomized study comparing radial and circumferential incisions in myringotomy with tube placement was conducted. Two hundred and twenty-eight patients had a circumferential incision performed in one ear and a radial incision in the opposite ear. On follow-up examinations the tube position and time to extrusion were noted. Using the sign test, there was no statistical difference in extrusion rates between the two groups. This study does not support the theoretical advantages espoused in the literature.

    Title Mandibular Fractures in the Pediatric Patient.
    Date June 1991
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Seventy-three patients were admitted to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pa) between January 1979 and June 1989 with a diagnosis of mandibular fracture. Data were obtained through a retrospective review of these cases. The cases were divided into three age groups that reflected the developing structure of the mandible and the maturation of the dentition. A trend toward a greater number of fractures and a predominance of males is shown with increasing age. Child abuse is a relatively frequent cause of fractures throughout all groups. Associated injuries are more common in young children, except in cases where abuse has been documented. The high osteogenic potential of the pediatric mandible allowed conservative management to be successful in 25% of younger patients and was responsible for a low complication rate overall.

    Title Branchial Cleft Anomalies: a Five-year Retrospective Review.
    Date May 1991
    Journal Transactions - Pennsylvania Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
    Excerpt

    Branchial cleft cysts, sinuses and fistulas are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulties in differential diagnosis and surgical management. In order to study the clinical presentation and surgical management of branchial cleft anomalies, the operative records of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) were reviewed for a five year period, January 1, 1982 through December 31, 1986. All patients with a pathologically-confirmed post-operative diagnosis of a branchial cleft anomaly were included in a retrospective chart review. Their case histories were studied to determine symptoms upon presentation, presence or absence of drainage, type of lesion, site of lesion, characteristics of the lesion, accuracy of pre-operative diagnosis, recurrence and complications. A total of 71 patients, 39 males and 32 females, underwent surgical excision of a branchial cleft cyst, sinus or fistula during the study period. There were 23 branchial cleft cysts, 50 sinuses and 3 fistulas. A correct pre-operative diagnosis was established in 60 (85%) of the patients, being highest for patients with branchial cleft fistulas. Incorrect pre-operative diagnoses included thyroglossal duct cyst, cervical lymphadenitis, dermoid, dermal inclusion cyst, lymphangioma and malignant neoplasm. The clinical presentation, pre-operative evaluation, pitfalls in diagnosis, surgical management and post-operative complications are discussed and strategies for the management of branchial cleft anomalies are presented.

    Title Vocal Cord Paralysis in Children.
    Date December 1990
    Journal The Laryngoscope
    Excerpt

    Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of stridor in infants and children. There are significant differences in this entity between children and adults with regard to etiology, diagnosis, management, and outcome. A review of 10 years' experience at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia identified 51 children seen with the diagnosis of vocal cord paralysis. These cases were evaluated with respect to etiology of paralysis, whether unilateral or bilateral, delay in diagnosis, need for tracheotomy, abnormality of voice, surgical treatment, and outcome. Guidelines for management for a child with vocal cord paralysis are presented with emphasis on flexible endoscopic evaluation and conservative management.

    Title The Efficacy of Cefaclor Vs Amoxicillin on Recovery After Tonsillectomy in Children.
    Date May 1990
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy continues to be one of the most commonly performed operations in the pediatric age group. The morbidity from tonsillectomy can be severe and includes throat and ear pain, fever, lethargy, and poor oral intake. A previous study at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pa) demonstrated the efficacy of amoxicillin therapy in minimizing some of these postoperative symptoms. However, some children continue to have a prolonged recovery even while receiving this antibiotic regimen. Because of these children and the high incidence of Staphylococcus found in tonsillar core tissue, a randomized, prospective study was undertaken at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia to evaluate the efficacy of cefaclor vs amoxicillin in patients recovering from tonsillectomy. The patients received either ampicillin or cefazolin intravenously at the time of surgery and for 12 to 24 hours postoperatively. When oral intake was adequate, they received either amoxicillin or cefaclor orally for 7 additional postoperative days. Intraoperative cultures of the oropharynx and tonsillar tissue were obtained, as well as cultures of the tonsillar fossa 7 to 14 days postoperatively. The patients were evaluated for severity and duration of postoperative symptoms as well as complications. The results of this study showed no difference between the two groups of patients. We conclude that there is no justification for routine use of cefaclor over amoxicillin in the posttonsillectomy patient.

    Title Approach to the Pediatric Neck Mass.
    Date May 1990
    Journal Transactions - Pennsylvania Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
    Excerpt

    Neck masses are frequent findings in the pediatric population and the physician caring for a child with a neck mass may be faced with a diagnostic dilemma. The etiology of pediatric cervical masses includes a variety of conditions. Unlike for the adult, there are few established guidelines for evaluation of these children. A recent review of 445 neck masses operated on at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia noted the preoperative diagnosis to be correct in 270, or only 61%. Clinical characteristics which may aid in establishing a correct preoperative diagnosis, as well as guidelines for the evaluation of the child presenting with a neck mass will be discussed.

    Title Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Head and Neck in Children.
    Date May 1990
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in infants and children, with the head and neck being the most frequent site of involvement. Treatment for this neoplasm has undergone many changes, with a much improved prognosis using a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. This retrospective analysis presents the management and outcome of 60 children (aged 3 months to 18 years) with rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Pa) between 1970 and 1987. The overall death rate for all head and neck sites decreased from 50% in 1970 to 1979 to 23% in 1980 to 1987, reflecting the improved management protocol.

    Title Otolaryngologic Manifestations of Pregnancy.
    Date April 1990
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Title Desmoplastic Fibroma of the Mandible.
    Date November 1989
    Journal Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
    Excerpt

    Desmoplastic fibromas of the facial skeleton are the bony counterparts to the soft-tissue desmoid tumors and are almost exclusively confined to the mandible. The diagnosis should be considered whenever a rapidly increasing swelling with little functional disability is noted in the mandible. Historical, clinical, radiologic, and histologic findings must be correlated to establish the correct diagnosis. Every effort must be made to distinguish these lesions from well-differentiated fibrosarcomas. An illustrative case is presented. The treatment of desmoplastic fibromas affecting the facial skeleton should be conservative. Curettage is recommended for small tumors. Wide resections with reconstruction should be reserved for larger lesions and for those that have recurred after conservative treatment.

    Title Laryngotracheoplasty in the Management of Subglottic Stenosis.
    Date October 1989
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Excerpt

    Laryngotracheoplasty (LTP) has revolutionized the surgical management of subglottic stenosis in children. A 10-year review of patients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia yielded 27 patients who had undergone a LTP. LTP with an anterior cartilage graft was utilized in over 80% of procedures. Morbidity was minimal, and there were no deaths. In this series, 78% of patients have been successfully decannulated. LTP has reduced the time necessary for decannulation in children with chronic tracheostomies as a result of subglottic stenosis.

    Title Ototoxicity of Antimycotics.
    Date May 1989
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Neither otomycoses nor defects of the tympanic membrane are rare. In cases of fungal infection when the tympanic membrane is not intact, the possibility exists that antimycotic medication could enter the middle ear and diffuse into the cochlea via the round window. Five antimycotic preparations were tested for acute ototoxic potential in guinea pigs. Those containing acetic acid or propylene glycol caused appreciable elevation of brainstem response thresholds, while little or no impairment resulted from tolnaftate or clotrimazole solutions in polyethylene glycol 400.

    Title Pediatric Neck Masses: Guidelines for Evaluation.
    Date May 1989
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Excerpt

    Neck masses are frequent findings in the pediatric population. Unlike the adult, there are few established guidelines for evaluation of these children. The etiology of cervical masses includes many conditions. Knowledge of these conditions and their clinical presentations is essential. To elucidate the clinical characteristics which may help in establishing a correct diagnosis, the charts of 445 patients with biopsies of neck masses performed at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were analyzed. There were 244 (55%) congenital lesions, 118 (27%) inflammatory lesions, 23 (5%) non-inflammatory benign masses, 12 (3%) benign neoplasms, and 48 (11%) malignancies. The preoperative diagnosis was correct in 270 (61%) patients. Guidelines are established for the evaluation of the child presenting with a neck mass.

    Title The Anterior Cricoid Split: the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Experience.
    Date February 1989
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Excerpt

    The anterior cricoid split procedure (ACS) is an alternative to tracheotomy in selected infants with subglottic stenosis. From February 1983 to October 1987, 26 children underwent ACS at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. All children had subglottic stenosis. Six children had previously undergone tracheotomy. A successful outcome, allowing extubation or decannulation, correlated only with decreased pre-operative intubation time and was achieved in 73% of these patients. A failed ACS had little adverse affect on the subsequent management of these children.

    Title Microbiology of the Tonsils and Adenoids in a Pediatric Population.
    Date July 1988
    Journal Archives of Otolaryngology--head & Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    To investigate the microbial flora of the tonsils and adenoids, the core tissue from the tonsils and adenoids of 50 children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy for either recurrent infection or airway obstruction was cultured aerobically and anaerobically, and the number of bacterial colonies was quantitated. The most common organisms isolated were alpha-hemolytic streptococci, nonpathogenic Neisseria species, Haemophilus species, Staphylococcus aureus, and Corynebacterium species. No anaerobes were identified. Bacterial isolates from the tonsils and adenoids were similar in number and frequency of occurrence. Potential pathogenic bacteria (Haemophilus species, S aureus, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) were identified in 40 patients. Seventy-three percent of these patients shared a common pathogen in tonsil and adenoid tissue. Haemophilus species were recovered in 54% of patients and S aureus in 46%. No significant difference exists between the type and number of pathogens in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy for recurrent infection or obstruction.

    Title Ludwig's Angina Caused by Haemophilus Influenzae Type B.
    Date May 1988
    Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
    Title The Sternocleidomastoid Tumor of Infancy.
    Date January 1988
    Journal International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Excerpt

    The sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy is an uncommon clinical entity which has received little attention in the otolaryngological literature. The diagnosis must be considered in any infant presenting with a lateral neck mass. Although its natural history favors spontaneous regression, the mass may initially grow in size. The purpose of treatment is the prevention of torticollis and craniofacial asymmetry. The initial treatment is non-surgical, passive and active exercises. Only when this treatment fails should surgery be performed. The disappearance of the lesion is not always a predictable sign. A small number of children will develop delayed torticollis or craniofacial asymmetry. It is important that parents be informed of this possibility and of the necessity for long term follow-up.

    Title Benign Osteoblastoma of the Maxillary Sinus.
    Date April 1985
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    The benign osteoblastoma is an uncommon bone tumor. It is a benign but actively growing neoplasm that must be differentiated from more aggressive bony lesions. A review of the literature indicates that 14% of benign osteoblastomas are located in the head. The clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features and treatment of the benign osteoblastoma are discussed. In addition, the third case of a benign osteoblastoma of the paranasal sinuses, and the first of the maxillary sinus, is described.

    Title Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx.
    Date April 1982
    Journal Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery
    Excerpt

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is most commonly found in the parotid gland. It rarely occurs in the larynx and hypopharynx. There are only 32 reported cases from these areas. A case of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the hypopharynx is presented. Although the initial impression was squamous cell carcinoma, glandular structures were found in metastatic lymph nodes in the neck specimen, and after mucicarmine stains were positive, the final diagnosis was changed to mucoepidermoid carcinoma. This case illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma, especially in unexpected locations. Differentiating mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other neoplasms is important because treatment may differ depending on the diagnosis. The pathologic spectrum of mucoepidermoid carcinoma is presented, and the management of these tumors with respect to the histologic grade is discussed.

    Title Hemoptysis in Children.
    Date January 1981
    Journal The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
    Excerpt

    Hemoptysis is uncommon in the pediatric age group. There is little mentioned regarding this problem in either the pediatric or the otolaryngologic literature. A review of the past ten years' experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia identified 40 patients whose presenting symptoms included hemoptysis. Causes of the hemoptysis included tumor, infection, trauma, and foreign bodies, as well as a variety of other conditions. Based on these findings, a systematic approach to the diagnostic evaluation of the pediatric patient with hemoptysis has been developed. A thorough endoscopic examination of the upper aerodigestive tract is essential in most cases, and can have both diagnostic and therapeutic value. Particular attention is directed toward airway management in patients with massive hemorrhage. Close cooperation among the bronchoesophagologist, pediatrician, and anesthesiologist is mandatory for optimal care of the child with hemoptysis.

    Title Computed Tomography in Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology.
    Date October 1979
    Journal Transactions - Pennsylvania Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology

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