Browse Health
Internist, Gastroenterologist (digestive)
26 years of experience
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Columbia University (1984)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
One of America's Leading Experts on:
Hepatectomy
Associations
American Board of Internal Medicine

Affiliations ?

Dr. Greenbaum is affiliated with 4 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Pennsylvania Hospital University PA Health System
    800 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19107
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Hospital of the University of PA
    3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
    111 S 11th St, Philadelphia, PA 19107
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Methodist Hospital
    2301 S Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19148
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Greenbaum has contributed to 23 publications.
    Title Nuclear Factor κb Up-regulation of Ccaat/enhancer-binding Protein β Mediates Hepatocyte Resistance to Tumor Necrosis Factor α Toxicity.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Hepatology (baltimore, Md.)
    Excerpt

    The sensitization of hepatocytes to cell death from tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) underlies many forms of hepatic injury, including that from toxins. Critical for hepatocyte resistance to TNFα toxicity is activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, which prevents TNFα-induced death by the up-regulation of protective proteins. To further define the mechanisms of hepatocyte sensitization to TNFα killing, immunoblot analysis comparing livers from mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or LPS together with the hepatotoxin galactosamine (GalN) was performed to identify TNFα-induced protective proteins blocked by GalN. Levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were increased after LPS treatment but not GalN/LPS treatment. In a nontransformed rat hepatocyte cell line, TNFα-induced increases in C/EBPβ protein levels were dependent on NF-κB-mediated inhibition of proteasomal degradation. Pharmacological inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) did not affect C/EBPβ degradation, indicating that the process was JNK-independent. C/EBPβ functioned to prevent cell death as adenoviral C/EBPβ overexpression blocked TNFα-induced apoptosis in cells sensitized to TNFα toxicity by NF-κB inhibition. C/EBPβ inhibited TNFα-induced caspase 8 activation and downstream mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase 3 and caspase 7 activation. Studies in primary hepatocytes from c/ebpβ(-/-) mice confirmed that loss of C/EBPβ increased death from TNFα. c/ebpβ(-/-) mice were also sensitized to liver injury from a nontoxic dose of LPS or TNFα. The absence of jnk2 failed to reverse the GalN-induced block in C/EBPβ induction by LPS, again demonstrating that C/EBPβ degradation was JNK-independent. Conclusion: C/EBPβ is up-regulated by TNFα and mediates hepatocyte resistance to TNFα toxicity by inhibiting caspase-dependent apoptosis. In the absence of NF-κB signaling, proteasomal degradation of C/EBPβ is increased by a JNK-independent mechanism and promotes death from TNFα.

    Title Hedgehog Signaling in Biliary Fibrosis.
    Date November 2008
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    Congenital and acquired diseases of the biliary tree, or cholangiopathies, represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. In late stages of the disease, cholangiocytes can no longer proliferate, resulting in loss of bile ducts, increased fibrosis, and ultimately cirrhosis and liver failure. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying both cholangiocyte proliferation and fibrogenesis in biliary diseases. In this issue of the JCI, using a myofibroblast-cholangiocyte coculture system and genetically modified mice, Omenetti and colleagues present evidence supporting the importance of paracrine hedgehog signaling between the two cell types and increased expression of mesenchymal markers in cholangiocytes (see the related article beginning on page 3331). These findings set the stage for future studies to further investigate the contribution of hedgehog signaling in both cholangiocyte repair and fibrogenesis in biliary diseases.

    Title Distinct Proliferative and Transcriptional Effects of the D-type Cyclins in Vivo.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Cell Cycle (georgetown, Tex.)
    Excerpt

    The D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are components of the cell cycle machinery and govern progression through G(1) phase in response to extracellular signals. Although these proteins are highly homologous and conserved in evolution, they contain distinct structural motifs and are differentially regulated in various cell types. Cyclin D1 appears to play a role in many different types of cancer, whereas cyclins D2 and D3 are less frequently associated with malignancy. In this study, we transiently expressed cyclin D1, D2 or D3 in hepatocytes and analyzed transcriptional networks regulated by each. All three D-type cyclins promoted robust hepatocyte proliferation and marked liver growth, although cyclin D3 stimulated less DNA synthesis than D1 or D2. Accordingly, the three D-type cyclins similarly activated genes associated with cell division. Cyclin D1 regulated transcriptional pathways involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and other substrates, whereas cyclin D2 did not regulate these pathways despite having an equivalent effect on proliferation. Comparison of transcriptional profiles following 70% partial hepatectomy and cyclin D1 transduction revealed a highly significant overlap, suggesting that cyclin D1 may regulate diverse cellular processes in the regenerating liver. In summary, these studies provide the first comparative analysis of the transcriptional networks regulated by the D-type cyclins and provide insight into novel functions of these key cell cycle proteins. Further study of the unique targets of cyclin D1 should provide further insight into its prominent role in proliferation, growth and cancer.

    Title Ccaat/enhancer Binding Protein-beta is a Transcriptional Regulator of Peroxisome-proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma Coactivator-1alpha in the Regenerating Liver.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Molecular Endocrinology (baltimore, Md.)
    Excerpt

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is induced in the liver in response to fasting and coordinates the activation of targets necessary for increasing energy production for gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. After partial hepatectomy, the liver must restore its mass while maintaining metabolic homeostasis to ensure survival. Here we report that PGC-1alpha is rapidly and dramatically induced after hepatectomy, with an amplitude of induction that exceeds the fasting response. Maximal activation of PGC-1alpha after hepatectomy is dependent on the basic leucine zipper transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBPbeta), a critical factor in hepatocyte proliferation. We demonstrate in vivo C/EBPbeta binding to C/EBP and cAMP response element sites in the PGC-1alpha promoter and show that the C/EBP site is essential for PGC-1alpha activation. Expression of the PGC-1alpha target, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a, the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid beta-oxidation, and of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids, was significantly reduced in C/EBPbeta(-/-) livers after hepatectomy. These findings identify C/EBPbeta as a direct activator of PGC-1alpha in the regenerating liver. The demonstration of a functional link between C/EBPbeta and PGC-1alpha activation provides a likely mechanism for how upstream signaling pathways in the regenerating liver can enable the adaptation to the changed metabolic status.

    Title C/ebpbeta Activates E2f-regulated Genes in Vivo Via Recruitment of the Coactivator Creb-binding Protein/p300.
    Date October 2007
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The E2F transcription factors play an essential role in regulating the G(1)- to S-phase transition of the cell cycle. Previous studies have identified the importance of interactions between E2Fs and other transcription factors as a mechanism for transcriptional control of a subset of E2F regulated target genes. However, the mechanisms responsible for E2F target gene specificity remain incompletely understood. Here we report that in a mammalian in vivo model of synchronized proliferation, C/EBPbeta occupancy on the promoters of E2F-regulated growth-related genes increases as a function of cell cycle progression. C/EPBbeta binding to these promoters is associated with recruitment of the coactivator CBP/p300, histone H4 acetylation, and maximal activation of E2F target genes. Moreover, binding of CBP/p300 to E2F targets is markedly reduced in C/EBPbeta null mice, resulting in reduced expression of E2F regulated genes. These findings identify C/EBPbeta as a direct activator of E2F target genes in mammalian cell cycle progression through a mechanism that involves recruitment of CBP/p300. The demonstration of a functional link between C/EBPbeta and CBP/p300 for E2F target gene activation provides a potential mechanism for how coactivators such as CBP/p300 can be selectively recruited to E2F target genes in response to tissue-specific growth stimuli.

    Title Foxa2 Integrates the Transcriptional Response of the Hepatocyte to Fasting.
    Date September 2005
    Journal Cell Metabolism
    Excerpt

    Survival during prolonged food deprivation depends on the activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Inappropriate regulation of this process is a hallmark of diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Activation of the genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes is mediated by hormone-responsive transcription factors such as the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here we show using cell-type-specific gene ablation that the winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 is required for activation of the hepatic gluconeogenic program during fasting. Specifically, Foxa2 promotes gene activation both by cyclic AMP, the second messenger for glucagon, and glucocorticoids. Foxa2 mediates these effects by enabling recruitment of CREB and GR to their respective target sites in chromatin. We conclude that Foxa2 is required for execution of the hepatic gluconeogenic program by integrating the transcriptional response of the hepatocyte to hormonal stimulation.

    Title Cell Cycle Regulation and Hepatocarcinogenesis.
    Date July 2005
    Journal Cancer Biology & Therapy
    Excerpt

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops on a background of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. The slow progression of this disease has facilitated the identification of discrete pathologic stages. Increased rates of hepatocyte proliferation in preneoplastic nodules is an early event in the progression of HCC. Increased cell turnover results in the selection of monoclonal hepatocyte populations that subsequently undergo genomic alterations that lead to the development of HCC. The heterogeneous nature of genomic alterations identified in tumors from patients with HCC has impeded the identification of regulatory pathways whose disruption are critical for tumor initiation. However, several regulatory networks important for liver cell proliferation have been characterized using the partial hepatectomy model, an in vivo model of liver cell cycle progression, and are likely relevant to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Title Identification of Transcriptional Networks During Liver Regeneration.
    Date March 2005
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The molecular analysis of mammalian cellular proliferation in vivo is limited in most organ systems by the low turnover and/or the asynchronous nature of cell cycle progression. A notable exception is the partial hepatectomy model, in which quiescent hepatocytes reenter the cell cycle and progress in a synchronous fashion. Here we have exploited this model to identify regulatory networks operative in the mammalian cell cycle. We performed microarray-based expression profiling on livers 0-40 h post-hepatectomy corresponding to G0, G1, and S phases. Differentially expressed genes were identified using the statistical analysis program PaGE (Patterns from Gene Expression), which was highly accurate as confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of randomly selected targets. A shift in the transcriptional program from genes involved in lipid and hormone biosynthesis in the quiescent liver to those contributing to cytoskeleton assembly and DNA synthesis in the proliferating liver was demonstrated by biological theme analysis. In a novel approach, we employed computational pathway analysis tools to identify specific regulatory networks operative at various stages of the cell cycle. This allowed us to identify a large cluster of genes controlling mitotic spindle assembly and checkpoint control at the 40-h time point as regulated at the mRNA level in vivo.

    Title Orthogonal Analysis of C/ebpbeta Targets in Vivo During Liver Proliferation.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Excerpt

    CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), a basic-leucine zipper transcription factor, is an important effector of signals in physiologic growth and cancer. The identification of direct C/EBPbeta targets in vivo has been limited by functional compensation by other C/EBP family proteins and the low stringency of the consensus sequence. Here we use the combined power of expression profiling and high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify direct and biologically relevant targets of C/EBPbeta. We identified 25 potential C/EBPbeta targets, of which 88% of those tested were confirmed as in vivo C/EBPbeta-binding sites. Six of these genes also displayed differential expression in C/EBPbeta-/- livers. Computational analysis revealed that bona fide C/EBPbeta target genes can be distinguished by the presence of binding motifs for specific additional transcription factors in the vicinity of the C/EBPbeta site. This approach is generally applicable to the discovery of direct, biologically relevant targets of mammalian transcription factors.

    Title The Proinflammatory Mediators C3a and C5a Are Essential for Liver Regeneration.
    Date November 2003
    Journal The Journal of Experimental Medicine
    Excerpt

    Complement has been implicated in liver repair after toxic injury. Here, we demonstrate that complement components are essential for liver regeneration, and mediate their effect by interacting with key signaling networks that promote hepatocyte proliferation. C3- or C5-deficient mice exhibited high mortality, parenchymal damage, and impaired liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Mice with dual C3 and C5 deficiency had a more exacerbated phenotype that was reversed by combined C3a and C5a reconstitution. Interception of C5a receptor signaling resulted in suppression of IL-6/TNFalpha induction and lack of C3 and C5a receptor stimulation attenuated nuclear factor-kappaB/STAT-3 activation after hepatectomy. These data indicate that C3a and C5a, two potent inflammatory mediators of the innate immune response, contribute essentially to the early priming stages of hepatocyte regeneration.

    Title Interleukin-6 Protects Against Fas-mediated Death by Establishing a Critical Level of Anti-apoptotic Hepatic Proteins Flip, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl.
    Date August 2001
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Previous studies showed that following acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) treatment, interleukin-6 null (IL-6-/-) mice develop increased hepatocellular injury, defective regeneration, delayed wound healing, and increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Pretreatment with IL-6 prior to CCl(4) reduces injury, hepatocyte apoptosis, and accelerates regeneration in both IL-6-/- and +/+ livers. To demonstrate whether IL-6 can prevent liver injury that involves direct stimulation of hepatocyte apoptosis, IL-6-/- and +/+ mice were treated with the Fas agonist, Jo-2 mAb. At low Fas agonist doses, IL-6+/+ mice developed mild hepatic injury and survived, whereas IL-6-/- mice developed severe apoptotic hepatitis within 12 h and died. Pretreatment with IL-6 improved survival in IL-6-/- mice and reduced injury in both IL-6-/- and +/+ livers. The direct anti-apoptotic effects of IL-6 were demonstrated in vitro as IL-6 decreased Fas-mediated apoptosis in both IL-6-/- and +/+ primary hepatocyte cultures, and suggested that IL-6-/- hepatocytes have a pre-existing defect in anti-apoptotic pathways. After Fas activation, IL-6-/- livers demonstrated evidence of both proximal and distal alterations in the apoptotic pathways including elevated caspase 8 and 3 activation-associated fragments, and loss of cytochrome c staining. IL-6-/- livers had reduced pre-existing protein expression of the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as more rapid degradation of FLIP following Fas treatment that appeared to be post-transcriptionally regulated. FLIP is a crucial proximal inhibitor of caspase 8 activation in Fas, tumor necrosis factor, and DR3/DR4-mediated apoptosis, and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL more downstream anti-apoptotic regulators. IL-6 may function as a critical anti-apoptotic factor in the liver by its ability to establish and maintain an adequate level of FLIP and downstream anti-apoptotic factors.

    Title Fas-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Hepatocytes is Dependent on C/ebpbeta.
    Date May 2001
    Journal Hepatology (baltimore, Md.)
    Excerpt

    Apoptotic cell death in the liver in response to activation of the Fas pathway has been implicated in human disease states as well as liver remodeling and tissue repair. C/EBPbeta, a member of the CCAAT enhancer binding protein family of bZIP transcription factors has been linked to both growth response and apoptotic targets in the liver, and, therefore, is a likely candidate for the regulation of apoptotic liver injury. We investigated differences in apoptotic cell death in the livers of C/EBPbeta-null mice using the Jo-2 agonistic anti-Fas antibody. Apoptotic injury was dramatically reduced in C/EBPbeta -/- livers as shown by a nearly 20-fold reduction in apoptotic hepatocytes 6 hours post-Jo-2 treatment in C/EBPbeta -/- hepatocytes compared with controls (P < .04) and reduced activation of caspase 3. Bid cleavage occurred in Jo-2 treated C/EBPbeta -/- livers indicating a block of Fas-induced injury distal to the death-inducing signaling complex. The level of the antiapoptotic protein bcl-x(L) was increased greater than tenfold in the mutant animals (P < .04), which can, at least in part, account for the protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, bcl-x(L) mRNA levels were unchanged. These observations link C/EBPbeta to Fas-induced hepatocyte apoptosis through a mechanism that likely involves translational or posttranslational regulation of bcl-x(L).

    Title Activation of Interleukin-6/stat3 and Liver Regeneration Following Transplantation.
    Date May 2001
    Journal The Journal of Surgical Research
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Every liver that is procured, stored, and transplanted experiences injury from cold ischemia and reperfusion. Most recover quickly, but some grafts sustain enough injury to result in prolonged organ dysfunction or require retransplantation. The molecular mechanisms involved in early graft function and recovery following cold ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) after liver transplantation have not been well defined. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a critical factor in the mitogenic response within the liver, and is important for cell cycle progression and protection from injury. Activation of the latent transcription factor, STAT3, is dependent on IL-6 release. The role of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway and hepatocellular regeneration in graft recovery and cell cycle progression following cold ischemia and reperfusion was studied in a rat liver transplant orthotopic (OLT) model. Methods. Rat OLT was performed in a syngeneic model. The presence, time course, and magnitude of expression of IL-6, STAT3 activation, and upregulation of target immediate early genes were determined in liver grafts with minimal (<1 h) and prolonged (12 h) cold preservation times followed by transplantation. Progression of the cell cycle and replication was confirmed by BrdU uptake. RESULTS: Prolonged cold ischemia resulted in increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 activation. This correlated with upregulation of junB, c-fos, c-myc, and c-jun, immediate early genes associated with hepatic regeneration. Extensive DNA replication was present in livers with 12-h ischemia, demonstrating successful completion of the cell cycle. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway leading to cell cycle progression and regeneration is an important component in the recovery of organs immediately following cold preservation and transplantation.

    Title Liver-specific and Proliferation-induced Deoxyribonuclease I Hypersensitive Sites in the Mouse Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 Gene.
    Date November 1999
    Journal Hepatology (baltimore, Md.)
    Excerpt

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) gene is highly expressed in fetal, perinatal, and regenerating liver. Up-regulation is transcriptionally mediated in regenerating liver and occurs in the first few minutes to hours after partial hepatectomy. In transgenic mice a 970-bp region from -776 to +151 of the IGFBP-1 promoter was sufficient for tissue-specific and induced expression of the gene in fetal and hepatectomized livers. However weak and/or poorly regulated expression in some transgenic lines suggested the existence of other regulatory regions. Here, genomic clones containing large regions 5' of the mouse IGFBP-1 gene sequence were isolated, subcloned, and sequenced. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNaseI) hypersensitivity analyses identified clusters of tissue-specific nuclease-sensitive sites in the promoter region, -100 to -300, -2,300, -3,100, and -5,000 along with other weak sites. After partial hepatectomy, enhanced sensitivity and/or novel sites were detected in the -100/-300, -5,000, and -3,100 regions, the promoter region remaining the most hypersensitive. A subset of these sites was present in fetal and perinatal livers. Novel tissue-specific sites that interacted with C/EBP and hepatic nuclear factor 3 (HNF3) transcription factors were identified in the -3,100 region. A hepatectomy-induced DNA binding complex containing the transcription factor USF1 was identified within the -100 to -300 region of the promoter. These results suggested that a complex array of tissue-specific and hepatic proliferation-induced transcription factors combine to regulate both the proximal promoter and more distal regulatory elements of the IGFBP-1 gene.

    Title Transcriptional Regulatory Signals Define Cytokine-dependent and -independent Pathways in Liver Regeneration.
    Date September 1999
    Journal Seminars in Liver Disease
    Excerpt

    Partial hepatectomy and toxic liver damage induce signals in the liver that result in rapid changes in the transcriptional milieu, including activation of latent transcription factors NF-kappa B and STAT3, and induction of expression of early growth response genes. Several of these changes within hepatocytes, including STAT3 and NF-kappa B induction are dependent on the cytokines, TNF alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6), that are presumably released from non-parenchymal liver cells within minutes of the hepatectomy. IL-6 is a critical factor in the mitogenic response during liver regeneration and is important for both cell cycle progression and protection from liver injury. However, it is not a complete factor in that it is responsible for only a subset of the gene expression changes that occur after hepatectomy and is insufficient alone to cause hepatic DNA synthesis. C/EBP beta, a leucine zipper transcription factor, acts in an IL-6 independent fashion to induce a separate set of genes and proteins and is also required for normal liver regeneration. Moreover, some early growth response genes such as PRL-1, which encodes a nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase, are induced normally in the absence of C/EBP beta and IL-6 and highlight the role of other transcriptional complexes such as Egr-1 in the early phases of liver regeneration. Thus, cytokine-dependent and -independent pathways act cooperatively to control the complex series of events that result in liver regeneration. The requirement for multiple signals also protects the liver from undergoing hyperplasia in the absence of a compensatory need.

    Title Ccaat Enhancer- Binding Protein Beta is Required for Normal Hepatocyte Proliferation in Mice After Partial Hepatectomy.
    Date October 1998
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    After two-thirds hepatectomy, normally quiescent liver cells are stimulated to reenter the cell cycle and proliferate to restore the original liver mass. The level of bZIP transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) increases in the liver during the period of cell proliferation. The significance of this change in C/EBP expression is not understood. To determine the role of C/EBPbeta in the regenerating liver, we examined the regenerative response after partial hepatectomy in mice that contain a targeted disruption of the C/EBPbeta gene. Posthepatectomy, hepatocyte DNA synthesis was decreased to 25% of normal in C/EBPbeta -/- mice. The reduced regenerative response was associated with a prolonged period of hypoglycemia that was independent of expression of C/EBPalpha protein and gluconeogenic genes. C/EBPbeta -/- livers showed reduced expression of immediate-early growth-control genes including the Egr-1 transcription factor, mitogen-activated protein kinase protein tyrosine phosphatase (MKP-1), and HRS, a delayed-early gene that encodes an mRNA splicing protein. Cyclin B and E gene expression were dramatically reduced in C/EBPbeta -/- livers whereas cyclin D1 expression was normal. The abnormalities in immediate-early gene expression in C/EBPbeta -/- livers were distinct from those seen in IL-6 -/- livers. These data link C/EBPbeta to the activation of metabolic and growth response pathways in the regenerating liver and demonstrate that C/EBPbeta is required for a normal proliferative response.

    Title Hrs/srp40-mediated Inclusion of the Fibronectin Eiiib Exon, a Possible Cause of Increased Eiiib Expression in Proliferating Liver.
    Date July 1997
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
    Excerpt

    Serine-arginine (SR)-rich proteins are believed to be important in mediating alternative pre-mRNA splicing. HRS/SRp40 expression is elevated in liver cell proliferation during development, regeneration, and oncogenesis. We tested whether HRS expression correlates with the appearance of alternatively spliced fibronectin transcripts during liver growth. HRS was highly expressed during the proliferative phase of liver development, correlating with expression of the fibronectin EIIIB alternative exon. In regenerating liver, HRS protein was induced in a time course consistent with the observed increase in fibronectin transcripts containing the EIIIB exon, particularly in nonparenchymal liver cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo assay, HRS, and not other SR proteins, directly mediated EIIIB exon inclusion in the fibronectin transcript. This alternative splicing was dependent on a purine-rich region within the EIIIB exon to which HRS specifically bound. We have established that HRS has the potential to contribute to the regulation of fibronectin pre-mRNA splicing during liver growth. Changes in fibronectin forms may be important in modifying liver architecture during the proliferative response, thus providing a potential mechanism by which SR proteins may participate in cellular growth control.

    Title A Multicomponent Insulin Response Sequence Mediates a Strong Repression of Mouse Glucose-6-phosphatase Gene Transcription by Insulin.
    Date June 1997
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalyzes the final step in the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. The transcription of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of G6Pase is stimulated by glucocorticoids, whereas insulin strongly inhibits both basal G6Pase gene transcription and the stimulatory effect of glucocorticoids. To identify the insulin response sequence (IRS) in the G6Pase promoter through which insulin mediates its action, we have analyzed the effect of insulin on the basal expression of mouse G6Pase-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes transiently expressed in hepatoma cells. Deletion of the G6Pase promoter sequence between -271 and -199 partially reduces the inhibitory effect of insulin, whereas deletion of additional sequence between -198 and -159 completely abolishes the insulin response. The presence of this multicomponent IRS may explain why insulin potently inhibits basal G6Pase-CAT expression. The G6Pase promoter region between -198 and -159 contains an IRS, since it can confer an inhibitory effect of insulin on the expression of a heterologous fusion gene. This region contains three copies of the T(G/A)TTTTG sequence, which is the core motif of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene IRS. This suggests that a coordinate increase in both G6Pase and PEPCK gene transcription is likely to contribute to the increased hepatic glucose production characteristic of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Title Liver Failure and Defective Hepatocyte Regeneration in Interleukin-6-deficient Mice.
    Date December 1996
    Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
    Excerpt

    Liver regeneration stimulated by a loss of liver mass leads to hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cell proliferation and rapid restoration of liver parenchyma. Mice with targeted disruption of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene had impaired liver regeneration characterized by liver necrosis and failure. There was a blunted DNA synthetic response in hepatocytes of these mice but not in nonparenchymal liver cells. Furthermore, there were discrete G1 phase (prereplicative stage in the cell cycle) abnormalities including absence of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3) activation and depressed AP-1, Myc, and cyclin D1 expression. Treatment of IL-6-deficient mice with a single preoperative dose of IL-6 returned STAT3 binding, gene expression, and hepatocyte proliferation to near normal and prevented liver damage, establishing that IL-6 is a critical component of the regenerative response.

    Title Expression of Prl-1 Nuclear Ptpase is Associated with Proliferation in Liver but with Differentiation in Intestine.
    Date December 1996
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Mechanisms controlling the tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins are important in the regulation of cellular processes including growth and differentiation. It has become clear that a number of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) that dephosphorylate tyrosyl residues may play a role in the growth response, both in growth-promoting and growth-inhibiting capacities. We identified PRL-1, a unique nuclear PTPase that is an immediate-early gene in liver regeneration and is positively associated with growth, including fetal and neoplastic hepatic growth and anchorage-independent growth after overexpression in fibroblasts. In this study, we show that PRL-1 nuclear protein levels in regenerating liver parallel those of its mRNA, although the peak occurs later, just before the onset of DNA synthesis. We further show that PRL-1 is significantly expressed in intestinal epithelia and that, in contrast to the expression pattern of PRL-1 in liver, its expression is associated with cellular differentiation in intestine. Specifically, PRL-1 is expressed in villus but not crypt enterocytes and in confluent differentiated but not undifferentiated proliferating Caco-2 colon carcinoma cells. The expression of PRL-1 in intestine shows inverse correlation with proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, a marker for S-phase cells. These results suggest that PRL-1 may play different roles in these two digestive tissues. Such a dichotomy of roles has previously been described for some protein tyrosine kinases and might be due to the availability of alternate substrates in different tissues.

    Title Blunting of the Immediate-early Gene and Mitogenic Response in Hepatectomized Type 1 Diabetic Animals.
    Date December 1995
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Studies suggest that liver regeneration is delayed in insulin-deficient animals, but defining a role of insulin as a growth factor in hepatic regeneration has remained elusive. By examining gene expression of hepatectomized liver in type 1 diabetic BB rats, we have identified dramatic changes in the expression of primary or immediate-early growth response genes compared with normal animals. These include altered expression of insulin-regulated genes such as glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and beta-actin, and genes such as CL-6 and map kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) that were previously unlinked to insulin action in animals. Abnormal elevation of mRNAs encoding G-6-Pase, MKP-1, and PEPCK in the time 0 diabetic liver results in decreased induction after partial hepatectomy. Other genes, such as CL-6 and beta-actin, are induced at a lower level in the hepatectomized diabetic animals. The net effect is a blunting of the immediate-early gene response after partial hepatectomy in diabetic animals. As determined by DNA synthesis assays, the regenerative capacity of insulin-deficient BB diabetic livers is reduced, and this defect is corrected at least in part by insulin therapy. These findings suggest that because of insulin deficiency, common intracellular signaling pathways that are required for both metabolism and mitogenesis are aberrant in the type 1 diabetic liver and, as a result, the regenerative response is deficient.

    Title Coexistence of C/ebp Alpha, Beta, Growth-induced Proteins and Dna Synthesis in Hepatocytes During Liver Regeneration. Implications for Maintenance of the Differentiated State During Liver Growth.
    Date October 1995
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    During the period of rapid cell growth which follows a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, the liver is able to compensate for the acute loss of two-thirds of its mass to maintain serum glucose levels and many of its differentiation-specific functions. However certain hepatic transcription factors, C/EBP alpha and beta, which are important for establishment and maintenance of the differentiated state, have been shown to be antagonistic to cellular proliferation. To study the interplay between differentiation and cell growth in the liver regeneration model of hepatocyte proliferation, we characterized the expression of C/EBP alpha and beta transcription factors throughout the temporal course of liver regeneration. As determined by immunoblot, the level of C/EBP alpha decreases more than twofold during the mid to late G1 and S phase (8-24 h after hepatectomy) coordinately with a threefold increase in expression of C/EBP beta. Renormalization of the levels of these proteins occurs after the major proliferative phase. This inverse regulation of C/EBP alpha and beta results in up to a sevenfold increase in the beta / alpha DNA binding ratio between 3 and 24 h after hepatectomy that may have an important impact on target gene regulation. However, total C/EBP binding activity in nuclear extracts remains relatively constant during the 7-d period after hepatectomy. By immunohistochemistry, both C/EBP alpha and beta are expressed in virtually all hepatocyte nuclei throughout the liver during the temporal course of liver regeneration, and there is no exclusion of expression from hepatocytes that are expressing immediate-early gene products or undergoing DNA synthesis. The persistent expression of C/EBP alpha and beta isoforms predicts that C/EBP proteins contribute to the function of hepatocytes during physiologic growth and that significant amounts of these proteins do not inhibit progression of hepatocytes into S phase of the cell cycle.

    Title Rapid Activation of Post-hepatectomy Factor/nuclear Factor Kappa B in Hepatocytes, a Primary Response in the Regenerating Liver.
    Date December 1994
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    The liver represents one of the few organs in the intact animal that has the capacity to regenerate following injury or partial hepatectomy. One of the earliest responses that has been detected in the remnant liver is the activation of post-hepatectomy factor(s) (PHF), a kappa B site DNA binding activity. We reasoned that understanding the molecular nature of PHF might provide insight into what triggers liver regeneration. We found that PHF is rapidly activated and turned over in the regenerating liver, demonstrating peak activity at 30 min post-hepatectomy and virtual disappearance by 1 h. As determined by supershift, cross-linking, and cross-linking/immunoprecipitation analyses, PHF contains intact p50/p65nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) subunits. To explore the basis for activation of PHF/NF-kappa B in the regenerating liver, we determined the level of individual Rel family subunits in the nuclei of normal and regenerating liver cells. We found evidence for nuclear translocation of p65/RelA, but other Rel family proteins including p50/NF-kappa B1 and p52/NF-kappa B2 are present at a low level in the nuclei of cells at a constitutive level pre- and post-hepatectomy and appear not to form DNA binding homodimers. The level of I kappa B-alpha falls slightly then increases at 3 h post-hepatectomy in concert with the induction of its mRNA. As demonstrated by the induction of I kappa B-alpha mRNA in hepatocytes in situ and identification of PHF/NF-kappa B in cultured hepatocytes, PHF/NF-kappa B is localized primarily in hepatocytes in the regenerating liver. This represents one of the few examples of NF-kappa B activation in the intact animal in a non-hematopoietic cell type. The activation of PHF/NF-kappa B suggests a mechanism by which hepatocytes regulate their mitogenic program during liver regeneration.

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