Internist, Hematology Specialist
34 years of experience

Bethesda
National Cancer Institute
10 Center Dr
Bethesda, MD 20892
301-496-0498
Locations and availability (1)

Education ?

Medical School
University of Valle Faculty of Medicine (1976)

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Board of Internal Medicine
American Society of Hematology
American Society of Clinical Oncology

Publications & Research

Dr. Varticovski has contributed to 76 publications.
Title Prolonged Drug Selection of Breast Cancer Cells and Enrichment of Cancer Stem Cell Characteristics.
Date November 2010
Journal Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Excerpt

Cancer stem cells are presumed to have virtually unlimited proliferative and self-renewal abilities and to be highly resistant to chemotherapy, a feature that is associated with overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters. We investigated whether prolonged continuous selection of cells for drug resistance enriches cultures for cancer stem-like cells.

Title The Arylstibonic Acid Compound Nsc13746 Disrupts B-zip Binding to Dna in Living Cells.
Date August 2010
Journal European Journal of Cell Biology
Excerpt

The inhibition of DNA binding of basic leucine zipper (B-ZIP) transcription factors is a clinically relevant molecular target. Our laboratory has previously reported two methods of inhibiting B-ZIP DNA binding in solution: 1) an arylstibonic acid compound that binds to the basic region, stabilizes the B-ZIP dimer, and prevents B-ZIP DNA binding and 2) dominant negative proteins, termed A-ZIPs, that heterodimerize with B-ZIP domains in a leucine zipper-dependent manner. To determine if these two agents also inhibit DNA binding in live cells, GFP-tagged B-ZIP domains and mCherry-tagged A-ZIP domains were transfected into NIH3T3 cells to assess protein localization and Fluorescence Recovery After nuclear Photobleaching (FRAP). FRAP, showed that all six GFP-B-ZIP domains examined recovered faster in the nucleus in the presence of drug that we interpret represents an inhibition of DNA binding. Faster recovery in the presence of the A-ZIP was leucine zipper dependent. The arylstibonic also induced a cytoplasmic localization of all B-ZIP domains while the A-ZIPs induced a leucine zipper-dependent cytoplasmic localization. Thus, the change in cellular localization of B-ZIP domains could be used as a high-throughput assay for inhibitors of B-ZIP DNA binding. Additionally, the arylstibonic acid compound was cytostatic in clear cell sarcoma cells, which express a chimera between the B-ZIP domain of ATF-1 and N-terminal activation domain of EWS but not in K562 cells that express a non-B-ZIP containing chimeric protein BCR-ABL. These studies suggest that arylstibonic acid compounds or other small molecules capable of inhibiting B-ZIP DNA binding could be valuable anticancer agents.

Title Molecular Characterisation of Side Population Cells with Cancer Stem Cell-like Characteristics in Small-cell Lung Cancer.
Date June 2010
Journal British Journal of Cancer
Excerpt

Side population (SP) fraction cells, identified by efflux of Hoechst dye, are present in virtually all normal and malignant tissues. The relationship between SP cells, drug resistance and cancer stem cells is poorly understood. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive human tumour with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. These features suggest enrichment in cancer stem cells.

Title Clinical and Translational Studies of a Phase Ii Trial of the Novel Oral Akt Inhibitor Perifosine in Relapsed or Relapsed/refractory Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia.
Date April 2010
Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Excerpt

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, low-grade lymphoproliferative disorder. Based on preclinical studies, we conducted a phase II clinical trial testing the efficacy and safety of the Akt inhibitor perifosine in patients with relapsed/refractory WM.

Title Microenvironmental Modulation of Asymmetric Cell Division in Human Lung Cancer Cells.
Date March 2010
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Excerpt

Normal tissue homeostasis is maintained through asymmetric cell divisions that produce daughter cells with differing self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Certain tumor cell subfractions can self-renew and repopulate the heterogeneous tumor bulk, suggestive of asymmetric cell division, but an equally plausible explanation is that daughter cells of a symmetric division subsequently adopt differing cell fates. Cosegregation of template DNA during mitosis is one mechanism by which cellular components are segregated asymmetrically during cell division in fibroblast, muscle, mammary, intestinal, and neural cells. Asymmetric cell division of template DNA in tumor cells has remained elusive, however. Through pulse-chase experiments with halogenated thymidine analogs, we determined that a small population of cells within human lung cancer cell lines and primary tumor cell cultures asymmetrically divided their template DNA, which could be visualized in single cells and in real time. Template DNA cosegregation was enhanced by cell-cell contact. Its frequency was density-dependent and modulated by environmental changes, including serum deprivation and hypoxia. In addition, we found that isolated CD133(+) lung cancer cells were capable of tumor cell repopulation. Strikingly, during cell division, CD133 cosegregated with the template DNA, whereas the differentiation markers prosurfactant protein-C and pan-cytokeratins were passed to the opposing daughter cell, demonstrating that segregation of template DNA correlates with lung cancer cell fate. Our results demonstrate that human lung tumor cell fate decisions may be regulated during the cell division process. The characterization and modulation of asymmetric cell division in lung cancer can provide insight into tumor initiation, growth, and maintenance.

Title A Purine Scaffold Hsp90 Inhibitor Destabilizes Bcl-6 and Has Specific Antitumor Activity in Bcl-6-dependent B Cell Lymphomas.
Date December 2009
Journal Nature Medicine
Excerpt

We report that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors selectively kill diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) that depend on the BCL-6 transcriptional repressor. We found that endogenous Hsp90 interacts with BCL-6 in DLBCL cells and can stabilize BCL-6 mRNA and protein. Hsp90 formed a complex with BCL-6 at its target promoters, and Hsp90 inhibitors derepressed BCL-6 target genes. A stable mutant of BCL-6 rescued DLBCL cells from Hsp90 inhibitor-induced apoptosis. BCL-6 and Hsp90 were almost invariantly coexpressed in the nuclei of primary DLBCL cells, suggesting that their interaction is relevant in this disease. We examined the pharmacokinetics, toxicity and efficacy of PU-H71, a recently developed purine-derived Hsp90 inhibitor. PU-H71 preferentially accumulated in lymphomas compared to normal tissues and selectively suppressed BCL-6-dependent DLBCLs in vivo, inducing reactivation of key BCL-6 target genes and apoptosis. PU-H71 also induced cell death in primary human DLBCL specimens.

Title Hsp90 Inhibitor Pu-h71, a Multimodal Inhibitor of Malignancy, Induces Complete Responses in Triple-negative Breast Cancer Models.
Date June 2009
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Excerpt

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by a lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Because of the absence of identified targets and targeted therapies, and due to a heterogeneous molecular presentation, treatment guidelines for patients with TNBC include only conventional chemotherapy. Such treatment, while effective for some, leaves others with high rates of early relapse and is not curative for any patient with metastatic disease. Here, we demonstrate that these tumors are sensitive to the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor PU-H71. Potent and durable anti-tumor effects in TNBC xenografts, including complete response and tumor regression, without toxicity to the host are achieved with this agent. Notably, TNBC tumors respond to retreatment with PU-H71 for several cycles extending for over 5 months without evidence of resistance or toxicity. Through a proteomics approach, we show that multiple oncoproteins involved in tumor proliferation, survival, and invasive potential are in complex with PU-H71-bound Hsp90 in TNBC. PU-H71 induces efficient and sustained downregulation and inactivation, both in vitro and in vivo, of these proteins. Among them, we identify downregulation of components of the Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway and G(2)-M phase to contribute to its anti-proliferative effect, degradation of activated Akt and Bcl-xL to induce apoptosis, and inhibition of activated NF-kappaB, Akt, ERK2, Tyk2, and PKC to reduce TNBC invasive potential. The results identify Hsp90 as a critical and multimodal target in this most difficult to treat breast cancer subtype and support the use of the Hsp90 inhibitor PU-H71 for clinical trials involving patients with TNBC.

Title Microrna Expression in the Biology, Prognosis, and Therapy of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
Date June 2009
Journal Blood
Excerpt

Multilevel genetic characterization of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is required to improve our understanding of the underlying molecular changes that lead to the initiation and progression of this disease. We performed microRNA-expression profiling of bone marrow-derived CD19(+) WM cells, compared with their normal cellular counterparts and validated data by quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We identified a WM-specific microRNA signature characterized by increased expression of microRNA-363*/-206/-494/-155/-184/-542-3p, and decreased expression of microRNA-9* (ANOVA; P < .01). We found that microRNA-155 regulates proliferation and growth of WM cells in vitro and in vivo, by inhibiting MAPK/ERK, PI3/AKT, and NF-kappaB pathways. Potential microRNA-155 target genes were identified using gene-expression profiling and included genes involved in cell-cycle progression, adhesion, and migration. Importantly, increased expression of the 6 miRNAs significantly correlated with a poorer outcome predicted by the International Prognostic Staging System for WM. We further demonstrated that therapeutic agents commonly used in WM alter the levels of the major miRNAs identified, by inducing downmodulation of 5 increased miRNAs and up-modulation of patient-downexpressed miRNA-9*. These data indicate that microRNAs play a pivotal role in the biology of WM; represent important prognostic marker; and provide the basis for the development of new microRNA-based targeted therapies in WM.

Title The Chaperone-mediated Autophagy Receptor Organizes in Dynamic Protein Complexes at the Lysosomal Membrane.
Date September 2008
Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
Excerpt

Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective type of autophagy by which specific cytosolic proteins are sent to lysosomes for degradation. Substrate proteins bind to the lysosomal membrane through the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A), one of the three splice variants of the lamp2 gene, and this binding is limiting for their degradation via CMA. However, the mechanisms of substrate binding and uptake remain unknown. We report here that LAMP-2A organizes at the lysosomal membrane into protein complexes of different sizes. The assembly and disassembly of these complexes are a very dynamic process directly related to CMA activity. Substrate proteins only bind to monomeric LAMP-2A, while the efficient translocation of substrates requires the formation of a particular high-molecular-weight LAMP-2A complex. The two major chaperones related to CMA, hsc70 and hsp90, play critical roles in the functional dynamics of the LAMP-2A complexes at the lysosomal membrane. Thus, we have identified a novel function for hsc70 in the disassembly of LAMP-2A from these complexes, whereas the presence of lysosome-associated hsp90 is essential to preserve the stability of LAMP-2A at the lysosomal membrane.

Title Hsp90 Inhibitor, Dmag, Synergizes with Radiation of Lung Cancer Cells by Interfering with Base Excision and Atm-mediated Dna Repair.
Date September 2008
Journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Excerpt

Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) leads to inappropriate processing of proteins involved in cell survival pathways. We found that HSP90 inhibitor, 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (DMAG), is synergistic with radiation for non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, NCI-H460 and A549. To establish the optimal schedule for this combination, cells were radiated before, after, or simultaneously with DMAG, and survival was scored by clonogenic assay. The sequence of DMAG administration was critical for synergy with radiation, and pretreatment for 16 h led to maximal synergy. Similar radiosensitization was observed in isogenic cells in which expression of wild-type p53 was silenced by RNA interference, although p53 loss rendered cells overall less radiosensitive. The mechanistic basis for synergy was studied by Western blotting, cell cycle analysis, alkaline comet assay, and direct measurement of the activities of key base excision repair enzymes. Regardless of schedule of administration, DMAG led to degradation of proteins involved in activation of cell survival pathways after radiation, which did not explain the differences in the schedule of administration observed in clonogenic assays. In addition to previously reported decrease in activation of ATM, pretreatment with DMAG blocked activation of base excision repair machinery and activity of key enzymes, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, and DNA polymerase-beta. Similarly, pretreatment with specific apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease inhibitor, CRT0044876, reproduced the effects of DMAG. Thus, administration of HSP90 inhibitors before radiation is critical for optimizing their use as radiosensitizers.

Title Rapamycin Delays Growth of Wnt-1 Tumors in Spite of Suppression of Host Immunity.
Date August 2008
Journal Bmc Cancer
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is an immunosuppressive agent that has anti-proliferative effects on some tumors. However, the role of Rapamycin-induced immune suppression on tumor progression has not been examined. METHODS: We developed a transplantation model for generation of mammary tumors in syngeneic recipients that can be used to address the role of the immune system on tumor progression. We examined the effect of Rapamycin on the immune system and growth of MMTV-driven Wnt-1 mammary tumors which were transplanted into irradiated and bone marrow-reconstituted, or naïve mice. RESULTS: Rapamycin induced severe immunosuppression and significantly delayed the growth of Wnt-1 tumors. T cell depletion in spleen and thymus and reduction in T cell cytokine secretion were evident within 7 days of therapy. By day 20, splenic but not thymic T cell counts, and cytokine secretion recovered. We determined whether adoptive T cell therapy enhances the anti-cancer effect using ex vivo generated Rapamycin-resistant T cells. However, T cell transfer during Rapamycin therapy did not improve the outcome relative to drug therapy alone. Thus, we could not confirm that suppression of T cell immunity contributes to tumor growth in this model. Consistent with suppression of the mTOR pathway, decreased 4E-BP1, p70 S6-kinase, and S6 protein phosphorylation correlated with a decrease in Wnt-1 tumor cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Rapamycin has a direct anti-tumor effect on Wnt-1 breast cancer in vivo that involves inhibition of the mTOR pathway at doses that also suppress host immune responses.

Title Lung Cancer Stem Cells.
Date August 2008
Journal Disease Markers
Excerpt

Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

Title Molecular Analysis Reveals Heterogeneity of Mouse Mammary Tumors Conditionally Mutant for Brca1.
Date June 2008
Journal Molecular Cancer
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Development of therapies for patients with BRCA1 mutations has been hampered by lack of readily available in vitro and in vivo models. We recently showed that transplantation of transgenic mammary tumors as cell suspensions into naïve recipients generates reproducible tumors with remarkable stability of gene expression profile. We examined the expression profiles of original and serially transplanted mammary tumors from Brca1 deficient mice, and tumor derived cell lines to validate their use for preclinical testing and studies of tumor biology. METHODS: Original tumors, serially transplanted and multiple cell lines derived from Brca1 mammary tumors were characterized by morphology, gene and protein expression, and cell surface markers. RESULTS: Gene expression among Brca1 tumors showed more heterogeneity than among previously characterized tumors from MMTV-PyMT and -Wnt1 models. Gene expression data segregated Brca1 tumors into 3 distinct types: basal, mixed luminal, and tumors with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Serial transplantation of individual tumors and multiple cell lines derived from the original tumors recapitulated the molecular characteristics of each tumor of origin. One tumor had distinct features of EMT and gave rise to cell lines that contained a distinct CD44+/CD24-/low population that may correlate with human breast cancer stem cells. CONCLUSION: Although individual tumors expanded by transplantation maintain the genomic profile of the original tumors, the heterogeneity among Brca1 tumors limits the extent of their use for preclinical testing. However, cell lines offer a robust material for understanding tumor biology and response to therapies driven by BRCA1 deficiency.

Title Brca1 Breast Tumors Contain Distinct Cd44+/cd24- and Cd133+ Cells with Cancer Stem Cell Characteristics.
Date June 2008
Journal Breast Cancer Research : Bcr
Excerpt

INTRODUCTION: Whether cancer stem cells occur in BRCA1-associated breast cancer and contribute to therapeutic response is not known. METHODS: We generated and characterized 16 cell lines from five distinct Brca1deficient mouse mammary tumors with respect to their cancer stem cell characteristics. RESULTS: All cell lines derived from one tumor included increased numbers of CD44+/CD24- cells, which were previously identified as human breast cancer stem cells. All cell lines derived from another mammary tumor exhibited low levels of CD44+/CD24- cells, but they harbored 2% to 5.9% CD133+ cells, which were previously associated with cancer stem cells in other human and murine tumors. When plated in the absence of attachment without presorting, only those cell lines that were enriched in either stem cell marker formed spheroids, which were further enriched in cells expressing the respective cancer stem cell marker. In contrast, cells sorted for CD44+/CD24- or CD133+ markers lost their stem cell phenotype when cultured in monolayers. As few as 50 to 100 CD44+/CD24- or CD133+ sorted cells rapidly formed tumors in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, whereas 50-fold to 100-fold higher numbers of parental or stem cell depleted cells were required to form few, slow-growing tumors. Expression of stem cell associated genes, including Oct4, Notch1, Aldh1, Fgfr1, and Sox1, was increased in CD44+/CD24- and CD133+ cells. In addition, cells sorted for cancer stem cell markers and spheroid-forming cells were significantly more resistant to DNA-damaging drugs than were parental or stem cell depleted populations, and they were sensitized to the drugs by the heat shock protein-90 inhibitor 17-DMAG (17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride). CONCLUSION: Brca1-deficient mouse mammary tumors harbor heterogeneous cancer stem cell populations, and CD44+/CD24- cells represent a population that correlates with human breast cancer stem cells.

Title Single-step Doxorubicin-selected Cancer Cells Overexpress the Abcg2 Drug Transporter Through Epigenetic Changes.
Date May 2008
Journal British Journal of Cancer
Excerpt

Understanding the mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) could improve clinical drug efficacy. Multidrug resistance is associated with ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, but the factors that regulate their expression at clinically relevant drug concentrations are poorly understood. We report that a single-step selection with low doses of anti-cancer agents, similar to concentrations reported in vivo, induces MDR that is mediated exclusively by ABCG2. We selected breast, ovarian and colon cancer cells (MCF-7, IGROV-1 and S-1) after exposure to 14 or 21 nM doxorubicin for only 10 days. We found that these cells overexpress ABCG2 at the mRNA and protein levels. RNA interference analysis confirmed that ABCG2 confers drug resistance. Furthermore, ABCG2 upregulation was facilitated by histone hyperacetylation due to weaker histone deacetylase 1-promoter association, indicating that these epigenetic changes elicit changes in ABCG2 gene expression. These studies indicate that the MDR phenotype arises following low-dose, single-step exposure to doxorubicin, and further suggest that ABCG2 may mediate early stages of MDR development. This is the first report to our knowledge of single-step, low-dose selection leading to overexpression of ABCG2 by epigenetic changes in multiple cancer cell lines.

Title Harnessing Genetically Engineered Mouse Models for Preclinical Testing.
Date May 2008
Journal Chemico-biological Interactions
Excerpt

Recent studies cast doubt on the value of traditionally used models as tools for testing therapies for human cancer. Although the standard practice of xenografting tumors into immunocompromised mice generates reproducible tumors, drug testing in these models has low predictive power when compared to the clinical responses in Phase II trials. The use of tumor-bearing genetically engineered mouse models holds promise for improving preclinical testing. These models recapitulate specific molecular pathways in tumor initiation or progression and provide a biological system in which to study the disease process for assessing efficacy of new therapies and proof-of-principle for testing molecularly targeted drugs. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of genetically engineered mice and plausible solutions for adapting these valuable tumors for wider use in preclinical testing by transplantation into naïve recipients. We also provide examples of comparative molecular analysis of mammary tumors from MMTV-Polyoma Middle-T antigen and MMTV-wnt1 models as tools for finding clinical correlates, validating existing models and guiding the development of new genetically engineered mouse models for cancer.

Title Novel Indenoisoquinolines Nsc 725776 and Nsc 724998 Produce Persistent Topoisomerase I Cleavage Complexes and Overcome Multidrug Resistance.
Date November 2007
Journal Cancer Research
Excerpt

Camptothecin (CPT) derivatives are effective anticancer drugs, especially against solid tumors. As CPTs are chemically unstable and have clinical limitations, we have synthesized indenoisoquinolines as novel topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors. We presently report two indenoisoquinoline derivatives, NSC 725776 and NSC 724998, which have been selected for therapeutic development. Both are potent Top1 inhibitors and induce Top1 cleavage at unique genomic positions compared with CPT. Consistent with Top1 poisoning, protein-linked DNA breaks were detected in cells treated with NSC 725776 and NSC 724998 at nanomolar concentrations. Those drug-induced protein-linked DNA breaks persisted longer after drug removal than those produced by CPT. Studies in human cells in culture show that NSC 725776 and NSC 724998 exert antiproliferative activity at submicromolar concentrations. Furthermore, NSC 725776 and NSC 724998 show cross-resistance in cells deficient or silenced for Top1, which is consistent with their selective Top1 targeting. Similar to other known Top1 inhibitors, NSC 725776-treated and NSC 724998-treated cells show an arrest of cell cycle progression in both S and G(2)-M and a dependence on functional p53 for their cytotoxicity. Dose-dependent gamma-H2AX foci formation was readily observed in cells treated with NSC 725776 and NSC 724998. These gamma-H2AX foci were detectable at pharmacologically relevant doses for up to 24 h and thus could be used as biomarkers for clinical trials (phase 0).

Title A Phase Ii Clinical Trial with Cytotropic Heterogeneous Molecular Lipids (chml) for Patients with Hepatic Malignancies.
Date July 2007
Journal Anticancer Research
Excerpt

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other forms of metastatic liver cancer (MLC) have poor outcomes due to the limited treatment options. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have a limited success. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel therapies for patients with advanced HCC and MLC. The response and toxicity profile of a novel biological anticancer agent, cytotropic heterogeneous molecular lipids (CHML), in 135 Asian patients with hepatic malignancies treated at five different hospitals in China from April 1998 to August 2003 is described. This trial included 97 patients with HCC and 38 with MLC. The majority of these patients had received conventional therapies and many had failed to respond or relapsed. CHML was administered by intra-arterial (i.a.) infusion with or without simultaneous intravenous (i.v.) infusion for 25 days with a rest of 2-4 weeks between each cycle. Fifty three percent of patients received two cycles, and 47% received three cycles. The complete response (CR) rates were 23% for HCC and 29% for MLC with an overall CR of 24%. The overall partial response (PR) was 53%. The patients with earlier stages and limited tumor burden had a better response, but a few patients with advanced disease also achieved PR. The patients who achieved CR or PR had a significant increase in long-term survival for up to five years. The treatment with CHML resulted in minimal toxicity and the reported adverse reactions were not higher than grade II. CHML is an effective therapy for hepatic malignancies, showing responses and increases in survival in patients in whom other therapies have failed. CHML is well tolerated and is an excellent candidate for Phase III clinical trials.

Title Accelerated Preclinical Testing Using Transplanted Tumors from Genetically Engineered Mouse Breast Cancer Models.
Date June 2007
Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Excerpt

PURPOSE: The use of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models for preclinical testing of anticancer therapies is hampered by variable tumor latency, incomplete penetrance, and complicated breeding schemes. Here, we describe and validate a transplantation strategy that circumvents some of these difficulties. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor fragments from tumor-bearing MMTV-PyMT or cell suspensions from MMTV-PyMT, -Her2/neu, -wnt1, -wnt1/p53(+/-), BRCA1/p53(+/-), and C3(1)T-Ag mice were transplanted into the mammary fat pad or s.c. into naïve syngeneic or immunosuppressed mice. Tumor development was monitored and tissues were processed for histopathology and gene expression profiling. Metastasis was scored 60 days after the removal of transplanted tumors. RESULTS: PyMT tumor fragments and cell suspensions from anterior glands grew faster than posterior tumors in serial passages regardless of the site of implantation. Microarray analysis revealed genetic differences between these tumors. The transplantation was reproducible using anterior tumors from multiple GEM, and tumor growth rate correlated with the number of transplanted cells. Similar morphologic appearances were observed in original and transplanted tumors. Metastasis developed in >90% of mice transplanted with PyMT, 40% with BRCA1/p53(+/-) and wnt1/p53(+/-), and 15% with Her2/neu tumors. Expansion of PyMT and wnt1 tumors by serial transplantation for two passages did not lead to significant changes in gene expression. PyMT-transplanted tumors and anterior tumors of transgenic mice showed similar sensitivities to cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of GEM tumors can provide a large cohort of mice bearing mammary tumors at the same stage of tumor development and with defined frequency of metastasis in a well-characterized molecular and genetic background.

Title The Obesity-cancer Link: Lessons Learned from a Fatless Mouse.
Date April 2007
Journal Cancer Research
Excerpt

Current dogma suggests that the positive correlation between obesity and cancer is driven by white adipose tissue that accompanies obesity, possibly through excess secretion of adipokines. Recent studies in fatless A-Zip/F1 mice, which have undetectable adipokine levels but display accelerated tumor formation, suggest that adipokines are not required for the enhanced tumor development. The A-Zip/F-1 mice are also diabetic and display elevated circulating levels of other factors frequently associated with obesity (insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and proinflammatory cytokines) and activation of several signaling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. In view of this information, the risk factors underlying the obesity-cancer link need to be revisited. We postulate that the pathways associated with insulin resistance and inflammation, rather than adipocyte-derived factors, may represent key prevention and therapeutic targets for disrupting the obesity-cancer link.

Title Inhibitor of Growth 4 Suppresses Cell Spreading and Cell Migration by Interacting with a Novel Binding Partner, Liprin Alpha1.
Date April 2007
Journal Cancer Research
Excerpt

Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) is a candidate tumor suppressor that plays a major role in gene regulation, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. ING4 expression is down-regulated in glioblastoma cells and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we identified liprin alpha1/PPFIA1, a cytoplasmic protein necessary for focal adhesion formation and axon guidance, as a novel interacting protein with ING4. ING4 and liprin alpha1 colocalized at lamellipodia in the vicinity of vinculin. Overexpressed ING4 suppressed cell spreading and cell migration. In contrast, overexpressed liprin alpha1 enhanced cell spreading and cell migration. Knockdown of endogenous ING4 with RNA interference induced cell motility, whereas knockdown of endogenous liprin alpha1 suppressed cell motility. ING4 also suppressed cell motility that was enhanced by liprin alpha1. However, ING4 did not further suppress cell motility when liprin alpha1 was suppressed with RNA interference, suggesting a functional and mechanistic interdependence between these proteins. In addition to its nuclear functions, cytoplasmic ING4 interacts with liprin alpha1 to regulate cell migration and, with its known antiangiogenic function, may prevent invasion and metastasis.

Title Schedule-dependent Synergy Between the Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and Doxorubicin Restores Apoptosis to P53-mutant Lymphoma Cell Lines.
Date January 2007
Journal Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Excerpt

PURPOSE: Loss of p53 function impairs apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents used for cancer therapy. Here, we examined the effect of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (DMAG) on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in lymphoma. We aimed to establish the optimal schedule for administration of both drugs in combination and the molecular basis for their interaction. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Isogenic lymphoblastoid and nonisogenic lymphoma cell lines differing in p53 status were exposed to each drug or combination. Drug effects were examined using Annexin V, active caspase-3, cell cycle, and cytotoxicity assays. Synergy was evaluated by median effect/combination index. Protein expression and kinase inhibition provided insight into the molecular mechanisms of drug interaction. RESULTS: Presence of mutant p53 conferred increased survival to single agents. Nevertheless, DMAG showed synergistic toxicity with doxorubicin independently of p53 status. Synergy required exposure to doxorubicin before DMAG. DMAG-mediated down-regulation of CHK1, a known HSP90 client, forced doxorubicin-treated cells into premature mitosis followed by apoptosis. A CHK1 inhibitor, SB-218078, reproduced the effect of DMAG. Administration of DMAG before doxorubicin resulted in G1-S arrest and protection from apoptosis, leading to additive or antagonistic interactions that were exacerbated by p53 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of DMAG to doxorubicin-primed cells induced premature mitosis and had a synergistic effect on apoptosis regardless of p53 status. These observations provide a rationale for prospective clinical trials and stress the need to consider schedule of exposure as a critical determinant of the overall response when DMAG is combined with chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory disease.

Title Bisindenoisoquinoline Bis-1,3-{(5,6-dihydro-5,11-diketo-11h-indeno[1,2-c]isoquinoline)-6-propylamino}propane Bis(trifluoroacetate) (nsc 727357), a Dna Intercalator and Topoisomerase Inhibitor with Antitumor Activity.
Date September 2006
Journal Molecular Pharmacology
Excerpt

Indenoisoquinolines are topoisomerase (Top) I inhibitors developed to overcome some of the limitations of camptothecins and expand their anticancer spectrum. Bis-1,3-{(5,6-dihydro-5,11-diketo-11H-indeno[1,2-c]isoquinoline)-6-propylamino}-propane bis(trifluoroacetate) (NSC 727357) is a novel dimeric indenoisoquinoline derivative with potent antiproliferative activity in the NCI-60 cell line panel, promising hollow fiber activity (score of 32) and activity against xenografts. Submicromolar concentrations of the bisindenoisoquinoline NSC 727357 induce Top1 cleavage complexes at specific sites in biochemical assays. At higher concentrations, inhibition of Top1 catalytic activity and DNA intercalation is observed. NSC 727357 also induces a limited number of Top2-DNA cleavage complexes. In contrast to the effect of other Top1 inhibitors, cells treated with the bisindenoisoquinoline NSC 727357 show an arrest of cell cycle progression in G(1) with no significant inhibition of DNA synthesis after a short exposure to the drug. Moreover, unlike camptothecin and the indenoisoquinoline MJ-III-65 (NSC 706744, 6-[3-(2-hydroxyethyl)aminopropyl]-5,6-dihydro-5,11-diketo-2,3-dimethoxy-(methylenedioxy)-11H-indeno[1,2-c]isoquinoline hydrochloride), the cytotoxicity of bisindenoisoquinoline NSC 727357 is only partially dependent on Top1 and p53, indicating that this drug has additional targets besides Top1 and Top2.

Title Accelerated Tumor Formation in a Fatless Mouse with Type 2 Diabetes and Inflammation.
Date July 2006
Journal Cancer Research
Excerpt

Epidemiologic studies show a positive association between obesity and cancer risk. In addition to increased body adiposity and secretion of fat-derived hormones, obesity is also linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and chronic inflammation. We used the fatless A-ZIP/F-1 transgenic mouse to dissociate the relative role of each of these underlying factors in the development of cancer. These mice are unique in that they do not have white fat but do develop type 2 diabetes. In two cancer models, the classic two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol and the C3(1)/T-Ag transgenic mouse mammary tumor model, A-ZIP/F-1 mice displayed higher tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and decreased tumor latency than wild-type mice. We examined circulating levels of adipokines, growth factors, and cytokines. As expected, adipokines (i.e., leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) were undetectable or found at very low levels in the blood of fatless mice. However, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, growth hormone, vascular endothelial growth factor, and proinflammatory Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, and IL-6, were elevated in A-ZIP/F-1 mice. Additionally, we examined multiple phosphorylated proteins (i.e., protein kinase B/Akt and ErbB2/HER-2 kinase) associated with cancer development. Results show that many of these phosphorylated proteins were activated specifically in the A-ZIP/F-1 skin but not in the wild-type skin. These findings suggest that adipokines are not required for the promotion of tumor development and thus contradict the epidemiologic data linking obesity to carcinogenesis. We postulate that insulin resistance and inflammation are responsible for the positive correlation with cancer observed in A-ZIP/F-1 mice.

Title The P53 Tumor Suppressor Network is a Key Responder to Microenvironmental Components of Chronic Inflammatory Stress.
Date January 2006
Journal Cancer Research
Excerpt

Activation of the p53 network plays a central role in the inflammatory stress response associated with ulcerative colitis and may modulate cancer risk in patients afflicted with this chronic disease. Here, we describe the gene expression profiles associated with four microenvironmental components of the inflammatory response (NO*, H2O2, DNA replication arrest, and hypoxia) that result in p53 stabilization and activation. Isogenic HCT116 and HCT116 TP53-/- colon cancer cells were exposed to the NO* donor Sper/NO, H2O2, hypoxia, or hydroxyurea, and their mRNA was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays. Overall, 1,396 genes changed in a p53-dependent manner (P < 0.001), with the majority representing a "unique" profile for each condition. Only 14 genes were common to all four conditions. Included were eight known p53 target genes. Hierarchical sample clustering distinguished early (1 and 4 hours) from late responses (8, 12, and 24 hours), and each treatment was differentiated from the others. Overall, NO* and hypoxia stimulated similar transcriptional responses. Gene ontology analysis revealed cell cycle as a key feature of stress responses and confirmed the similarity between NO* and hypoxia. Cell cycle profiles analyzed by flow cytometry showed that NO* and hypoxia induced quiescent S-phase and G2-M arrest. Using a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we identified several putative p53-responsive elements among the genes induced in a p53-dependent manner, including four [KIAA0247, FLJ12484, p53CSV (HSPC132), and CNK (PLK3)] common to all exposures. In summary, the inflammatory stress response is a complex, integrated biological network in which p53 is a key molecular node regulating gene expression.

Title Identification of Carboxypeptidase E and Gamma-glutamyl Hydrolase As Biomarkers for Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors by Cdna Microarray.
Date November 2004
Journal Human Pathology
Excerpt

Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors vary dramatically in their malignant behavior. Their classification, based on histological examination, is often difficult. In search of molecular and prognostic markers for these tumors, we used cDNA microarray analysis of human transcripts against reference RNA from a well-characterized immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Tumor cells were isolated by laser-capture microdissection from primary tumors of 17 typical carcinoids, small cell lung cancers, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. An unsupervised, hierarchical clustering algorithm resulted in a precise classification of each tumor subtype according to the proposed histological classification. Selection of genes, using supervised analysis, resulted in the identification of 198 statistically significant genes (P <.004) that also accurately discriminated between 3 predefined tumor subtypes. Two-by-two comparisons of these genes identified classifier genes that distinguished each tumor subtype from the others. Changes in expression of selected differentially expressed genes for each tumor subtype were internally validated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression of 2 potential classifier gene products, carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH), was validated by immunohistochemistry and cross-validated on additional archival samples of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that immunostaining for CPE was a statistically significant predictor of good prognosis, whereas GGH expression correlated with poor prognosis. Thus, cDNA microarray analysis led to the identification of 2 novel biomarkers that should facilitate molecular diagnosis and further study of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.

Title The Knockout Mouse Project.
Date October 2004
Journal Nature Genetics
Excerpt

Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and efficiencies of production to mount a high-throughput international effort to produce and phenotype knockouts for all mouse genes, and place these resources into the public domain.

Title A Direct Binding Site for Grb2 Contributes to Transformation and Leukemogenesis by the Tel-abl (etv6-abl) Tyrosine Kinase.
Date June 2004
Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
Excerpt

A direct binding site for the Grb2 adapter protein is required for the induction of fatal chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-like disease in mice by Bcr-Abl. Here, we demonstrate direct binding of Grb2 to the Tel-Abl (ETV6-Abl) fusion protein, the product of complex (9;12) chromosomal translocations in human leukemia, via tyrosine 314 encoded by TEL exon 5. A Tel-Abl point mutant (Y314F) and a splice variant without TEL exon 5 sequences (Deltae5) lacked Grb2 interaction and exhibited decreased binding and phosphorylation of the scaffolding protein Gab2 and impaired activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase in hematopoietic cells. Tel-Abl Y314F and Deltae5 were unable to transform fibroblasts to anchorage-independent growth and were defective for B-lymphoid transformation in vitro and lymphoid leukemogenesis in vivo. Previously, we demonstrated that full-length Tel-Abl induced two distinct myeloproliferative diseases in mice: CML-like leukemia similar to that induced by Bcr-Abl and a novel syndrome of small-bowel myeloid infiltration endotoxemia and hepatic and renal failure. Lack of the Grb2 binding site had no effect on development of small bowel syndrome but significantly attenuated the induction of CML-like disease by Tel-Abl. These results suggest that direct binding of Grb2 is a common mechanism contributing to leukemogenesis by oncogenic Abl fusion proteins.

Title Opposing Effect of Angiopoietin-1 on Vegf-mediated Disruption of Endothelial Cell-cell Interactions Requires Activation of Pkc Beta.
Date January 2004
Journal Journal of Cellular Physiology
Excerpt

Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) cooperate in migration and survival of endothelial cells by activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase and mitogen activating protein (MAP) kinase pathways. However, Ang1 opposes the effect of VEGF on vascular permeability. We found that Ang1 also blocks VEGF-mediated diffusion of fluoresin isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled albumin across an endothelial cell monolayer. VEGF-mediated vascular permeability has been attributed, in part, to activation of phospholipase A(2) and subsequent formation of platelet activating factor. However, Ang1 had no effect on VEGF-induced activation of phospholipase A(2) or the release of arachidonic acid. VEGF-mediated permeability was associated with disruption of endothelial cell junctional complexes, dissociation of beta-catenin from VE-cadherin, and accumulation of beta-catenin in the cytosol. In contrast, Ang1 enhanced the interaction of beta-catenin with VE-cadherin and impaired VEGF-mediated dissociation of this complex. Ang1 also blocked VEGF-induced translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) and beta2 to the membrane, but had no effect on activation of PKC alpha. In addition, staurosporine and a PKC beta inhibitor, LY379196, blocked VEGF-mediated dissociation of beta-catenin from VE-cadherin, diffusion of albumin across the endothelial cell monolayer, and translocation of PKC beta isoforms. These data indicate that VEGF-mediated disruption of endothelial cell-cell interactions requires activation of PKC beta isoforms and that this pathway is blocked by Ang1.

Title Mechanisms by Which Camp Increases Bile Acid Secretion in Rat Liver and Canalicular Membrane Vesicles.
Date August 2003
Journal American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Excerpt

Bile acid secretion induced by cAMP and taurocholate is associated with recruitment of several ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters to the canalicular membrane. Taurocholate-mediated bile acid secretion and recruitment of ABC transporters are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) dependent and require an intact microtubular apparatus. We examined mechanisms involved in cAMP-mediated bile acid secretion. Bile acid secretion induced by perfusion of rat liver with dibutyryl cAMP was blocked by colchicine and wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor. Canalicular membrane vesicles isolated from cAMP-treated rats manifested increased ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and PI3K activity that were reduced by prior in vivo administration of colchicine or wortmannin. Addition of a PI3K lipid product, phosphoinositide 3,4-bisphosphate, but not its isomer, phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate, restored ATP-dependent taurocholate in these vesicles. Addition of a decapeptide that activates PI3K to canalicular membrane vesicles increased ATP-dependent transport above baseline activity. In contrast to effects induced by taurocholate, cAMP-stimulated intracellular trafficking of the canalicular ABC transporters was unaffected by wortmannin, and recruitment of multidrug resistance protein 2, but not bile salt excretory protein (bsep), was partially decreased by colchicine. These studies indicate that trafficking of bsep and other canalicular ABC transporters to the canalicular membrane in response to cAMP is independent of PI3K activity. In addition, PI3K lipid products are required for activation of bsep in the canalicular membrane. These observations prompt revision of current concepts regarding the role of cAMP and PI3K in intracellular trafficking, regulation of canalicular bsep, and bile acid secretion.

Title Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Promote Sti571-mediated Apoptosis in Sti571-sensitive and -resistant Bcr/abl+ Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells.
Date June 2003
Journal Cancer Research
Excerpt

Interactions between the Bcr/Abl kinase inhibitor STI571 (Gleevec, imatinib mesylate) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have been examined in STI571-sensitive and -resistant Bcr/Abl(+) human leukemia cells (K562 and LAMA 84). Cotreatment of K562 cells with 250 nM imatinib mesylate and 2.0 micro M suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) for 24 h, exposures that were minimally toxic alone, resulted in a marked increase in mitochondrial damage (e.g., cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO, and apoptosis-inducing factor release), caspase activation, and apoptosis. Similar events were observed in other Bcr/Abl(+) cells (i.e., LAMA 84), and in cells exposed to STI571 in combination with the HDI sodium butyrate. Coexposure of cells to HDIs in conjunction with STI571 resulted in multiple perturbations in signaling and cell cycle-regulatory proteins, including down-regulation of Raf, phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospho-Akt, phospho-signal transducers and activators of transcription 5, cyclin D1, and Mcl-1, accompanied by dephosphorylation and cleavage of retinoblastoma protein and a striking increase in phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Coexposure of Bcr/Abl(+) cells to STI571 also blocked SAHA-mediated induction of p21(CIP1) and resulted in down-regulation of Bcr/Abl protein expression. STI571 and SAHA also interacted synergistically to induce apoptosis in STI571-resistant K562 and LAMA 84 cells that display increased Bcr/Abl protein expression. Lastly, inducible expression of a constitutively active MEK1/2 construct significantly attenuated SAHA/STI571-mediated apoptosis in K562 cells, implicating disruption of the Raf/MEK/ERK axis in synergistic antileukemic effects of this drug combination. Together, these findings indicate that combined exposure of Bcr/Abl(+) cells to the kinase inhibitor STI571 and HDIs leads to diverse perturbations in signaling and cell cycle-regulatory proteins, associated with a marked increase in mitochondrial damage and cell death. They also raise the possibility that this strategy may be effective in some Bcr/Abl(+) cells that are resistant to STI571 through increased Bcr/Abl expression.

Title Mechanism by Which Camp Activates Pi3-kinase and Increases Bile Acid Secretion in Wif-b9 Cells.
Date December 2002
Journal American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Excerpt

Previous studies in rat bile canalicular membrane vesicles and WIF-B9 cells revealed that cAMP-induced trafficking of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to the canalicular membrane and their activation require phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) products. In the present studies, canalicular secretion of fluorescein isothiocyanate-glycocholate in WIF-B9 cells was increased by cAMP and a decapeptide that enhances PI3-K activity; these effects were inhibited by wortmannin. To determine the mechanism(s) whereby cAMP activates PI3-K, we examined signal transduction pathways in WIF-B9 and COS-7 cells. cAMP activated PI3-K in both cell lines in a phosphotyrosine-independent manner. PI3-K activity increased in association with p110 beta in both cell lines. The effect of cAMP was KT-5720 sensitive, suggesting involvement of protein kinase A. Expression of a dominant-negative beta-adrenergic receptor kinase COOH terminus (beta-ARKct), which blocks G beta gamma signaling, decreased PI3-K activation in both cell lines. cAMP increased GTP-bound Ras in COS-7 but not WIF-B9 cells. Expression of dominant-negative Ras abolished cAMP-mediated PI3-K, which suggests that the effect is downstream of Ras and G beta gamma. These data indicate that cAMP activates PI3-K in a cell type-specific manner and provide insight regarding mechanisms of PI3-K activation required for bile acid secretion.

Title Nerf2, a Member of the Ets Family of Transcription Factors, is Increased in Response to Hypoxia and Angiopoietin-1: a Potential Mechanism for Tie2 Regulation During Hypoxia.
Date November 2002
Journal Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Excerpt

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietins regulate endothelial cell survival and migration and are essential for angiogenesis. Considerable progress has been made towards understanding hypoxia-mediated regulation of VEGF and its receptors. In contrast, little is known about the regulation of angiopoietins and their receptors in hypoxic cells. Using RT-PCR, RNAase protection assay, and Western blotting, we found that Tie1 and Tie2 mRNA and protein levels increased in response to hypoxia in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Previously, we have shown that NERF2, a member of Ets family of transcription factors that is specifically expressed in endothelial cells, binds to the promoter region of Tie2 and transactivates Tie2 expression. In this study, we show that expression of NERF2 was increased under hypoxia and that this increase temporally correlated with the increase in Tie2 expression. Hypoxia-induced expression of NERF2 and Tie2 was blocked by angiopoietin-2, a competitive inhibitor of angiopoietin-1, and by recombinant soluble extracellular domain of Tie2 but not by VEGF-neutralizing antibodies. In addition, angiopoietin-1 directly induced expression of NERF2 in quiescent cells. These novel findings suggest that angiopoietin-1 regulates expression of NERF2 and its own receptor in hypoxic cells.

Title Water-soluble Hpma Copolymer-wortmannin Conjugate Retains Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Inhibitory Activity in Vitro and in Vivo.
Date December 2001
Journal Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Excerpt

Phosphoinositide kinases and ATM-related genes play a central role in many physiological processes. Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is essential for signal transduction by many growth factors and oncogenes and may contribute to tumor progression. In the nanomolar range, Wortmannin (WM), a fungal metabolite, is a potent inhibitor of type I PI 3-kinase; it covalently modifies its catalytic subunit. Because WM is soluble only in organic solvents and unstable in water, there are difficulties in its use in vivo. To generate a water-soluble WM derivative, we used a conjugate of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer and 11-O-desacetylwortmannin (DAWM), which has a slightly lower inhibitory activity than WM. We covalently attached DAWM to HPMA copolymer containing oligopeptide (GFLG) side-chains. The final product had an estimated molecular mass of 20 kDa and contained 2 wt.% of DAWM. The HPMA copolymer (PHPMA)-DAWM conjugate inhibited type I PI 3-kinase activity in vitro and growth factor-stimulated activation of Akt in vivo; it possessed approximately 50% of the inhibitory activity of DMSO solubilized WM. The specificity and stability of the PHPMA-DAWM conjugate is currently under investigation. The new water-soluble form of WM may be useful in investigations of the role of PI 3-kinase in tumor progression and other cellular biological functions in vivo.

Title Mitogenic Signaling by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in Chromaffin Cells Involves Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Activation.
Date September 2001
Journal Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Supplement
Excerpt

Increase of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate by the permeant cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3':5'- cyclic monophosphate, is mitogenic for normal adult rat chromaffin cells. The mitogenic effect is blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, and is associated with accumulation of phosphorylated Akt and p70S6 kinase, suggesting that cyclic adenosine monophosphate activates Type l phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The mechanism of activation was examined in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, which are neoplastic chromaffin cells that exhibit many of the biochemical characteristics of their normal counterparts. Incubation of PC12 cells with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3':5'- cyclic monophosphate led to a significant increase in total phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity that was sensitive to low concentrations of LY294002. The increase was maximal at 1 h and returned to basal levels within six hours. Immunoprecipitation studies showed no increase in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in anti-phosphotyrosine immune complexes from PC12 cells stimulated by 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3':5'- cyclic monophosphate, in contrast to cells stimulated by nerve growth factor. Instead, activity was demonstrated in association with p110gamma and p85. These findings suggest that cyclic adenosine monophosphate causes activation of Types IA and IB phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by a novel mechanism in chromaffin and pheochromocytoma cells. That activation may contribute to chromaffin cell proliferation and to the development and progression of pheochromocytomas. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. 36: 89-98, 2001.

Title Probing Fibroblast Growth Factor Dimerization and Role of Heparin-like Glycosaminoglycans in Modulating Dimerization and Signaling.
Date August 2001
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

For a number of growth factors and cytokines, ligand dimerization is believed to be central to the formation of an active signaling complex. In the case of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) signaling, heparin/heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans (HLGAGs) are involved through interaction with both FGF2 and its receptors (FGFRs) in assembling a tertiary complex and modulating FGF2 activity. Biochemical data have suggested different modes of HLGAG-induced FGF2 dimerization involving specific protein-protein contacts. In addition, several recent x-ray crystallography studies of FGF.FGFR and FGF.FGFR.HLGAG complexes have revealed other modes of molecular assemblage, with no FGF-FGF contacts. All these different biochemical and structural findings have clarified less and in fact raised more questions as to which mode of FGF2 dimerization, if any, is essential for signaling. In this study, we address the issue of FGF2 dimerization in signaling using a combination of biochemical, biophysical, and site-directed mutagenesis approaches. Our findings presented here provide direct evidence of FGF2 dimerization in mediating FGF2 signaling.

Title Dynamin Inhibits Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Hematopoietic Cells.
Date May 2001
Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
Excerpt

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) plays a role in late stages of endocytosis as well as in cellular proliferation and transformation. The SH3 domain of its regulatory p85 subunit stimulates the GTPase activity of dynamin in vitro. Dynamin is a GTPase enzyme required for endocytosis of activated growth factor receptors. An interaction between these proteins has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we report that dynamin associates with PI 3-kinase in hematopoietic cells. We detected both p85 and PI 3-kinase activity in dynamin immune complexes from IL-3-dependent BaF3 cells. However, this association was significantly reduced in BaF3 cells transformed with the BCR/abl oncogene. After transformation only a 4-fold increase in PI 3-kinase activity was detected in dynamin immune complexes, whereas grb2 associated activity was elevated 20-fold. Furthermore, dynamin inhibited the activity of both purified recombinant and immunoprecipitated PI 3-kinase. In BaF3 cells expressing a temperature-sensitive mutant of BCR/abl, a significant decrease in p85 and dynamin association was observed 4 h after the induction of BCR/abl activity. In contrast, in IL-3-stimulated parental BaF3 cells, this association was increased. Our results demonstrate an in vivo association of PI 3-kinase with dynamin and this interaction regulates the activity of PI 3-kinase.

Title The Src Homology 2 Domain of Bcr/abl is Required for Efficient Induction of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia-like Disease in Mice but Not for Lymphoid Leukemogenesis or Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
Date February 2001
Journal Blood
Excerpt

The effect of mutations in the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of the BCR/ABL oncogene on leukemogenesis was tested in a quantitative murine bone marrow transduction/transplantation assay that accurately models human Philadelphia-positive B-lymphoid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The SH2 domain was not required for induction of B-lymphoid leukemia in mice by BCR/ABL. Under conditions where the p190 and p210 forms of BCR/ABL induce fatal CML-like myeloproliferative disease within 4 weeks, p210 SH2 mutants induced CML-like disease in some mice only after a significant delay, with other recipients succumbing to B-lymphoid leukemia instead. In contrast, p190 BCR/ABL SH2 point and deletion mutants rapidly induced CML-like disease. These results provide the first direct evidence of significant differences in cell signaling by the Bcr/Abl tyrosine kinase between these distinct leukemias. Contrary to previous observations, high levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity in primary malignant lymphoblasts and myeloid cells from recipients of marrow transduced with the BCR/ABL SH2 mutants were found. Hence, the decreased induction of CML-like disease by the p210 BCR/ABL SH2 mutants is not due to impaired activation of PI 3-kinase.

Title Inactivation of Wild-type Bcr/abl Tyrosine Kinase in Hematopoietic Cells by Mild Hyperthermia.
Date May 2000
Journal Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.k
Excerpt

Temperature-sensitive mutants of BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase have been extensively used to study the mechanisms of cell transformation and signal transduction. However, little is known about the effect of temperature on the activity of wild-type BCR/ABL gene product. In this study, we demonstrate that in vivo tyrosine kinase activity of p210, p190 BCR/ABL and v-abl are temperature-sensitive when expressed in hematopoietic cells and decline when temperature is raised 2 degrees C above normal range. In vitro tyrosine kinase activities of purified recombinant Abl and immunoprecipitated p210 BCR/ABL were also sensitive to increased temperature. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins was markedly reduced in BCR/ABL transformed cells after 16 h at 39 degrees C, whereas the expression of BCR/ABL was unchanged. Temperature-induced downregulation of BCR/ABL kinase activity was reversible when cells were shifted back to 37 degrees C. The downregulation of Abl tyrosine kinase activity was not influenced by mutation or deletion of SH2 or SH3 domains or mutation of the GRB2 binding site. No increase in functional activity or expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatases, PTP-1B, SH-PTP1 or SH-PTP2 was detected in cells grown at 39 degrees C. Temperature-induced downregulation in tyrosine kinase activity correlated with decline in phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase whereas there was no change in growth factor independence of transformed hematopoietic cells. In conclusion, Abl tyrosine kinase has intrinsic sensitivity to temperature and BCR/ABL expressed in hematopoietic cells is downregulated by increasing temperature 2 degrees C. These observations provide a unique opportunity to identify cellular factor(s) which regulate BCR/ABL kinase in vivo and suggests possible novel treatment of CML by a mild hyperthermia.

Title Role of Pi 3-kinase in Angiopoietin-1-mediated Migration and Attachment-dependent Survival of Endothelial Cells.
Date January 2000
Journal Experimental Cell Research
Excerpt

Angiopoietin-1 is a unique growth factor which induces Tie2 receptor autophosphorylation and interaction with signal transduction molecules, GRB2 and p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, but no detectable mitogenic response. Here we show that PI 3-kinase-dependent activation of Akt and attachment to extracellular matrix are required for angiopoietin-1-mediated endothelial cell survival. Apoptosis of growth factor-deprived cells grown in monolayer was decreased by angiopoietin-1 and correlated with Akt activation. In contrast, angiopoietin-1, bFGF or VEGF failed to protect cells in suspension culture. Ceramide, an intermediate of several apoptotic pathways, interferes with growth factor-mediated Akt activation. Ceramide induced endothelial cell death and abolished angiopoietin-1-mediated activation of Akt and the effect on cell survival. In addition, we found that PI 3-kinase activity is necessary for migration of endothelial cells in response to Angiopoietin-1. A transient activation of MAPK/ERKs was also detected within 10 min after stimulation with angiopoietin-1. In contrast to VEGF-mediated biological effects, inhibition of MAPK/ERKs by PD98059 in endothelial cells did not affect angiopoietin-1 mediated survival or migration. These findings indicate significant differences in intracellular signaling between VEGF and angiopoietin-1 and that PI 3-kinase lipid products are key mediators of the biological effects of angiopoietin-1.

Title Expression of Tie1 and Tie2 Proteins During Reendothelialization in Balloon-injured Rat Carotid Artery.
Date October 1999
Journal Journal of Vascular Research
Excerpt

The novel endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptors, Tie1 and Tie2, are essential for vascular development and remodeling in the embryo but little is known regarding the regulation of their expression and their role in the maintenance and repair of the adult vascular system. We examined the expression of Tie1 and Tie2 in normal vessels and during reendothelialization following balloon injury of the adult rat carotid artery. Tie proteins were detected in quiescent endothelial cells of the adult rat carotid artery. Tie1 and Tie2 proteins were also detected in human and rat platelets. A weak expression of Tie1 and Tie2 proteins was detected in young endothelial cells which sparsely repopulated the denuded surface by day 14. Protein levels increased in the confluent layer of endothelial cells by day 28. Based on these observations, we tested whether Tie1 and Tie2 mRNA and protein levels are regulated by cell density. Tie1 and Tie2 expression significantly increased with higher density in cultured human endothelial cells, and this upregulation required cell-cell interaction. These data suggest that Tie1 and Tie2 may play a role in the maintenance and repair of the adult vascular system and that the expression of these proteins is regulated by cell density.

Title Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Lipid Products Regulate Atp-dependent Transport by Sister of P-glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 2 in Bile Canalicular Membrane Vesicles.
Date June 1999
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Excerpt

Bile acid transport and secretion in hepatocytes require phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent recruitment of ATP-dependent transporters to the bile canalicular membrane and are accompanied by increased canalicular PI 3-kinase activity. We report here that the lipid products of PI 3-kinase also regulate ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione directly in canalicular membranes. ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione in isolated canalicular vesicles from rat liver was reduced 50-70% by PI 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002, at concentrations that are specific for Type I PI 3-kinase. Inhibition was reversed by addition of lipid products of PI 3-kinase (PI 3,4-bisphosphate and, to a lesser extent, PI 3-phosphate and PI 3,4,5-trisphosphate) but not by PI 4, 5-bisphosphate. A membrane-permeant synthetic 10-mer peptide that binds polyphosphoinositides and leads to activation of PI 3-kinase in macrophages doubled PI 3-kinase activity in canalicular membrane vesicles and enhanced taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione transport in canalicular membrane vesicles above maximal ATP-dependent transport. The effect of the peptide was blocked by wortmannin and LY294002. PI 3-kinase activity was also necessary for function of the transporters in vivo. ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and PI 3-kinase activity were reduced in canalicular membrane vesicles isolated from rat liver that had been perfused with taurocholate and wortmannin. PI 3,4-bisphosphate enhanced ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate in these vesicles above control levels. Our results indicate that PI 3-kinase lipid products are necessary in vivo and in vitro for maximal ATP-dependent transport of bile acid and nonbile acid organic anions across the canalicular membrane. Our results demonstrate regulation of membrane ATP binding cassette transporters by PI 3-kinase lipid products.

Title The Role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase in Taurocholate-induced Trafficking of Atp-dependent Canalicular Transporters in Rat Liver.
Date November 1998
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

Recent studies indicate that wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, interferes with bile acid secretion in rat liver; taurocholate induces recruitment of ATP-dependent transporters to the bile canalicular membrane, and PI 3-kinase products are important in intracellular trafficking. We investigated the role of PI 3-kinase in bile acid secretion by studying the in vivo effect of taurocholate, colchicine, and wortmannin on bile acid secretion, kinase activity, and protein levels in canalicular membrane vesicle (CMV) and sinusoidal membrane vesicle (SMV) fractions from rat liver. Treatment of rats or perfusion of isolated liver with taurocholate significantly increased PI 3-kinase activity in both membrane fractions. Taurocholate increased protein content of ATP-dependent transporters, which were detected only in CMVs, whereas increased levels of p85 and a cell adhesion molecule, cCAM 105, were observed in both fractions. Colchicine prevented taurocholate-induced changes in all proteins studied, as well as the increase in PI 3-kinase activity in CMVs, but it resulted in further accumulation of PI 3-kinase activity, p85, and cCAM 105 in SMVs. These results indicate that taurocholate-mediated changes involve a microtubular system. Wortmannin blocked taurocholate-induced bile acid secretion. The effect was more profound when wortmannin was administered prior to treatment with taurocholate. When wortmannin was given after taurocholate, the protein levels of each ATP-dependent transporter were maintained in CMVs, whereas the levels of p85 and cCAM decreased in both membrane fractions. Perfusion of liver with wortmannin before taurocholate administration blocked accumulation of all proteins studied in CMVs and SMVs. These results indicate that PI 3-kinase is required for intracellular trafficking of itself, as well as of ATP-dependent canalicular transporters.

Title Effect of a Xanthine Analog on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells (alexander) in Culture and in Xenografts in Scid Mice.
Date December 1997
Journal Hepatology (baltimore, Md.)
Excerpt

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently overexpresses the MDR1 gene and is resistant to drugs transported by the multidrug-resistance efflux pump. A xanthine analog, 1-(11-dodecylamino-10-hydroxyundecyl)-3,7-dimethylxanthine (CT-2584,CTI), is cytotoxic to many tumors in culture and was four times more effective than verapamil in inhibiting Rhodamine 123 secretion in MDR1-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. However, studies using PRF/PLC/5 (Alexander) cells revealed that CT-2584 is cytotoxic by another mechanism not involving inhibition of MDR1 function. Alexander cells have integrated the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) gene and quantitatively secrete HBsAg. The parent cell line, Alex 0, has low MDR1 expression and is drug-sensitive, whereas a derived line, Alex 0.5, is drug-resistant and overexpresses MDR1 100 times. Both cell lines were similarly killed within 24 or 48 hours by CT-2584. Freshly isolated rat and human hepatocytes were considerably more resistant to killing by CT-2584. In vivo, CT-2584 significantly reduced tumor growth in SCID mice bearing Alex 0 or 0.5 xenografts as determined by serial measurements of HBsAg. Hepatic parenchyma was normal, whereas apoptosis and cellular loss were observed in xenografts. The xenograft model is useful for testing pharmacological therapy of HCC.

Title Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Cd3-epsilon Subunit of the T Cell Antigen Receptor Mediates Enhanced Association with Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Jurkat T Cells.
Date October 1997
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

T cell receptor signaling results both in T cell proliferation and apoptosis. A key enzyme at the intersection of these downstream pathways is phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-kinase). In a previous report, we showed that the p85alpha subunit of the PI 3-kinase preferentially associated with the CD3-zeta membrane-proximal immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of the zeta chain (zetaA-ITAM) (Exley, M., Varticovski, L., Peter, M., Sancho, J., and Terhorst, C. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 15140-15146). Here, we demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of CD3-epsilon can recruit the PI 3-kinase enzyme in a T cell activation-dependent manner. In vivo studies with Jurkat cells stably transfected with a CD8-CD3-epsilon chimera (termed CD8-epsilon) shows that ligation of endogenous CD3-epsilon or CD8-epsilon by specific antibodies induces tyrosine phosphorylation of CD3-epsilon or CD8-epsilon, respectively. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation correlates with increased binding of p85alpha PI 3-kinase and recruitment of PI 3-kinase enzymatic activity to CD3-epsilon or CD8-epsilon proteins. Mutagenesis studies in COS-7 cells, transiently transfected with CD8-epsilon, p85alpha, and Fyn cDNAs in various combinations, show that both Tyr170 and Tyr181 within the CD3-epsilon-ITAM are required for efficient binding of p85alpha PI 3-kinase. Thus, replacement of Tyr170 by Phe (Y170F), or Tyr181 by Phe (Y181F) significantly reduces binding of p85alpha PI 3-kinase, whereas it does not affect binding of Fyn. Further in vitro experiments suggest that a direct binding of the tandem SH2 domains of p85alpha PI 3-kinase to the two phosphorylated tyrosines in a single CD3-epsilon-ITAM may occur. The data also support a model in which a single CD3 subunit can recruit distinct effector molecules by means of TCR-mediated differential ITAM phosphorylation.

Title Evidence for Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent T Cell Antigen Receptor (tcr) Signal Transduction.
Date August 1997
Journal Molecular Immunology
Excerpt

Recent evidence implicates PI 3-kinase in TCR signal transduction. The fungal metabolite wortmannin is a specific inhibitor of PI 3-kinase both in vitro and in vivo when used at nanomolar concentrations. Therefore, we examined the effect of wortmannin on stimulation of primary T cells and T cell lines. Wortmannin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on TCR-dependent primary T cell proliferation with IC50 in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, activation of T cell lines independently of antigen presenting cells and, therefore of any CD28 co-stimulatory signaling, was also sensitive to wortmannin. As expected, phorbol ester stimulation bypassed PI 3-kinase signal transduction. Importantly, the effect of wortmannin correlated with inhibition of activation of PI 3-kinase in stimulated T cells. The earliest step in T cell activation, tyrosine kinase activation, was not significantly affected by wortmannin. We conclude that a wortmannin-sensitive enzyme, probably PI 3-kinase, acting downstream of tyrosine kinases, but independently of the phorbol ester activated pathway, is necessary for stimulation of T cells via the TCR, and that this requirement is independent of any role of PI 3-kinase in co-stimulation via CD28 coreceptor. PI 3-kinase is most probably involved in generation of 3-phosphorylated lipid products, and is not merely an adaptor.

Title Tyrosine Phosphorylation of P120cbl in Bcr/abl Transformed Hematopoietic Cells Mediates Enhanced Association with Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
Date June 1997
Journal Oncogene
Excerpt

Increased tyrosine kinase activity of abl oncogene in Philadelphia chromosome positive-leukemic cells leads to activation of p21ras and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-Kinase). The mechanism of activation of these signaling pathways is not understood, but numerous studies have focused on the identification and characterization of downstream substrates of BCR/abl tyrosine kinase as potential mediators of oncogenic signaling. It was recently found that the 120 kDa protein product of the c-cbl proto-oncogene is highly tyrosine phosphorylated and associates with BCR/abl in transformed hematopoietic cells. We have characterized further cbl's involvement in BCR/abl mediated tumorigenesis using growth factor independent BCR/abl transformed BaF3 cells. Our experiments show that, in contrast to other cell types, the in vivo interaction of cbl with GRB2 and p85 is significantly enhanced in BCR/abl transformed BaF3 cells and that tyrosine phosphorylation of cbl leads to a direct interaction with GRB2, p85 and abl SH2 domains. A 14-fold increase in cbl associated PI 3-kinase activity in BCR/abl transformed cells suggests that the binding of p85 SH2 domains to tyrosine phosphorylated cbl may contribute to PI 3-kinase activation. Domain analysis studies indicate that both SH3 domains of GRB2 bind to the proline rich region of cbl in quiescent BaF3 cells, whereas GRB2 SH2 domain interacts with a non-contiguous sequence of cbl in transformed cells. Although the interaction of cbl with GRB2 in transformed cells was facilitated by binding of GRB2 to BCR/abl, phosphorylation of cbl and its interaction with p190 BCR/abl remained unaltered in BaF3 cells transformed by p190Y177F BCR/abl mutant which is unable to bind GRB2. The current information and the data presented here suggest that, although cbl lacks src homology domains, it represents a novel intermediate protein which, by interaction with key SH-containing adaptor proteins, may participate in regulation of the Ras and PI 3-kinase pathways in BCR/abl transformed hematopoietic cells.

Title Divergence in Signal Transduction Pathways of Platelet-derived Growth Factor (pdgf) and Epidermal Growth Factor (egf) Receptors. Involvement of Sphingosine 1-phosphate in Pdgf but Not Egf Signaling.
Date May 1997
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and serum, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF), stimulated sphingosine kinase activity in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and increased intracellular concentrations of sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP), a sphingolipid second messenger (Olivera, A., and Spiegel, S. (1993) Nature 365, 557-560). We report herein that DL-threo-dihydrosphingosine (DHS), a competitive inhibitor of sphingosine kinase that prevents PDGF-induced SPP formation, specifically inhibited the activation of two cyclin-dependent kinases (p34(cdc2) kinase and Cdk2 kinase) induced by PDGF, but not by EGF. SPP reversed the inhibitory effects of DHS on PDGF-stimulated cyclin-dependent kinases and DNA synthesis, demonstrating that the DHS effects were mediated via inhibition of sphingosine kinase. DHS also markedly reduced PDGF-stimulated but not EGF-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Examination of the early signaling events of PDGF action revealed that DHS did not affect PDGF-induced autophosphorylation of the growth factor receptor or phosphorylation of the SH2/SH3 adaptor protein Shc and its association with Grb2. This sphingosine kinase inhibitor did not abrogate activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by PDGF. In agreement, treatment with SPP had no effect on these responses but did, however, potently stimulate phosphorylation of Crk, another SH2/SH3 adaptor protein. Moreover, DHS inhibited PDGF-stimulated, but not EGF-stimulated, Crk phosphorylation. Thus, regulation of sphingosine kinase activity defines divergence in signal transduction pathways of PDGF and EGF receptors leading to mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

Title Bcr/abl Leads to the Constitutive Activation of Stat Proteins, and Shares an Epitope with Tyrosine Phosphorylated Stats.
Date December 1996
Journal Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.k
Excerpt

The mechanism by which BCR/abl leads to the transformation of hematopoietic cells is not understood. The introduction of BCR/abl into BaF3 cells, an IL-3-dependent pro-lymphocytic cell line, abrogates the requirement of IL-3 for growth. Given that IL-3 leads to the phosphorylation of Stat proteins, we tested the hypothesis that BCR/abl transformation of hematopoietic cells induces the phosphorylation of Stats. We found that BaF3 cells transformed by either the p190 or p210 forms of BCR/abl possess constitutively phosphorylated Stat1 and Stat5. Phosphorylation of Stat proteins was greater in cells transformed by p190 BCR/abl than in cells transformed by p210 BCR/abl, suggesting that the magnitude of phosphorylation of Stat proteins may play a role in the biological effects of BCR/abl. Expression of BCR/abl containing a mutation (Y177F) that prevents its interaction with GRB2 led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat5. This suggested that GRB2, or its binding site on BCR/abl, may participate in the phosphorylation of Stat proteins. We also observed that the anti-phospho-Stat antibody directly recognized both the p190 and p210 forms of BCR/abl. This indicated that a tyrosine residue that becomes phosphorylated in BCR/abl may share homology with the tyrosine phosphorylation site of Stat1 and Stat5. These findings may have implications for the mechanisms by which BCR/abl interacts with signaling pathways to confer growth factor independence and induce transformation of hematopoietic cells.

Title Pi 3-kinase Activation in Bcr/abl-transformed Hematopoietic Cells Does Not Require Interaction of P85 Sh2 Domains with P210 Bcr/abl.
Date October 1996
Journal Blood
Excerpt

BCR/abl is a chimeric oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of human chronic myelogenous leukemia. Expression of the BCR/abl gene induces hematologic malignancies in transgenic mice and transformation of interleukin-3-dependent hematopoietic cells. The mechanism of BCR/abl-mediated transformation of hematopoietic cells is poorly understood and involves activation of at least two signaling pathways, p21ras and PI 3-kinase. Here we report that PI 3,4-P2 and PI 3,4,5-P3, the enzymatic products of PI 3-kinase, accumulate in metabolically labeled transformed hematopoietic cells, in contrast to our previous report on the lack of accumulation of PI 3-kinase products in nontransformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts that express p210 BCR/abl. Transformed cells also have increased PI 3-kinase activity in total cell extracts and membrane fractions. Activation of PI 3-kinase occurs by occupancy of SH2 domains of PI 3-kinase regulatory subunit, p85, by phosphorylated YXXM motifs. Therefore, we investigated whether BCR/abl binds to p85 and whether this binding is mediated by interaction of p85 SH2 domains with YXXM motif of BCR/abl. Association of p210 BCR/abl with p85 in immune complexes and with p85 SH2 domains was evident in hematopoietic cells that express the wt p210 BCR/abl. However, the binding of BCR/abl to p85 SH2 domains was abolished in cells expressing mutant, temperature-sensitive (ts) p210 BCR/abl in which the tyrosine in the YXXM motif of p210 BCR/abl was replaced by histidine. Despite lack of direct interaction with p85 SH2 domains, expression of ts p210 BCR/abl resulted in rapid, time-dependent activation of total and membrane-associated PI 3-kinase and increased PI 3-kinase activity in anti-P-tyr and anti-abl immunoprecipitates. These data suggest that BCR/abl-induced activation of PI 3-kinase in hematopoietic cells does not require binding of p85 SH2 domains to BCR/abl gene product and involves interaction with other tyrosine phosphorylated intermediate proteins.

Title Studies on Fenestral Contraction in Rat Liver Endothelial Cells in Culture.
Date August 1996
Journal The American Journal of Pathology
Excerpt

Liver endothelial cells possess fenestrae, which are pores supported by a cytoskeleton ring composed of actin and myosin. Fenestrae are dynamic structures that can contract or dilate, although the mechanism for this phenomenon remains to be elucidated. Staining of actin and/or of myosin permitted measurement of fenestral diameter and area in cultured rat liver endothelial cells using digitized video-intensified fluorescence microscopy with image analysis. Within 1 minute of incubation with 0.1 micromol/L serotonin, fenestral diameter and area decreased by 24 +/- 5% and 56 +/- 7%, respectively. Contraction of fenestrae by serotonin was inhibited by chelation of extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA and by addition of Ca2+ channel blockers, such as dilthiazem and verapamil. The response of fenestrae to serotonin was mimicked by addition of a Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. Serotonin inhibited cAMP production, had no effect on inositol phosphate production, and activated phospholipase A2, causing release of arachidonic acid. These results suggest that contraction of fenestrae is associated with Ca2+ influx. In response to 0.1 micromol/serotonin, intracellular Ca2+ levels increased within 3 to 5 seconds from 150 nmol/L to >400 nmol/l followed by rapid phosphorylation of the 20-kd subunit of myosin light chain; both events dependent on extracellular Ca2+.

Title Hypoxia-induced Paracrine Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Expression.
Date March 1996
Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Excerpt

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular permeability factor (VPF), an endothelial cell (EC)-specific mitogen, stimulates angiogenesis in vivo, particularly in ischemic regions. VEGF/VPF expression by cells of hypoxic tissues coincides with expression of its two receptors, KDR and flt-1, by ECs in the same tissues. We investigated whether hypoxia or hypoxia-dependent conditions operate in coordinating this phenomenon. Human umbilical vein and microvascular ECs were exposed to direct hypoxia or to medium conditioned (CM) by myoblasts maintained in hypoxia for 4 d. Control ECs were maintained in normoxia or normoxia-CM. Binding of 125I-VEGF to ECs was then evaluated. Hypoxic treatment of ECs had no effect on 125I-VEGF binding. However, treatment of ECs with hypoxia-CM produced a threefold increase in 125I-VEGF binding, with peak at 24 h (P < 0.001, ANOVA). Scatchard analysis disclosed that increased binding was due to a 13-fold increase in KDR receptors/cell, with no change in KDR affinity (Kd = 260 +/- 51 pM, normoxia-CM versus Kd = 281 +/- 94 pM, hypoxia-CM) and no change in EC number (35.6 +/- 5.9 x 10(3) ECs/cm2, normoxia-CM versus 33.5 +/- 5.5 x 10(3) ECs/cm2, hypoxia-CM). Similar results were obtained using CM from hypoxic smooth muscle cells. KDR upregulation was not prevented by addition to the hypoxia-CM of neutralizing antibodies against VEGF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor beta 1 or basic fibroblast growth factor. Similarly, addition of VEGF or lactic acid to the normoxia-CM had no effect on VEGF binding. We conclude that mechanism(s) initiated by hypoxia can induce KDR receptor upregulation in ECs. Hypoxic cells, normal or neoplastic, not only can produce VEGF/VPF, but can also modulate its effects via paracrine induction of VEGF/VPF receptors in ECs.

Title Hypoxia Induces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells.
Date February 1996
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

Smooth muscle cells, macrophages, glial cells, keratinocytes, and transformed cells have been established as synthesis sites for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The modulating effects of VEGF are essentially limited to endothelial cells (ECs), the only cell type consistently shown to express VEGF receptors. VEGF has thus been considered to act exclusively via a paracrine pathway. We sought to determine whether the role of human ECs might, under selected conditions, extend beyond that of a target to involve contingency synthesis of VEGF. In both unstimulated human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and human derma-derived microvascular ECs (HMECs), Northern analysis detected no VEGF transcripts. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (10(-7) M) treatment, however, induced VEGF mRNA expression in both HUVECs and HMECs, peaking at 3 and 6 h, respectively, and returning to undetectable levels by 12 h. In vitro exposure of HUVECs to a hypoxic environment (pO2 = 35 mm of mercury) for 12, 24, and 48 h and exposure of HMECs for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h induced VEGF mRNA in a time-dependent fashion. Re-exposure to normoxia (pO2 = 150 mm of mercury) for 24 h after 24 h of hypoxia returned VEGF mRNA transcripts to undetectable levels in HUVECs. Cobalt chloride and nickel chloride treatment each induced VEGF mRNA in ECs. Cycloheximide treatment further augmented expression of VEGF mRNA induced by cobalt chloride, nickel chloride, and hypoxia in HUVECs. VEGF protein production in hypoxia HUVECs was demonstrated immunohistochemically. Conditioned media from hypoxic HUVECs caused a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Finally, immune precipitates of anti-KDR probed with anti-Tyr(P) antibodies demonstrated evidence of receptor autophosphorylation in hypoxic but not normoxic HUVECs. These findings thus establish the potential for an autocrine pathway that may augment and/or amplify the paracrine effects of VEGF in stimulating angiogenesis.

Title Phorbol Ester Treatment Inhibits Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Activation By, and Association With, Cd28, a T-lymphocyte Surface Receptor.
Date October 1995
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Excerpt

CD28 is a costimulatory receptor found on the surface of most T lymphocytes. Engagement of CD28 induces interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and cell proliferation when combined with an additional signal such as treatment with phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C. Recent studies have established that after CD28 ligation, the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 can bind to the 85-kDa subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase). There is a concomitant increase in PI3 lipid kinase activity that may be important in CD28 signaling. Despite the requirement of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for effector function, we have found, however, that treatment of Jurkat T cells with the phorbol ester PMA dramatically inhibits (i) the association of PI3 kinase with CD28, (ii) the ability of p85 PI3 kinase to be immunoprecipitated by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, and (iii) the induction of PI3 kinase activity after stimulation of the cells with the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody 9.3. These changes occur within minutes of PMA treatment and are persistent. In addition, we have found that wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of PI3 kinase, does not interfere with the induction of IL-2 after stimulation of Jurkat T cells with anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody and PMA. We conclude that PI3 kinase activity may not be required for CD28-dependent IL-2 production from Jurkat T cells in the presence of PMA.

Title Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Activity in Murine Erythroleukemia Cells During Dmso-induced Differentiation.
Date September 1995
Journal Experimental Cell Research
Excerpt

We have used murine erythroleukemia cells (MEL cells) to investigate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in erythroid differentiation. When treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), MEL cells grown on a fibronectin matrix become committed to erythroid differentiation asynchronously, with 90% of cells becoming committed by Day 3 of treatment. We found that during the first 3 days of DMSO treatment MEL cells showed a twofold increase in total PI 3-kinase activity and a fourfold increase in the highly phosphorylated PI 3-kinase product, PIP3. At the same time there was no change in the content of p85, the PI 3-kinase regulatory subunit. After Day 3, PI 3-kinase activity declined, in parallel with a disappearance of p85 antigen from the cells. Inclusion of the PI 3-kinase inhibitor Wortmannin in the culture medium resulted in an inhibition of cellular PI 3-kinase activity and a delay in DMSO-induced erythroid differentiation. These data suggest that PI 3-kinase may play a critical role during commitment of MEL cells to erythroid differentiation.

Title Association of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with Shc in Chronic Myelogeneous Leukemia Cells.
Date May 1995
Journal Oncogene
Excerpt

Expression of p210 BCR/abl oncoprotein transforms hematopoietic cells. P210 BCR/abl tyrosine kinase induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, and activation of p21ras and PI 3-Kinase. Here we show that PI 3-Kinase associates with Shc in cells transformed by BCR/abl oncoprotein. Immunoprecipitation of Shc from cells expressing p210 BCR/abl had 7.5-fold increase in PI 3-Kinase activity compared to parental cells. Tyrosine phosphorylated Shc specifically bound to the C-SH2 domain of the p85 subunit of PI 3-Kinase. The p85 SH3 domain also interacted with Shc in cell lysates from parental and transformed cells. The binding of p85 SH3 domain to Shc was substantially higher in BCR/abl transformed than in parental cells. Phenylphosphate blocked p85 SH2 mediated association with Shc but enhanced the binding of the p85 SH3 domain to Shc. The N-terminal proline-rich region of Shc between A263 and N273 specifically blocked the interaction of p85 SH3 domain with Shc. Our results indicate that PI 3-Kinase interacts with Shc directly in hematopoietic cells which express p210 BCR/abl oncoprotein.

Title Naturally Occurring Ether-linked Phosphatidylcholine Activates Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Stimulates Cell Growth.
Date October 1994
Journal Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Excerpt

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) from marine invertebrates is enriched in ether-linked forms. PCs from ray fish, Dasyatis sp., and bivalve, Macoma birmanica, used in the present study, contain 65% and 75% (w/w of total PC) of ether-linked forms, respectively. Ether-linked PCs also occur in mammalian membranes. Agonist-mediated hydrolysis of PC generates second messengers which participate in cellular responses. In this study, we tested whether PCs from marine invertebrates directly affect mammalian cell growth and activity of phosphatidylinositol (Pl-3-kinase). Pl-3-kinase participates in mitogenesis initiated by a variety of growth factors. Pl-3-kinase converts polyphosphoinositides to 3' phosphorylated isomers and these products accumulate in response to mitogenic stimuli. Whether cell membrane lipids regulate Pl-3-kinase activity is not known. The marine animal-derived PCs and dioleoyl DAG (dioleoylglycerol) stimulated growth of murine pre-B lymphocytes, whereas chicken PC (egg lecithin) inhibited growth of these cells. Egg lecithin is also a potent inhibitor of Pl-3-kinase activity in vitro. We studied the effect of PCs and DAG on Pl-3-kinase activity. Unlike egg lecithin, marine animal PCs enhanced Pl-3-kinase activity. We investigated the effect of lipids on Pl-3-kinase substrate utilization. PCs enriched in ether-linked species increased utilization of substrates by Pl-3-kinase. PCs purified from marine organisms also contain a substantially higher percentage of the cis-unsaturated fatty acids, especially of the -omega 3 series (25% and 30% of total fatty acids for Dasyatis sp. and Macoma birmanica, respectively), as compared to vertebrate sources. In spite of differences in fatty acid composition, marine PCs and dioleoyl DAG showed similar effects on cell growth and Pl-3-kinase activity. These findings indicate that ether-linked phospholipids activate Pl-3-kinase and may participate in mitogenic responses.

Title Serine-rich Region of the Il-2 Receptor Beta-chain is Required for Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
Date August 1994
Journal Cellular Immunology
Excerpt

The intracellular portion of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signal transducing beta-chain contains a distinct region, designated "serine-rich," which encompasses sequences required for IL-2-mediated cell growth. Although the receptor does not possess intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity, IL-2 binding induces activation of intracellular protein-tyrosine kinases. Activation of many protein-tyrosine kinases leads to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). IL-2 binding also induces activation of PI 3-kinase. To study the interaction of PI 3-kinase with the IL-2 receptor beta-chain we analyzed PI 3-kinase activity in cells which express the wild type and mutant beta-chain. IL-2 mediated an increase in association with PI 3-kinase activity and protein in immunoprecipitates from cells expressing mitogenically competent receptors. PI 3-kinase products also increased in response to IL-2 in these cells. Deletion of the beta-chain serine-rich region abolished IL-2-mediated mitogenesis and cells expressing this mutant failed to activate PI 3-kinase. The interaction of the IL-2 receptor with an intracellular tyrosine kinase, lck, has been mapped to the acidic-rich region of the beta-chain. Cells which express the beta-chain lacking the acidic-rich region grow in the presence of IL-2 and had IL-2-dependent activation of PI 3-kinase. Activation of PI 3-kinase in response to IL-2 was not abolished by treatment of cells with rapamicin and occurred only in cells which express mitogenically competent receptors. The results presented in this study suggest that IL-2-mediated PI 3-kinase activation occurs by a mechanism distinct from interaction with the lck protein-tyrosine kinase.

Title Association of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with a Specific Sequence of the T Cell Receptor Zeta Chain is Dependent on T Cell Activation.
Date June 1994
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

The T cell antigen receptor (TCR).CD3 complex contains several distinct but related signal transduction modules termed "Reth motifs": one each in the cytoplasmic domains of CD3-gamma, -delta, and -epsilon chains and three in the CD3-zeta polypeptide (zeta A, zeta B, and zeta C). Cross-linking of individual motifs expressed in chimeric molecules leads to early and late T cell activation events. Although the activated T cell receptor associates with nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, the sites of interaction with kinases and other potential effector molecules have not been fully mapped. Here we show that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) preferentially associated with the zeta chain membrane proximal motif zeta A. Maximal PI 3-kinase/zeta A association occurred following TCR.CD3 activation and was dependent upon phosphorylation of both tyrosine residues in zeta A. The association of PI 3-kinase was specific for zeta A and could be ranked zeta A >> zeta C > zeta B. Phosphorylation of the zeta A motif on tyrosine residues occurred in response to TCR.CD3 cross-linking in vivo. These results indicate that T cell activation leads to assembly of an intracellular signaling complex: recruitment of a tyrosine kinase, phosphorylation of zeta A, and association of PI 3-kinase. These data also support a model in which different Reth motifs of the TCR.CD3 complex recruit distinct signal transduction molecules. Thus, the subdomains of the T cell antigen receptor zeta chain may serve different roles during T cell maturation and antigen-driven activation.

Title Role of Pi 3-kinase in Mitogenesis.
Date May 1994
Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
Title In Vitro Evidence That Myocardial Ischemia Resulting from 5-fluorouracil Chemotherapy is Due to Protein Kinase C-mediated Vasoconstriction of Vascular Smooth Muscle.
Date July 1993
Journal Cancer Research
Excerpt

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a commonly employed chemotherapeutic agent. Among the various toxicities associated with 5-FU, cardiovascular toxicity, consisting principally of acute myocardial ischemia and/or myocardial infarction, has been reported in up to 8.5% of patients treated with this drug. While 5-FU-induced coronary vasospasm has been considered as a potential basis for such clinical toxicity, this hypothesis remains unsubstantiated by laboratory investigation. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that 5-FU induces reversible vasoconstriction of vascular smooth muscle and to study the cellular mechanisms of such vasomotor alterations. To investigate the effects of 5-FU on the vasoreactivity of vascular smooth muscle, 479 exposures were performed in 105 rings of aorta freshly isolated from 23 New Zealand white rabbits. Vasoconstriction was documented in 20 of 86 (23%) rings exposed to 5-FU at 7 x 10(-5) M, 45 of 83 (54%) rings exposed to 5-FU at 7 x 10(-4) M, and 41 of 49 (84%) rings exposed to 5-FU at 7 x 10(-3) M. In each case, 5-FU-induced vasoconstriction was endothelium independent. Pretreatment of rings with 10(-9) M staurosporine, a protein kinase C (PK-C) inhibitor, reduced 5-FU-induced vasoconstriction from 25.0 +/- 6.5 to 2.5 +/- 1.7 mg; staurosporine at a concentration of 10(-8) M abolished 5-FU-induced vasoconstriction. Pretreatment of rings with 10(-7) M phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, an activator of PK-C, increased the magnitude of 5-FU-induced vasoconstriction 23-fold, from 49.7 +/- 11.1 mg before to 1163.6 +/- 276.4 mg after phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (P = 0.0002). Neomycin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide turnover, did not alter the magnitude of 5-FU-induced vasoconstriction. Membrane receptor blockers, including the alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker phentolamine, the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol, the H1 receptor inhibitor diphenhydramine, the H2 receptor inhibitor cimetidine, the Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem, and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin all failed to alter the magnitude of 5-FU-induced vasoconstriction. Furthermore, the 5-FU-related compounds uracil and floxuridine did not produce vasoconstriction. Finally, 5-FU-induced vasoconstriction was abolished by nitroglycerin. These results indicate that (a) 5-FU causes direct, endothelium-independent vasoconstriction of vascular smooth muscle in vitro, (b) this vasomotor response involves activation of PK-C, and (c) this response is independent of vasoactive cell membrane receptors, phosphoinositide turnover, or activation of the cyclooxygenase pathway.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Title Platelet-derived Growth Factor Activates Membrane-associated Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Mediates Its Translocation from the Cytosol. Detection of Enzyme Activity in Detergent-solubilized Cell Extracts.
Date December 1992
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity has been detected in immune complexes with active protein tyrosine kinases, and its products have been measured in intact cells in response to growth stimuli. Both methods do not directly evaluate whole cell PI 3-kinase enzymatic activity. We have developed a sensitive method to measure PI 3-kinase activity in diluted, detergent-containing whole cell extracts and used this method to determine total, soluble, and membrane-associated PI 3-kinase activity in PDGF-stimulated NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. PDGF stimulation induced a 1.4-fold increase in total Nonidet P-40-extractable PI 3-kinase activity, which occurred within 1 min and was maintained above basal levels at 10 min. At the same time, PI 3-kinase activity in the soluble fraction decreased 30-50%. However, membrane-bound PI 3-kinase activity increased 2.4-fold at 1 min and 3.1-fold at 5 min. Translocation of the p85 PI 3-kinase subunit to the membrane was maximal at 10 min. These results suggest that PDGF-mediated activation of PI 3-kinase in membrane fraction results from initial intrinsic enzymatic activation followed by translocation from the cytosol.

Title Role of Protein-tyrosine Kinases in Cellular Transformation.
Date March 1992
Journal Sangre
Title Interleukin-2 Receptor Regulates Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
Date September 1991
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates proliferation of T lymphocytes and is involved in the activation of both natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer precursor cells. The intracellular messengers which mediate IL-2-dependent events have not yet been identified. IL-2 receptor is not a protein-tyrosine kinase. Activation of a cellular protein-tyrosine kinase and direct association of a protein-tyrosine kinase activity with the IL-2 receptor occurs within minutes of IL-2 stimulation. We investigated the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in IL-2-mediated signal transduction using the IL-2-dependent murine T-cell line, CTLL-2, and human phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (phytohemagglutinin blasts). Within a minute following stimulation of these cells with IL-2, PI 3-kinase activity could be detected in antiphosphotyrosine (anti-P-Tyr) antibody immunoprecipitates. IL-2 triggered a direct association of PI 3-kinase with the IL-2 receptor as detected in immunoprecipitates using anti-IL-2 receptor beta chain antibody. In vivo labeled CTLL-2 cells have a time-dependent increase in D-3-phosphorylated polyphosphoinositides following stimulation with IL-2. This is the first group of second messengers identified in IL-2-mediated signal transduction.

Title Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Cells Expressing Abl Oncogene Variants.
Date March 1991
Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology
Excerpt

A phosphoinositide kinase specific for the D-3 position of the inositol ring, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, associates with activated receptors for platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, and colony-stimulating factor 1, with products of the oncogenes src, fms, yes, crk, and with polyomavirus middle T antigen. Efficient fibroblast transformation by proteins of the abl and src oncogene families requires activation of their protein-tyrosine kinase activity and membrane association via an amino-terminal myristoylation. We have demonstrated that the PI 3-kinase directly associates with autophosphorylated, activated protein-tyrosine kinase variants of the abl protein. In vivo, this association leads to accumulation of the highly phosphorylated products of PI 3-kinase, PI-3,4-bisphosphate and PI-3,4,5-trisphosphate, only in myristoylated, transforming abl protein variants. Myristoylation thus appears to be required to recruit PI 3-kinase activity to the plasma membrane for in vivo activation and correlates with the mitogenicity of the abl protein variants.

Title Signal Transduction and Phosphoinositide Metabolism in Liver.
Date April 1990
Journal Progress in Liver Diseases
Title The Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor Associates with and Activates Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase.
Date January 1990
Journal Nature
Excerpt

Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is a lineage-specific growth factor required for proliferation and survival of mononuclear phagocytes and their precursors. The CSF-1 receptor belongs to a family of ligand-activated protein-tyrosine kinases. Activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, but not the CSF-1 receptor, leads to an increase in phospholipase C activity and a subsequent elevation in intracellular calcium. Recent studies have shown that a novel phosphoinositol (PtdIns) kinase, termed PtdIns-3 kinase, is stimulated by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and certain oncogenes in the protein-tyrosine kinase family. PtdIns-3 kinase phosphorylates the D-3 hydroxyl position of the inositol ring of PtdIns, and its products do not participate in the generation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3). Here we report that addition of CSF-1 is followed by activation of PtdIns-3 kinase in a macrophage cell line (P388 D1), which contains CSF-1 receptors, and in BALB/c fibroblasts made to express the human CSF-1 receptor. Furthermore, we show that activation of the CSF-1 receptor results in the accumulation in intact cells of polyphosphoinositides phosphorylated at the D-3 position of the inositol ring. Thus activation of the CSF-1 receptor stimulates PtdIns-3 kinase activity, indicating a novel pathway for CSF-1 receptor-mediated signal transduction.

Title Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Its Novel Product, Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, Are Present in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.
Date January 1990
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

The metabolism of polyphosphoinositides has been shown to be an important factor in controlling the proliferation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The monophosphate form of phosphatidylinositol has been assumed to be phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4-P). Recent evidence from our laboratory has established that a phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase, which phosphorylates the D-3 position of the inositol ring (PI 3-kinase), is associated with many activated protein-tyrosine kinases and may play an important role in the signaling of cell proliferation (Auger, K. R., Serunian, L. A., Soltoff, S. P., Libby, P., and Cantley, L. C. (1989) Cell 57, 167-175). To determine the evolutionary conservation of this enzymatic activity, we investigated its presence in yeast. In vitro PI kinase assays of yeast cell homogenates demonstrated that PI 3-kinase activity was present. Preliminary biochemical characterization of the activity suggested that it was quite different from the mammalian enzyme yet catalyzed the same reaction, i.e. phosphorylating the D-3 hydroxyl position of the inositol ring of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol. [3H]Inositol labeling of intact yeast cells with the subsequent extraction, deacylation, and high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the lipids demonstrated that PI-3-P was as abundant as the PI-4-P isomer. The conservation of the enzymatic activity from yeast to man suggests that it has an important functional role in the cell cycle.

Title Location of Sites in Human Lipocortin I That Are Phosphorylated by Protein Tyrosine Kinases and Protein Kinases A and C.
Date October 1988
Journal Biochemistry
Excerpt

Lipocortin I is a 39-kilodalton membrane-associated protein that in A431 cells is phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). We have used recombinant human lipocortin I as a substrate for several protein kinases and identified phosphorylated residues by a combination of peptide mapping and sequence analysis. Lipocortin I was phosphorylated near the amino terminus at Tyr-21 by recombinant pp60c-src. The same tyrosine residue was phosphorylated by polyoma middle T/pp60c-src complex, by recombinant pp50v-abl, and with A431 cell membranes by the EGF receptor/kinase. The primary site of phosphorylation by protein kinase C was also near the amino terminus at Ser-27. The major site of phosphorylation by adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate dependent protein kinase was on the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule at Thr-216. These sites are compared to the phosphorylation sites previously located in the structurally related protein lipocortin II.

Title Paradoxical Stimulation of Both Lipocortin and Prostaglandin Production in Human Amnion Cells by Dexamethasone.
Date April 1988
Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Excerpt

Glucocorticoids inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis by inducing the formation of lipocortins. In human amnion cells dexamethasone elicited a concentration-dependent increase in prostaglandin production and raised intracellular lipocortin 1 concentrations. Dexamethasone could also potentiate the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced stimulation of prostaglandin production. EGF alone or in combination with dexamethasone increased lipocortin 1 formation in amnion cells. Human amnion cells may provide a unique insight into interactions between glucocorticoids, lipocortin and eicosanoid biosynthesis.

Title Signal Transduction Through the Egf Receptor Transfected in Il-3-dependent Hematopoietic Cells.
Date March 1988
Journal Science (new York, N.y.)
Excerpt

An expression vector for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was introduced into the 32D myeloid cell line, which is devoid of EGF receptors and absolutely dependent on interleukin-3 (IL-3) for its proliferation and survival. Expression of the EGF receptor conferred the ability to utilize EGF for transduction of a mitogenic signal. When the transfected cells were propagated in EGF, they exhibited a more mature myeloid phenotype than was observed under conditions of IL-3-directed growth. Moreover, exposure to EGF led to a rapid stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism, while IL-3 had no detectable effect on phosphoinositide turnover either in control or EGF receptor-transfected 32D cells. Although the transfected cells exhibited high levels of functional EGF receptors, they remained nontumorigenic. In contrast, transfection of v-erbB, an amino-terminal truncated form of the EGF receptor with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity, not only abrogated the IL-3 growth factor requirement of 32D cells, but caused them to become tumorigenic in nude mice. These results show that a naïve hematopoietic cell expresses all of the intracellular components of the EGF-signaling pathway necessary to evoke a mitogenic response and sustain continuous proliferation.

Title Anti-platelet and Anti-dna Igm in Waldenström Macroglobulinemia and Itp.
Date May 1987
Journal American Journal of Hematology
Excerpt

We describe a monoclonal IgM that was purified from the serum of a patient with Waldenström macroglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia. The binding and idiotypic characteristics of the patient's macroglobulin were similar to those of a human monoclonal IgM secreted by a hybridoma established from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and immune thrombocytopenia. In the absence of other causes for thrombocytopenia in this patient, our results suggest an autoimmune mechanism for destruction of platelets by the monoclonal IgM. This is the first report of a Waldenström macroglobulinemia with anti-platelet activity of monoclonal IgM. Although the study involves a single patient, the results suggest that there may be a common origin for autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases and monoclonal immunoglobulins having autoantibody activity in monoclonal gammopathies.

Title Biosynthesis of Porphyrin Precursors: Kinetic Studies on Mammalian L-alanine: Gamma,delta-dioxovaleric Acid Aminotransferase.
Date March 1981
Journal The International Journal of Biochemistry
Title Biosynthesis of Porphyrin Precursors. Purification and Characterization of Mammalian L-alanine:gamma,delta-dioxovaleric Acid Aminotransferase.
Date June 1980
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Excerpt

Bovine liver mitochondria have been found to contain an enzyme which will catalyze the formation of delta-aminolevulinic acid via a transamination reaction rather than via the condensation of glycine and succinyl coenzyme A. The enzyme, L-alanine: gamma,delta-dioxovaleric acid aminotransferase (gamma,delta-dioxovalerate transaminase) was isolated and purifed to apparent homogeneity. gamma,delta-Dioxovalerate transaminase is quite stable, has optimal activity at pH 6.9, requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor and has an apparent molecular weight of 240,000. The enzyme has high specificity for both substrates. The Km for L-alanine is 3.7 x 10(-3) M and the Km for gamma,delta-dioxovalerate is 2.4 x 10(-4) M. Plots of 1/gamma,delta-dioxovalerate against 1/v at varying alanine concentrations suggested a ping-pong reaction mechanism. Although the enzyme appeared to be a typical transaminase, exhaustive experiments failed to demonstrate reversibility of the reaction. The capacity of gamma,delta-dioxovalerate transaminase to synthesize delta-aminolevulinic acid appears to be far greater than the capacity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase from the same source. The possibility that gamma,delta-dioxovalerate transaminase plays a role in the biosynthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid in vivo must be considered.

Title Computerized Case History - an Effective Tool for Management of Patients and Clinical Trials.
Date
Journal Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Excerpt

Monitoring diagnostic procedures, treatment protocols and clinical outcome are key issues in maintaining quality medical care and in evaluating clinical trials. For these purposes, a user-friendly computerized method for monitoring all available information about a patient is needed.Objective: To develop a real-time computerized data collection system for verification, analysis and storage of clinical information on an individual patient. Methods: Data was integrated on a single time axis with normalized graphics. Laboratory data was set according to standard protocols selected by the user and diagnostic images were integrated as needed. The system automatically detects variables that fall outside established limits and violations of protocols, and generates alarm signals.Results. The system provided an effective tool for detection of medical errors, identification of discrepancies between therapeutic and diagnostic procedures, and protocol requirements.Conclusions: The computerized case history system allows collection of medical information from multiple sources and builds an integrated presentation of clinical data for analysis of clinical trials and for patient follow-up.

Title Obesity Accelerates Mouse Mammary Tumor Growth in the Absence of Ovarian Hormones.
Date
Journal Nutrition and Cancer
Excerpt

Obesity increases incidence and mortality of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. Suitable animal models are needed to elucidate potential mechanisms for this association. To determine the effects of obesity on mammary tumor growth, nonovariectomized and ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice of various body weights (lean, overweight, and obese) were implanted subcutaneously with mammary tumor cells from syngeneic Wnt-1 transgenic mice. In mice, the lean phenotype was associated with reduced Wnt-1 tumor growth regardless of ovarian hormone status. Ovariectomy delayed Wnt-1 tumor growth consistent with the known hormone responsiveness of these tumors. However, obesity accelerated tumor growth in ovariectomized but not in nonovariectomized animals. Diet-induced obesity in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer enhanced tumor growth, specifically in the absence of ovarian hormones. These results support epidemiological evidence that obesity is associated with increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal but not premenopausal women. In contrast, maintaining a lean body weight phenotype was associated with reduced Wnt-1 tumor growth regardless of ovarian hormone status.

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