Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
The University of Texas at Houston (2001)
Top 50%

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Surgery
American College of Surgeons

Affiliations ?

Dr. Salazar is affiliated with 10 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • The Ohio State University Hospital East
    1492 E Broad St, Columbus, OH 43205
    Top 25%
  • Ennis Regional Medical Center
    803 W Lampasas St, Ennis, TX 75119
    Top 25%
  • Methodist Dallas Medical Center
    3500 W Wheatland Rd, Dallas, TX 75237
    Top 25%
  • Methodist Medical Center
    1441 N Beckley Ave, Dallas, TX 75203
    Top 50%
  • Jps Health Network
    1500 S Main St, Fort Worth, TX 76104
  • Methodist Richardson Medical Center
    401 W Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75080
  • Renaissance Hospital Terrell
    1551 State Highway 34 S, Terrell, TX 75160
  • Oh State Med Ctr James Cancer
    320 W 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210
  • Beeville
  • South Hampton Community Hospital
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Salazar has contributed to 16 publications.
    Title Alanine-aminotransferase: an Early Marker for Insulin Resistance?
    Date July 2008
    Journal Medicina

    In a population-based sample, after excluding alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic drugs and hepatitis B and C infected, we investigated if alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) was associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and if this association was caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The sample (432 female and 119 male) was divided into two ALT thresholds corresponding to the 50th and 75th percentiles (P) (female > or = 15 and > or = 19 U/L; male > or = 17 and > or = 23 U/I, respectively). Blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDLc), triglyceride (TG), TG/HDLc ratio, glycemia and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were compared between those above and below each ALT threshold. Female placed above the 50th P of ALT had higher levels of TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.029), glycemia (p=0.028), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, (p=0.045), and above the 75th P had higher SBP (p=0.036), DBP (p=0.018), TG (p=0.024), TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.028), glycemia (p=0.004) and HOMA-IR (p=0.0014). Male placed above the 50th P of ALT had higher BMI (p=0.017) and TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.048), and above the 75th P had lower values of HDLc (p=0.042). Only 16.5% of women and 14.5% of men, above the 75th P of ALT, showed an increase in liver brightness in the echography. This work shows in woman an early association of ALT with TG/HDLc ratio and HOMA-IR. Since the last two are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk, attention should be drawn to ALT values near the upper limit of the normal range even in the absence of NAFLD and obesity.

    Title Predictors of Electrocardiographic Change, Cardiac Troponin Elevation, and Survival After Major Vascular Surgery: a Community Hospital Experience.
    Date September 2007
    Journal The American Surgeon

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality after vascular surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for myocardial ischemia after vascular surgery and to investigate a potential association of ischemia with mortality in a community hospital setting. A retrospective review was conducted after 190 major vascular procedures. Electrocardiogram (ECG) results and troponin I levels were obtained serially during the first 24 postoperative hours. Outcomes analyzed were ischemic ECG changes, troponin I level more than 2 ng/mL, 6-month mortality, and overall survival. The authors investigated any association of these outcomes with each other and the type of operation, history of coronary artery disease, diabetes, recent coronary intervention, age older than 70 years, or postoperative symptoms. Twenty-seven (14%) patients experienced ischemic ECG changes. Twenty-one (11%) patients experienced troponin I elevation. Univariate analysis revealed a history of coronary artery disease, diabetes, concerning symptoms, and troponin elevation to be predictive of ECG change (P < 0.05). ECG change and symptoms were predictive of troponin elevation (P < 0.01). Cox multivariate analysis revealed only infrainguinal bypass to predict 6-month mortality (odds ratio = 2.92, P = 0.02). Diabetes was the sole predictor of overall mortality (odds ratio = 1.94, P = 0.001). Nonsustained ischemic postoperative ECG changes during the first 24 postoperative hours do not independently influence 6-month or overall mortality after major vascular surgery. Postoperative troponin elevation likely conveys a mortality risk in the subsequent 6 months. In the community hospital setting, midterm survival rates after vascular surgery equivalent to those in higher volume centers can be achieved. Patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass and diabetics continue to be the most moribund vasculopaths.

    Title Global Potential Energy Surfaces for the Al+(1s) + H2 System.
    Date October 2006
    Journal The Journal of Chemical Physics

    Global, three-dimensional multireference ab initio potential energy surfaces have been calculated for the AlH2+ system for the two lowest energy singlet states and the lowest energy triplet state. These surfaces were calculated using the multireference configuration interaction level of theory with a large basis set. The accuracy of the surfaces were checked against available experimental data and previous theoretical investigations. The areas of surface crossings between the ground state singlet surface and the lowest energy triplet surface and the first excited singlet surface have been thoroughly investigated in all three dimensions and found to give rise to two regions of surface crossings--an "early" crossing (reduced H2 distance) and a "late" crossing (enlarged H2 distance). It is anticipated that both of these crossings will be important in modeling the dynamics of the system. Each of the global potential energy surfaces were fit by interpolation methodology to obtain analytic representations of the surfaces. A representative classical simulation on the ground state singlet surface was performed and discussed.

    Title Decrease of Blood Pressure by Community-based Strategies.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Medicina

    In a cross section study performed in Rauch in 1997 we found a high prevalence of hypertension and low levels of treatment and control. To evaluate the impact of the community-based intervention activities on blood pressure (BP), we made a cohort study in 1526 inhabitants aged between 15 and 75 years in 2003. The initial study, the advice to consult the family doctor when alterations were found, the free provision of antihypertensive drugs, the press diffusion of the study results and a healthy lifestyle were included among the intervention activities. BP was measured in the subjects' residence by especially trained nurses, considering systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) as the average of three measurements in one occasion. A total of 1307 subjects (85.65%) were re-interviewed. SBP decreased from 137.98 +/- 0.57 to 132.49 +/- 0.53 mm Hg (p < 0.01) and DBP from 88.73 +/- 0.38 to 81.87 +/- 0.33 mm Hg (p < 0.01). Pressure decrease was observed in all the age groups, in both sexes and in the subgroup without receiving antihypertensive drugs. The percentage with antihypertensive drugs increased from 12.2 to 20.4 (p < 0.01). A significant relationship was observed between the percentiles of the BP changes and weight changes in subjects with and without antihypertensive drugs. Community-based intervention strategies were effective to BP control and, probably, to decrease the cardiovascular risk in a community with high prevalence of hypertension.

    Title Molecular Dynamics of Complex Gas-phase Reactive Systems by Time-dependent Groups.
    Date February 2006
    Journal The Journal of Physical Chemistry. A

    A novel way of assembling the total potential for performing molecular dynamical studies of complex gas-phase reactive chemical systems is introduced. The method breaks the calculation of the total potential and gradients of the potential into time-dependent groups that are governed by spatial cutoffs. These groups evolve during the course of the simulation and their number may increase or diminish as the dynamics of the system determine. In an effort to extend the simulation time of these complex reactive processes and to use high levels of theory when necessary, multiple levels of theory may be used over the groups for the calculation of both the intragroup and intergroup interactions. Representative simulations are performed to illustrate the method and a computationally facile method of obtaining the groups of a simulation are also discussed.

    Title Percutaneous Biopsy in Evaluation of Lung Nodules.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Jsls : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons

    Management of an indeterminate pulmonary nodule is a diagnostic challenge that commonly confronts primary care physicians and specialists. Patients often present with this radiographic finding in the course of an unrelated medical evaluation. We examined our institution's experience with percutaneous biopsy of lung nodules to determine the impact of this procedure on overall patient care. Although significant complications are uncommon, the expedience of percutaneous lung biopsy often supplants a surgical opinion prior to initiation of therapy without added diagnostic benefit or cost-savings. Hence, we caution practitioners to use this technique as an adjunct to diagnosis and not a substitute for multidisciplinary care.

    Title [associated Variables to Hypertension in a Region of Argentina]
    Date March 2002
    Journal Medicina

    We conducted a study in a random sample of 1523 inhabitants (15-75 years old) of Rauch city to determine risk factors prevalence to development hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We measured blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, cholesterol and glucose levels, sodium excretion, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We found a high prevalence of hypertension (43.20% in men and 28.50% in women), and obesity-overweight (54.81% in men and 44.65% in women), both of them augmented with aging. Only 4% of hypertensive subjects were being controlled and only 32% of them were aware of their condition. Men showed a marked increment of prevalence of hypertension and obesity-overweight between groups of 15-24 years and 25-34 years. Women had delayed and more gradual increments. In male and female respectively, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 26.86 and 13.81, the prevalence of diabetes was 3.42 and 1.53, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption was 34.61 and 20.83. Higher BMI and waist circumference identified subjects with higher blood pressure up to 54 and 65 years, in men and women, respectively. Age and waist circumference in the whole group, and alcohol consumption in men, were independently correlated with blood pressure; sodium excretion had no correlation. High prevalence of hypertension and obesity-overweight and their association suggest that the most important primary prevention measure in this community should be to prevent obesity. Low levels of awareness indicate the need of ongoing detection programs, and low grade to control of hypertension could be modified with education programs for health providers.

    Title Alpha Lipoic Acid: a Novel Treatment for Depression.
    Date January 2001
    Journal Medical Hypotheses

    Insulin resistance has been associated with people diagnosed with depression. Conversely, it has also been documented that diabetics have an increased risk of depression. Evidence suggests that insulin activity plays a role in serotonergic activity by increasing the influx of tryptophan into the brain. This increased influx of tryptophan has been shown to result in an increase in serotonin synthesis. In accordance with the serotonin theory of depression, it may be possible to treat depression by increasing insulin activity. The antioxidant alpha lipoic acid has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and is used to treat people with diabetes. Therefore, the nutrient alpha lipoic acid should be clinically tested as an adjunct treatment for depression.

    Title A Qualitative Evaluation of an Assisted Self-help Group for Drug-addicted Clients in a Structured Outpatient Treatment Setting.
    Date November 2000
    Journal Community Mental Health Journal

    We conducted a qualitative evaluation of a semi-structured, client-led support group that addressed drug use recovery issues and was assisted by a psychological consultant. Seven regular group members and their counselors were interviewed about the effect of the assisted self-help group on drug use and the clients' quality of life, and these interviews were content analyzed. In addition, the psychological consultant made group process observations for each session of the first three months. Clients reported group strengths as: Feeling supported and understood, being able to speak freely without fear of staff reprisals, obtaining information/feedback, improved mood, and decreased drug use. With the provision of professional support and guidance, this group shows promise as an adjunct to standard outpatient drug abuse treatment by allowing for some degree of client independence and extending the scarce resource of professional counseling.

    Title Ten-year Blood Pressure Trends in Nonhypertensive Inhabitants of La Plata, Argentina.
    Date August 1998
    Journal The Canadian Journal of Cardiology

    OBJECTIVES: To compare, according to blood pressure (BP) categories, 10-year trends in BP measurements in nonhypertensive subjects and the relative risk of developing hypertension. DESIGN: Population study. BP was recorded as the average of two measures taken on a single occasion with a mercury sphygmomanometer and the auscultation method. SETTING: Residents of La Plata, aged 15 to 64 years. PARTICIPANTS: The study was based on randomly chosen individuals who, during a previous survey in 1985, were 15 to 64 years old and whose BP was below 140/90 mmHg. They were grouped according to sex and BP categories. Random age- and sex-stratified sampling of 151 men and 193 women was performed. Categories were high normal BP, optimal BP (as defined by the fifth report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) and normal but not optimal BP defined as BP 120 to 129/80 to 84 mmHg. RESULTS: BP increased in all categories; this increase was significant (P < 0.01) except for diastolic BP in women with high normal BP. BP increases were higher in optimal BP subjects and lower in high normal BP subjects (P < 0.01 for women and not significant for men). The relative risk of developing hypertension in high normal BP subjects was triple that in optimal BP subjects (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in BP observed in optimal BP subjects stress the importance of monitoring BP changes and recommending primary prevention in the whole population.

    Title Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Hydrazine, Monomethylhydrazine, and Ammonia in Air with 5-nonanone Reagent Gas.
    Date June 1995
    Journal Analytical Chemistry

    Hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in air were monitored continuously using a hand-held ion mobility spectrometer equipped with membrane inlet, 63Ni ion source, acetone reagent gas, and ambient temperature drift tube. Response characteristics included detection limit, 6 ppb; linear range, 10-600 ppb; saturated response, >2 ppm; and stable response after 15-30 min. Ammonia interfered in hydrazines detection through a product ion with the same drift time as that for MMH and HZ. Acetone reagent gas was replaced with 5-nonanone to alter drift times of product ions and separate ammonia from MMH and HZ. Patterns in mobility spectra, ion identifications from mass spectra, and fragmentation cross-sections from collisional-induced dissociations suggest that drift times are governed by ion-cluster equilibria in the drift region of the mobility spectrometer. Practical aspects including calibration, stability, and reproducibility are reported from the use of a hand-held mobility spectrometer on the space shuttle Atlantis during mission STS-37.

    Title [prevalence of High Normal Blood Pressure and Progression to Hypertension in a Population Sample of La Plata]
    Date October 1993
    Journal Medicina

    In 1985 we investigated the prevalence of high normal blood pressure in 6387 inhabitants (range 15-75 years old) of the city of La Plata and its progression to arterial hypertension after four years. High normal blood pressure was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic BP between 85-89 mmHg (average value of two measurements) on one occasion. Arterial hypertension was defined as a systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg, both as an average of two measurements on two occasions. High normal BP prevalence was 6.62%, being higher in men than in women (p < 0.0005, Table 1). General progression to hypertension was 41.79%, being higher in the older individuals (p < 0.0005). Of the 423 individuals with high normal BP (Table 2), 268 (63.36%) were found in 1989 (Table 3). They had an incidence of hypertension of 10.45% per year, also higher in older subjects (Table 4). There were no differences between sexes. Subjects with high normal BP who subsequently developed hypertension had higher systolic BP in 1985 than those who remained normotensive (p < 0.001, Table 5). Most of them progressed to mild diastolic hypertension (29.48%) or borderline isolated systolic hypertension (6.72%, Fig. 1). In this study, progression to arterial hypertension was higher than that reported in similar studies for general population in other countries.

    Title [knowledge and Treatment of Hypertension in La Plata, Argentina]
    Date May 1990
    Journal Medicina

    Hypertensive subjects, aged 15-75 years, detected by the survey of Prevalence of Hypertension in La Plata, were evaluated to settle the rates of awareness, treatment, control status and the efficacy of pharmacologic therapy (EPT). The survey was composed of 2,090 subjects when the threshold of hypertension was equal to blood pressure (BP) greater than or equal to 140-90 mm Hg and of 1,203 subjects with a BP threshold greater than or equal to 160-95 mm Hg (Table I). The rates of awareness, treatment and control for the 140-90 mm Hg threshold were 43.97%, 33.06%, 4.9%, respectively, and the EPT was 15.03%. For the 160-95 mm Hg threshold the rates were 69.41%, 54.44% and 27.76% and the EPT was 48.32% (Table 2 and Fig. 1). The awareness and treatment rates for women were greater than those for men (p less than 0.0005) (Table 2). The EPT was similar in both sexes when the 140-90 mm Hg threshold was used while it was greater in women than in men with the 160-95 threshold (p less than 0.014) (Table 2). The rates of awareness and treatment increased with age and with the severity of the disease (Table 3-5). The EPT decreased from 85.71% in the 15-24 yr. age group to 10.56% in the 65-75 yr. age group (Table 4). Although the rates of awareness and treatment of hypertension found in La Plata were similar to those found in USA, the control of the disease was lower.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title [effects of Dynamic Exercise on the Blood Pressure of Patients with Hypertension Treated with Atenolol and Enalapril]
    Date June 1989
    Journal Medicina
    Title [prevalence of Arterial Hypertension in La Plata, Argentina]
    Date March 1989
    Journal Medicina
    Title Small Bowel Ischemia in a Sickle Cell Patient.
    Journal Case Reports in Gastroenterology

    We report a case of small bowel ischemia secondary to sickle cell disease. Acute bowel ischemia is an uncommon presentation of patients with sickle cell disease. Historically, only a handful of cases have been reported. We also provide a summary of the literature relevant to sickle cell patients with acute bowel ischemia.

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