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Publications & Research

Dr. Alvarez has contributed to 26 publications.
Title [acute Toxic Hepatitis Induced by Methimazole: Two Cases].
Date April 2011
Journal Endocrinología Y Nutrición : órgano De La Sociedad Española De Endocrinología Y Nutrición
Title [larrad Biliopancreatic Diversion. Description of an Rat Experimental Model].
Date May 2008
Journal Cirugía Española

OBJECTIVE.: To validate the experimental model of Larrad-biliopancreatic diversion (LBPD) and to analyze weight gain and mortality in rats fed with non- supplemented diets.

Title Systematic Review of Educational Interventions in Palliative Care for Primary Care Physicians.
Date March 2007
Journal Palliative Medicine

A literature review of educational interventions in palliative care (PC) for primary care physicians (PCP) was performed, to evaluate its impact in changing professional practice.

Title Circadian Rhythms of Prolactin Secretion in Neonatal Female Rabbits After Acute Separation from Their Mothers.
Date June 2006
Journal General and Comparative Endocrinology

Newborn rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are only nursed for 3-5 min every 24 h and show a circadian increase in activity in anticipation of nursing. The objective of this study was to determine, in neonatal female rabbits after acute separation from the doe for 48 h, the changes in 24-h rhythms of plasma prolactin and median eminence and anterior pituitary concentration of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT). In addition, median eminence concentration of the excitatory amino acid transmitters glutamate (GLU) and aspartate (ASP) and of the inhibitory amino acid transmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine (TAU) was measured. A significant 21% increase of circulating prolactin occurred in isolated pups. In controls pups, plasma prolactin levels showed two peaks, during the first half of the light phase and at the beginning of the scotophase, respectively. In the isolated pups, a phase advance of about 4 h occurred for the two prolactin peaks. Hemicircadian changes of median eminence DA were found in controls, whereas a single daily peak (at 17:00 h) was found in the separated pups. Plasma prolactin and median eminence DA correlated significantly and inversely in the control group only. Pituitary DA content exhibited a single peak in controls and a hemicircadian pattern in isolated pups. Plasma prolactin and pituitary DA correlated significantly in isolated pups only 00000. Pup isolation decreased median eminence 5HT levels, augmented pituitary 5HT levels and disrupted their 24 h rhythmicity. Circulating prolactin correlated inversely with median eminence 5HT and directly with adenohypophysial 5HT only in controls. Isolation of pups generally modified the 24 h pattern of median eminence excitatory and inhibitory amino acid content by causing a prominent decrease at the beginning of the light phase. The results indicate that circadian rhythmicity of prolactin secretory mechanisms in female rabbit pups is significantly affected by pup's isolation from the doe.

Title Twenty-four Hour Rhythm of Plasma Prolactin in Female Rabbit Pups. Correlation with Hypothalamic and Adenohypophysial Dopamine, Serotonin, Gamma-aminobutyric Acid and Taurine Content.
Date June 2006
Journal Animal Reproduction Science

Lactation in the rabbit is a nocturnal activity, extremely short and regular, that can be a strong synchronizer for the development of circadian rhythmicity in the pups. In the present study, 24-h rhythmicity of plasma prolactin and median eminence and anterior pituitary content of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine were examined in 11 days old female pups kept under 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiods (lights on at 08:00 h). Groups of six to seven female rabbit pups were killed by decapitation at six different time points throughout a 24-h cycle, starting at 09:00 h. Plasma prolactin levels changed significantly throughout the day, showing two peaks, one at first half of rest span (at 13:00 h) and another one at the beginning of the scotophase (at 01:00 h), just preceding doe visit. Median eminence DA content changed in a bimodal way as a function of time of day, displaying two maxima, at the beginning of the rest span and of the activity phase. Median eminence DA and plasma prolactin correlated significantly in an inverse way. Two maxima in median eminence 5HT levels were found, about 4 h in advance to the prolactin peaks. Circulating prolactin correlated inversely with median eminence 5HT content and directly with adenohypophysial 5HT content. Median eminence GABA content reached its maximum at the beginning of the scotophase and correlated significantly with plasma prolactin concentration. A positive correlation between plasma prolactin and adenohypophysial taurine content was observed. These results show that the circadian rhythmicity in prolactin secretory mechanisms in female rabbit pups develops during the early neonatal life.

Title Effect of Chronic Ethanol Feeding on 24-hour Rhythms of Mitogenic Responses and Lymphocyte Subset Populations in Thymus and Spleen of Peripubertal Male Rats.
Date May 2006
Journal Neuroimmunomodulation

This work analyzes the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on the 24-hour variation of mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations in thymus and spleen. Animals were maintained under a 12:12-hour light/dark photoperiod and they received a liquid diet for 4 weeks, starting on day 35 of life. The ethanol-fed group received a similar diet to controls except that maltose was isocalorically replaced by ethanol. Ethanol replacement provided 36% of the total caloric content of the diet. Rats were killed at 6 time intervals around the clock, beginning at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 1 (ZT 0 = lights on). Under ethanol intake the splenic and thymic weight decreased. In addition, mean values of the thymic, but not of the splenic T cell number decreased, and mean values of the thymic and splenic CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ number increased. Consequently, the thymic T/B ratio and the thymic and splenic CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased in ethanol-fed rats. At the same time there was a significant increase in the response of the thymic cells to LPS. The ethanol diet modified the 24-hour rhythmicity of thymic and splenic T, B and CD4+CD8+ cells, thymic CD4+ and splenic CD8+ cells, thymic and splenic T/B and CD4+/CD8+ ratios, as well as of mitogenic responses in both tissues. Chronic ethanol administration presumably affects the endogenous clock that modulates the circadian variation of immune responsiveness in growing rats.

Title Physical and Mechanical Properties of Various Field Lacrosse Balls.
Date April 2006
Journal Journal of Applied Biomechanics

Although the sport of lacrosse has evolved dramatically over the last few decades and is presently the fastest growing team sport in the United States, the current specifications for balls date back to 1943. The purpose of this study was to see if various commercially available field lacrosse balls meet these specifications and to determine additional mechanical properties of the ball that may more completely characterize ball performance. Eight models from several manufacturers were tested. Seven models were designated for game play, while one model was promoted as a practice ball. In accordance with the specifications, the mass, circumference, and rebound height were recorded for one dozen balls from each model. The load required to compress the balls 0.0125 m and the coefficient of restitution (COR) with an incident speed of 26.80 m/s were also determined. We found that some balls met several of the specifications, but none of the models had every ball meet all the specifications. For the two measures of ball liveliness, rebound height had a weak correlation with COR. Ball compression loads averaged about 750 N over most models, but were almost 85% less for the practice model. It appears that current governing body specifications are outdated, as no ball model we tested met these specifications. The determination of ball liveliness at more realistic speeds should also be taken into account. Since balls with low compression loads can pass through face protectors worn by lacrosse players, the sport's governing bodies may wish to consider a specification on ball compression.

Title 24-hour Changes in Acth, Corticosterone, Growth Hormone, and Leptin Levels in Young Male Rats Subjected to Calorie Restriction.
Date September 2005
Journal Chronobiology International

Calorie restriction of young male rats increases plasma prolactin, decreases luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone, and disrupts their 24 h secretory pattern. To study whether this could be the consequence of stress, we examined the 24 h variations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) corticosterone, growth hormone (GH), leptin, and adrenal corticosterone. Rats were submitted to a calorie restriction equivalent to a 66% of usual intake for 4 weeks, starting on day 35 of life. Controls were kept in individual cages and allowed to eat a normal calorie regimen. Significantly lower ACTH levels were detected in calorie-restricted rats. Plasma corticosterone levels during the light phase of the daily cycle were significantly higher in calorie-restricted rats. Time-of-day variation in plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels attained significance in calorie-restricted rats only, with a maximum toward the end of the resting phase. The daily pattern of adrenal gland corticosterone mirrored that of circulating corticosterone; however, calorie restriction reduced its levels. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone correlated significantly in controls only. Calorie restriction decreased plasma GH and leptin, and it distorted 24h rhythmicity. In a second study, plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels were measured in group-caged rats, isolated control rats, and calorie-restricted rats during the light phase of the daily cycle. Plasma ACTH of calorie-restricted rats was lower, and plasma corticosterone was higher, compared with isolated or group-caged controls. The changes in the secretory pattern of hormones hereby reported may be part of the neuroendocrine and metabolic mechanisms evolved to maximize survival during periods of food shortage.

Title Effect of Interferon-gamma Treatment on 24-hour Variations in Plasma Acth, Growth Hormone, Prolactin, Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-stimulating Hormone of Male Rats.
Date August 2005
Journal Neuroimmunomodulation

Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a cytokine produced by T helper cells on antigenic challenge that may affect the release of several pituitary hormones. However, in vitro or in vivo studies have yielded disparate results with stimulatory, inhibitory or absent effects of IFN on pituitary hormone release. One of the reasons for these discrepancies could be that hormone changes were commonly assessed at a single time point in the day-night cycle. In this study we measured the circadian pattern of plasma ACTH, growth hormone (GH), prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at 6 different time points within a 24-hour cycle in adult male Wistar rats.

Title Effect of Ethanol on 24-hour Hormonal Changes in Peripubertal Male Rats.
Date July 2005
Journal Alcohol (fayetteville, N.y.)

We analyzed the effect of chronic (4 weeks) ethanol feeding on 24-h variation of pituitary-testicular function in peripubertal male Wistar rats by measuring circulating concentrations of prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and thyrotropin. Animals were maintained under a 12-h light: 12-h dark photoperiod and received a liquid diet for 4 weeks, starting on day 35 of life. The ethanol-fed group received a diet similar to that provided to control animals, except that maltose was replaced isocalorically with ethanol. Ethanol replacement provided 36% of the total caloric content of the diet. Rats were killed at one of six times around the clock, beginning at zeitgeber time (ZT) 1 (ZT 0 = lights on). In ethanol-fed rats globally, secretion of prolactin was augmented, whereas secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and thyrotropin was decreased. Significant changes in the 24-h secretory pattern of circulating hormones occurred in rats receiving ethanol, including the appearance of two peaks (at ZT 1 and ZT 9), rather than one peak, of follicle-stimulating hormone during the inactive phase of the daily cycle, suppression of the maximum plasma luteinizing hormone concentration during the first part of the inactive phase, and appearance of a second peak of testosterone and prolactin during the second part of the inactive phase (at ZT 5 and ZT 9, respectively) and of a second peak of plasma thyrotropin during the first part of the active phase (at ZT 13). The significant positive correlation between testosterone and individual luteinizing hormone and prolactin concentrations in control animals was no longer observed after ethanol administration. Chronic ethanol administration presumably affects the endogenous clock that modulates the circadian variation of the pituitary-gonadal axis and thyrotropin release in growing male rats.

Title Effect of Litter Separation on 24-hour Rhythmicity of Plasma Prolactin, Follicle-stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone Levels in Lactating Rabbit Does.
Date July 2005
Journal Journal of Circadian Rhythms

This work describes the effect of a 48-h litter separation on 24-h patterns of plasma prolactin, FSH and LH concentration in female lactating rabbits kept under a 16:8 light-dark photoperiod (lights on at 0800 h).

Title 24-hour Pattern of Circulating Prolactin and Growth Hormone Levels and Submaxillary Lymph Node Immune Responses in Growing Male Rats Subjected to Social Isolation.
Date April 2005
Journal Endocrine

To assess the effect of social isolation of growing rats on 24-h rhythmicity of circulating prolactin and growth hormone (GH) levels and submaxillary lymph node immune responses, male Wistar rats were either individually caged or kept in groups (4-5 animals per cage) for 30 d starting on d 35 of life. Plasma prolactin and GH levels, and submaxillary lymph node lymphocyte subset populations, interferon (IFN)-gamma release and mitogenic responses to concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined at six time intervals during the 24 h span. Social isolation brought about changes in mean values and 24-h pattern of plasma prolactin and GH levels and lymph node immune responses. After isolation, prolactin and GH mean values decreased, and lymph node T, B, non T-non B, CD8+, and CD4+-CD8+ cells augmented, whereas lymph node CD4+/CD8+ ratio, IFN-gamma release and mitogenic responses decreased. Social isolation resulted in disruption of 24 h rhythmicity of every immune parameter tested. CD4+/CD8+ ratio, IFN-gamma release and Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responses correlated significantly with plasma prolactin or GH levels while T/B ratio correlated with plasma prolactin levels only. B, non T-non B, and CD4+-CD8+ cells correlated negatively with plasma prolactin. Modifications in mean value and 24-h rhythmicity of plasma prolactin and GH levels are presumably involved in the effect of social isolation on immune responsiveness.

Title Superior Cervical Ganglionectomy Differentially Modifies Median Eminence and Anterior and Mediobasal Hypothalamic Gaba Content in Male Rats: Effects of Hyperprolactinemia.
Date November 2004
Journal Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

This work was undertaken to analyze the changes in GABA concentrations in the anterior and mediobasal hypothalamus and in the median eminence after acute or chronic superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx), and whether high prolactin levels interfere with the effects of SCGx on GABA content. Acute but not chronic SCGx increased GABA content in all the areas studied, as compared to controls. The presence of a pituitary graft abolished the effects of acute SCGx in the median eminence and anterior hypothalamus, as compared to controls, but potentiated its effects in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Chronic SCGx increased GABA content in the mediobasal and anterior hypothalami, as compared to pituitary grafted controls. Acute SCGx decreased plasma prolactin and GH levels, but chronic surgery did not modify these hormone plasma levels. Acute SCGx increased plasma ACTH levels, whereas chronic SCGx did not modify them. Pituitary grafting increased circulating values of prolactin, ACTH and GH, as compared to controls. Acute SCGx did not modify plasma prolactin levels in grafted animals, although it increased plasma GH levels and decreased those of ACTH in this experimental group. Chronic SCGx further increased both plasma prolactin and GH levels, without modifying plasma ACTH levels. These results suggest that SCGx differentially modifies GABA content within the hypothalamus and median eminence. Induction of hyperprolactinemia in the neonatal age interferes with SCGx effects on both GABA content within the hypothalamus and median eminence and the secretory patterns of the pituitary hormones studied.

Title Differential Effects of Light/dark Recombinant Human Prolactin Administration on the Submaxillary Lymph Nodes and Spleen Activity of Adult Male Mice.
Date April 2004
Journal Neuroimmunomodulation

Day/night variations in cellularity, percentage of CD4+, CD8+ and double-positive (CD4+-CD8+) lymphocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and concanavalin A (Con A)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer (NK) activity, and the effect of timed administration of recombinant human prolactin (h-PRL) on the above-mentioned parameters were investigated in the submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen of adult male mice.

Title [filgrastim: Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor].
Date February 2004
Journal Revista De Medicina De La Universidad De Navarra
Title Daily Changes of Gaba and Taurine Concentrations in Various Hypothalamic Areas Are Affected by Chronic Hyperprolactinemia.
Date December 2003
Journal Chronobiology International

This study was designed to characterize, in anterior, mediobasal, and posterior hypothalamic and median eminence, the 24h changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine (TAU) contents in adult male rats and to analyze whether chronic hyperprolactinemia may affect these patterns. Rats were turned hyperprolactinemic by a pituitary graft. Plasma prolactin (PRL) levels increased after pituitary grafting at all time points examined. A disruption of the circadian rhythm was observed in pituitary-grafted rats, whereas GABA and TAU content followed daily rhythms in all areas studied in controls. In the mediobasal hypothalamus, two peaks for each amino acid were found at midnight and midday. In the anterior hypothalamus, GABA and TAU showed only one peak of concentration at midnight. In the posterior hypothalamus, the values of both GABA and TAU were higher during the light as compared to the dark phase of the photoperiod. In the median eminence GABA content peaked at 20:00h, the time when TAU exhibited the lowest values. Hyperprolactinemia abolished the 24h changes of GABA in the mediobasal hypothalamus and reduced its content as compared to controls. Hyperprolactinemia advanced the diurnal peak of TAU to 12:00h in the mediobasal hypothalamus and did not modify the 24:00h peak. In the anterior hypothalamus, hyperprolactinemia increased GABA and TAU contents during the light phase while it decreased them during the dark phase of the photoperiod. In the posterior hypothalamus hyperprolactinemia did not modify GABA or TAU patterns as compared to controls. In the median eminence hyperprolactinemia increased the 20:00h peak of GABA and shift advanced the decrease in TAU content at 20:00h and its maximum at 24:00h as compared to controls. These data show that GABA and TAU content exhibit specific daily patterns in each hypothalamic region studied. PRL differentially affects the daily pattern of these amino acids in each hypothalamic region analyzed.

Title Superior Cervical Ganglionectomy Effects on Median Eminence and Anterior and Mediobasal Hypothalamic Taurine Content in Male Rats: Effects of Hyperprolactinemia.
Date September 2003
Journal Neuro-signals

The neuroendocrine sequelae of acute or chronic superior cervical ganglionectomy in control or pituitary-grafted rats were studied by analyzing both plasma prolactin, growth hormone (GH) and ACTH levels, and taurine (TAU) content in the hypophysiotropic area of the hypothalamus or the median eminence. As expected, after either acute or chronic ganglionectomy, norepinephrine (NE) content decreased in the brain areas studied, although the values remained higher in hyperprolactinemic rats. TAU content was differentially modified by acute vs. chronic surgeries, thus indicating the possible existence of hypothalamic interactions between TAU and NE to regulate pituitary hormone secretion. Indeed, associated differential changes in plasma prolactin, GH and ACTH levels may be due to the observed TAU changes. As expected, pituitary grafting increased plasma prolactin, GH and ACTH levels, so that the presence of a pituitary graft differentially interferes with the effects of either surgery not only on TAU content but also on the plasma levels of the hormone studied. Globally, ongoing studies confirm the differential effects of acute and chronic superior cervical ganglionectomy on plasma prolactin, GH and ACTH levels, and provide new evidence about its effects on TAU content in the hypophysiotropic area of the hypothalamus and the median eminence that may partially explain the changes observed in the pituitary hormones studied.

Title Effects of Overexpression of Growth Hormone on T Cell Activity in Transgenic Mice.
Date August 2003
Journal Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

Growth hormone plays a key role in the maturation and maintenance of the immune response, however, the effects of chronic high circulating concentrations of the hormone on the immune system is poorly understood. Transgenic mice overexpressing bovine growth hormone (b-GH) gene, fused to the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter (PEPCK), with very high plasma concentration of heterologous b-GH and their littermate normal siblings were used. Spleen cellularity, percentages of total T lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, ratio of T cell subpopulations, mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer (NK) cell activity were examined in male transgenic mice and normal littermate mice at 2 and 6 months of age. The number of splenic lymphocytes was greater in transgenic mice than in matched normal littermates at both ages. The NK cell activity was lower in transgenic mice than in the matched normal littermates at both ages, with the lowest values found in older mice. The b-GH transgenic mice had lower percentages of T cells at both ages, however, in young transgenic mice, the percentage of CD4+ cells was reduced while percentage of CD8+ cells was increased in comparison to normal controls. Both basal and mitogen-induced proliferation capacity of splenocytes were reduced in PEPCK-b-GH-25 mice as compared to normal littermates of both ages. Proliferative indexes in response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin were markedly decreased in 6 month old PEPCK-b-GH-25 mice as compared to littermate controls or younger mice. These results indicate that overexpression of b-GH in mice is associated with decreased T cell function and that these abnormalities are age-dependent.

Title Cimetidine Does Not Alter Sparfloxacin Pharmacokinetics.
Date August 1996
Journal International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

The interaction between cimetidine and sparfloxacin was studied in 10 healthy volunteers who received a single oral dose of 400 mg sparfloxacin on the third day of an 8 day cimetidine (400 mg t.i.d.) or placebo randomly assigned treatment. No statistically significant differences were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax-AUC-T1/2-urinary excretion and metabolic ratio) of sparfloxacin following the 2 treatment. Cimetidine does not affect absorption, metabolism or urinary excretion of sparfloxacin; consequently, patients exposed to this drug combination are not at risk.

Title Natal Molars in Pfeiffer Syndrome Type 3: a Case Report.
Date March 1994
Journal The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry

The following report is the first documented case of natal teeth associated with a recently described new entity, Pfeiffer syndrome type 3. The clinical manifestations consistent with the spectrum of this rare disorder are described with an emphasis on the concomitant natal teeth. Pfeiffer syndrome type 3 is one of the craniosynostosis syndromes and has been described in only two patients to date. Both mandibular incisors and maxillary molar natal teeth were found. Natal teeth are teeth, which are present in the oral cavity at birth. They are often associated with developmental abnormalities and recognized syndromes. Their incidence ranges from 1 in 2,000 to 3,500 births. The natal teeth found in this infant included both the mandibular primary incisors and maxillary primary first molars bilaterally. The clinical and histological considerations of natal teeth and their management are discussed. The presence of multiple natal teeth is extremely rare.

Title [clinical Trial of Lovastatin Versus Gemfibrozil in the Treatment of Primary Hypercholesterolemia].
Date February 1993
Journal Revista De Medicina De La Universidad De Navarra

A randomized, double-blind, 12 weeks comparison of Lovastatin and Gemfibrozil in the treatment of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia was performed in 31 patients. After a placebo and diet period (4 weeks), they were assigned to either Lovastatin 20 mg nightly or Gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily, if their total serum cholesterol was < 300 mg/dl, and to either Lovastatin 40 mg nightly or Gemfibrozil 600 mg/12 if it was > 300 mg/dl. In both cases, the Lovastatin dose was doubled after 6 weeks, if serum cholesterol remained > 200 mg/dl. The dose of Gemfibrozil kept constant. Lovastatin reduced serum cholesterol from 354 +/- 91 mg/dl to 253 +/- 62 mg/dl (p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol from 277 +/- 104 to 192 +/- 71 mg/dl (p < 0.001) and serum triglyceride level from 125 +/- 66 a 84 +/- 41 mg/dl. The corresponding reductions achieved by Gemfibrozil were: 343 +/- 86 to 290 +/- 72 mg/dl (p < 0.01), 264 +/- 89 to 217 +/- 67 mg/dl (p < 0.05) and 152 +/- 84 to 89 +/- 41 mg/dl (p < 0.001), respectively. Lovastatin therapy caused a 30.6% reduction in total cholesterol level, while Gemfibrozil achieved a 19.47%. There were no significant changes in HDL-cholesterol. Patients had no serious or clinically significant adverse effects. The current data suggest that Lovastatin (an inhibitor of HMG-Coa reductase) may provide one important means for lipid-lowering therapy in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia.

Title Possible Interaction Between Cyclosporine and Josamycin: a Description of Three Cases.
Date June 1992
Journal Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Title Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-like Immunoreactivity in Cat Satellite Cells of Sympathetic Ganglia.
Date December 1989
Journal Acta Anatomica

The presence and distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocytic marker protein associated with glial filaments in the sympathetic ganglia of adult cats, was investigated immunocytochemically. This study revealed GFAP plus cells throughout the ganglion. Immunopositive cells surround nerve cell bodies and separate them from the blood vessels.

Title Intradural Herniated Dorsal Disc: Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Date July 1988
Journal Neurosurgery

A 67-year-old man with a 1 1/2-month history of spastic paraparesis caused by a dorsal intradural disc herniation underwent surgical treatment via a posterior approach. Dorsal herniated discs are rare, and intradural dorsal disc herniations are even more infrequent. Including this case, the medical literature reviewed describes only four such cases.

Title Intradural Herniated Cervical Disc. Case Report.
Date August 1982
Journal Journal of Neurosurgery
Title Pineal Region Meningiomas Without Dural Attachment.
Date June 1982
Journal Surgical Neurology

A rare case of meningioma in the pineal region without dural attachment, which was successfully removed through an infratentorial supracerebellar approach, is presented. The preoperative diagnosis was made by means of computed tomography together with histographic analysis. We review similar cases reported in the literature and discuss the clinical feature, diagnostic aspects, and surgical management.

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