Radiologist
25 years of experience

Accepting new patients
Fenway - Kenmore - Audubon Circle - Longwood
Brigham and Women's Hospital
75 Francis St
Boston, MA 02115
781-732-6280
Locations and availability (1)

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Brown University (1985)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2012 - 2013)
Associations
American Board of Radiology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Frates is affiliated with 3 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Brigham and Women's Hospital
    75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
    44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Children's Hospital
    300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Frates has contributed to 49 publications.
    Title Thyroid Nodules and Cancer in Children with Pten Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome.
    Date February 2011
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
    Excerpt

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) is a complex disorder caused by germline-inactivating mutations of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. Carriers develop benign and malignant tumors of multiple tissues, including the breast, thyroid, intestine, and skin. Surveillance to facilitate the early detection and treatment of malignancies is recommended but, because thyroid cancers have been reported almost exclusively in adults, childhood risk is considered to be low, and consensus guidelines recommend that surveillance imaging begin at 18 yr of age. OBJECTIVE/PATIENTS: Seven children with PHTS referred to two thyroidologists form the basis of this report. Medical records, operative histology, and PTEN mutational analysis were reviewed to evaluate the pediatric presentation of PHTS-associated thyroid neoplasia.

    Title The Predictive Value of the Fine-needle Aspiration Diagnosis "suspicious for a Follicular Neoplasm, Hurthle Cell Type" in Patients with Hashimoto Thyroiditis.
    Date January 2011
    Journal American Journal of Clinical Pathology
    Excerpt

    A fine-needle aspiration sample composed exclusively of Hürthle cells is interpreted as "suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, Hürthle cell type" (SFNHCT). Because some nonneoplastic Hürthle cell proliferations in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) mimic this cytologic pattern, we examined the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of SFNHCT in patients with HT. Between 1992 and 2007, 401 patients with cytologic findings of SFNHCT were identified at 3 institutions. Histologic follow-up was available for 287 (71.6%), and malignancy was diagnosed in 69 (24.0%). Malignancy was present in 2 (PPV = 9.5%) of 21 patients with HT compared with 67 (PPV = 25.2%) of 266 patients without HT (P = .081). Although the difference in the rate of malignancy between the HT and non-HT cohorts did not reach statistical significance, the lower risk of malignancy in the HT cohort more closely approximates the risk of cases interpreted as "atypia of undetermined significance." For this reason, it might be appropriate for Hürthle cell-only aspirates from patients with HT to be categorized as either atypia of undetermined significance or SFNHCT.

    Title Thyroid Calcifications.
    Date April 2008
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Title Long-term Assessment of a Multidisciplinary Approach to Thyroid Nodule Diagnostic Evaluation.
    Date January 2008
    Journal Cancer
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules is imprecise. Despite the benefits of fine-needle aspiration (FNA), most patients who are referred for surgery because of abnormal cytology prove to have benign disease. Recent technologic and procedural advances suggest that this shortcoming can be mitigated, although few data confirm this benefit in unselected patients. METHODS: A total of 2587 sequential patients were evaluated by thyroid ultrasound and were offered ultrasound-guided FNA (UG-FNA) of all thyroid nodules that measured > or =1 cm during a 10-year period. Results of aspiration cytology were correlated with histologic findings. The prevalence of thyroid cancer in all patients and in those who underwent surgery was determined. Surgical risk was calculated. RESULTS: Tumors that measured > or =1 cm were present in 14% of patients: Forty-three percent of patients had tumors that measured <2 cm in greatest dimension, and 93% had American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I or II disease. The cytologic diagnoses 'positive for malignancy' and 'no malignant cells' were 97% predictive and 99.7% predictive, respectively. Repeat FNA of initial insufficient aspirates, as well as more detailed classification of inconclusive aspirates, improved preoperative assessment of cancer risk and reduced surgical intervention. Fifty-six percent of patients who were referred for surgery because of abnormal cytology had cancer compared with from 10% to 45% of patients historically. An analysis of operative complications from a subset of 296 patients demonstrated a 1% risk of permanent surgical complications. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings demonstrated the benefits of UG-FNA and of a more detailed classification of inconclusive aspirates in the preoperative risk assessment of thyroid nodules, supporting adherence to recently published guidelines.

    Title Management of Thyroid Nodules Detected at Us: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement.
    Date February 2007
    Journal Ultrasound Quarterly
    Excerpt

    The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a panel of specialists from a variety of medical disciplines to come to a consensus on the management of thyroid nodules identified with thyroid ultrasonography (US), with particular focus on which nodules should be subjected to US-guided fine needle aspiration and which thyroid nodules need not be subjected to fine-needle aspiration. The panel met in Washington, DC, October 26-27, 2004, and created this consensus statement. The recommendations in this consensus statement, which are based on analysis of the current literature and common practice strategies, are thought to represent a reasonable approach to thyroid nodular disease.

    Title Hypothyroidism After Sunitinib Treatment for Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Sunitinib malate is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor recently approved for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and renal cell carcinoma. Because the ret proto-oncogene is also inhibited by this agent, clinical evaluation of thyroid function was performed. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and clinical presentation of thyroid dysfunction related to sunitinib therapy. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: 42 patients treated for a median of 37 weeks (range, 10 to 167 weeks). MEASUREMENTS: Following analysis of serial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurements collected prospectively during a clinical trial of sunitinib, the authors determined the proportion of patients with thyroid dysfunction. RESULTS: Abnormal serum TSH concentrations were documented in 26 of 42 patients (62%): 15 (36%) developed persistent, primary hypothyroidism; 4 (10%) developed isolated TSH suppression; and 7 (17%) experienced transient, mild TSH elevations. The risk for hypothyroidism increased with the duration of sunitinib therapy. Six of 15 (40%) hypothyroid patients had suppressed TSH concentrations before developing hypothyroidism, suggesting thyroiditis. Two hypothyroid patients evaluated with thyroid ultrasonography had no visualized thyroid tissue despite normal baseline thyroid function. LIMITATIONS: The exploratory nature of this study precluded more frequent biochemical and sonographic analysis that may better define the mechanism of sunitinib-associated thyroid dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Hypothyroidism is a frequent complication of sunitinib therapy. Regular surveillance of thyroid function is warranted in patients receiving the drug. Although the mechanism by which this complication occurs is unknown, the observations of preceding TSH suppression and subsequent absence of visualized thyroid tissue in some patients suggest that sunitinib may induce a destructive thyroiditis through follicular cell apoptosis. This provides a rationale for further investigation of sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.

    Title Prevalence and Distribution of Carcinoma in Patients with Solitary and Multiple Thyroid Nodules on Sonography.
    Date October 2006
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
    Excerpt

    CONTEXT: Controversy remains as to the optimal management of patients with multiple thyroid nodules. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, distribution, and sonographic features of thyroid cancer in patients with solitary and multiple thyroid nodules. DESIGN: We describe a retrospective observational cohort study that was carried out from 1995 to 2003. SETTING: The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with one or more thyroid nodules larger than 10 mm in diameter who had ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were prevalence and distribution of thyroid cancer and the predictive value of demographic and sonographic features. RESULTS: A total of 1985 patients underwent FNA of 3483 nodules. The prevalence of thyroid cancer was similar between patients with a solitary nodule (175 of 1181 patients, 14.8%) and patients with multiple nodules (120 of 804, 14.9%) (P = 0.95, chi(2)). A solitary nodule had a higher likelihood of malignancy than a nonsolitary nodule (P < 0.01). In patients with multiple nodules larger than 10 mm, cancer was multifocal in 46%, and 72% of cancers occurred in the largest nodule. Multiple logistic regression analysis of statistically significant features demonstrates that the combination of patient gender (P < 0.02), whether a nodule is solitary vs. one of multiple (P < 0.002), nodule composition (P < 0.01), and presence of calcifications (P < 0.001) can be used to assign risk of cancer to each individual nodule. Risk ranges from a 48% likelihood of malignancy in a solitary solid nodule with punctate calcifications in a man to less than 3% in a noncalcified predominantly cystic nodule in a woman. CONCLUSIONS: In a patient with one or more thyroid nodules larger than 10 mm in diameter, the likelihood of thyroid cancer per patient is independent of the number of nodules, whereas the likelihood per nodule decreases as the number of nodules increases. For exclusion of cancer in a thyroid with multiple nodules larger than 10 mm, up to four nodules should be considered for FNA. Sonographic characteristics can be used to prioritize nodules for FNA based on their individual risk of cancer.

    Title Does Hands-on Obstetric Us Experience Improve Performance on the Radiology Oral Board Examination?
    Date June 2006
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether the inclusion of hands-on obstetric ultrasonography (US) experience as a formal part of radiology residency affects performance on the US section of the oral board examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to all radiology residency programs to assess (a) the time assigned to US rotation, (b) the inclusion of obstetrics in US rotation, and (c) the opportunity for hands-on scanning of obstetric patients. Blinded results from the 2002 Diagnostic Radiology Oral Board Examination were provided by the American Board of Radiology. We recorded the overall examination score, US section score, and individual score for all obstetric cases for each resident from programs that responded to the survey. A Student t test and stratified statistical analyses were performed. This study was determined to be exempt from institutional review board approval. Residency directors who consented to participate were informed of pertinent information. RESULTS: Of the 159 programs, 64 (40.3%) responded and 63 (98%) of these had scores available. US section scores were provided for 280 residents, with 869 obstetric case scores. Fifty (79%) of 63 programs provided the opportunity for hands-on obstetric scanning. After adjusting for covariates, there was no significant difference in individual resident performance between residents with hands-on scanning experience and those without hands-on scanning experience (P = .61). When evaluated according to program, there was no significant difference in performance between programs with and those without hands-on training (P = .39). CONCLUSION: Radiology resident performance in obstetric US on the American Board of Radiology Oral Board Examination is similar for programs that provide the opportunity for hands-on obstetric scanning compared with those that do not.

    Title Management of Thyroid Nodules Detected at Us: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a panel of specialists from a variety of medical disciplines to come to a consensus on the management of thyroid nodules identified with thyroid ultrasonography (US), with particular focus on which nodules should be subjected to US-guided fine needle aspiration and which thyroid nodules need not be subjected to fine-needle aspiration. The panel met in Washington, DC, October 26-27, 2004, and created this consensus statement. The recommendations in this consensus statement, which are based on analysis of the current literature and common practice strategies, are thought to represent a reasonable approach to thyroid nodular disease.

    Title The Sonographic and Color Doppler Features of Retained Products of Conception.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the sonographic features of retained products of conception (RPOCs). METHODS: Cases of clinically suspected RPOCs referred for pelvic sonography between September 1994 and July 2001 were identified. Patient age, indication, gestational age at delivery, and days postpartum were recorded and sonographic findings were reviewed. Outcomes were determined from medical records and pathology reports. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-three cases were identified. Indications for pelvic sonography included vaginal bleeding in 82 (50%), pelvic pain in 77 (47%), and fever in 55 (34%). Gestational age at delivery ranged from 14 to 43 weeks (mean, 37 weeks), and the sonographic examination was performed from 0 to 95 days postpartum (mean, 21 days). Thirty-six patients underwent surgical intervention, and 28 of these had RPOCs. The remaining 127 patients were followed clinically. An endometrial mass was the most sensitive (79%) and specific (89%) sonographic feature for RPOCs. The isolated finding of either complex fluid in the endometrial canal or a thick endometrium measuring greater than 10 mm had low sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values. None of the patients with RPOCs had normal sonographic findings. The absence of an endometrial mass or complex fluid and an endometrial thickness of less than 10 mm were considered normal findings. Color Doppler flow was detected in the endometrium somewhat more often when RPOCs were present than in the absence of RPOCs (75% versus 40%). CONCLUSIONS: An endometrial mass is the most sensitive finding for RPOCs. If no mass or endometrial fluid is seen and the endometrial thickness is less than 10 mm, RPOCs are extremely unlikely. The absence of blood flow does not exclude the diagnosis of RPOCs.

    Title Thyroid Nodule Shape and Prediction of Malignancy.
    Date April 2005
    Journal Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common; the vast majority benign. Preoperative determination of malignancy remains imprecise, despite fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Numerous risk factors have been proposed for predicting malignancy, though few have been found useful. Oxygen delivery is a crucial component for tumor cell growth. It has been hypothesized that malignant tumors may configure their shape to maximize access to local nutrient delivery. Mathematically, surface area to volume is maximized by a spherical shape. We sought to determine if spherical shape is a predictor of malignancy. METHODS: Seven hundred forty-seven consecutive patients underwent ultrasound evaluation and FNA of 993 solid thyroid nodules (< 25% cystic) between 1995 and 2000 and were retrospectively analyzed. Nodules were classified as benign or malignant based on FNA and/or surgical pathology. Spherical shape was estimated by calculating a ratio of the longest to shortest dimensions, and rate of malignancy correlated. RESULTS: Spherical shape was independently correlated with risk of malignancy (p < 0.001). Thyroid cancer was detected in 11% of all nodules, but ranged from 18% in spherical nodules to 5% in those least spherical. Nodules found to have suspicious or intermediate cytology showed similar variation in malignant risk. A long to short axis ratio greater than 2.5 was 100% predictive of a benign process, although present in only 4% of our cohort. A prospective validation was performed and confirmed consistent results (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Spherical shape is associated with an increased rate of malignancy in solid thyroid nodules. Determination of shape may assist in clinical risk assessment of thyroid cancer.

    Title Fetal Anomalies: Comparison of Mr Imaging and Us for Diagnosis.
    Date September 2004
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To compare prenatal ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the diagnosis of fetal anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images of 27 fetuses (28 diagnostic cases) with anomalies diagnosed at US were evaluated; in these fetuses, prenatal MR imaging was performed within 15 days of US. Prenatal US and MR imaging findings were compared with postnatal diagnoses. Postnatal evaluation included US, MR imaging, autopsy, surgery, voiding cystourethrography, computed tomography, angiography, and physical examination. RESULTS: In seven diagnostic cases, US and MR imaging findings were in complete agreement with postnatal diagnoses. MR imaging correctly provided additional information to the US-determined diagnosis in another seven and correctly changed the US diagnosis in three. The MR imaging-determined diagnosis was incorrect and the US diagnosis was correct in four cases. In seven cases, the diagnoses at both US and MR imaging were incorrect when correlated with the postnatal outcome. MR imaging was most valuable in the assessment of anomalies of the central nervous system. CONCLUSION: MR imaging may have a place as an adjunct to US in evaluation of fetal anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system.

    Title Small Echogenic Foci in the Ovaries: Correlation with Histologic Findings.
    Date June 2004
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the histologic correlate of small echogenic foci in the ovary and to assess for any association with endometriosis or endosalpingiosis. METHODS: Women planning to have a normal ovary surgically removed were scanned preoperatively with transvaginal sonography. If echogenic foci were present in either normal ovary on the preoperative scan, the removed ovary was scanned in a saline bath, and the surface was marked with india ink over an echogenic focus. Histologic sections were then obtained at the marked site. RESULTS: Echogenic foci were detected in 23 ovaries of 16 women. Possible causes were found in 17 of the 23 ovaries: hemosiderin in 6 cases, calcification in 5 cases, hemosiderin and calcification in 2 cases, clusters of inclusion cysts in 2 cases, 1 of which also had hemosiderin, and dense cortical nodules in 2 cases. Histologic findings were benign in all cases except in 1 patient who had primary peritoneal carcinoma unrelated to the echogenic foci. One ovary in another patient had both endosalpingiosis and endometriosis. One other patient had endometriosis involving a fallopian tube but not the ovary. There were no other cases of endometriosis or endosalpingiosis. CONCLUSIONS: Small echogenic foci in the ovaries are most frequently due to hemosiderin or calcification. A few small echogenic foci in the ovaries are associated with benign histologic changes and do not appear to be reliable indicators of endosalpingiosis or endometriosis.

    Title Sonographically Guided Minimally Invasive Treatment of Unusual Ectopic Pregnancies.
    Date April 2004
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To present our experience with sonographically guided treatment of unusual ectopic pregnancies, defined as heterotopic pregnancies and pregnancies occurring at ectopic locations other than the extracornual portion of the fallopian tube. METHODS: We retrieved and reviewed all cases of unusual ectopic pregnancies that underwent sonographically guided therapy at our institution. Twenty-seven cases were identified, from 1992 through 2003, including 18 cervical, 6 cornual, 1 tubal heterotopic, and 2 cesarean scar implantations. RESULTS: All of the cervical ectopic, cornual ectopic, and tubal heterotopic pregnancies were treated by sonographically guided injection of potassium chloride into the ectopic gestational sac or fetus. Guidance was via transvaginal sonography in all 18 cervical pregnancies, 3 of the 6 cornual pregnancies, and the tubal heterotopic pregnancy, and via transabdominal sonography in 3 cornual ectopic pregnancies. One of the cesarean scar pregnancies was treated by transvaginally guided potassium chloride injection, and the other was treated via transabdominally guided dilation and evacuation. Treatment was successful in 25 of the 27 patients, including all 23 patients with an ectopic pregnancy and no concomitant intrauterine pregnancy. Four patients had concomitant intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies (1 cervical, 2 cornual, and 1 tubal); in 3 the intrauterine fetuses resulted in live-born infants, and in the fourth the intrauterine pregnancy was electively terminated. Eight of the 27 patients had subsequent intrauterine pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: Sonographically guided minimally invasive treatments of unusual ectopic pregnancies are safe and effective alternatives to surgical and systemic medical therapy. These treatments ablate the ectopic pregnancy, permit normal continuation of a concomitant intrauterine pregnancy, and preserve the uterus for subsequent pregnancies.

    Title Can Color Doppler Sonography Aid in the Prediction of Malignancy of Thyroid Nodules?
    Date May 2003
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether color Doppler interrogation of a thyroid nodule can aid in the prediction of malignancy. METHODS: We obtained color Doppler images of thyroid nodules undergoing sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration. The color Doppler appearance of each nodule was graded from 0 for no visible flow through 4 for extensive internal flow. The size, sonographic appearance, results of fine-needle aspiration, and surgical pathologic findings, if available, were recorded for each nodule. RESULTS: There were 254 nodules sampled, of which 32 were malignant (all confirmed at surgery) and 177 were benign. Fourteen (43.8%) of the 32 malignant nodules were color type 4, compared with only 26 (14.7%) of the 177 benign nodules (P = .0004, Fisher exact test). Thirteen (40.1%) of the 32 malignant nodules were solid, as were 18 (10.2%) of the 177 benign nodules (P = .006, Fisher exact test). Among solid nodules, the prevalence of malignancy was greater when the nodule was hypervascular (13 [41.9%] of 31) than when the color type was less than 4 (11 [14.7%] of 77; P = .004, Fisher exact test). CONCLUSIONS: Solid hypervascular thyroid nodules have a high likelihood of malignancy (nearly 42% in our series). The color characteristics of a thyroid nodule, however, cannot be used to exclude malignancy, because 14% of solid nonhypervascular nodules were malignant.

    Title Natural History of Benign Solid and Cystic Thyroid Nodules.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common and most often benign. The natural history of benign thyroid nodules, however, is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the natural history of cytologically benign thyroid nodules using ultrasonography. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Single tertiary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All patients referred to the Brigham and Women's Hospital Thyroid Nodule Clinic, Boston, Massachusetts, who had benign cytologic results on ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule between 1995 and 2000 and returned for a requested follow-up examination 1 month to 5 years later. MEASUREMENTS: Nodule dimensions were measured at both visits, and growth was defined as an increase in calculated volume of 15% or greater. These results were correlated with the time between examinations, age, sex, baseline serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, and cystic content of each nodule. RESULTS: Nodule volume increased over time (P < 0.001). The estimated proportion of nodules with an increase in volume of 15% or greater after 5 years was 89%. Nodules with greater cystic content were less likely to grow than solid nodules (P = 0.01). Seventy-four of the 330 nodules were reaspirated on the second visit. Despite an average increase in volume of 69%, only 1 of 74 reaspirated nodules was malignant. CONCLUSION: Most solid, benign thyroid nodules grow. Therefore, an increase in nodule volume alone is not a reliable predictor of malignancy.

    Title Assessment of Nondiagnostic Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules.
    Date December 2002
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
    Excerpt

    Thyroid nodules are common. Evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules typically includes fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA), an approach that has proven to be accurate for the detection of thyroid cancer. Although the majority of biopsies are adequate for a cytological diagnosis, up to 20% will be insufficient or nondiagnostic. Current opinion suggests that such aspirates should be repeated, although no systematic study has investigated the usefulness of this approach, especially when ultrasound guidance is used to direct the initial FNA. We sought to define the predictors and optimal follow-up strategy for initial nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided FNAs of thyroid nodules. Data were collected for all patients at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Thyroid Nodule Clinic between 1995-2000 who underwent ultrasound-guided FNA of a thyroid nodule. All patients with nondiagnostic cytology were advised to return for a repeat ultrasound-guided FNA. Patient age, gender, nodule size, cystic content, solitary vs. multinodular thyroid, and nodule location were documented and evaluated as possible predictors of a nondiagnostic biopsy in a multivariable model. The rate of diagnostic cytology obtained on repeat ultrasound-guided FNA was calculated. A total of 1128 patients with 1458 nodules were biopsied over a 6-yr period. A total of 1269 aspirations (950 patients) were diagnostic, and 189 (178 patients) were nondiagnostic. The cystic content of each nodule was the only significant independent predictor of nondiagnostic cytology (P < 0.001). The fraction of specimens with initial nondiagnostic cytology increased with greater cystic content (P < 0.001 for trend). A diagnostic ultrasound-guided FNA was obtained on the first repeat biopsy in 63% of nodules and was inversely related to increasing cystic content of each nodule (P = 0.03). One hundred and nineteen patients with 127 nodules returned for follow-up as advised, and malignancy was documented in 5%. Despite ultrasound-guided FNA, there remains a significant risk of initial nondiagnostic cytology, largely predicted by the cystic content of each nodule. Repeat aspiration is often successful and should be the standard approach to such nodules, given their risk of malignancy.

    Title Placental Surface Cysts Detected on Sonography: Histologic and Clinical Correlation.
    Date November 2002
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcome and histologic findings of pregnancies in which placental surface cysts were detected on prenatal sonography. METHODS: A computerized search of our obstetric sonographic database from 1988 through 2000 identified 34 cases. Results of pathologic examinations, when performed, were obtained. Sonographic features were correlated with histologic findings and clinical parameters. RESULTS: On review of available microscopic slides, in all cases in which the cyst was seen at pathologic examination, there was subchorionic fibrin with central cyst formation. All pregnancies resulted in live births, although intrauterine growth restriction occurred in 4 (12%) of 34. Three (11%) of 28 cases with placental pathologic findings had maternal floor infarction. Only 2 significant associations between sonographic features and postnatal findings were found. In all cases of intrauterine growth restriction, average cyst size was larger than 4.5 cm. Of 12 cysts larger than 4.5 cm, 4 (33%) had intrauterine growth restriction. Of 22 cysts smaller than 4.5 cm, there were no instances of intrauterine growth restriction (P = .01). Of 32 cases with 3 or fewer cysts, only 2 had intrauterine growth restriction, whereas in 2 cases with more than 3 cysts, both had intrauterine growth restriction (P = .01). CONDUSIONS: Most placental surface cysts are associated with a normal pregnancy outcome. Most such cysts are related to cystic change in an area of subchorionic fibrin. Cysts larger than 4.5 cm or more than 3 in number are more frequently associated with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Title Ultrasonographically Guided Thyroid Biopsy.
    Date February 2002
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Title Sonographic and Doppler Characteristics of the Corpus Luteum: Can They Predict Pregnancy Outcome?
    Date December 2001
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a relationship between gray scale or Doppler characteristics of the corpus luteum and first-trimester pregnancy outcome. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of patients with spontaneous singleton pregnancies between 5 and 8 weeks' gestation. The corpus luteum size, sonographic appearance, resistive index, and peak systolic velocity were measured on transvaginal sonography. Maternal use of exogeneous progesterone was recorded. Only patients with known first-trimester outcome were included. RESULTS: There were 201 study patients. The corpus luteum could be visualized in 197 (98%) and had a mean +/- SD size of 1.9 +/- 0.6 cm, a mean resistive index of 0.50 +/- 0.08, and a peak systolic velocity of 20.5 +/- 11.2 cm/s. There were 151 first-trimester survivors (75.1 %) and 50 spontaneous losses (24.9%). In a comparison of the survivors and losses, there was no significant difference in mean corpus luteum size (1.9 versus 1.7 cm; P = .10, t test), mean resistive index (0.50 versus 0.50; P = .71, t test), peak systolic velocity (21 versus 19 cm/s; P = .29, t test), or sonographic appearance (P = .78, chi2 test). The lack of association between corpus luteum characteristics and outcome persisted when cases were stratified by progesterone use and the presence or absence of a heartbeat on the study sonogram. CONCLUSION: There is no apparent relationship between the characteristics of the corpus luteum and first-trimester pregnancy outcome.

    Title Primary Versus Secondary Ovarian Malignancy: Imaging Findings of Adnexal Masses in the Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group Study.
    Date April 2001
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To analyze ultrasonographic (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of primary and secondary ovarian malignant neoplasms to determine if there is any significant difference in their appearance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of the multi-institutional Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group data revealed 86 patients with primary ovarian carcinoma and 24 patients with a secondary ovarian neoplasm. Numerous imaging features that had been recorded for the adnexal masses with each imaging modality were reviewed and compared between primary and secondary malignant ovarian neoplasms. RESULTS: Of the imaging features assessed with all three modalities, multilocularity as determined at US (P =.02) or MR imaging (P: =.01) was the only significant feature. At US, 30 (37%) of 81 primary ovarian cancers were multilocular, whereas only three (12%) of 24 metastatic neoplasms were multilocular. At MR imaging, 40 (74%) of 54 primary ovarian cancers were multilocular, whereas only five (36%) of 14 metastatic neoplasms were multilocular. Neither a predominately solid appearance nor bilaterality was significantly different between primary and secondary neoplasms. CONCLUSION: For malignant ovarian masses, multilocularity at MR imaging or US favors the diagnosis of primary ovarian malignancy rather than secondary neoplasm, but it is difficult to accurately distinguish between primary and secondary ovarian malignancies.

    Title Comparison of Tubal Ring and Corpus Luteum Echogenicities: a Useful Differentiating Characteristic.
    Date February 2001
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this report is to compare the echogenicity of the tubal ring of an ectopic pregnancy and the corpus luteum with that of the ovary for improved detection of early ectopic pregnancy. In patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed at sonography on the basis of the presence of an adnexal tubal ring, echogenicity of the ring was compared with the echogenicity of the ovarian parenchyma. Twenty-six patients with tubal rings containing either a yolk sac or cardiac activity were included. Twenty-three (88%) of the 26 tubal rings had echogenicity equal to or greater than that of ovarian parenchyma. In 13 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed on the basis of an empty tubal ring, 10 rings (77%) were more echogenic than the ovary. In 45 control patients with intrauterine pregnancy, the corpus luteum was more echogenic than the ovary in only 3 (7%). The tubal ring of an ectopic pregnancy is usually more echogenic than ovarian parenchyma, and the corpus luteum is usually equal to or less echogenic than the ovary. Echogenicity of an adnexal mass may help distinguish the tubal ring of an ectopic pregnancy from a corpus luteum.

    Title Usefulness of Ultrasonography in the Management of Nodular Thyroid Disease.
    Date November 2000
    Journal Annals of Internal Medicine
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the standard diagnostic test for evaluating possible malignancy in a thyroid nodule. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of routine ultrasonography in the management of nodular thyroid disease. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Multidisciplinary thyroid nodule clinic (endocrinology and radiology). PATIENTS: Patients with suspected nodular thyroid disease or suspected recurrent thyroid cancer referred between October 1995 and March 1997. All patients had thyroid ultrasonography and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nodules at least 1 cm in maximum diameter. MEASUREMENTS: Medical records, ultrasonography findings, cytology reports, and histologic reports were reviewed. Ultrasonography findings were compared with the referring physician's findings on physical examination. RESULTS: 223 patients were seen in the clinic. A total of 209 fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed on 156 patients. Among 50 of 114 patients referred for a solitary nodule, ultrasonography detected additional nonpalpable nodules at least 1 cm in diameter in 27 and determined that no nodules required aspiration in 23. Of 59 patients referred for a diffuse goiter or a multinodular gland, ultrasonography detected discrete nodules at least 1 cm in diameter that required aspiration in 39 and determined that aspiration was unnecessary in 20. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography altered the clinical management for 63% of the patients (109 of 173) referred to the thyroid nodule clinic after abnormal results on thyroid physical examination.

    Title Early Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Twin Triploid Gestation Presenting with Fetal Hydrops and Theca-lutein Ovarian Cysts.
    Date March 2000
    Journal Journal of Clinical Ultrasound : Jcu
    Excerpt

    The presence of theca-lutein ovarian cysts in the early second trimester of pregnancy is highly suspicious for a complete hydatidiform molar pregnancy but can be seen in association with a partial mole. Theca-lutein cysts may occur following hormonal stimulation for assisted reproductive techniques or in association with multiple gestations. Rare causes include immune and nonimmune fetal hydrops, maternal hypothyroidism, and triploid gestations. We report a case of a monochorionic twin gestation in which prenatal sonography demonstrated multiple anomalies and hydrops in each twin and bilateral theca-lutein ovarian cysts. Triploidy in both twins and a partial hydatidiform mole were confirmed at pathologic examination.

    Title Resolution of Fetal Goiter After Discontinuation of Propylthiouracil in a Pregnant Woman with Graves' Hyperthyroidism.
    Date December 1999
    Journal Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
    Excerpt

    We report a case of Graves' hyperthyroidism in a 34-year-old pregnant woman treated with propylthiouracil (PTU) complicated by the development of a fetal goiter. Because of the fetal goiter and normal maternal thyroid function tests, the PTU was discontinued. Over the next 10 weeks, there was a progressive decrease in the fetal thyroid volume as documented by ultrasonography. The fetal neck returned to a normal flexed position, fetal growth and amniotic fluid remained normal, and the patient remained asymptomatic. A normal infant was delivered at term. This is the first report to demonstrate that noninvasive management may be appropriate for fetuses with goiter caused by antithyroid drug therapy.

    Title Sonography of the Normal Fetal Heart: a Practical Approach.
    Date November 1999
    Journal Ajr. American Journal of Roentgenology
    Title Sonographic Spectrum of the Corpus Luteum in Early Pregnancy: Gray-scale, Color, and Pulsed Doppler Appearance.
    Date April 1999
    Journal Journal of Clinical Ultrasound : Jcu
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: We describe the gray-scale and Doppler sonographic features of the corpus luteum during the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: Using transvaginal sonography, we prospectively evaluated the ovaries of 160 patients with spontaneous singleton intrauterine gestations between 5 and 8 weeks' menstrual age. Size, sonographic appearance, resistance index, and peak systolic velocity were recorded. RESULTS: The corpus luteum was identified in 157 (98%) of 160 patients. The mean diameter was 1.9 +/- 0.6 cm. The most common appearance was a round hypoechoic structure, found in 54 patients (34%). Other appearances included a cyst with a thick wall and anechoic center (43 patients, 27%), a cyst containing internal debris (36 patients, 23%), and a thin-walled simple cyst (24 patients, 15%). Corpus luteal blood flow was visualized with color Doppler imaging in 92% (145/157) of patients in whom the corpus luteum was found. Color Doppler imaging typically revealed a circumferential rim surrounding part or all of the corpus luteum. Low-resistance blood flow was seen with pulsed Doppler interrogation, with a mean resistance index of 0.49 +/- 0.08 and mean peak systolic velocity of 17 +/- 10 cm/second. CONCLUSIONS: The corpus luteum in early pregnancy is routinely identified with transvaginal sonography and has a wide range of sonographic appearances. Recognizing the various appearances of the corpus luteum is important to avoid confusing them with true ovarian abnormalities.

    Title Benign and Malignant Ovarian Masses: Selection of the Most Discriminating Gray-scale and Doppler Sonographic Features.
    Date July 1998
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To determine the gray-scale and Doppler sonographic features that best enable discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian masses and develop a scoring system for accurate diagnosis with these features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gray-scale and Doppler sonographic features of 211 adnexal masses were correlated with the final diagnosis; the most discriminating features for malignancy were selected with stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight masses were malignant and 183 benign. All masses with a markedly hyperechoic solid component or no solid component were benign. For masses with a nonhyperechoic solid component, additional features that allowed statistically significant discrimination of benignity from malignancy were, in decreasing order of importance, (a) location of flow at conventional color Doppler imaging, (b) amount of free intraperitoneal fluid, and (c) presence and thickness of septations. A scoring formula that made use of values based on the logistic regression equation had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.98 +/- 0.01. The cutoff score with the highest accuracy had a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 93%. CONCLUSION: A solid component is the most statistically significant predictor of a malignant ovarian mass. A multiparameter scoring system that uses three gray-scale and one Doppler feature, developed by means of stepwise logistic regression, has high sensitivity and specificity for predicting malignancy.

    Title Sonographic Evaluation of the Placental Cord Insertion Site.
    Date May 1998
    Journal Ajr. American Journal of Roentgenology
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Velamentous and marginal umbilical cords are uncommon abnormalities of placental cord insertion that can entail significant fetal risk. We undertook this investigation to assess the ability of prenatal sonography to reveal abnormal insertions of the umbilical cord into the placenta. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients had both prenatal sonographic evaluation of the placental cord insertion site and postnatal pathologic examination. Distance from the insertion site to the nearest placental edge was categorized by sonography and pathology as normal if greater than 1 cm and abnormal if less than or equal to 1 cm. Sonographic and pathologic findings were compared. RESULTS: Thirty-eight singleton and eight twin pregnancies, for a total of 54 cord insertions, were studied. Of the 43 sonographically normal insertions, 38 had normal pathologic findings, and the remaining five insertions had abnormal pathologic findings (all marginal cord insertions). All 11 insertions that showed abnormality on sonography were abnormal on pathologic examination (seven marginal and four velamentous insertions). Sonography was able to reveal a difference between the two types of abnormal insertions in only a single patient, in whom the cord insertion changed from marginal to velamentous during a 7-week interval. Sonography had an overall sensitivity of 69% (11/16), a specificity of 100% (38/38), and an accuracy of 91% (49/54) for revealing abnormal placental cord insertion sites. CONCLUSION: Targeted sonographic examination of the placental site of umbilical cord insertion will reveal abnormal placental cord insertions, although distinguishing the specific type of abnormal insertion may require the use of color Doppler imaging.

    Title Clinical Significance of Isolated Enlargement of the Cisterna Magna (> 10 Mm) on Prenatal Sonography.
    Date December 1997
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    Enlargement of the cisterna magna has been reported to be associated with aneuploidy. In prior studies of cisterna magna enlargement, however, those fetuses with abnormal chromosomes have had other sonographic abnormalities in addition to a large cisterna magna. Our goal was to assess the clinical significance of the isolated finding of a cisterna magna measuring more than 10 mm in anteroposterior dimension on a prenatal sonogram. We retrieved all prenatal sonograms performed at our institution between 1989 and 1996 in which an enlarged cisterna magna was the only sonographic abnormality. Cases were included in our study if the cisterna magna measured more than 10 mm in the appropriate plane and the fetal survey was otherwise normal, including normal cerebellar size and morphology. Pregnancy outcome and postnatal follow-up were obtained in each case. Fifteen cases comprised our study population. In all 15 fetuses, the enlarged cisterna magna was first seen in the third trimester (gestational age range, 26 to 37 weeks). The cisterna magna ranged from 11 to 19 mm in size (mean, 12.9 mm). All 15 pregnancies resulted in phenotypically normal liveborn infants. All the mother and infants had short hospital stays (1 to 4 days), and the infants were normal at discharge. Longer follow-up was available in eight cases (range, 2 to 69 months), and all eight of these infants were normal. Our results suggest that isolated enlargement of the cisterna magna to more than 10 mm is associated with normal pregnancy and neonatal outcome.

    Title Hemobilia: Sonographic Appearances in the Gallbladder and Biliary Tree with Emphasis on Intracholecystic Blood.
    Date November 1997
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    The purpose [corrected] of this study is to discuss the causes and sonographic appearances of blood in the gallbladder and biliary tree. Over a 12 year period, 18 patients with hemobilia had ultrasonographic examinations at one of three hospitals. Hemobilia was categorized as traumatic (50%), spontaneous (28%), or inflammatory (22%), with coagulopathy present in half of the cases. The sonographic appearances of intracholecystic blood varied, but with the exception of a single case, masslike intracholecystic material was present. Biliary dilatation occurred in five patients, with echogenic material visible in the extrahepatic bile duct in three of these cases.

    Title Solid Extratesticular Masses Evaluated with Sonography: Pathologic Correlation.
    Date July 1997
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To determine if the sonographic appearance of solid extratesticular masses enables distinction of benign from malignant disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sonograms of 19 patients with palpable testicular masses who underwent biopsy were reviewed retrospectively. Appearances of masses on sonograms were correlated with pathologic diagnoses. RESULTS: All masses were well defined and ranged in size from 5.7 to 66.7 mm (mean, 21 mm). On the sonograms, five masses were within the epididymis, and six were distinct from it; seven cases were indeterminate. The epididymis was surgically absent in the remaining patient. Sonographic echogenicity ranged from hypoechoic to hyperechoic relative to that of the testis. At pathologic evaluation, there were 16 (84%) benign and three (16%) malignant lesions. Benign lesions consisted of six adenomatoid tumors, two lipomas, two epidermoid inclusion cysts, two cases of sarcoidosis, and one case each of sperm granuloma, spermatic cord leiomyoma, benign inflammatory nodule, and fibroma. The malignant lesions consisted of scrotal wall liposarcoma, epididymal leiomyosarcoma, and recurrent spindle cell malignancy of the spermatic cord. No sonographic features of masses were useful for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. CONCLUSION: The frequency of malignancy (16%) contrasts with prior reports that suggest a very low rate of malignancy among these masses. Sonography is useful for identifying the extratesticular location of a mass but not for distinguishing the nature of the lesion.

    Title Early Singleton Pregnancy Outcome: Effects of Maternal Age and Mode of Conception.
    Date May 1997
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To assess the effect of prognostic factors on the outcome of singleton pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First-trimester ultrasonographic (US) scans that demonstrated a living fetus in 4,156 consecutive singleton pregnancies were studied. The relationship between outcome and maternal age, mode of conception, maternal symptoms, and US findings was evaluated. RESULTS: Spontaneous abortion occurred in 371 of 4,156 (8.9%) cases. Higher pregnancy-loss rates were associated with older maternal age (P < 10(-5)), assisted mode of conception (P < 10(-8)), maternal symptoms of pain and/or bleeding (P < .001), and abnormal US findings (P < 10(-8)). US abnormalities were more frequent in older women than in younger women (P < 10(-5)) and in assisted conceptions than in natural conceptions (P < 10(-8)). At stepwise logistic regression, with gestational age as a covariate, US abnormalities and maternal symptoms independently affected pregnancy outcome. Maternal age and mode of conception had no further statistically significant effect on pregnancy outcome. CONCLUSION: The prognosis for older mothers and for those with assisted conception is not statistically significantly different from that for younger mothers and for those with natural conception if maternal symptoms, US findings, and gestational age are the same.

    Title Role of Doppler Ultrasonography in the Prediction of Pregnancy Outcome in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion.
    Date December 1996
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    We prospectively studied 96 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion to determine whether the resistive index of the main uterine artery or subchorionic vessels can allow prediction of pregnancy outcome. The subchorionic RI declined progressively for a mean of 0.54 at 6 weeks to 0.42 at 13 weeks (P < 10(-8), F-test). No significant difference was found in subchorionic RI values between outcomes for liveborn infants versus loss. Uterine artery RI values also declined significantly through the first trimester (P < 10(-8), F-test). Uterine artery RI values tended to be lower in pregnancies ending in loss than in successful gestations; however, there was too much overlap for this index to be clinically useful. In conclusion, first trimester RI does not allow prediction of pregnancy outcome in patients with recurrent abortion.

    Title Placenta Percreta Post Evacuation: an Unusual Uterine Mass on Mri.
    Date November 1995
    Journal Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
    Title Sonographic Evaluation of Ectopic Pregnancy: an Update.
    Date August 1995
    Journal Ajr. American Journal of Roentgenology
    Excerpt

    This review addresses the use of state-of-the-art sonography to evaluate patients with possible ectopic pregnancy (EP). The technical aspects for optimizing the examination are emphasized, and the role of color and pulsed Doppler imaging is discussed. The various sonographic criteria used to diagnose EP are critically analyzed. In addition, imaging findings for some of the more unusual forms of EP are discussed. The role of sonography in the treatment of EP is briefly considered.

    Title Increasing Curvature of the Normal Fetal Ductus Arteriosus with Advancing Gestational Age.
    Date May 1995
    Journal Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology : the Official Journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    In order to determine whether the configuration of the normal fetal ductus arteriosus changes with increasing gestational age, we prospectively collected oblique transverse sonographic images of the fetal thorax through the ductus arteriosus. Scans from 240 consecutive normal fetuses with gestational age 20 weeks or more were included in the study. The images were reviewed independently by two sonologists and the ductus arteriosus was graded as: (1) straight; (2) mildly curved (C-shaped, bending < 90 degrees from a straight line); or (3) markedly curved (C-shaped, bending > 90 degrees, or S-shaped). In cases where the two sonologists' gradings did not concur, the images were re-reviewed jointly by both sonologists and a grading was assigned by consensus. Forty-two cases were rejected, due to inadequate images. The ductus arteriosus was graded in 42 fetuses aged 20-25.9 weeks, 48 at 26-31.9 weeks, 74 at 32-37.9 weeks, and 34 at 38 weeks or more for a total of 198 cases. There was a significant trend to greater curvature with increasing gestational age (p < 0.0001). The frequency of a straight ductus arteriosus decreased steadily from 55% of fetuses aged 20-25.9 weeks to 3% of fetuses at 38 weeks or older, while the frequency of marked curvature increased from 2% in the youngest age group to 56% in the oldest. The proportion with mild curvature showed little variation throughout gestation. In summary, the configuration of the ductus arteriosus is variable but tends to become more curved as pregnancy proceeds. Marked curvature or tortuosity of the ductus arteriosus should not be misinterpreted as a great vessel anomaly.

    Title Clinical Significance of Isolated Fetal Pericardial Effusion.
    Date November 1994
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    Prenatal sonographic identification of a small rim of pericardial fluid, measuring less than 2 mm in thickness, is a normal finding. Pericardial fluid 2 mm or greater in thickness may be associated with structural anomalies or hydrops, but its clinical significance in the absence of these associated findings has not been evaluated. We assessed the outcome in fetuses with isolated pericardial effusions of at least 2 mm thick. Our study population included 52 fetuses with effusions ranging from 2 to 7 mm in thickness. We compared rates of preterm delivery, cesarean section, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal complications, Apgar scores, and length of neonatal hospital stay in these 52 cases to the overall hospital rates and found no statistically significant difference. We conclude that in the absence of other sonographic abnormalities, the finding of a fetal pericardial fluid collection 2 to 7 mm in thickness is not associated with adverse outcome.

    Title Distal Ureteral Calculi: Detection with Vaginal Us.
    Date August 1994
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To describe the use of vaginal ultrasonography to identify distal ureteral calculi and hydroureter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Abdominal and vaginal sonography were performed in 13 women with distal ureteral calculi. Indications for sonography included flank pain, hematuria, and suspected appendicitis. Six patients were pregnant. RESULTS: In each patient, vaginal sonograms demonstrated a distal ureteral calculus; in only two cases was the calculus detected with transabdominal sonography. Distal hydroureter was identified with vaginal scanning in each patient but with abdominal scanning in only two. Hydronephrosis was absent in three patients, mild in six, and moderate in four. Symmetric ureteral jets were noted at transabdominal sonography in two of nine patients. Follow-up transvaginal scans obtained shortly after passage of stones in two patients revealed swelling of the trigone but normal ureteral jets. CONCLUSION: In symptomatic female patients, use of vaginal sonography should be considered to evaluate the distal ureter for calculi, particularly if the results of transabdominal examination are normal or inconclusive.

    Title Sonography of the Fetal Posterior Fossa: False Appearance of Mega-cisterna Magna and Dandy-walker Variant.
    Date July 1994
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To establish that incorrect scanning of the fetal posterior fossa may falsely create the appearance of a mega-cisterna magna (MCM) or Dandy-Walker variant (DWV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After routine sonography, 100 consecutive fetuses (gestational age range, 25-40 weeks) without abnormality underwent additional posterior fossa scanning in an attempt to create the appearance of an MCM (anteroposterior diameter larger than 10 mm) or DWV. Sonograms were obtained in a plane inferior to or angled more coronally than the routine axial plane. RESULTS: The posterior fossa was depicted in 93 fetuses. Pseudo-MCM occurred in 35 (38%) of 93 fetuses: 12 (30%) of 40 fetuses aged 25.0-29.9 weeks, 11 (50%) of 22 fetuses aged 30.0-34.9 weeks, and 12 (39%) of 31 fetuses aged 35.0-40.0 weeks. Pseudo-DWV occurred in 40 (43%) of 93 fetuses: 20 (50%) of 40 fetuses aged 25.0-29.9 weeks, 12 (55%) of 22 fetuses aged 30.0-34.9 weeks, and eight (26%) of 31 fetuses aged 35.0-40.0 weeks. CONCLUSION: Sonography of the posterior fossa in an angled semi-coronal plane should be avoided because it may create an appearance that mimics an abnormality.

    Title Tubal Rupture in Patients with Ectopic Pregnancy: Diagnosis with Transvaginal Us.
    Date June 1994
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To determine whether sonography can help diagnose tubal rupture in patients with ectopic pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors reviewed the transvaginal ultrasound (US) scans and medical records of 132 consecutive patients with tubal pregnancy confirmed at surgery performed within 24 hours of undergoing US. RESULTS: Adnexal masses were seen in 93 patients at US. Thirty-four patients had a tubal ring, and 59 had a complex mass. The frequency of tubal rupture was similar for both groups. The adnexal mass was significantly smaller in patients without a ruptured tube, but there was considerable overlap. Rupture was present in 21% of patients with no sign of or a trace of intraperitoneal fluid, increasing steadily to 63% in patients with a large amount of free fluid. Even though the amount of fluid was the best predictor of rupture, it was not completely reliable, as 37% of patients in whom a large amount of fluid was found had intact tubes. CONCLUSION: No finding at transvaginal US is a reliable indicator of rupture. Contrary to findings from previous studies, the appearance of the adnexal mass, if present, is not related to tubal rupture.

    Title Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy: Results of Conservative Treatment.
    Date June 1994
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To review experience with early sonographic diagnosis and fertility-preserving treatment of cervical ectopic pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors evaluated 12 consecutive cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy diagnosed with ultrasound (US) and treated with methods that successfully preserved the uterus. Gestational age, sonographic findings, means of conception, and method of treatment were recorded. RESULTS: Gestational age at diagnosis ranged from 5.0 to 7.9 weeks. Cardiac activity was documented in nine cases. Patients were treated as follows: transvaginal US-guided injection of potassium chloride into the embryo or gestational sac (n = 6), uterine artery embolization followed by dilation and evacuation (n = 4), dilation and evacuation after ligation of uterine artery branches (n = 1), and uterine artery embolization followed by administration of systemic methotrexate (n = 1). The cervical pregnancy was successfully ablated with one treatment in all cases. No patient required hysterectomy, and only one patient required transfusion. Two patients subsequently delivered healthy babies; three other patients have been able to conceive successfully. CONCLUSION: When cervical ectopic pregnancy is diagnosed early, US-guided termination or other conservative procedures allow preservation of the uterus, thus maintaining potential fertility.

    Title Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Cervical Pregnancy in an in Vitro Fertilization Program.
    Date June 1994
    Journal Fertility and Sterility
    Excerpt

    This is a report of three cervical pregnancies, one of which was a heterotopic twin cervical pregnancy that occurred in combination with a single intrauterine pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasound examination was sufficient to establish the diagnosis in two of three patients, and MRI scanning was conclusive in the third. Early diagnosis lead to intervention before 7 weeks gestation in all cases with no complications. The incidence of cervical pregnancy may be higher in IVF-ET than recognized previously.

    Title Ovarian Masses: Can Benign and Malignant Lesions Be Differentiated with Color and Pulsed Doppler Us?
    Date February 1994
    Journal Radiology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To determine whether color and pulsed Doppler ultrasound (US) can be used to differentiate benign from malignant ovarian masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four ovarian masses identified with sonography in 40 patients were confirmed at surgery (n = 35) or followed up to resolution with US (n = 9). Color and pulsed Doppler US were used to calculate the lowest pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) for each mass. RESULTS: Color Doppler US enabled detection of arterial flow in 24 of 36 benign masses and six of eight malignant masses. PI was lower in malignant masses than in benign masses (P = .002), as was RI (P = .001). Both indexes demonstrated overlap between benign and malignant masses; therefore, no cutoff value for either index had both high sensitivity and high specificity for malignancy: For PI cutoff of 1.0, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 46%, respectively; for RI cutoff of 0.4, 50% and 96%. CONCLUSIONS: While PI and RI tend to be lower in malignant ovarian masses, neither index can be used reliably to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. In addition, lack of detectable flow by means of color Doppler US does not exclude ovarian malignancy.

    Title Pregnancy Outcome After a First Trimester Sonogram Demonstrating Fetal Cardiac Activity.
    Date September 1993
    Journal Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
    Excerpt

    We conducted a prospective study to assess pregnancy outcome after a first trimester sonogram demonstrating a singleton intrauterine gestation with fetal cardiac activity. In each of the 556 cases, data recorded included indication for the sonogram, results of the sonogram, and pregnancy outcome. Sonographic abnormalities were found more frequently in patients scanned because of symptoms (14.0%) than among patients scanned for routine indications (6.0%) (P < 0.05, chi-squared). Among 556 patients with known outcomes, the overall loss rate was 9.4%. A trend was seen toward a higher loss rate in patients with abnormal than normal sonograms (15.2% versus 8.8%). The loss rate after a normal scan was similar in symptomatic (10.6%) and asymptomatic patients (9.1%) and declined progressively with gestational age from 17.0% at 6 to 7.9 weeks to 4.3% at 12 to 13 weeks (P < 0.01, chi-squared). These results can be used to convey prognostic information to patients after a normal first trimester sonogram demonstrating fetal cardiac activity. The likelihood of a good pregnancy outcome can be stated as a function of gestational age, and a symptomatic patient can be reassured after a normal scan that her prognosis is similar to that of an asymptomatic patient with a normal sonogram.

    Title Sonography of the Fetal Heart: Normal Variants and Pitfalls.
    Date June 1993
    Journal Ajr. American Journal of Roentgenology
    Excerpt

    Sonographic evaluation of the fetal heart is an important part of obstetric sonography. The sonographer and sonologist should be familiar with the sonographic appearance of the normal fetal heart and with common structural abnormalities. Occasionally, normal structures in or adjacent to the fetal heart may simulate an abnormality. Although one should seek consultative sonography in instances of uncertain or questionable findings, unnecessary referral and concern may be avoided in some cases if the sonologist is familiar with normal variants and pitfalls. In this pictorial essay, we present several such pitfalls that we and others have observed in the four-chamber view (Fig. 1) and in views of the ventricular outflow tracts (Figs. 2 and 3).

    Title Simple Digital Clubbing. Characteristic Bone Scan Appearance.
    Date September 1990
    Journal Clinical Nuclear Medicine
    Title Petrous Apicitis: Evaluation by Bone Spect and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    Date June 1990
    Journal Clinical Nuclear Medicine
    Excerpt

    A case of petrous apicitis, an unusual inflammation of the petrous apex air cells, is reported. SPECT revealed the focal bony involvement, and these findings correlated well with the anatomical abnormalities seen on MRI.

    Title Congenital Tracheoesophageal Fistula (h-type) in a Six-year-old.
    Date March 1990
    Journal Clinical Pediatrics
    Excerpt

    The case of a six-year-old boy with newly diagnosed tracheoesophageal fistula of the H-type is presented. This diagnosis is usually made in the neonatal period, but since the symptoms may mimic other respiratory illnesses and radiologic diagnosis may be difficult, the condition may go undiagnosed for years. Since correction of a tracheoesophageal fistula is curative, the diagnosis should be entertained in any child with recurrent respiratory symptoms, especially when associated with meals. A brief discussion emphasizes the importance of good communication between the clinician and radiologist and of careful radiologic evaluation.

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