Browse Health
Surgical Specialist
38 years of experience
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Meharry Medical College (1972)
  • Currently 3 of 4 apples
Top 50%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Awards  
Patients' Choice Award (2014)
Associations
American Board of Surgery
American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery

Affiliations ?

Dr. Wood is affiliated with 9 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations

Score

Rankings

  • Garden City Hospital
    6245 Inkster Rd, Garden City, MI 48135
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • DMC - Sinai-Grace Hospital
    6071 W Outer Dr, Detroit, MI 48235
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Harper University Hospital
    3990 John R St, Detroit, MI 48201
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Detroit Receiving Hospital & University Health Center
    4201 Saint Antoine St, Detroit, MI 48201
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Hutzel Women's Hospital
    3980 John R St, Detroit, MI 48201
  • Sinaigrace Hospital
  • Detroit Receiving Hospital
  • Annapolis Hospital
  • HARPER UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL & HUTZEL WOMEN'S HOSPIT
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Wood has contributed to 58 publications.
    Title Tensor Correlations Measured in 3he(e,e' Pp)n.
    Date April 2011
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    We have measured the 3He(e,e' pp)n reaction at an incident energy of 4.7 GeV over a wide kinematic range. We identified spectator correlated pp and pn nucleon pairs by using kinematic cuts and measured their relative and total momentum distributions. This is the first measurement of the ratio of pp to pn pairs as a function of pair total momentum p(tot). For pair relative momenta between 0.3 and 0.5  GeV/c, the ratio is very small at low p(tot) and rises to approximately 0.5 at large p(tot). This shows the dominance of tensor over central correlations at this relative momentum.

    Title Measurement of Single- and Double-spin Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Pion Electroproduction with a Longitudinally Polarized Target.
    Date April 2011
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    We report the first measurement of the transverse momentum dependence of double-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of pions in deep-inelastic scattering off the longitudinally polarized proton. Data have been obtained using a polarized electron beam of 5.7 GeV with the CLAS detector at the Jefferson Lab (JLab). Modulations of single spin asymmetries over the azimuthal angle between lepton scattering and hadron production planes ϕ have been measured over a wide kinematic range in Bjorken x and virtual photon squared four-momentum Q2. A significant nonzero sin2ϕ single spin asymmetry was observed for the first time indicating strong spin-orbit correlations for transversely polarized quarks in the longitudinally polarized proton.

    Title Absorption of the ω and ϕ Mesons in Nuclei.
    Date January 2011
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    Because of their long lifetimes, the ω and ϕ mesons are the ideal candidates for the study of possible modifications of the in-medium meson-nucleon interaction through their absorption inside the nucleus. During the E01-112 experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, the mesons were photoproduced from 2H, C, Ti, Fe, and Pb targets. This Letter reports the first measurement of the ratio of nuclear transparencies for the e+e- channel. The ratios indicate larger in-medium widths compared with what have been reported in other reaction channels. The absorption of the ω meson is stronger than that reported by the CBELSA-TAPS experiment and cannot be explained by recent theoretical models.

    Title Preventing Surgical Site Infections After Bariatric Surgery: Value of Perioperative Antibiotic Regimens.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
    Excerpt

    Bariatric surgery for obesity has emerged as an effective and commonly used treatment modality. This paper reviews the surgical site infections (SSIs) that occur post bariatric surgery and SSI prevention. The benefit of bariatric surgery resulting in profound weight loss brings with it consequences in the form of postoperative complications that can have profound effects on morbidity and mortality in these patients. This paper sets out to define different types of SSIs that occur following bariatric surgery and to discuss existing literature on the critical aspects of SSI prevention and the appropriate use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis for bariatric surgery.

    Title Measurement of the Differential Cross Section for the Reaction Gamman-->pi- P from Deuterium.
    Date August 2009
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    We report a measurement of the differential cross section for the gamman-->pi- p process from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory in Hall B for photon energies between 1.0 and 3.5 GeV and pion center-of-mass (c.m.) angles (thetac.m.) between 50 degrees and 115 degrees. We confirm a previous indication of a broad enhancement around a c.m. energy ([sqrt]s) of 2.1 GeV at thetac.m.=90 degrees in the scaled differential cross section s7dsigma/dt and a rapid falloff in a center-of-mass energy region of about 400 MeV following the enhancement. Our data show an angular dependence of this enhancement as the suggested scaling region is approached for thetac.m. from 70 degrees to 105 degrees.

    Title Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor G(m)n in the Few-gev2 Region.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q;{2}=1.0-4.8 GeV2 with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data.

    Title Measurement of Direct F0(980) Photoproduction on the Proton.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    We report on the results of the first measurement of exclusive f_{0}(980) meson photoproduction on protons for E_{gamma}=3.0-3.8 GeV and -t=0.4-1.0 GeV2. Data were collected with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The resonance was detected via its decay in the pi;{+}pi;{-} channel by performing a partial wave analysis of the reaction gammap-->ppi;{+}pi;{-}. Clear evidence of the f_{0}(980) meson was found in the interference between P and S waves at M_{pi;{+}pi;{-}} approximately 1 GeV. The S-wave differential cross section integrated in the mass range of the f_{0}(980) was found to be a factor of about 50 smaller than the cross section for the rho meson. This is the first time the f_{0}(980) meson has been measured in a photoproduction experiment.

    Title Search for the Photoexcitation of Exotic Mesons in the Pi+pi+pi- System.
    Date May 2009
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    A search for exotic mesons in the pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-} system photoproduced by the charge exchange reaction gammap-->pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-}(n) was carried out by the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab. A tagged-photon beam with energies in the 4.8 to 5.4 GeV range, produced through bremsstrahlung from a 5.744 GeV electron beam, was incident on a liquid-hydrogen target. A partial wave analysis was performed on a sample of 83 000 events, the highest such statistics to date in this reaction at these energies. The main objective of this study was to look for the photoproduction of an exotic J;{PC}=1;{-+} resonant state in the 1 to 2 GeV mass range. Our partial wave analysis shows production of the a_{2}(1320) and the pi_{2}(1670) mesons, but no evidence for the a_{1}(1260), nor the pi_{1}(1600) exotic state at the expected levels. An upper limit of 13.5 nb is determined for the exotic pi_{1}(1600) cross section, less than 2% of the a_{2}(1320) production.

    Title Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Inflammatory Ocular Neovascularization.
    Date September 2008
    Journal American Journal of Ophthalmology
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: To assess the role of bevacizumab in inflammatory ocular neovascularization. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, consecutive case series of inflammatory ocular neovascularization. METHODS: Patients with inflammatory ocular neovascularization of varying causes for whom standard therapy failed were treated with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Main outcome measures included improvement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) expressed in logarithm of minimum angle of resolution units, response of inflammatory ocular neovascularization by funduscopy and angiography, and decrease in central foveal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography at the three-month follow-up. RESULTS: At the three-month follow-up, 84 eyes of 79 patients had been treated with a mean of 1.3 injections (range, one to three). Thirty-four eyes showed juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV), 34 eyes showed subfoveal CNV, eight eyes showed peripapillary CNV, and 11 eyes showed neovascularization of the disc (NVD) or neovascularization elsewhere (NVE). BCVA improved 2.4 lines from 0.68 (6/28 or 20/94) to 0.44 (6/17 or 20/55) (P < .001). BCVA improved by one to three lines in 34.5% of the eyes, by four to six lines in 16.7% of the eyes, and by more than six lines in 14.2% of the eyes. Function was unchanged in 23.8% of the eyes. BCVA worsened in 10.7% (zero to three lines in 7.1%, more than four lines in 3.6%). Central foveal thickness decreased from baseline 346 to 252 microm (P < .001). For CNV, 32 eyes (43.2%) had complete regression after the injection, 27 (36.5%) had partial regression, five (6.8%) had no response, and 10 eyes (13.5%) were not evaluated by the contributors. For NVD or NVE, seven eyes (63.6%) had complete regression of new vessels and four eyes (36.4%) had partial regression after the injection. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal bevacizumab led to short-term significant visual improvement and regression of inflammatory ocular neovascularization in a wide variety of inflammatory ocular diseases.

    Title Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Beam-spin Asymmetries.
    Date June 2008
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The beam-spin asymmetries in the hard exclusive electroproduction of photons on the proton (e p-->epgamma) were measured over a wide kinematic range and with high statistical accuracy. These asymmetries result from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process and of deeply virtual Compton scattering. Over the whole kinematic range (x(B) from 0.11 to 0.58, Q2 from 1 to 4.8 GeV2, -t from 0.09 to 1.8 GeV2), the azimuthal dependence of the asymmetries is compatible with expectations from leading-twist dominance, A approximately a sinphi/(1+c cosphi). This extensive set of data can thus be used to constrain significantly the generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in the valence quark sector.

    Title Bayesian Analysis of Pentaquark Signals from Clas Data.
    Date May 2008
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    We examine the results of two measurements by the CLAS collaboration, one of which claimed evidence for a Theta(+) pentaquark, while the other found no such evidence. The unique feature of these two experiments was that they were performed with the same experimental setup. Using a Bayesian analysis, we find that the results of the two experiments are in fact compatible with each other, but that the first measurement did not contain sufficient information to determine unambiguously the existence of a Theta(+). Further, we suggest a means by which the existence of a new candidate particle can be tested in a rigorous manner.

    Title Search for Medium Modifications of the Rho Meson.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been studied using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The vector mesons, rho, omega, and varphi, are observed via their decay to e;{+}e;{-}, in order to reduce the effects of final-state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are possible in-medium effects on the properties of the rho meson. The rho mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, 2H, C, Fe, and Ti. We observe no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the rho meson.

    Title Experimental Study of Exclusive 2h(e,e'p)n Reaction Mechanisms at High Q2.
    Date December 2007
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The reaction 2H(e,e'p)n has been studied with full kinematic coverage for photon virtuality 1.75<Q2<5.5 GeV2. Comparisons of experimental data with theory indicate that for very low values of neutron recoil momentum (p(n)<100 MeV/c) the neutron is primarily a spectator and the reaction can be described by the plane-wave impulse approximation. For 100<p(n)<750 MeV/c, proton-neutron rescattering dominates the cross section, while Delta production followed by the NDelta-->NN transition is the primary contribution at higher momenta.

    Title Measurement of the N-->delta(+)(1232) Transition at High-momentum Transfer by Pi(0) Electroproduction.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    We report a new measurement of the exclusive electroproduction reaction gamma(*)p-->pi(0)p to explore the evolution from soft nonperturbative physics to hard processes via the Q(2) dependence of the magnetic (M(1+)), electric (E(1+)), and scalar (S(1+)) multipoles in the N-->Delta transition. 9000 differential cross section data points cover W from threshold to 1.4 GeV/c(2), 4pi center-of-mass solid angle, and Q(2) from 3 to 6 GeV(2)/c(2), the highest yet achieved. It is found that the magnetic form factor G(M)(*) decreases with Q(2) more steeply than the proton magnetic form factor, the ratio E(1+)/M(1+) is small and negative, indicating strong helicity nonconservation, and the ratio S(1+)/M(1+) is negative, while its magnitude increases with Q(2).

    Title Search for Theta++ Pentaquarks in the Exclusive Reaction Gammap-->k+k-p.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The reaction gammap --> pK+K- was studied at Jefferson Lab with photon energies from 1.8 to 3.8 GeV using a tagged photon beam. The goal was to search for a Theta++ pentaquark, a narrow, doubly charged baryon state having strangeness S=+1 and isospin I=1, in the pK+ invariant mass spectrum. No statistically significant evidence of a Theta++ was found. Upper limits on the total and differential cross section for the reaction gammap --> K-Theta++ were obtained in the mass range from 1.5 to 2.0 GeV/c2, with an upper limit for a narrow resonance with a mass M(Theta++) = 1.54 GeV/c2 of about 0.15 nb, 95% C.L.. This result places a stringent upper limit on the Theta++ width Gamma(Theta++) <0.1 MeV/c2.

    Title Search for the Theta+ Pentaquark in the Gammad--> Deltank+ Reaction Measured with the Clas Spectrometer.
    Date December 2006
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    For the first time, the reaction gammad-->DeltanK+ has been analyzed in order to search for the exotic pentaquark baryon Theta+(1540). The data were taken at Jefferson Laboratory, using the Hall-B tagged-photon beam of energy between 0.8 and 3.6 GeV and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). No statistically significant structures were observed in the nK+ invariant-mass distribution. The upper limit on the gammad-->DeltaTheta+ integrated cross section has been calculated and found to be between 5 and 25 nb, depending on the production model assumed. The upper limit on the differential cross section is also reported.

    Title Open Versus Laparoscopic Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass: a Comparative Study of over 25,000 Open Cases and the Major Laparoscopic Bariatric Reported Series.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic bariatric surgery has experienced a rapid expansion of interest over the past 5 years, with a 470% increase. This rapid expansion has markedly increased overall cost, reducing surgical access. Many surgeons believe that the traditional open approach is a cheaper, safer, equally effective alternative. METHODS: 16 highly experienced "open" bariatric surgeons with a combined total of 25,759 cases representing >200 surgeon years of experience, pooled their open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (ORYGBP) data, and compared their results to the leading laparoscopic (LRYGBP) papers in the literature. RESULTS: In the overall series, the incisional hernia rate was 6.4% using the standard midline incision. Utilizing the left subcostal incision (LSI), it was only 0.3%. Return to surgery in <30 days was 0.7%, deaths 0.25%, and leaks 0.4%. Average length of stay was 3.4 days, and return to usual activity 21 days. Small bowel obstruction was significantly higher with the LRYGBP. Surgical equipment costs averaged approximately $3,000 less for "open" cases. LRYGBP had an added expense for longer operative time. This more than made up for the shorter length of stay with the laparoscopic approach. CONCLUSIONS: The higher cost, higher leak rate, higher rate of small bowel obstruction, and similar long-term weight loss results make the "open" RYGBP our preferred operation. If the incision is taken out of the equation (i.e. use of the LSI), the significant advantages of the open technique become even more obvious.

    Title Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with a Polarized-proton Target.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The longitudinal target-spin asymmetry AUL for the exclusive electroproduction of high-energy photons was measured for the first time in ep-->e;'pgamma. The data have been accumulated at JLab with the CLAS spectrometer using 5.7 GeV electrons and a longitudinally polarized NH3 target. A significant azimuthal angular dependence was observed, resulting from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The amplitude of the sinvarphi moment is 0.252+/-0.042stat+/-0.020sys. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the magnitude and the kinematic dependence of the target-spin asymmetry, which is sensitive to the generalized parton distributions H and H.

    Title Search for the Theta+ Pentaquark in the Reaction Gammad --> Pk-k+n.
    Date October 2006
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    A search for the Theta+ in the reaction gammad --> pK-K+n was completed using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. A study of the same reaction, published earlier, reported the observation of a narrow Theta+ resonance. The present experiment, with more than 30 times the integrated luminosity of our earlier measurement, does not show any evidence for a narrow pentaquark resonance. The angle-integrated upper limit on Theta+ production in the mass range of 1.52-1.56 GeV/c2 for the gammad --> pK-Theta+ reaction is 0.3 nb (95% C.L.). This upper limit depends on assumptions made for the mass and angular distribution of Theta+ production. Using Lambda(1520) production as an empirical measure of rescattering in the deuteron, the cross section upper limit for the elementary gamman --> K-Theta+ reaction is estimated to be a factor of 10 higher, i.e., approximately 3 nb (95% C.L.).

    Title Eta' Photoproduction on the Proton for Photon Energies from 1.527 to 2.227 Gev.
    Date June 2006
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    Differential cross sections for the reaction gamma p --> eta' p have been measured with the CLAS spectrometer and a tagged photon beam with energies from 1.527 to 2.227 GeV. The results reported here possess much greater accuracy than previous measurements. Analyses of these data suggest for the first time the coupling of the eta'N channel to both the S11(1535) and P11(1710) resonances, known to couple strongly to the etaN channel in photoproduction on the proton, and the importance of J = 3/2 resonances in the process.

    Title Search for Theta+ (1540) Pentaquark in High-statistics Measurement of Gammap-->k0k+n at Clas.
    Date June 2006
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The exclusive reaction gammap-->K0K+n was studied in the photon energy range between 1.6 and 3.8 GeV searching for evidence of the exotic baryon Theta+ (1540)-->nK+. The decay to nK+requires the assignment of strangeness S=+1 to any observed resonance. Data were collected with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 70 pb-1. No evidence for the Theta+ pentaquark was found. Upper limits were set on the production cross section as function of center-of-mass angle and nK+ mass. The 95% C.L. upper limit on the total cross section for a narrow resonance at 1540 MeV was found to be 0.8 nb.

    Title Measurement of Two- and Three-nucleon Short-range Correlation Probabilities in Nuclei.
    Date May 2006
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The ratios of inclusive electron scattering cross sections of 4He, 12C, and 56Fe to 3He have been measured at 1 < xB <. At Q2 > 1.4 GeV2, the ratios exhibit two separate plateaus, at 1.5 < xB < 2 and at xB > 2.25. This pattern is predicted by models that include 2- and 3-nucleon short-range correlations (SRC). Relative to A = 3, the per-nucleon probabilities of 3-nucleon SRC are 2.3, 3.1, and 4.4 times larger for A = 4, 12, and 56. This is the first measurement of 3-nucleon SRC probabilities in nuclei.

    Title Beam-helicity Asymmetries in Double-charged-pion Photoproduction on the Proton.
    Date February 2006
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    Beam-helicity asymmetries for the two-pion-photoproduction reaction gammap-->ppi(+)pi(-) have been studied for the first time in the resonance region for center-of-mass energies between 1.35 and 2.30 GeV. The experiment was performed at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer using circularly polarized tagged photons incident on an unpolarized hydrogen target. Beam-helicity-dependent angular distributions of the final-state particles were measured. The large cross-section asymmetries exhibit strong sensitivity to the kinematics and dynamics of the reaction. The data are compared with the results of various phenomenological model calculations, and show that these models currently do not provide an adequate description for the behavior of this new observable.

    Title Onset of Asymptotic Scaling in Deuteron Photodisintegration.
    Date April 2005
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    We investigate the transition from the nucleon-meson to the quark-gluon description of the strong interaction using the photon energy dependence of the d(gamma,p)n differential cross section for photon energies above 0.5 GeV and center-of-mass proton angles between 30 degrees and 150 degrees. A possible signature for this transition is the onset of cross-section s(-11) scaling with the total energy squared, s, at some proton transverse momentum P(T). The results show that the scaling has been reached for proton transverse momentum above about 1.1 GeV/c. This may indicate that the quark-gluon regime is reached above this momentum.

    Title Proton Source Size Measurements in the Ea-->e'ppx Reaction.
    Date January 2005
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    Two-proton correlations at small relative momentum q were studied in the eA(3He,4He,C,Fe)-->e(')ppX reaction at E(0)=4.46 GeV using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. The enhancement of the correlation function at small q was found to be in accordance with theoretical expectations. Sizes of the emission region were extracted, and proved to be dependent on A and on the proton momentum. The size of the two-proton emission region for He was measured in eA reactions for the first time.

    Title Vagotomy at the Time of Gastric Bypass: Can It Be Harmful?
    Date September 2004
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Title Anastomotic Leak Prophylaxis Using a Vapor-heated Fibrin Sealant: Report on 738 Gastric Bypass Patients.
    Date June 2004
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Excluding pulmonary embolism, anastomotic leak is the leading cause of death and major morbidity in patients undergoing open or laparoscopic gastric bypass operations. We observed a number of these leaks (11 out of 1,120 Micropouch(SM) gastric bypass [MGB] patients; 0.9%). The majority (80%) required emergency laparotomy and drainage, massive fluid resuscitation, and aggressive nutritional support. Therefore, we designed a 2-year, prospective study to determine the therapeutic efficacy of vapor-heated fibrin sealant to prevent anastomotic leaks at the gastro-jejunostomy (GJS) site. METHODS: Between April, 2000 and March, 2002, 738 patients underwent a primary (n=671) or revisionary (n=67) MGB procedure.The gastric reservoir was limited to the cardia of the stomach. Vapor-heated fibrin glue 1 cc was applied circumferentially to a 12-mm, non-banded GJS anastomosis. Once activated, fibrin sealant polymerized into a soft, closely adherent gel. No omental patch was used to cover the fibrin-sealed anastomosis. RESULTS: Of 738 patients, 2 required emergency laparotomy for leaks and 2 for adhesive bands that contributed to a distal small bowel obstruction.There were no anastomotic leaks at the fibrin-sealed GJS sites. No gastro-gastric or gastro-enteric fistulas were recorded. CONCLUSION: Fibrin sealant applied to the GJS site appears to have eliminated anastomotic leaks in our Micropouch(SM) gastric bypass patients. These results suggest that fibrin glue application may contribute to "leak prophylaxis" in patients undergoing open Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Glue placements may also benefit patients undergoing a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y procedure, wherein anastomotic leaks have been reported early in the learning curve.

    Title Fatal Pulmonary Embolism After Bariatric Operations for Morbid Obesity: a 24-year Retrospective Analysis.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of death following gastric bypass operations for morbid obesity. Although its incidence appears to be stable, the number of bariatric operations performed annually is increasing considerably; hence, the isolated fatal PE is no longer a rare occurrence. The records of patients undergoing bariatric surgical operations since 1979 were reviewed to determine specific factors that increased the risk of developing a fatal PE. Both recommended and optional indications for prophylactic inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement in patients considered at high risk were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September, 1979 and March, 2003, 5,554 operations were performed for clinically severe obesity. These operations included jejuno-ileal bypass, horizontal gastroplasty, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a 30-cc pouch, modified biliopancreatic diversion, the Sapala-Wood Micropouch gastric bypass (Micropouch(SM)), Lap-Band, and revisions. 12 fatal pulmonary emboli (0.21 %) were identified. All but 1 embolus occurred within 30 days following surgery. RESULTS: In 11 of 12 patients, at least 1 co-morbidity known to increase the risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) was identified. 4 co-morbidites were common to 4 patients (33%): venous stasis disease (VSD), BMI >/= 60, truncal obesity, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome/sleep apnea syndrome (OHS/SAS). 6 of 12 patients (50%) had a BMI >/= 60. Another 6 had chronic leg swelling with stasis dermatitis. 2 patients experienced a previous PE, and 1 patient reported a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). CONCLUSION: 4 patients (33%) demonstrated a combination of risk factors (VSD, BMI >/= 60, truncal obesity, OHS/SAS) recognized as significant for the development of postoperative VTE. In such patients, prophylactic IVC filter placement is highly recommended. Filter placement for other factors, such as age, body build, hypercoagulable state, etc., should be considered on an individual basis.

    Title Two-nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3he(e,e'pp)n.
    Date April 2004
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for "fast" nucleons (p>250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back to back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Calculations by Sargsian and by Laget also indicate that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking one nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

    Title Observation of an Exotic S = +1 Baryon in Exclusive Photoproduction from the Deuteron.
    Date March 2004
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    In an exclusive measurement of the reaction gammad-->K(+)K(-)pn, a narrow peak that can be attributed to an exotic baryon with strangeness S=+1 is seen in the K(+)n invariant mass spectrum. The peak is at 1.542+/-0.005 GeV/c(2) with a measured width of 0.021 GeV/c(2) FWHM, which is largely determined by experimental mass resolution. The statistical significance of the peak is (5.2+/-0.6)sigma. The mass and width of the observed peak are consistent with recent reports of a narrow S=+1 baryon by other experimental groups.

    Title Observation of an Exotic Baryon with S=+1 in Photoproduction from the Proton.
    Date February 2004
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The reaction gamma p-->pi(+)K(-)K(+)n was studied at Jefferson Laboratory using a tagged photon beam with an energy range of 3-5.47 GeV. A narrow baryon state with strangeness S=+1 and mass M=1555+/-10 MeV/c(2) was observed in the nK(+) invariant mass spectrum. The peak's width is consistent with the CLAS resolution (FWHM=26 MeV/c(2)), and its statistical significance is (7.8+/-1.0)sigma. A baryon with positive strangeness has exotic structure and cannot be described in the framework of the naive constituent quark model. The mass of the observed state is consistent with the mass predicted by the chiral soliton model for the Theta(+) baryon. In addition, the pK(+) invariant mass distribution was analyzed in the reaction gamma p-->K(-)K(+)p with high statistics in search of doubly charged exotic baryon states. No resonance structures were found in this spectrum.

    Title Measurement of the Proton Spin Structure Function G1(x,q2) for Q2 from 0.15 to 1.6 Gev2 with Clas.
    Date January 2004
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    Double-polarization asymmetries for inclusive ep scattering were measured at Jefferson Lab using 2.6 and 4.3 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident on a longitudinally polarized NH3 target in the CLAS detector. The polarized structure function g(1)(x,Q2) was extracted throughout the nucleon resonance region and into the deep inelastic regime, for Q(2)=0.15-1.64 GeV2. The contributions to the first moment Gamma(1)(Q2)= integral g(1)(x,Q2) dx were determined up to Q(2)=1.2 GeV2. Using a parametrization for g(1) in the unmeasured low x regions, the complete first moment was estimated over this Q2 region. A rapid change in Gamma(1) is observed for Q2<1 GeV2, with a sign change near Q(2)=0.3 GeV2, indicating dominant contributions from the resonance region. At Q(2)=1.2 GeV2 our data are below the perturbative QCD evolved scaling value.

    Title Measurement of Ep-->e' Ppi+ Pi- and Baryon Resonance Analysis.
    Date September 2003
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The cross section for the reaction ep-->e(')ppi(+)pi(-) was measured in the resonance region for 1.4<W<2.1 GeV and 0.5<Q2<1.5 GeV(2)/c(2) using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The data show resonant structures not visible in previous experiments. The comparison of our data to a phenomenological prediction using available information on N(*) and Delta states shows an evident discrepancy. A better description of the data is obtained either by a sizable change of the properties of the P13(1720) resonance or by introducing a new baryon state, not reported in published analyses.

    Title First Measurement of Transferred Polarization in the Exclusive Ep-->e'k+lambda--> Reaction.
    Date May 2003
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    The first measurements of the transferred polarization for the exclusive e-->p-->e(')K+Lambda--> reaction have been performed at Jefferson Laboratory using the CLAS spectrometer. A 2.567 GeV beam was used to measure the hyperon polarization over Q2 from 0.3 to 1.5 (GeV/c)(2), W from 1.6 to 2.15 GeV, and over the full K+ center-of-mass angular range. Comparison with predictions of hadrodynamic models indicates strong sensitivity to the underlying resonance contributions. A nonrelativistic quark-model interpretation of our data suggests that the ssmacr; quark pair is produced with spins predominantly antialigned. Implications for the validity of the most widely used quark-pair creation operator are discussed.

    Title Eta Photoproduction on the Proton for Photon Energies from 0.75 to 1.95 Gev.
    Date February 2003
    Journal Physical Review Letters
    Excerpt

    Differential cross sections for gammap-->etap have been measured with tagged real photons for incident photon energies from 0.75 to 1.95 GeV. Mesons were identified by missing mass reconstruction using kinematical information for protons scattered in the production process. The data provide the first extensive angular distribution measurements for the process above W=1.75 GeV. Comparison with preliminary results from a constituent quark model support the suggestion that a third S11 resonance with mass approximately 1.8 GeV couples to the etaN channel.

    Title Peptic Ulcer After Gastric Bypass: Should a Paracrine Pathway Be Invoked?
    Date December 2002
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Title The Micropouch Gastric Bypass: Technical Considerations in Primary and Revisionary Operations.
    Date August 2001
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is an effective procedure for the long-term control of morbid obesity. An eventual revisionary operation, however, is necessary for some patients (0.8-29%). Redo procedures are required for pouch enlargement, staple-line dehiscence, or marginal ulceration. In 1994, the micropouch gastric bypass (MBG) was developed to eliminate the need for a repeat operation. Its design was based on two anatomical principles: 1) The fundus is elastic, aperistaltic, and may significantly dilate over time; 2) The proximal magenstrasse contains a high concentration of parietal cells, which potentiates the risk for marginal ulceration or gastroesophageal reflux after vertical pouch restriction. Construction of a micropouch limited to the gastric cardia avoids using the fundus and proximal lesser curvature, but requires a greater mobilization of the stomach and its peritoneal attachments. METHODS: Between February 1994 and February 2000, 1,120 patients underwent the MGB as a primary or revisionary operation. The fundus was mobilized completely, including transection of the left phreno-esophageal and gastrophrenic ligaments. The transected pouch was limited to the gastric cardia with 1 cm of fundus incorporated into the gastrojejunostomy stoma (GJS). RESULTS: There were 10 anastomotic leaks at the GJS (0.9%). All leaks sealed following surgical drainage or parenteral nutrition. One patient required re-operation (0.09%) for a dilated pouch and marginal ulceration. An additional patient (0.09%) developed a gastrogastric fistula secondary to a pharmacobezoar and stomal stenosis. CONCLUSION: With an appreciation for the finer anatomy of the proximal stomach and intra-abdominal esophagus, the micropouch can be constructed safely in both primary and redo procedures. The MGB, now in its seventh year, is durable and has, with rare exception, eliminated pouch enlargement, staple-line separation, reflux esophagitis, and marginal ulceration.

    Title Marginal Ulcer After Gastric Bypass: a Prospective 3-year Study of 173 Patients.
    Date January 1999
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Marginal ulceration (MU) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a well-recognized complication. Its incidence varies between 1% and 16%. Factors associated with the development of MU include pouch size, pouch orientation, staple line integrity, and mucosal ischemia. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori may also contribute to MU, but their mechanism of action in the RYGB patient has not been studied. METHODS: In 1994 a prospective 3-year study was designed to document the incidence of MU after near-total gastric bypass (NTGB). In this procedure the transected pouch was limited to the cardia, and the gastrojejunostomy was made along the greater curvature. A total of 173 patients entered the study. All patients who experienced postoperative nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain underwent endoscopic examination of the pouch, stoma, and proximal Roux-en-Y limb. Gastrograffin studies were used within the first 2 weeks of operation. RESULTS: One year after operation, MU was not identified in any patient. At 3 years follow-up, MU was documented in one patient (0.6%) with a dilated gastric reservoir (60 cc). CONCLUSION: This study reviews the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MU in the RYGB patient and offers specific recommendations to reduce its occurrence. It also confirms a preliminary impression that NTGB is an effective operation in preventing MU formation.

    Title Influence of a Forced Air Warming System on Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Roux-en-y Gastric Bypass.
    Date November 1998
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Hypothermia during and after major abdominal surgery decreases host defenses, increases the incidence of coagulopathy and may alter blood pressure, cardiac contractility and myocardial stability. METHODS: We designed a prospective randomized study to compare the benefits of a forced air warming system with warm blanket treatments in minimizing the effects of hypothermia on 64 morbidly obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. RESULTS: Patients in the forced air warming group (n = 32) had significantly higher perioperative body core temperature, lower central venous pressure and blood pressure readings, lower incidence of shivering, less blood loss intraoperatively and achieved a higher post anesthesia Aldrete Score than those patients in the warmed blanket group (n = 32). CONCLUSION: The forced air warming system is safe, cost effective and beneficial in minimizing the undesirable consequences of hypothermia in morbidly obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Title Stapler Division of the Omentum and Small Bowel Mesentery in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Gastric Bypass Surgery.
    Date September 1998
    Journal Obesity Surgery
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedures can be technically demanding because of anatomical factors including fat distribution, organ fixation, and wound depth. We developed a technique using the Multifire Endo GIA 60 2.5 disposable surgical stapler which allows greater mobilization, less blood loss, and decreased operating time. METHODS: A disposable stapler designed for laparoscopic surgery was used to transect the gastro-colic omentum and small bowel mesentery in 67 morbidly obese patients undergoing RYGB. Generally, five to six stapler cartridges were needed for the transections. RESULTS: Stapler division of the gastro-colic omentum and small bowel mesentery decreased operating time by an average of 25 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Applying principles of laparoscopic surgery to RYGB resulted in more efficient mobilization of the stomach and the small bowel mesentery, as well as decreased blood loss and operating time.

    Title Removal of Fascial Staples from the Midline Incision in Patients Undergoing a Second Laparotomy Procedure.
    Date February 1998
    Journal Aorn Journal
    Excerpt

    A technique for removal of midline fascial staples is described. The staples are removed quickly and without significant anatomical distortion of the linea alba. In the majority of the patients a second row of fascial staples can be placed safely and in the same location as found in the original operation.

    Title Current Considerations in Patients with Coexistent Diabetes and Hypertension.
    Date October 1996
    Journal The Nurse Practitioner
    Excerpt

    Primary health care providers frequently manage patients with diabetes and hypertension as co-morbid conditions. Because of the increased complexity and morbidity that occur when these conditions coexist, it is essential that practitioners remain aware of current treatment considerations and options, which are essential in helping patients manage this condition. This article reviews current considerations in the management and care of hypertension in diabetic patients. Possible differential diagnoses are considered, and current recommendations for essential nonpharmacological treatment approaches are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the choice and initiation of pharmacological therapy for hypertension in the diabetic and the unique considerations necessary in this patient population. Standards of care for diabetic patients with the complication of hypertension are reviewed.

    Title Verbal and Visual Problems in Reading Disability.
    Date July 1995
    Journal Journal of Learning Disabilities
    Excerpt

    Most individuals interested in reading disability favor the view that disordered language processing is the main cause of children's reading problems and that visual problems are seldom, if ever, responsible. Nevertheless, in a preliminary study (Eden, Stein, & Wood, 1993) we showed that visuospatial and oculomotor tests can be used to differentiate children with reading disabilities from nondisabled children. In the present study we investigated a larger sample of children to see if these findings held true. Using 93 children from the Bowman Gray Learning Disability Project (mean age = 11.3 years; 54 boys, 39 girls), we compared the phonological and visuospatial abilities of nondisabled children (children whose reading at fifth grade rated a Woodcock-Johnson reading standardized score between 85 and 115), and children with reading disability (whose reading standardized score was below 85 on the Woodcock-Johnson). In addition to performing poorly on verbal tests, the children with reading disability were significantly worse than nondisabled children at many visual and eye-movement tasks. A high proportion of the variance (68%) in reading ability of both the nondisabled children and those with reading disability could be predicted by combining visual and phonological scores in a multiple regression. These results provide further support for the hypothesis that reading disability may, to some extent, result from dysfunction of the visual and oculomotor systems.

    Title Dyslexia: a Study of Preserved and Impaired Visuospatial and Phonological Functions.
    Date August 1993
    Journal Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
    Title Tuberculous Lymphadenopathy: a Collective Review with a Case Report.
    Date June 1989
    Journal Journal of the National Medical Association
    Title Two Immunoreactive Binding Proteins for Insulin-like Growth Factors in Human Amniotic Fluid: Relationship to Fetal Maturity.
    Date September 1987
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
    Excerpt

    A binding protein for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) has been purified from human amniotic fluid by IGF-I affinity chromatography and high performance reverse phase chromatography. This protein, with an apparent molecular mass of 28K nonreduced and 34K reduced, had an identical amino-terminus to a previously purified binding protein from amniotic fluid and to placental protein 12. The purified preparation (BP-28) bound both IGFs with high affinity [Ka, 6.55 +/- 2.24 (+/- SD) L/nmol for IGF-I and 3.23 +/- 1.05 L/nmol for IGF-II], with approximately 0.5 mol binding sites/mol BP-28 for either ligand. A 53K IGF-binding protein purified from human plasma (BP-53) did not cross-react in a RIA for BP-28, and BP-28 had less than 0.1% molar cross-reactivity in a RIA for BP-53. Human amniotic fluid reacted strongly in both assays. Fractionation of amniotic fluid samples by reverse phase chromatography showed that BP-28 and BP-53 immunoreactivities were present on separate proteins. In 40 third trimester amniotic fluid samples selected to cover a wide range of lecithin to sphingomyelin ratios, the mean concentrations of BP-28 and BP-53 were 37.6 +/- 17.6 (+/- SD) and 4.6 +/- 1.6 mg/L, respectively. Significant negative correlations were found between the levels of both BP-28 and BP-53 and the lecithin to sphingomyelin ratio, suggesting an association between the levels of both proteins and the degree of fetal maturity. A significant positive association was also found between the levels of BP-28 and BP-53. We conclude that the 28K IGF-binding protein from amniotic fluid, like the previously purified 53K binding protein, has high affinity for both IGF-I and IGF-II, that it coexists in amniotic fluid with BP-53 or a related protein, and that the levels of both proteins decline with increasing fetal maturity.

    Title Our Professional Commitment As Auxiliary Staff Members.
    Date July 1981
    Journal Journal of Learning Disabilities
    Title Brainstem Electrical Responses from Selected Tone Pip Stimuli.
    Date April 1980
    Journal Journal of the American Auditory Society
    Excerpt

    Brainstem-electrical responses were obtained from 10 normal hearing adult subjects using frequency specific tone pips as stimuli. The four frequency specific tone pips (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) were diamond shaped with a 2.5-msec rise/fall time. Each tone pip was presented at four intensity levels (70, 50, 30, and 10 dB hearing threshold level), and graphic recordings were made for each frequency at the specific intensity levels. Frequency specific Wave V intensity-latency functions were plotted, and these results were compared to tone pip data obtained in previous studies. In addition, suggested test procedures for obtaining tone pip brainstem-evoked responses under diagnostic conditions are discussed.

    Title Primary Repair for Closed Lobar Bronchus Injury.
    Date March 1979
    Journal The Journal of Trauma
    Excerpt

    Primary repair in a 19-year-old male who sustained a closed injury to the right bronchus in an auto accident was performed successfully. A 1.5-cm tear was found at operation extending from the right lower lobe bronchus into its distal portion. Nine months later, the patient showed a patent airway with minimal granulation around one suture.

    Title The Estimation of Plasma Valproate by Gas-liquid Chromatography.
    Date August 1977
    Journal Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
    Excerpt

    A gas chromatographic method for the plasma assay of the anticonvulsant, sodium valproate, is described. Derivatization is not necessary. 200 microliter plasma are required for a single estimation. The method involves a chloroform extraction of valproate and the internal standard, cyclopentane carboxylic acid, from acidified plasma. Gas-liquid chromatography using the stationary phase 10% SP-216-PS gives complete separation of valproate and the internal standard in eight minutes. The limit of detection is 20 mumol valproate/1 plasma (equivalent to 40 pmol on column). This is well below the lower therapeutic plasma level. The between-run precision of the method indicates a variation for each sample within+/-3% of its mean value.

    Title Potentiation of an Effect of Allopurinol on Pyrimidine Metabolism by Chlorothiazide in Man.
    Date July 1975
    Journal Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
    Title Comparison of the Effects of D-amphetamine and L-amphetamine in Reversing Depression of Mouse Locomotor Activity Caused by Reserpine.
    Date May 1975
    Journal Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Thérapie
    Title Hereditary Orotic Aciduria: Types I and Ii.
    Date January 1974
    Journal The American Journal of Medicine
    Title The Orotic Aciduria of Pregnancy.
    Date June 1973
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Title The Lesch-nyhan Syndrome: Report of Three Cases.
    Date July 1972
    Journal Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine
    Title Allopurinol and Thiazides.
    Date May 1972
    Journal Lancet
    Title Studies on the Coordinate Activity and Liability of Orotidylate Phosphoribosyltransferase and Decarboxylase in Human Erythrocytes, and the Effects of Allopurinol Administration.
    Date June 1971
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    A coordinate relationship between the activities of two sequential enzymes in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway has been demonstrated in human red cells. The two enzymes, orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase are responsible for the conversion of orotic acid to uridine-5'-monophosphate. Fractionation of red cells, on the basis of increase of specific gravity with cell age, has revealed that these two enzymes have a marked but equal degree of lability in the ageing red cell. It is postulated that orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase form an enzyme-enzyme complex, and that the sequential deficiency of these two enzymes in hereditary orotic aciduria may reflect a structural abnormality in this complex.In patients receiving allopurinol, the activities of both enzymes are coordinately increased, and this increase appears to be due, at least in part, to stabilization of both orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase in the ageing red cell. Allopurinol ribonucleotide is an in vitro inhibitor of orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and requires the enzyme hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase for its synthesis. However, the administration of allopurinol to patients lacking this enzyme results in orotidinuria and these patients have elevated orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase activities in their erythrocytes. Evidence is presented that the chief metabolite of allopurinol, oxipurinol, with a 2,4-diketo pyrimidine ring is capable of acting as an analogue of orotic acid. It is postulated that the in vivo formation of oxipurinol ribonucleotide, catalyzed by orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase, after allopurinol administration, leads to inhibition of orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase. This inhibition results in the urinary excretion of excessive amounts of orotidine and orotic acid, and "pseudo-substrate" stabilization of orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase.

    Title Writing Seveso Ii Safety Reports: New Eu Guidance Reflecting 5 Years' Experience with the Directive.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Hazardous Materials
    Excerpt

    Since the coming into force of the Seveso II Directive, considerable experience has been acquired in regard to preparation of safety reports for establishments that fall under the requirements of this Directive. In light of this experience, the Amendment of the Seveso II Directive adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 16 December 2003, gave the European Commission the mandate "to review by 31 December 2006 in close cooperation with the Member States, the existing Guidance on the Preparation of a safety report (EUR 17690)". As a result, a technical working group of Member States representing the Seveso competent authorities and the European Commission's Major Accident Hazards Bureau was established to review and re-examine the guidance. The new guidance maintains the high-level and overarching character of the older version, but improves the document through better definition of conceptual elements of the safety report and greater alignment with Annex II of the Directive, which describes the essential elements of the safety report. This paper describes the new guidance in terms of its contribution to developing a harmonized conceptual framework for preparing and reviewing safety reports within the context of Seveso II implementation. Overall, the aim of the guidance is to provide concrete advice to operators and competent authorities on the logic and expectations underlying the safety report, so as to make both preparation and review of the report a more efficient and useful exercise for all parties involved.

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