Browse Health
14 years of experience
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
University of Pittsburgh (1996)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2012 - 2013)
Patients' Choice Award (2012 - 2013)
Compassionate Doctor Recognition (2011 - 2013)
American Board of Urology
American Urological Association

Affiliations ?

Dr. Metro is affiliated with 12 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations



  • Jeanes Hospital
    7600 Central Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Nazareth Hospital
    2601 Holme Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19152
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Albert Einstein Medical Center *
    5501 Old York Rd, Philadelphia, PA 19141
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Montgomery Hospital XXXXX
    900 E Fornance St, Norristown, PA 19401
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Hahnemann University Hospital
    230 N Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19102
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Mercy Suburban Hospital
    2701 Dekalb Pike, Norristown, PA 19401
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital
    1400 Lansdowne Ave, Darby, PA 19023
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Northeastern Hospital of Philadelphia
    2301 E Allegheny Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19134
  • Mossrehab & Albert Einstein Med Ctr
    60 Township Line Rd, Elkins Park, PA 19027
  • Germantown Hospital & Community Health Services
    1 Penn Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19144
  • Temple University Hospital - Episcopal Campus
    100 E Lehigh Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19125
  • Elkins Park Hospital
    60 Township Line Rd, Elkins Park, PA 19027
  • * This information was reported to Vitals by the doctor or doctor's office.

    Publications & Research

    Dr. Metro has contributed to 10 publications.
    Title Serum Creatinine Predicts Success in Retrograde Ureteral Stent Placement in Patients with Pelvic Malignancies.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Urology

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate serum hemoglobin, baseline serum creatinine, serum creatinine at the diagnosis of obstructive hydronephrosis, and the increase in serum creatinine greater than baseline to predict for success in retrograde ureteral stent placement in patients with pelvic malignancies. METHODS: In a retrospective chart review, we identified 57 patients at our institution with obstructive hydronephrosis secondary to pelvic malignancies in which retrograde ureteral stent placement was attempted from January 2002 to May 2005. The patient charts were reviewed for the baseline serum creatinine, preoperative serum creatinine and hemoglobin, and serum creatinine at presentation of obstructive hydronephrosis. This population was divided into group 1 (n = 31, 54%), in which retrograde stent placement was successful, and group 2 (n = 26, 46%), in which stent placement failed and subsequent percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement was required. The Student t test was used to determine whether a significant difference existed between the two groups for each laboratory parameter. RESULTS: The serum hemoglobin and baseline creatinine were not significantly different between the two groups and could not be used to predict for the success or failure of stent placement (P = 0.10 and P = 0.59, respectively). However, the average serum creatinine at presentation of obstructive hydronephrosis was significantly different between group 1 (2.4 +/- 1.4 ng/dL) and group 2 (5.3 +/- 6.3; P = 0.014), as was an increase in serum creatinine greater than baseline (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study have shown that the serum creatinine level at the presentation of obstructive hydronephrosis can be used to predict for success in retrograde ureteral stent placement in patients with pelvic malignancies.

    Title Mechanism of Continence After Repair of Posterior Urethral Disruption: Evidence of Rhabdosphincter Activity.
    Date March 2008
    Journal The Journal of Urology

    PURPOSE: Controversy exists regarding continence mechanisms in patients who undergo posterior urethral reconstruction after pelvic fracture. Some evidence suggests that continence after posterior urethroplasty is maintained by the bladder neck or proximal urethral mechanism without a functioning distal mechanism. We studied distal urethral sphincter activity in patients who have undergone posterior urethroplasty for pelvic fracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 patients who had undergone surgical repair of urethral disruption involving the prostatomembranous region underwent videourodynamics with urethral pressure profiles at rest, and during stress and hold maneuvers. Bladder pressure and urethral pressure, including proximal and distal urethral sphincter activity and pressure, were assessed in each patient. RESULTS: All 12 patients had daytime continence of urine postoperatively with a followup after anastomotic urethroplasty of 12 to 242 months (mean 76). Average maximum urethral pressure was 71 cm H2O. Average maximum urethral closure pressure was 61 cm H2O. The average urethral pressure seen during a brief hold maneuver was 111 cm H2O. Average functional sphincteric length was 2.5 cm. Six of the 12 patients had clear evidence of distal urethral sphincter function, as demonstrated by the profile. CONCLUSIONS: Continence after anastomotic urethroplasty for posttraumatic urethral strictures is maintained primarily by the proximal bladder neck. However, there is a significant contribution of the rhabdosphincter in many patients.

    Title Adjunctive Use of Androgel (testosterone Gel) with Sildenafil to Treat Erectile Dysfunction in Men with Acquired Androgen Deficiency Syndrome After Failure Using Sildenafil Alone.
    Date April 2006
    Journal Urology

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether combination therapy with testosterone gel (T-gel) and sildenafil citrate is effective in achieving adequate potency in subjects with low-normal serum testosterone levels in whom sildenafil alone has failed. METHODS: From July 2000 to June 2001, we evaluated 90 men (aged 32 to 72 years) in whom 3 months of sildenafil therapy at the maximal recommended dose (100 mg) with at least three attempts at intercourse during the 3-month period had failed. Of these, 24 men had testosterone levels less than 400 ng/dL (range 92 to 365, mean 231.4) and were subsequently started on 1% T-gel monotherapy (AndroGel, 5 g daily). After 4 weeks of T-gel alone (week 4), sildenafil citrate (Viagra, 100 mg) was added to the treatment regimen for an additional 12 weeks (through week 16). Potency was defined as the ability to have at least one episode of satisfactory intercourse during the treatment period. RESULTS: All the men had normalized serum testosterone levels after 4 weeks of T-gel monotherapy (range 424 to 596 ng/dL, mean 525). However, none of the men regained potency. At week 16, almost all (22 of 24, 92%) of the men reported improved potency with combination therapy. Improvement in erection quality was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the use of T-gel with sildenafil citrate in men with low-normal serum testosterone levels in whom sildenafil alone fails. It also underscores the numbers of men with low to low-normal testosterone levels who would benefit from testosterone screening when evaluated for erectile dysfunction.

    Title Surgical Exploration of the Injured Kidney: Current Indications and Techniques.
    Date April 2005
    Journal International Braz J Urol : Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology

    When treating renal injuries, the goals of the urologic surgeon are preservation of maximal renal function with a minimal risk of complications. To meet these, accurate staging is essential. The combined use of clinical and radiologic findings, with intra-operative information where available, will enhance the practitioner's ability to detect, classify, and treat renal injuries appropriately. We discuss our current approach to renal trauma and current indications and techniques for surgical exploration of the injured kidney.

    Title Consensus on Genitourinary Trauma: External Genitalia.
    Date October 2004
    Journal Bju International
    Title Long-term Followup of the Ventrally Placed Buccal Mucosa Onlay Graft in Bulbar Urethral Reconstruction.
    Date June 2003
    Journal The Journal of Urology

    PURPOSE: We investigate whether the short-term success rate (greater than 90%) of buccal mucosa free grafts in the bulbar urethra is sustained in the long term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 60 patients a ventrally placed buccal mucosa graft was used for repair of bulbar urethral strictures. Of these patients 49 had undergone previous attempt at repair (urethroplasty in 4, internal urethrotomy in 45). Mean graft length was 4.8 cm. In 9 patients a distal penile fasciocutaneous flap was also used for repair of concomitant penile urethral stricture. In 8 of the 9 patients the buccal mucosa graft was combined with end-to-end urethroplasty and 2 buccal mucosa grafts were used in tandem in 1. Followup was at least 1 year in all cases (mean 47 months, range 12 to 107). Failure was defined as an obstructive voiding pattern with radiographic or cystoscopic evidence of recurrent stricture. RESULTS: Bulbar stricture repair was successful in 54 patients (90%) and 4 of the remaining 6 responded to 1 internal urethrotomy for a long-term success rate of 97%. Preoperative clinical characteristics were not significantly different between those who experienced success or failure. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcome analysis of ventrally placed buccal mucosa onlay grafts for bulbar urethral strictures demonstrates a durable success rate of 90%. This rate can be improved (97%) with the judicious use of internal urethrotomy.

    Title Buccal Mucosal Grafts: Lessons Learned from an 8-year Experience.
    Date December 2001
    Journal The Journal of Urology

    PURPOSE: We evaluated our 8-year experience with buccal mucosal grafts in complex hypospadias and epispadias repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 29 patients in whom a total of 30 buccal mucosal grafts were placed as part of urethral reconstruction between 1991 and 1999. At surgery 16 tubes and 14 onlays were constructed and 24 of 30 repairs involved the meatus. All patients were followed at least 6 months postoperatively (median 5.3 years). Beginning in 1995 meatal design was enlarged to a racquet handle shape and patients were asked to perform meatal self-dilation for 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Complications developed in 17 of our 30 cases (57%) and reoperation was done in 10 (33%). All complications were evident by 11 months postoperatively except 1 that presented as recurrent stricture disease at 3 years. Complications developed in 5 and 12 of 15 patients who underwent surgery between 1995 and 1999, and before 1995, respectively (p = 0.027). No patient has had meatal stenosis since 1995. Complications included meatal stenosis in 5 cases, stricture in 7, glanuloplasty, meatal and complete graft breakdown in 1 each, and fistula in 2. Onlays were more likely to result in stricture than tube grafts (6 of 14 cases versus 1 of 16, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: The complication and reoperation rates of buccal mucosal grafts are 57% and 33% at 5 years of followup. Changes in meatal design and temporary postoperative meatal dilation have improved the outcome in the last 5 years. Buccal mucosa remains a good choice in patients who require extragenital skin for urethral reconstruction.

    Title Angiomyolipoma of the Renal Sinus: Diagnosis by Percutaneous Biopsy.
    Date April 2000
    Journal Urology

    We report a case of angiomyolipoma of the renal sinus discovered incidentally during an evaluation for microscopic hematuria. Diagnosis was confirmed by percutaneous aspiration biopsy performed with magnetic resonance imaging control allowing differentiation of this entity from other fatty tumors of the renal sinus including liposarcoma, lipoma, and sinus lipomatosis.

    Title Diagnostic Value of Voided Urine and Bladder Barbotage Cytology in Detecting Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Tract.
    Date October 1999
    Journal Urologia Internationalis

    In this article we report on our experience with the use of urine cytology for the screening and diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and upper urinary tracts at our institution between January 1987 and December 1995. A total of 76 patients were included in the study. All patients had voided urine cytology studies read as positive or highly suspicious for malignancy and no prior history of TCC of the urinary tract. All these patients subsequently underwent cystoscopy, bladder/ureteral barbotage cytology, random bladder biopsies, and radiographic studies of the upper tracts. Of the 76 patients with positive urine cytology, 53 also had barbotage urine cytologies which were positive. Six of these patients were found to have cystoscopically evident TCC of the bladder, and 1 patient had upper tract TCC. Three other patients subsequently went on to develop TCC of the bladder at 52, 89 and 111 months of follow-up. An additional patient was diagnosed with upper tract TCC at 12 months of follow-up. Among the 23 patients with negative bladder/ureteral barbotage cytology, 3 patients, 2 at the time of initial cystoscopy, and one 15 months later, showed evidence of TCC. Median patient follow-up was 97 (range 35-132) months. Thus of 76 patients with initial positive voided urine cytology studies, only 9 proved to have TCC at initial work-up, while 5 other patients were diagnosed with TCC during a median follow-up of 97 months. The statistical diagnostic values of the bladder/ureteral barbotage urine cytology studies at the time of cystoscopic work-up were: sensitivity 77%; specificity 31%; positive predictive value 13%, and negative predictive value 91%. Our data suggest that in patients without a previous history of TCC, the diagnostic value of bladder barbotage urine cytology is insignificant, and therefore not cost effective to be included as part of the routine work-up of TCC. Moreover, in patients with initially positive voided urine cytology and negative work-up, if the cytology subsequently becomes negative, the likelihood of the development of TCC is low. However, if the initially positive cytology continues to remain positive, there is a much higher probability of TCC being detected in this population.

    Title Diabetes and Vascular Impotence: Does Insulin Dependence Increase the Relative Severity?
    Date July 1999
    Journal International Journal of Impotence Research

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Diabetes is a well documented risk factor for vascular erectile dysfunction (ED). We evaluated the relative roles of insulin dependence (IDDM) vs oral agent controlled diabetes (NIDDM) in predicting the etiologies and severity of ED: arterial insufficiency (AI), venous leakage (CVOD), and mixed vascular disease. The impact of additional risk factors were also analyzed: hypertension (HTN), coronary artery disease (CAD), and smoking (SM). METHODS: Retrospective data on 105 patients complaining of impotence who underwent pharmacotesting with PGE1 (Caverject) and color duplex Doppler was reviewed. Penile blood flow study (PBFS) data following a period of privacy and self-stimulation was compared. PBFS diagnostic criteria were: AI for peak systolic velocity (PSV) < 25 cm/s; CVOD for PSV > or = 35 cm/s and resistive index (RI) < 0.9; mixed vascular disease for PSV > or = 25 cm/s, PSV < 35 cm/s and RI > 0.9. Consistent dosing of PGE1 was used; 6 mcg for age < 60 y and 10 mcg for age > or = 60 y. Patients were NIDDM (79 out of 105) and IDDM (26 out of 105). Mean ages for NIDDM and IDDM were respectively 60, and 55 y. The relative significance of insulin dependence was assessed by Student's t-test. RESULTS: The most common etiology of ED was arterial insufficiency: mean PSV's did not significantly vary and were: 23.5 cm/s for NIDDM, and 21.6 cm/s for IDDM. PBFS parameters did not vary significantly for the risk factors of SM or HTN and diabetes. Mean peak systolic velocities were significantly different among diabetics with coronary artery disease: NIDDM/CAD, 22.9 cm/s compared to IDDM/CAD, 14.8 cm/s (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: We found among the 105 diabetics the most common etiology of vascular ED based on Doppler criteria was arterial insufficiency, 64%. Statistical analysis of additional risk factors (SM, HTN, CAD) suggested that patients with IDDM and CAD have more severe cavernosal arterial insufficiency than patients with NIDDM and CAD. This data tends to support the theory that microangiopathy is the predominant factor in diabetic impotence, and that insulin dependent diabetes with 'large vessel' coronary heart disease have a similar pathology in the 'small vessels' regulating penile inflow which is unfortunately worse than their non-insulin dependent counterparts.

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