Browse Health
Neurologist (brain, nervous system)
4 years of experience
Accepting new patients


Education ?

Medical School Score
Medical College of Georgia (2007)

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Silver is affiliated with 1 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations



  • Emory University Hospital
    1364 Clifton Rd Ne, Atlanta, GA 30322
    Top 25%
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Silver has contributed to 49 publications.
    Title Detection of Postoperative Respiratory Failure: How Predictive is the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Indicator?
    Date September 2010
    Journal Journal of the American College of Surgeons

    Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) 11, or postoperative respiratory failure, was developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to detect incident cases of respiratory failure after elective operations through use of ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes. We sought to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of this indicator.

    Title Il-33 Synergizes with Ige-dependent and Ige-independent Agents to Promote Mast Cell and Basophil Activation.
    Date May 2010
    Journal Inflammation Research : Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]

    Mast cell and basophil activation contributes to inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Because IL-33 expression is inflammation inducible, we investigated IL-33-mediated effects in concert with both IgE-mediated and IgE-independent stimulation.

    Title Every-other-week Darbepoetin Alfa in the Correction and Maintenance of Haemoglobin Levels in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Post Hoc Subanalysis of Data from Two Clinical Trials.
    Date January 2010
    Journal Drugs & Aging

    Anaemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with increased rates of mortality and diminished quality of life in patients with CKD. Although extended dosing with darbepoetin alfa, an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), has been shown to be effective in maintaining haemoglobin (Hb) levels in CKD patients, little information is published on the use of darbepoetin alfa in the correction and maintenance of Hb levels in elderly CKD patients naive to ESA therapy.

    Title Anemia Treatment with Q2w Darbepoetin Alfa in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Naïve to Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agents.
    Date April 2009
    Journal Current Medical Research and Opinion

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa dosed every-other-week (Q2W) to treat anemia in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD), not receiving dialysis, who were naïve to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy.

    Title Coming Clean: Waterless Hand Cleaners--which to Choose?
    Date October 2008
    Journal The American Journal of Medicine
    Title Effect of Darbepoetin Alfa Administered Once Monthly on Maintaining Hemoglobin Levels in Older Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Date September 2008
    Journal The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy

    BACKGROUND: The anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased hospitalizations, increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and diminished quality of life in the elderly. Darbepoetin alfa is an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent that has been shown to be effective in treating anemia in patients with CKD (but not on dialysis) when administered using extended-dosing regimens. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this post hoc analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety profile of once-monthly (QM) darbepoetin alfa in study patients stratified according to age (ie, <65, 65-74, and > or =75 years). METHODS: Patients with CKD but not on dialysis, receiving darbepoetin alfa every other week (Q2W), and with stable hemoglobin (Hb) levels between 11 and 13 g/dL, inclusive, were enrolled in this 33-week, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study. The study was carried out at 36 US centers and consisted of a 24-week QM darbepoetin alfa dose-titration period followed by an 8-week evaluation period. Hb levels were measured Q2W. Study results were stratified according to patient age (<65, 65-74, and > or =75 years). RESULTS: A total of 152 patients (79 women, 73 men) were enrolled; 55 patients (36%) were <65 years of age, 46 (30%) were 65 to 74 years of age, and 51 (34%) were > or =75 years of age. In patients who received > or =1 dose of darbepoetin alfa, Hb levels > or =11 g/dL were maintained in 76%, 80%, and 71% of patients aged <65, 65 to 74, and > or =75 years, respectively. For patients who completed the study, the proportions who maintained Hb levels > or =11 g/dL were 83%, 88%, and 85%, respectively, for the 3 age groups. The safety profile of QM darbepoetin alfa in this study was consistent with that expected in patients with CKD not receiving dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Darbepoetin alfa administered QM maintained Hb levels > or =11 g/dL in patients with CKD (not on dialysis) aged <65, 65 to 74, and > or =75 years. This treatment regimen may help optimize anemia management for older community-dwelling and long-term care patients.

    Title Travel Bugs.
    Date January 2008
    Journal The American Journal of Medicine
    Title Once-monthly Darbepoetin Alfa for Maintaining Hemoglobin Levels in Older Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Date May 2007
    Journal Journal of the American Medical Directors Association

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of once-monthly darbepoetin alfa in maintaining hemoglobin (Hb) levels between 10 and 12 g/dL in older subjects receiving darbepoetin alfa every 2 weeks. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of a 29-week multicenter, open-label, single-arm study with an initial 2-week screening/baseline period, followed by a 20-week once-monthly darbepoetin alfa dose titration period and an 8-week evaluation period. SETTING: Twenty treatment centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects with CKD who were not receiving dialysis and whose hemoglobin levels were > or =10 g/dL with darbepoetin alfa every 2 weeks. INTERVENTION: Darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly and titrated to maintain Hb level between 10 and 12 g/dL, inclusive. MEASUREMENTS: The proportion of subjects maintaining a mean Hb concentration of 10 to 12 g/dL, inclusive, while receiving once-monthly darbepoetin alfa during the evaluation period (weeks 21 to 29); the mean change in Hb levels and darbepoetin alfa doses between baseline and the evaluation period; and the treatment relationship, frequency, severity, and outcomes of all adverse events. Analyses were stratified by age (<65, > or =65, and > or =75 years). RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent of subjects aged > or =65 years and 80% of subjects aged > or =75 years maintained their Hb levels within the specified target range, compared with 80% of subjects aged <65 years who maintained their Hb levels within the specified target range. Hemoglobin levels and darbepoetin alfa doses did not change significantly from baseline to the evaluation period. Darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly was well tolerated in all age groups. CONCLUSION: Darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly effectively maintained target Hb levels in older subjects with CKD (not receiving dialysis) who were maintained previously with an every 2 weeks darbepoetin alfa regimen.

    Title Reward-related Neuronal Activity in the Rat Superior Colliculus.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Behavioural Brain Research

    The activity of single units in the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus was recorded while rats performed an operant conditioning task. On all trials, each animal pressed a bar and then inserted his snout into a food cup; on half of the trials, food reinforcement was available. To test for tactile sensitivity, on half of the trials the rats received a puff of air to the face when the snout entered the food cup. Activity of most cells was correlated with the motor activity of inserting the snout into the food cup, even when reinforcement was not available. For many cells, a larger burst of activity was seen on the reinforced trials than on trials when rats made the same movements without the presence of reward. There was no evidence that an increase in tactile sensitivity occurred when the animal retrieved the reinforcement. These results suggest that cells in the superior colliculus have an increase in activity associated with reward retrieval, which for some neurons is not dependent on simple sensory or motor factors.

    Title Functional Characterization and Kinetic Studies of an Ancestral Lamprey Gnrh-iii Selective Type Ii Gnrh Receptor from the Sea Lamprey, Petromyzon Marinus.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

    The recently cloned lamprey GnRH receptor was shown to have several unique features, including the longest intracellular C-terminal tail (120 amino acids (aa)) of any previously described GnRH receptor. In the current study, a series of experiments were performed examining cAMP responses, binding kinetics, whole cell competitive binding assays and internalization studies of the lamprey GnRH receptor using a series of three C-terminal tail truncations (80 aa, 40 aa and 0 aa) to better describe the functional significance of this unique vertebrate GnRH receptor. Activation of the lamprey GnRH receptor was shown to stimulate cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner when treated with either lamprey GnRH-I (LogEC50 -6.57+/-0.15) or lamprey GnRH-III (LogEC(50) -8.29+/-0.09). Truncation analysis indicated that the membrane proximal 40 aa of the lamprey GnRH receptor C-terminal tail contain a motif required for cAMP accumulation. Saturation binding assays using the wild type and truncated lamprey GnRH receptors revealed that all of three truncated lamprey GnRH receptors were capable of binding lamprey GnRH-I. Competitive, intact cell-binding assays suggested that the lamprey GnRH receptor is lamprey GnRH-III selective, based on the observed pharmacological profile: lamprey GnRH-III (Inhibitory constant (Ki) 0.708+/-0.245 nM)=chicken GnRH-II (Ki 0.765+/-0.160 nM) > mammalian GnRH (Ki 12.9+/-1.96 nM) > dAla(6)Pro(9)NEt mammalian GnRH (Ki 21.6+/-9.68 nM) > lamprey GnRH-I (Ki 118.0+/-23.6). Finally, the lamprey GnRH receptor was shown to undergo rapid ligand-dependent internalization, which was significantly diminished in the tail-less truncated form. We have shown from our current and our previous structural studies that this unique lamprey GnRH receptor shares several characteristics of both type I and type II GnRH receptors which suggests that this receptor has retained ancestral characteristics that can provide insight into the function and evolution of the vertebrate GnRH receptor family.

    Title Improving Outcomes: Focus on Workplace Issues.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Current Opinion in Critical Care

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Staff satisfaction has not traditionally been included as an intensive care unit quality indicator. The process of providing intensive care may profoundly affect clinicians. Dysfunctional encounters with coworkers and ethical burdens may extract a considerable personal toll and affect work attitudes and performance. RECENT FINDINGS: Mounting evidence indicates that psychosocial tensions, burnout and ethical stress are common and serious problems in the intensive care unit. These experiences impact negatively on job satisfaction, turnover, workplace disruption and patient care. Addressing workplace issues will help improve quality of care. SUMMARY: Two common sources of staff dissatisfaction are examined. Improving staff satisfaction can improve unit performance, and serve to attract and retain quality clinicians.

    Title An Open-label Study of Darbepoetin Alfa Administered Once Monthly for the Maintenance of Haemoglobin Concentrations in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Not Receiving Dialysis.
    Date January 2007
    Journal Journal of Internal Medicine

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of once-monthly (QM) darbepoetin alfa administration in maintaining haemoglobin (Hb) 11.0-13.0 g dL(-1) in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not receiving dialysis and previously treated with darbepoetin alfa every other week (Q2W). SUBJECTS: This open-label study enrolled subjects > or =18 years of age who had glomerular filtration rate > or =15 and < or =60 mL min(-1)/1.73 m(2), had Hb 11.0-13.0 g dL(-1), and were receiving Q2W darbepoetin alfa. DESIGN: Subjects were switched to QM darbepoetin alfa therapy for 28 weeks; the QM dose was titrated to maintain Hb levels. Primary end-point: proportion of subjects maintaining Hb > or =11.0 g dL(-1) during the final 8 weeks of the study (evaluation phase). Secondary end-points: Hb concentration during evaluation, darbepoetin alfa dose during the study, adverse events, laboratory parameters, and blood pressure. RESULTS: The study enrolled 152 subjects (female 52%, white 64%). Mean Hb > or =11.0 g dL(-1) during evaluation was achieved by 76% of the 150 subjects who received at least one dose of darbepoetin alfa [95% confidence interval (CI): 68%, 83%]. Mean (SD) Hb during evaluation was 11.71 (0.92) g dL(-1). Eighty-five per cent of 129 subjects who completed the study (95% CI: 78%, 91%) had Hb > or =11.0 g dL(-1) during evaluation. The dose of darbepoetin alfa over the study period was median (95% CI) 124.4 mug (106.2, 140.0). Darbepoetin alpha administered QM was well tolerated in study subjects. CONCLUSION: Darbepoetin alpha administered QM maintained Hb in study subjects with CKD not receiving dialysis.

    Title Anemia in the Long-term Ventilator-dependent Patient with Respiratory Failure.
    Date December 2005
    Journal Chest

    Anemia occurs in virtually all critically ill patients receiving long-term mechanical ventilation and has been associated with increased mortality and poor outcomes. Allogeneic RBC transfusions are routinely administered to critically ill anemic patients, especially during lengthy stays in ICUs or in long-term acute care facilities. Although RBC transfusions are a physiologically rational approach to raising hemoglobin levels, they may increase the risk of complications and have been associated with higher mortality in critically ill patients. Treatment with epoetin alfa, an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, as a means of reducing transfusion requirements has been studied in the critically ill and in patients receiving long-term mechanical ventilation. Promising results have been reported, including a potential survival benefit, although larger and more definitive studies are needed in order to establish whether raising hemoglobin levels affects clinical outcomes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

    Title The Use of Parenteral Nutrition in a Severely Malnourished Hemodialysis Patient with Hypercalcemia.
    Date November 2005
    Journal Nutrition in Clinical Practice : Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

    There is a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in chronic dialysis patients. Causes of PEM include the catabolic effects of hemodialysis treatments, acidemia associated with end-stage renal disease, common comorbid conditions, and uremia-induced anorexia. Morbidity and mortality increase with PEM. Before considering parenteral nutrition (PN) as a nutrition intervention in a maintenance dialysis patient, all other efforts to promote optimal nutrition need to be exhausted. The first step is careful evaluation of protein-energy status, followed by intensive nutrition counseling. If necessary, this is followed by oral nutrition supplementation, appetite stimulation, enteral tube feedings, and finally PN. Short-term parenteral nutrition (PN) became a crucial component of the management of a 38-year-old hemodialysis (HD) patient who endured serious complications after kidney transplant rejection. A profound and prolonged malnourished state followed her treatment for necrotizing pancreatitis. She had developed persistent hypercalcemia believed secondary to tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and immobilization. Later, she developed hungry bone syndrome (HBS) after parathyroidectomy (PTX). She also developed refeeding syndrome after initiation of PN. The patient's persistent, poorly understood hypercalcemia did not resolve even after PTX and removal of all other sources of vitamin D and calcium from her feedings, medications, and dialysis bath. The close communication of the inpatient and outpatient dialysis multidisciplinary teams became a key component to the successful outcome in this complex patient.

    Title Cloning and Characterization of a Functional Type Ii Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Receptor with a Lengthy Carboxy-terminal Tail from an Ancestral Vertebrate, the Sea Lamprey.
    Date September 2005
    Journal Endocrinology

    A full-length transcript encoding a functional type II GnRH receptor was cloned from the pituitary of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The current study is the first to identify a pituitary GnRH receptor transcript in an agnathan, which is the oldest vertebrate lineage. The cloned receptor retains the conserved structural features and amino acid motifs of other known GnRH receptors and notably includes a C-terminal intracellular tail of approximately 120 amino acids, the longest C-terminal tail of any vertebrate GnRH receptor identified to date. The lamprey GnRH receptor was shown to activate the inositol phosphate (IP) signaling system; stimulation with either lamprey GnRH-I or lamprey GnRH-III led to dose-dependent responses in transiently transfected COS7 cells. Furthermore, analyses of serially truncated lamprey GnRH receptor mutants indicate perturbations of the C-terminal tail disrupts IP accumulation, however, the tailless lamprey GnRH receptor was not only functional but was also capable of stimulating IP levels equal to wild type. Expression of the receptor transcript was demonstrated in the pituitary and testes using RT-PCR, whereas in situ hybridization showed expression and localization of the transcript in the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. The phylogenetic placement and structural and functional features of this GnRH receptor suggest that it is representative of an ancestral GnRH receptor. In addition to having an important role in lamprey reproductive processes, the extensive C-terminal tail of this lamprey GnRH receptor may have great significance for understanding the evolutionary change of this vital structural feature within the GnRH receptor family.

    Title Acute Lung Injury Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in a Patient with Refractory Myelodysplastic Syndrome.
    Date August 2005
    Journal Journal of Critical Care

    Arsenic trioxide has been used successfully for the treatment of refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia and has shown promise in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), although it is not a labeled indication. Retinoic acid syndrome is manifested by fever, dyspnea, peripheral edema, pulmonary infiltrates, and pleural and/or pericardial effusions and is typically seen in conjunction with all- trans retinoic acid therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia. We report a case of acute lung injury and a retinoic acid syndrome-like illness in a patient who received arsenic for MDS. To our knowledge, this is the first such report, and clinicians should be aware of this potentially life-threatening complication of arsenic trioxide treatment in patients with MDS.

    Title Cloning and Analysis of the Lamprey Gnrh-iii Cdna from Eight Species of Lamprey Representing the Three Families of Petromyzoniformes.
    Date April 2005
    Journal General and Comparative Endocrinology

    The lamprey, which are divided into three families, including the Petromyzonidae, Geotriidae, and Mordaciidae, have been shown to regulate the reproductive axis through a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. To date, two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have been identified in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), lamprey GnRH-I (decapeptide and cDNA) and lamprey GnRH-III (decapeptide), both of which have been shown to be expressed in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic region and both forms have been demonstrated to regulate reproductive function (i.e. steroidogenesis and gametogenesis). The objective of this study was to isolate the cDNA encoding the prepro-lamprey GnRH-III from eight species of lamprey using a PCR based subcloning procedure. A degenerate primer designed to the lamprey GnRH-III decapeptide was used to amplify the 3' end of each transcript, while gene specific primers were used to amplify the 5' ends. Phylogenetic analysis using the prepro-lamprey GnRH-III amino acid sequences was performed, in which the lamprey GnRH-III sequences divided into three groups, supporting the current view of the lamprey lineage at the family level. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis of these newly identified deduced amino acid sequences together with 64 previously described GnRH sequences suggests that the lamprey GnRHs are unique, as they group together separately from the three previously described paralogous lineages of the GnRH family.

    Title Patient Safety: a Tale of Two Systems.
    Date February 2002
    Journal Quality Management in Health Care

    Patient safety remains a major issue for health care delivery systems and the American public. One community hospital has kept pace with this issue using traditional quality management approaches. A national multihospital health care system has leveraged its electronic medical record system to facilitate data collection and analysis of events impacting patient safety. The article describes both approaches for addressing the complex issues surrounding patient safety.

    Title Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Causing Severe Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure Treated with Sequential Whole-lung Lavage Utilizing Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: a Case Report and Review.
    Date October 2001
    Journal Chest

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is characterized by the accumulation of proteinaceous material in the alveoli leading to varying degrees of impairment in gas exchange. Generally, the degree of hypoxemia is mild, and it is rare to have respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. We present a 53-year-old woman with the most severe degree of hypoxemia associated with alveolar proteinosis reported in the English-language adult literature. Her therapy of sequential whole-lung lavage performed while receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in one operative session is the first reported successful use of this approach.

    Title Managing the Lifeline: Preemptive Access Management for Better Outcomes for Hemodialysis Patients and Programs. Medical Review Board of The Renal Network, Inc.
    Date November 2000
    Journal Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy

    Problems with vascular access for hemodialysis patients contribute substantially to the morbidity, mortality, and high costs associated with renal replacement therapy. Data from the Network 9/10 Regional Hemodialysis Vascular Access Quality Improvement Project show evidence of incremental improvements, with more native vein fistulae and fewer grafts. However, increased numbers of catheters were observed, and still fully 32% of the catheters in place were associated with no internal access created after more than 90 days on dialysis. This article reviews recent contributions to understanding patterns of access-related care, pathophysiology of vascular access complications, and new approaches to achieving the preferred native vein arteriovenous fistulae. A financial analysis shows that dialysis units that employ dedicated access management personnel can expect bottom-line benefits that will easily cover the added expense. These benefits will be in addition to improvements in morbidity and mortality for patients.

    Title The Impact of Long-term Acute-care Facilities on the Outcome and Cost of Care for Patients Undergoing Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.
    Date March 2000
    Journal Critical Care Medicine

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the 6-month mortality rate of chronically ventilated patients treated either exclusively in a traditional acute-care hospital or transferred during hospitalization to a long-term acute-care facility. To analyze the hospital cost of care and estimate the amount of uncompensated care incurred by acute-care hospitals under the Medicare prospective payment diagnostic related groups system. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review and questionnaire. SETTING: Fifty-four acute-care referral hospitals and 26 longterm acute-care institutions. PATIENTS: A total of 432 ventilated patients selected from 3,266 patients referred but not transferred to a study long-term acute-care facility and 1,702 ventilated patients from 4,174 patients referred and then subsequently transferred to the long-term acute-care facility. Six-month outcomes were determined for the subgroup of patients > or =65 yrs old (279 and 1,340 patients, respectively). Hospital charges were available for 192 of the 279 nontransferred patients who were > or =65 yrs old and 1,332 of the 1,340 transferred patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The 6-month mortality rate was 67.4% for the 279 nontransferred patients and 67.2% for the 1,340 transferred patients. On multiple regression analysis, variables associated with the 6-month mortality rate included initial admitting diagnosis, age, the acute physiology score, and presence of decubitus ulcer. After controlling for these variables, there was no significant difference in 6-month mortality rate, but admission to the long-term acute-care facility was associated with a longer mean survival time. Average total hospital costs for the 192 nontransferred patients was $78,474, and estimated Medicare reimbursement was $62,472, resulting in an average of $16,002 of uncompensated care per patient. Estimated costs for the long-term acute-care facility admissions were $56,825. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing prolonged ventilation have high hospital and 6-month mortality rates, and 6-month outcomes are not significantly different for those transferred to long-term acute-care facilities. These patients generate high costs, and acute-care hospitals are significantly underreimbursed by Medicare for these costs. Acute-care hospitals can reduce the amount of uncompensated care by earlier transfer of appropriate patients to a long-term acute-care facility.

    Title Use of Standardized Ratios to Examine Variability in Hemodialysis Vascular Access Across Facilities. Medical Review Board of The Renal Network, Inc.
    Date February 2000
    Journal American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation

    The type of hemodialysis vascular access (catheter, fistula, graft) is an important determinant of patient morbidity and dialysis efficiency. The relative importance of patient versus provider factors in determining type of vascular access is unclear. We sought to develop a quality improvement tool that adjusts for differences in patient characteristics, thereby allowing examination of provider-related variability in types of vascular access used across facilities. We examined 15,339 patients from 216 chronic hemodialysis units in Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois and found that 20% of patients had catheters, 24% had fistulas, and 56% had grafts. Young, male, and white patients were more likely to have fistulas, whereas old, female, and black patients were more likely to have grafts. Diabetics were more likely to have catheters and less likely to have fistulas. New patients were more likely to have catheters and less likely to have grafts. A facility specific standardized catheter ratio (SCR), standardized fistula ratio (SFR), and standardized graft ratio (SGR) were calculated based on the actual number of patients with each type of vascular access divided by the expected number adjusted for patient characteristics. Facility SCRs ranged from 0.00 to 2.87. Of the 216 facilities, 38 (18%) had an SCR significantly less than 1.00, and 32 (15%) had an SCR significantly greater than 1.00. Similar variability was observed in SFRs and SGRs. In conclusion, the type of vascular access varies greatly across facilities. Use of standardized access ratios adjusted for patient characteristics may help providers examine processes of care that contribute to variability in access use. Analogous to the standardized mortality ratio, the SCR, SFR, and SGR should be effective quality improvement tools.

    Title Bipap: Useful New Modality or Confusing Acronym?
    Date October 1998
    Journal Critical Care Medicine
    Title Barriers to Adequate Delivery of Hemodialysis.
    Date April 1998
    Journal American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation

    Mortality rates among American hemodialysis patients are the highest in the industrialized world. Measures of delivered dialysis (Kt/V) correspond strongly with survival and are estimated to be inadequate in one third of patients. We sought to determine the importance of potential barriers to adequate dialysis, including patient-related and technical factors. Using a cross-sectional study design, we abstracted the charts of 721 randomly selected patients from all 22 chronic hemodialysis units in northeast Ohio. For each of 1,836 treatments provided to these patients, we assessed delivered dialysis (Kt/V) and patient-related factors (ie, hypotension, intradialytic symptoms, and treatment time missed due to noncompliance or transportation problems) and technical factors (ie, dialysis prescription, type of vascular access, clotting, and dialyzer reuse). We used hierarchical regression analysis to determine which potential barriers were independently related to delivered dialysis after adjustment for patient demographic and medical characteristics. Barriers independently related to dialysis delivery (all P values < 0.001) included patient noncompliance, present in 3% of treatments; low dialysis prescription, 14%; use of a catheter for vascular access, 11%; and clotting, 1%. The prevalence of identified barriers varied dramatically across facilities (eg, the prevalence of low dialysis prescription ranged from 0% to 37%, while the prevalence of catheter use ranged from 3% to 28%). In conclusion, patient noncompliance, low dialysis prescription, catheter use, and clotting are the most important barriers to dialysis delivery. Further work is needed to develop interventions to overcome these barriers and to determine the effect of such interventions on dialysis adequacy and patient survival.

    Title Ion Channels in Human Thp-1 Monocytes.
    Date May 1997
    Journal The Journal of Membrane Biology

    The THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cell line is a useful model of macrophage differentiation. Patch clamp methods were used to identify five types of ion channels in undifferentiated THP-1 monocytes. (i) Delayed rectifier K+ current, IDR, was activated by depolarization to potentials positive to -50 mV, inactivated with a time constant of several hundred msec, and recovered from inactivation with a time constant approximately21 sec. IDR was inhibited by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium (TEA+), and potently by charybdotoxin (ChTX). (ii) Ca-activated K+ current (ISK) dominated whole-cell currents in cells studied with 3-10 micron [Ca2+]i. ISK was at most weakly voltage-dependent, with reduced conductance at large positive potentials, and was inhibited by ChTX and weakly by TEA+, Cs+, and Ba2+, but not 4-AP or apamin. Block by Cs+ and Ba2+ was enhanced by hyperpolarization. (iii) Nonselective cation current, Icat, appeared at voltages above +20 mV. Little time-dependence was observed, and a panel of channel blockers was without effect. (iv) Chloride current, ICl, was present early in experiments, but disappeared with time. (v) Voltage-activated H+ selective current is described in detail in a companion paper (DeCoursey & Cherny, 1996. J. Membrane Biol. 152:2). The ion channels in THP-1 cells are compared with channels described in other macrophage-related cells. Profound changes in ion channel expression that occur during differentiation of THP-1 cells are described in a companion paper (DeCoursey et al., 1996. J. Membrane Biol. 152:2).

    Title Ion Channel Expression in Pma-differentiated Human Thp-1 Macrophages.
    Date May 1997
    Journal The Journal of Membrane Biology

    Ion channel expression was studied in THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells induced to differentiate into macrophage-like cells by exposure to the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Inactivating delayed rectifier K+ currents, IDR, present in almost all undifferentiated THP-1 monocytes, were absent from PMA-differentiated macrophages. Two K+ channels were observed in THP-1 cells only after differentiation into macrophages, an inwardly rectifying K+ channel (IIR) and a Ca2+-activated maxi-K channel (IBK). IIR was a classical inward rectifier, conducting large inward currents negative to EK and very small outward currents. IIR was blocked in a voltage-dependent manner by Cs+, Na+, and Ba2+, block increasing with hyperpolarization. Block by Na+ and Ba2+ was time-dependent, whereas Cs+ block was too fast to resolve. Rb+ was sparingly permeant. In cell-attached patches with high [K+] in the pipette, the single IIR channel conductance was approximately 30 pS and no outward current could be detected. IBK channels were observed in cell-attached or inside-out patches and in whole-cell configuration. In cell-attached patches the conductance was approximately 200-250 pS and at potentials positive to approximately 100 mV a negative slope conductance of the unitary current was observed, suggesting block by intracellular Na+. IBK was activated at large positive potentials in cell-attached patches; in inside-out patches the voltage-activation relationship was shifted to more negative potentials by increased [Ca2+]. Macroscopic IBK was blocked by external TEA+ with half block at 0.35 mM. THP-1 cells were found to contain mRNA for Kv1.3 and IRK1. Levels of mRNA coding for these K+ channels were studied by competitive PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and were found to change upon differentiation in the same direction as did channel expression: IRK1 mRNA increased at least 5-fold, and Kv1.3 mRNA decreased on average 7-fold. Possible functional correlates of the changes in ion channel expression during differentiation of THP-1 cells are discussed.

    Title Bronchoscopic Procedures in the Intensive Care Unit.
    Date June 1995
    Journal Critical Care Clinics

    Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is a valuable tool in the intensive care unit. The procedure may be an integral part of airway management and has diagnostic and treatment capabilities. Demonstrated expertise is necessary to perform the procedure safely and effectively. This expertise may be particularly important when faced with a complex patient who presents with airway management problems or significant hemoptysis.

    Title Medical Effectiveness of Esophageal Balloon Pressure Manometry in Weaning Patients from Mechanical Ventilation.
    Date April 1995
    Journal Critical Care Medicine

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of a new respiratory monitor, which uses esophageal balloons, in aiding clinicians attempting to wean patients from mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective study of patients who were deemed ready to be weaned after having required mechanical ventilation for a minimum of 3 days. Each of the patients served as his or her own control. SETTING: University medical intensive care unit. PATIENTS: The series consisted of 23 consecutive patients who were ready to wean from mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Before the onset of the study, two weaning strategies were developed. One strategy involved using clinically available weaning parameters. The other strategy involved using esophageal balloon data that was recorded via a new respiratory monitor. Each of the weaning strategies resulted in the development of a scoring system that could be rigidly adhered to and which determined, without bias, to what extent the patient could be weaned each day. Rigid criteria were also developed to determine whether the weaning trial was successful or not. The two strategies were then compared to determine the ability of the strategy to shorten ventilatory time. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Each patient was evaluated daily by the two weaning protocols. At each weaning step, the two protocols were compared with respect to degree of aggressiveness and tolerance of the weaning maneuver by the patient. A protocol was judged superior if it resulted in more aggressive weaning without increased patient intolerance. The clinicians evaluating the patient with the clinical protocol could accelerate or retard the number of weaning steps by one step, based on the patient's clinical state and the clinician's experience. There was no such freedom in the esophageal protocol. The major finding was that in 40.5% of the instances, the protocol involving the esophageal balloon resulted in more aggressive weaning without patient intolerance. In 11.6% of the cases, the clinical protocol was more aggressive. Both protocols predicted the same number of weaning steps 39.8% of the time. In all these instances, the patient tolerated the weaning suggested. The use of data from the esophageal protocol resulted in weaning the patients 1.68 days faster than the use of data from the clinical protocol. CONCLUSIONS: The respiratory monitor, using esophageal balloon technology, is effective in that it can provide the clinician with data that can result in more aggressive weaning from mechanical ventilation without an increase in patient intolerance. The duration of mechanical ventilation can be shortened when these data are applied via a rigidly controlled weaning strategy.

    Title Sarcoidosis and Its Ocular Manifestations.
    Date September 1994
    Journal Journal of the American Optometric Association

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a significant cause of pulmonary dysfunction and ocular morbidity. The worldwide distribution of sarcoidosis involves primarily Caucasians, however, within the United States, the disease is nearly confined to the African American population. Although genetic and environmental factors have been implicated, a definitive cause of the disease, at present, remains unknown. METHODS: A review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of non-ocular and ocular sarcoidosis is presented along with current thoughts on the applicability of diagnostic studies and treatment options available for afflicted patients. RESULTS: Epithelial, non-caseating granulomas are the hallmark histological findings of sarcoidosis and can be found in virtually all body tissues. The inflammatory response is a delayed hypersensitivity (type IV) reaction with an abundance of helper T-cells (CD4+). Although pulmonary findings are most common, ocular involvement with sarcoidosis occurs in approximately 25 percent of all cases. Posterior segment inflammation occurs in upwards of 28 percent of all cases of ocular sarcoidosis and is a major cause of visual morbidity among these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcoidosis should be suspected in cases of granulomatous uveitis. Laboratory studies may be corroborative but should not be considered diagnostically specific or prognostic with regard to treatment. Ocular involvement often suggests a more progressive or recalcitrant form of the disease with significant pulmonary findings that may benefit from a trial course of oral prednisone.

    Title Effects of External Rb+ on Inward Rectifier K+ Channels of Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells.
    Date September 1994
    Journal The Journal of General Physiology

    Inward rectifier (IR) K+ channels of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were studied using the whole-cell, cell-attached, and outside-out patch-clamp configurations. The effects of Rb+ on the voltage dependence and kinetics of IR gating were explored, with [Rb+]o + [K+]o = 160 mM. Partial substitution of Rb+ for K+ resulted in voltage-dependent reduction of inward currents, consistent with Rb+ being a weakly permeant blocker of the IR. In cells studied with a K(+)-free pipette solution, external Rb+ reduced inward IR currents to a similar extent at large negative potentials but block at more positive potentials was enhanced. In outside-out patches, the single-channel i-V relationship was approximately linear in symmetrical K+, but rectified strongly outwardly in high [Rb+]o due to a reduced conductance for inward current. The permeability of Rb+ based on reversal potential, Vrev, was 0.45 that of K+, whereas the Rb+ conductance was much lower, 0.034 that of K+, measured at Vrev-80 mV. The steady state voltage-dependence of IR gating was determined in Rb(+)-containing solutions by applying variable prepulses, followed by a test pulse to a potential at which outward current deactivation was observed. As [Rb+]o was increased, the half-activation potential, V1/2, changed less than Vrev. In high [K+]o solutions V1/2 was Vrev-6 mV, while in high [Rb+]o V1/2 was Vrev + 7 mV. This behavior contrasts with the classical parallel shift of V1/2 with Vrev in K+ solutions. Steady state IR gating was less steeply voltage-dependent in high [Rb+]o than in K+ solutions, with Boltzmann slope factors of 6.4 and 4.4 mV, respectively. Rb+ decreased (slowed) both activation and deactivation rate constants defined at V1/2, and decreased the steepness of the voltage dependence of the activation rate constant by 42%. Deactivation of IR channels in outside-out patches was also slowed by Rb+. In summary, Rb+ can replace K+ in setting the voltage-dependence of IR gating, but in doing so alters the kinetics.

    Title Selective Digestive Decontamination in Critically Ill Patients.
    Date November 1993
    Journal Critical Care Medicine
    Title On Washing Up.
    Date April 1992
    Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
    Title Advances in Patient Care Management: the Nrcu.
    Date November 1991
    Journal Critical Care Nurse

    The noninvasive respiratory care unit has become an important advance in patient management. The NRCU allows for better use of special-care beds and represents a more cost-effective approach to the care of a number of ventilator-dependent patients or other respiratory patients. This article describes the NRCU, discusses clinical experiences and focuses on practical issues related to patient management in the NRCU.

    Title The Noninvasive Respiratory Care Unit. Patterns of Use and Financial Implications.
    Date February 1991
    Journal Chest

    Clinical, socioeconomic, and ethical dilemmas have prompted reevaluation of traditional methods of providing intensive care. Six years ago, we established a noninvasive respiratory care unit (NRCU) for selected patients in need of intensive respiratory monitoring and therapy, particularly those requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. One impetus for the formation of the NRCU was the expectation that it might prove to be a less costly alternative to the intensive care unit (ICU) for selected patients. We reviewed data from all patients admitted to the NRCU from July 1, 1987 through June 30, 1988 to identify characteristics of the patient population and to evaluate potential cost savings. During one year of operation, 136 patients were admitted to the unit, 107 of whom were mechanically ventilated. Overall, hospital costs for these patients exceeded payments by $1,519,477. Losses were greatest for mechanically ventilated patients and those for whom Medicare or Medicaid were the primary payors. Daily costs of care for mechanically ventilated patients were $1,976 lower in the NRCU than in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). We conclude that the NRCU represents a cost-effective approach to the care of substantial numbers of patients requiring specialized respiratory care.

    Title The Physician's Role: Respecting a Patient's Right to Live or Die.
    Date December 1990
    Journal The Internist
    Title Intrinsic Gating of Inward Rectifier in Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells in the Presence or Absence of Internal Mg2+.
    Date October 1990
    Journal The Journal of General Physiology

    Inward rectifier (IR) currents were studied in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique with extracellular K+ concentrations, [K+]o, ranging from 4.5 to 160 mM. Whether the concentration of free Mg2+ in the intracellular solution, [Mg2+]i, was 1.9 mM or nominally 0, the IR exhibited voltage- and time-dependent gating. The IR conductance was activated by hyperpolarization and deactivated by depolarization. Small steady-state outward IR currents were present up to approximately 40 mV more positive than the K+ reversal potential, EK, regardless of [Mg2+]i. Modeled as a first-order C in equilibrium O gating process, both the opening rate, alpha, and the closing rate, beta, were exponentially dependent on voltage, with beta more steeply voltage dependent, changing e-fold for 9 mV compared with 18 mV for an e-fold change in alpha. Over all [K+]o studied, the voltage dependence of alpha and beta shifted along with EK, as is characteristic of IR channels in other cells. The steady-state voltage dependence of the gating process was well described by a Boltzmann function. The half-activation potential was on average approximately 7 mV negative to the observed reversal potential in all [K+]o regardless of [Mg2+]i. The activation curve was somewhat steeper when Mg-free pipette solutions were used (slope factor, 4.3 mV) than when pipettes contained 1.9 mM Mg2+ (5.2 mV). The simplest interpretation of these data is that IR channels in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells have an intrinsic gating mechanism that is not due to Mg block.

    Title Potassium Currents in Rat Type Ii Alveolar Epithelial Cells.
    Date October 1988
    Journal The Journal of Physiology

    1. Type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from adult rats and grown in primary culture were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the gigohm-seal voltage clamp technique. 2. The average specific capacitance of type II cells was 2.5 microF/cm2, suggesting that type II cell membranes in vitro are irregular, with an actual area more than twice the apparent area. 3. Most type II cells have time- and voltage-dependent outward currents carried by potassium ions. Potassium currents activate with a sigmoid time course upon membrane depolarization, and inactivate during maintained depolarization. The average maximum whole-cell K+ conductance was 1.6 nS. 4. Two distinct types of K+-selective channels underlie outward currents in type II cells. Most cells have currents resembling delayed rectifier K+ currents in skeletal muscle, nerve and immune cells. A few cells had a different type of K+ conductance which is more sensitive to block by tetraethylammonium ions, has faster 'tail currents', and activates at more positive potentials. 5. In some experiments, individual type II cells were identified by staining with phosphine, a fluorescent dye which is concentrated in lamellar bodies. Both types of K+ channels were seen in type II cells identified with this dye. 6. Phosphine added to the bathing solution reversibly reduced K+ currents and shifted K+ channel activation to more positive potentials. Excitation of phosphine to fluoresce reduced irreversibly K+ currents in type II cells. The usefulness of phosphine as a means of identifying cells for study is discussed.

    Title Pentoxifylline in End-stage Renal Disease.
    Date March 1988
    Journal Drug Intelligence & Clinical Pharmacy

    Little information is available about the clearance of pentoxifylline and its metabolites in renal failure. Consequently, when a dialysis patient required this drug, we started at a low dose and gradually increased the dosage while monitoring the patient for signs or symptoms of toxicity and following plasma concentrations of parent drug and its metabolites. Our patient appeared to develop evidence of drug toxicity after about six days on two-thirds of the usual recommended adult dose of the drug. The pentoxifylline half-life and apparent half-life of metabolite I were both substantially prolonged as compared with data from healthy volunteers. Both accumulated rapidly in plasma. Concentrations of metabolites IV and V were also very high.

    Title High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Characterization of Neurophysins in Chronic Renal Failure.
    Date November 1987
    Journal The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine

    Levels of immunoreactive (IR) oxytocin (OT)-associated or estrogen-stimulated neurophysin (ESN) and vasopressin-associated or nicotine-stimulated neurophysin (NSN) were measured in plasma of patients with chronic renal failure before and after hemodialysis (HD) and intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD), and during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). ESN-IR in 17 patients before HD was 24.4 +/- 2.7 ng/ml (mean +/- SEM) and increased after HD to 33.2 +/- 4.1 ng/ml (P less than 0.001). ESN-IR in 17 patients with CAPD was 15.2 +/- 3.4 ng/ml, significantly lower than in patients undergoing HD, P less than 0.001. In patients receiving IPD (n = 6), ESN was 11.6 +/- 3.7 ng/ml and did not change significantly after IPD. Levels of ESN in patients with renal failure were increased compared with levels in normal individuals, 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng/ml. Levels of ESN were not correlated with laboratory parameters that may be abnormal in renal failure. NSN levels in 16 of 17 patients undergoing HD were 3.2 +/- 0.34 ng/ml and in 14 of 17 patients with CAPD were 2.9 +/- 0.4 ng/ml, respectively. ESN before HD (r = 0.63, P less than 0.01), after HD (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001), and in patients with CAPD (r = 0.83, P less than 0.001) and IPD (r = 0.81, P less than 0.05) correlated significantly with an OT-like peptide previously found to be increased in renal failure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title The Syndrome of Spontaneous Iliac Arteriovenous Fistula: a Distinct Clinical and Pathophysiologic Entity.
    Date April 1986
    Journal Surgery

    While the development of a spontaneous iliac arteriovenous fistula is an uncommon complication of arteriosclerotic aneurysmal disease, its association with a distinct clinical syndrome allows timely operative intervention for this potentially life-threatening event. A review of cases reported in the literature reveals a triad of symptoms consistently associated with the presence of a spontaneous iliac arteriovenous fistula: high-output cardiac failure of precipitous onset, a pulsatile abdominal mass accompanied by a thrill and bruit, and unilateral lower-extremity ischemia or venous engorgement. Survival may be anticipated if an aggressive diagnostic and operative approach is employed.

    Title Effects of End Stage Renal Disease and Aluminium Hydroxide on Triazolam Pharmacokinetics.
    Date September 1985
    Journal British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

    Triazolam 0.5 mg was administered to 11 dialysis patients and 11 age, weight and sex matched controls. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were higher in control subjects, but there were no other differences between the groups. When dialysis patients took triazolam with 3600 mg aluminum hydroxide suspension, Cmax and AUC were increased into the range observed in control subjects. It appears that triazolam can be used at normal doses in patients with renal dysfunction, without regard to interaction with aluminum hydroxide gel, or to alterations in elimination.

    Title Unusual Bacterium, Group Ve-2, Causing Peritonitis in a Patient on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.
    Date June 1985
    Journal Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    We report a case of peritonitis in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient with an unusual bacterium known as group Ve-2. This is the first reported case of peritonitis attributable to this organism and only the second well-documented case of infection with this organism in the English literature.

    Title Effects of End-stage Renal Disease and Aluminum Hydroxide on Temazepam Kinetics.
    Date May 1985
    Journal Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    The kinetics of temazepam, 30 mg, were evaluated in 11 patients with end-stage renal disease. Age ranged from 18 to 65 years. On two occasions separated by 1 week, single oral 30 mg doses of temazepam were given once with water (TM) and once with 3600 mg aluminum hydroxide gel (TM + AHG). There were no significant differences in the maximum plasma concentration, the time to reach maximum concentration, or elimination rates between TM and TM + AHG dosing. In approximately half the subjects there were secondary temazepam peak concentrations. In the remaining subjects, temazepam elimination was biphasic, with the terminal t1/2 ranging from 11 to 77 hours. There was a lag time before absorption in all subjects. The percent free temazepam in plasma from dialysis subjects ranged from 4.4% to 8.8% (mean = 5.9%). Compared with literature reports of subjects with normal renal function, the maximum plasma concentration was lower and the percent free temazepam was higher in dialysis subjects. When sedation score was plotted against plasma temazepam concentration, there was clockwise hysteresis consistent with tolerance or adaptation to effects of the drug. Thus aluminum hydroxide gel does not affect temazepam absorption. The clinical significance of the low plasma concentrations and high free temazepam fraction in dialysis subjects is uncertain.

    Title Severe Reactions During Hemodialysis.
    Date March 1985
    Journal American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation

    Severe reactions during dialysis occurred in 1.7% of hemodialysis patients. Respiratory distress, agitation, pruritus, and alterations in BP were the dominant clinical findings, and one patient suffered a respiratory arrest. It is not clear whether this syndrome is due to toxic substances or to an allergic reaction, although the presence of eosinophilia in three of five affected patients would suggest the latter mechanism. Disconnecting the patient from the extracorporeal circuit invariably improved the symptoms. Current evidence implicates the dialyzer as the most likely culprit, and our experience suggests that none of the commonly used dialysis membranes are truly biocompatible.

    Title Triazolam Protein Binding and Correlation with Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein Concentration.
    Date October 1984
    Journal Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    On two occasions separated by a minimum of 1 wk, plasma was obtained from 12 patients (aged 18 to 73 yr) on dialysis after an overnight fast. Samples were assayed for albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations. 14C-Triazolam was added to each sample to a final concentration of 5 ng/ml. Protein binding was determined by equilibrium dialysis. Unbound triazolam ranged from 6.4% to 15.4% (mean = 10.0%). AGP concentrations ranged from 71.8 to 205.1 mg% (mean = 123.4 mg%). Triazolam binding ratio (bound/unbound concentration) correlated with AGP concentration (r2 = 0.69) but not with albumin concentration, age, or sex. This correlation was verified by adding AGP in varying amounts to control plasma.

    Title Peritoneal Eosinophils During Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis.
    Date August 1984
    Journal American Journal of Nephrology

    Peritoneal eosinophil counts were investigated in 61 intermittent dialysis patients over the course of 1 year. The peritoneal eosinophil percentage fell from 18 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM) in the first 2 months of dialysis to 3 +/- 0.4% after 6 months of dialysis. Absolute eosinophils per cubic millimeter fell from 586 +/- 126 to 61 +/- 18 (p less than 0.01 for both percentage and absolute values). There was a wide range in the mean eosinophil percentages per patient in the first 6 months of dialysis (0-84%) that narrowed to 0-9% after 6 months. The majority of the high initial eosinophil counts resolved after 2 months. Peripheral eosinophilia was seen in 8 of the 10 patients with the highest mean peritoneal eosinophil percentages during the first 2 months of dialysis. Patients who developed peritonitis had a significantly lower percentage of eosinophils in the first 1.5 months of dialysis than patients who did not develop peritonitis. At the time of diagnosis of peritonitis, the peritoneal eosinophil count was near zero. 4 cases of peritoneal eosinophilia which developed after antibiotic therapy are described.

    Title Gallium-67 Uptake in Cystosarcoma Phyllodes.
    Date July 1982
    Journal Ajr. American Journal of Roentgenology
    Title Active Site Radioimmunoassay for Human Urokallikrein and Demonstration by Radioimmunoassay of a Latent Form of the Enzyme.
    Date June 1980
    Journal Journal of Immunology (baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    A radioimmunoassay specific for the active site in urokallikrein has been developed with a monospecific antibody that neutralizes the enzymatic activities of urokallikrein and a radioligand purified so as to maintain the active site. In order to favor the involvement of the antibody with high affinity for the active site in the competition between urokallikrein in biological fluids and radiolabeled urokallikrein, the radioligand was separated from denatured radiolabeled urokallikrein by affinity chromatography for the active site. The concentration of specific IgG used in the assay bound approximately 80% of the radioligand, which was displaced in a dose-related fashion by 0.2 to 2.5 ng of the unlabeled urokallikrein. When random urine samples from 21 healthy volunteers were assessed for endogenous urokallikrein by both active site radioimmunoassay and kinin generation, there was a linear relationship between the results of the two assays with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. A combined correlation plot of the results of the bioassay and the active site radioimmunoassay for the 21 urine samples before and after trypsin activation gave a linear regression line with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The finding that trypsin activation increased the urokallikrein concentration of urine to a similar extent in both the radioimmunoassay and the bioassay means that latent urokallikrein was not detected until its active site was uncovered.

    Title Arthralgia and Rubella Immunization.
    Date February 1978
    Journal Annals of Internal Medicine

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