Pediatricians
14 years of experience

286 Rivercrest Dr
Phoenixville, PA 19460
Locations and availability (1)

Education ?

Medical School Score
George Washington University (1996)
  • Currently 2 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

Associations
American Board of Pediatrics

Publications & Research

Dr. Goveia has contributed to 10 publications.
Title Rotateq: Progress Toward Developing World Access.
Date September 2010
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

Phase III studies of an oral, live, pentavalent, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq; Merck) in developed countries have demonstrated that it is well tolerated with regard to intussusception and other adverse events and is efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis and associated healthcare encounters. However, it cannot be assumed that rotavirus vaccines will be equally efficacious in infants and young children in the developing world. Differences in host populations, associated health conditions, and the epidemiology of rotavirus disease could affect vaccine performance. Concern about the potential for differences in efficacy stems from studies of previous candidate rotavirus vaccines, including bovine and rhesus rotaviruses, which showed no or variable efficacy in developing regions. Given this history, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that the efficacy of "new" rotavirus vaccines should be demonstrated in diverse geographic areas, including developing countries, before widespread implementation. Successful implementation of any rotavirus vaccine in the developing world requires additional clinical research and sharing of early introduction experiences. We discuss efforts to bring RotaTeq vaccine to the developing world. Critical steps to achieve this goal include the clinical evaluation of vaccine safety and efficacy in a multisite trial in Asia and Africa, evaluation of concomitant use with other pediatric vaccines routinely used, and vaccine assessment in special populations (premature, human immunodeficiency virus-infected, and malnourished infants). Completion of WHO prequalification of RotaTeq and affordability are also key requirements to routine vaccine introduction. The RotaTeq Partnership with the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health provides an example of the successful introduction of this vaccine into a developing world country.

Title Rotateq, a Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine: Efficacy and Safety Among Infants in Europe.
Date March 2010
Journal Vaccine
Excerpt

A pentavalent human-bovine reassortant oral rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq, was evaluated among nearly 70,000 infants in the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST), of which 30,523 were from Europe. All infants were followed for serious adverse events as well as hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits. All adverse events, health care utilization, and RVGE regardless of severity were evaluated in the clinical efficacy cohort (N=2686) in Finland. RotaTeq was 98.3% (95% CI, 90.2-100%) and 68.0% (95% CI 60.3-74.4%) efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and all RVGE due to any serotype for two rotavirus seasons post-vaccination. The combined rate of hospitalizations and ED visits due to RVGE of any serotype was reduced by 94.5% (95% CI, 91.3-96.8%) for up to 2 years after vaccination. There were no statistically significant differences between RotaTeq and placebo for any of the safety outcomes. In Europe, RotaTeq was highly efficacious and well tolerated.

Title Efficacy of Pentavalent Human-bovine (wc3) Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine Based on Breastfeeding Frequency.
Date September 2008
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

The efficacy of a live, oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against G1-4 rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) was retrospectively assessed based on breastfeeding frequency among 5098 infants in a placebo-controlled trial. The efficacy against any RVGE severity for infants never breastfed, sometimes breastfed, or exclusively breastfed was 68.3%, 82.2%, and 68.0%, respectively. The efficacy against severe RVGE was 100%, 95.4%, and 100%, respectively. Breastfeeding did not seem to adversely impact the efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.

Title The Integrated Phase Iii Safety Profile of the Pentavalent Human-bovine (wc3) Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine.
Date March 2008
Journal International Journal of Infectious Diseases : Ijid : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To perform an integrated safety analysis of data from the Phase III studies of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV). METHODS: Healthy 6- to 12-week-old infants received 3 doses of PRV or placebo at 4- to 10-week intervals in 3 Phase III, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Active surveillance for serious adverse events (AE), including intussusception, was performed at 7, 14, and 42 days after each dose. Other AEs occurring within 42 days after each dose were documented on Vaccination Report Cards. Fecal shedding of vaccine-virus strains was evaluated by plaque assay and electropherotyping. RESULTS: Intussusception and other serious AEs were evaluated among 71,799 vaccinated subjects. Within 42 days after any dose, intussusception occurred among 6 PRV and 5 placebo recipients. All AEs were evaluated among 11 722 vaccinated subjects. Within the week following the first dose, the incidences of fever and irritability were similar among PRV and placebo recipients, although diarrhea and vomiting occurred more frequently among PRV recipients versus placebo recipients (10.4% vs. 9.1% and 6.7% vs. 5.4%, respectively). Fecal shedding of vaccine-virus strains occurred in 8.9% of 360 PRV recipients after the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: Across the 3 Phase III clinical trials, PRV was well tolerated, with no increased clinical risk of intussusception. Fecal shedding of vaccine-virus strains occurred infrequently and in low amounts, suggesting the risk of transmission is unlikely.

Title Safety and Efficacy of the Pentavalent Human-bovine (wc3) Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine in Healthy Premature Infants.
Date January 2008
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Premature infants seem to be at greater risk of hospitalization from rotavirus gastroenteritis than term infants. Safety and efficacy of the pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine were assessed in premature infants enrolled in the large-scale, blinded, placebo-controlled rotavirus efficacy and safety trial (REST). METHODS: Healthy infants 6-12 weeks of chronologic age at study entry were randomized to receive 3 oral doses of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine or placebo at 4- to 10-week intervals. Infants born at < or =36 weeks of gestational age were eligible if thriving at the time of enrollment. Safety and efficacy were retrospectively assessed in these premature infants comparing vaccine with placebo recipients. Cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were defined as forceful vomiting and/or > or =3 watery or looser-than-normal stools within a 24-hour period, accompanied by detection of rotavirus antigen in the stool. RESULTS: A total of 2070 infants between 25 and 36 gestational weeks received at least 1 dose of vaccine or placebo; 1005 vaccine recipients and 1061 placebo recipients were evaluable for safety. Serious adverse events occurred in 55 vaccine recipients (5.5%) and 62 placebo recipients (5.8%). In a nested substudy of 308 premature infants evaluable for detailed safety (154 in each group), the frequencies of fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and irritability were comparable between vaccine and placebo recipients. Overall, 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine reduced the rate of hospitalizations and emergency department visits in premature infants due to rotavirus gastroenteritis by 100% (95% CI: 82.2-100) compared with placebo. The vaccine also prevented 73.0% (95% CI: -2.2-95.2) of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases of any severity. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis of healthy premature infants, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was generally well-tolerated and substantially reduced rotavirus-attributable hospitalizations and emergency department visits compared with placebo. Overall, vaccine safety and efficacy seemed to be generally comparable to the results in the REST study population as a whole. These results support vaccinating healthy premature infants on the same schedule as term infants.

Title Concomitant Use of an Oral Live Pentavalent Human-bovine Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine with Licensed Parenteral Pediatric Vaccines in the United States.
Date May 2007
Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: A live pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV) containing 5 human-bovine (WC3) reassortants expressing human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1A[8] was evaluated in a blinded, placebo-controlled study. Possible interactions between PRV and concomitantly administered licensed pediatric vaccines were investigated in a United States-based nested substudy (Concomitant Use Study) of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial. METHODS: From 2002 to 2003, healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks of age at entry were randomized to receive either 3 oral doses of PRV or placebo at 4- to 10-week intervals. Subjects were also to receive combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B vaccine (2 doses), diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (3 doses), inactivated poliovirus vaccine (2 doses) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (3 doses) on the same day; oral poliovirus vaccine was not administered. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring antibody responses to PRV and antigens contained in the licensed vaccines. Cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were defined by forceful vomiting and/or -3 watery or looser-than-normal stools within a 24-hour period, and detection of rotavirus antigen in the stool. Safety was assessed by reporting of adverse events using diary cards. RESULTS: The Concomitant Use Study enrolled 662 subjects in the PRV group and 696 subjects in the placebo group. For the 17 antigens in the concomitantly administered vaccines, antibody responses were similar in PRV and placebo recipients, except for moderately diminished antibody responses to the pertactin component of pertussis vaccine. Efficacy of PRV against rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity was 89.5% (95% CI = 26.5-99.8%). PRV was generally well tolerated when given concomitantly with the prespecified vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, antibody responses to the concomitantly administered vaccines were generally similar in PRV and placebo recipients. PRV was efficacious and well tolerated when given concomitantly with pediatric vaccines licensed in the United States.

Title Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of a Pentavalent Human-bovine (wc3) Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine at the End of Shelf Life.
Date January 2007
Journal Pediatrics
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of dehydrating acute gastroenteritis in infants worldwide. Previous studies of a live pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine have shown it to be efficacious across a range of potencies. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine at the end of shelf life in healthy infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During 2002-2004, 1312 healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks old from the United States (47%) and Finland (53%) were randomly assigned to receive 3 oral doses of vaccine (vaccine at approximately 1.1 x 10(7) infectious U per dose) or placebo approximately 4 to 10 weeks apart. Infants were to be followed for acute gastroenteritis through 1 rotavirus season after vaccination and for adverse events postvaccination. RESULTS: Three doses of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine at the end of shelf life demonstrated efficacy against rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by human G-serotypes included in the vaccine (G1-G4). Efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 100%, and efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis regardless of severity was 72.5%. A threefold rise in G1 serum neutralizing was observed in 57% and in anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A in 96% of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine recipients. No statistically significant increase in vomiting, diarrhea, or irritability was observed among pentavalent rotavirus vaccine recipients compared with placebo recipients within the 7-day period from each dose. A statistically significant increase in fevers (> or = 100.5 degrees F, rectal equivalent) was observed among pentavalent rotavirus vaccine recipients compared with placebo recipients after dose 1. CONCLUSIONS: This pentavalent human-bovine rotavirus vaccine was generally well tolerated, efficacious, and immunogenic at the end of shelf life.

Title Effects of the Potency and Composition of the Multivalent Human-bovine (wc3) Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine on Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity in Healthy Infants.
Date August 2006
Journal Vaccine
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus gastroenteritis, which causes substantial infant mortality and morbidity worldwide, is a vaccine-preventable disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different compositions and potencies (vaccine virus titers) of a live multivalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine in order to select the potency and composition of the vaccine for further development. METHODS: The efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1A pentavalent composition at three different potencies, a G1, G2, G3, G4 quadrivalent composition, and a P1A monovalent composition of an oral human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine were compared in a blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted between 1998 and 2001 enrolling 1,946 healthy Finnish infants 2-8 months of age. RESULTS: All potencies of the pentavalent and quadrivalent vaccines were efficacious (58-74%) against wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity and 100% protective against severe rotavirus disease caused by vaccine G-serotypes through the first rotavirus season post-vaccination. The monovalent P1A vaccine was 53% efficacious against moderate-and-severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity was demonstrated through two and three rotavirus seasons for all vaccine compositions. After the third dose, the percentage of infants with >or=3-fold rise in baseline serum neutralizing antibody titers against G1 ranged from 62% to 86% for recipients of the pentavalent vaccine, depending on the potency. The incidence of fever, irritability, vomiting, and diarrhea did not significantly differ between vaccine and placebo groups. A 7-month-old male developed intussusception 9 days after the first dose of the low-potency pentavalent vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this trial, a pentavalent composition (G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1A) of human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine with a potency similar to that of the middle-potency pentavalent vaccine ( approximately 8 x 10(6) plaque-forming units/dose) was selected for further development.

Title Safety and Efficacy of a Pentavalent Human-bovine (wc3) Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine.
Date January 2006
Journal The New England Journal of Medicine
Excerpt

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis and death worldwide. METHODS: We studied healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks old who were randomly assigned to receive three oral doses of live pentavalent human-bovine (WC3 strain) reassortant rotavirus vaccine containing human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and P[8] or placebo at 4-to-10-week intervals in a blinded fashion. Active surveillance was used to identify subjects with serious adverse and other events. RESULTS: The 34,035 infants in the vaccine group and 34,003 in the placebo group were monitored for serious adverse events. Intussusception occurred in 12 vaccine recipients and 15 placebo recipients within one year after the first dose including six vaccine recipients and five placebo recipients within 42 days after any dose (relative risk, 1.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 6.4). The vaccine reduced hospitalizations and emergency department visits related to G1-G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis occurring 14 or more days after the third dose by 94.5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 91.2 to 96.6 percent). In a nested substudy, efficacy against any G1-G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis through the first full rotavirus season after vaccination was 74.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 66.8 to 79.9 percent); efficacy against severe gastroenteritis was 98.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 88.3 to 100 percent). The vaccine reduced clinic visits for G1-G4 rotavirus gastroenteritis by 86.0 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 73.9 to 92.5 percent). CONCLUSIONS: This vaccine was efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis, decreasing severe disease and health care contacts. The risk of intussusception was similar in vaccine and placebo recipients. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00090233.)

Title Development of a Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against Prevalent Serotypes of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis.
Date October 2005
Journal The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Excerpt

The strategy of decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis through vaccination is supported by studies demonstrating that wild-type rotavirus infection protects against subsequent rotavirus disease. Primary infection with wild-type rotavirus typically induces homotypic immunity. Vaccination of infants with a multivalent vaccine directed against prevalent rotavirus serotypes is the strategy most likely to provide the broadest degree of protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis. The pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (HBRV) is directed against each of the most prevalent rotavirus serotypes, including G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of different reassortant compositions and formulations of the HBRV have been evaluated in clinical trials. An HBRV dose of > or =8 x 10(6) plaque-forming units has demonstrated 68.8%-76.6% efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis, regardless of severity, and approximatel 100% efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis for the first rotavirus infection season after vaccination. The HBRV has been generally well tolerated, with no increase in the incidence of fever, vomiting, diarrhea, or behavioral changes among vaccine recipients, compared with placebo recipients, during the 14- and 42-day periods after administration of any dose. Shedding of vaccine strains in feces is uncommon. A large-scale trial is under way to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the manufacturing-scale formulation of pentavalent HBRV.


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