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Anesthesiologist (pain control), Pediatric Specialist
21 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Emory University (1989)
  • Currently 4 of 4 apples
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Anesthesiology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Guzzetta is affiliated with 7 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations



  • Emory University Hospital
    1364 Clifton Rd Ne, Atlanta, GA 30322
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Grady Memorial Hospital
    80 Jesse Hill Jr Dr SE, Atlanta, GA 30303
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Emory Crawford Long Hospital
    550 Peachtree St NE, Atlanta, GA 30308
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Wesley Woods Geriatric Hospital
    1821 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329
    • Currently 1 of 4 crosses
  • Children's Healthcare of Atlanta - Egleston
    1405 Clifton Rd Ne, Atlanta, GA 30322
  • Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center
    1670 Clairmont Rd, Decatur, GA 30033
  • Emory University School of Medicine
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Guzzetta has contributed to 13 publications.
    Title Correlations Between Activated Clotting Time Values and Heparin Concentration Measurements in Young Infants Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
    Date July 2010
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    Monitoring heparin concentration along with the activated clotting time (ACT) may provide a more accurate guide for the administration of heparin to infants during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, standard laboratory assays of heparin concentration (antifactor Xa heparin concentration) require plasma instead of whole blood, and results are not immediately available to clinicians. Alternatively, measurements of whole blood heparin concentration may be performed at the bedside using an automated protamine titration device, the Hepcon instrument (Hepcon Hemostasis Management System Plus; Medtronics, Minneapolis, MN). The purpose of this investigation was to compare ACT measurements from 3 commercially available instruments and bedside measurements of whole blood heparin concentration using the Hepcon instrument with laboratory measurements of antifactor Xa plasma heparin concentration in infants younger than 6 months of age undergoing CPB.

    Title Cor Triatriatum Dexter: a Rare Cause of Neonatal Cyanosis.
    Date March 2010
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia
    Title Use of Recombinant Factor Viia for Uncontrolled Bleeding in Neonates After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
    Date July 2009
    Journal Paediatric Anaesthesia

    Increasingly, recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is used adjunctively in nonhemophiliacs to control hemorrhage unresponsive to conventional therapy in a variety of settings including postcardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Studies examining rFVIIa administration to neonates after CPB are limited. The goal of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical outcomes of neonates treated at our institution with rFVIIa for uncontrolled post-CPB bleeding.

    Title The Impact of Aprotinin on Postoperative Renal Dysfunction in Neonates Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass: a Retrospective Analysis.
    Date February 2009
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    Recent concern about the safety of aprotinin administration to adults has led to its suspension from worldwide markets. However, few studies have examined its safety in pediatric patients. Studies in children evaluating aprotinin's safety have been hindered by the heterogeneity of pediatric patients and the inconsistency of clinical protocols. In this investigation, we retrospectively reviewed 200 neonatal cardiac surgical cases performed at our institution to examine the safety of aprotinin, focusing on postoperative renal dysfunction, using a consistent aprotinin dosing protocol.

    Title A Comparison of Heparin Management Strategies in Infants Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
    Date February 2008
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    BACKGROUND: Recent investigations in adult patients have suggested that a heparin concentration-based anticoagulation protocol for heparin administration during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) significantly reduced hemostatic activation when compared with standard weight-based heparin doses. Reductions in hemostatic activation during CPB could be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients in whom CPB-related coagulation issues are complex and influenced by many variables. However, information regarding heparin levels during CPB and their correlation to hemostatic activation is lacking in children. In this investigation, we compared a patient-specific heparin concentration-based heparin management protocol with a standard weight-based protocol in infants <6-mo-of-age. The efficacy of these two protocols was assessed by comparisons of heparin concentration, levels of biochemical markers of hemostatic activation, and clinical outcome. METHODS: Twenty-five infants <6-mo-old scheduled for primary, elective repair of a congenital heart defect were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomized to receive either 400 U/kg of heparin (control group) or a patient-specific heparin dose calculated by the Hepcon Hemostasis Management System Plus (Hepcon HMS; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN; intervention group). Heparin concentrations were compared between the two groups at predetermined intervals. Blood samples for biochemical markers of hemostatic activation were collected before and after CPB, and measurements of clinical outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Infants in the intervention group received a larger total heparin dose than infants in the control group. Heparin concentrations after the initial heparin dose and 30 min into CPB were similar between groups; however, at the start of rewarming and at the termination of CPB, infants in the intervention group had significantly higher heparin concentrations than infants in the control group. Infants in the intervention group also generated less F1.2 and consumed less factor VIII than infants in the control group. Clinically, however, infants in the intervention group received one more donor exposure from the administration of blood products post-CPB. CONCLUSION: A heparin concentration-based heparin management protocol in infants <6-mo-old resulted in higher, more constant heparin concentrations during CPB than a standard weight-based protocol. Furthermore, higher heparin concentrations were associated with greater suppression of hemostatic activation, as measured by less generation of thrombin and less consumption of factor VIII. Our findings demonstrate that use of a patient-specific heparin concentration-based protocol for heparin administration during CPB in infants may attenuate hemostatic activation. However, further research is needed to determine if this protocol has clinically beneficial hemostatic effects.

    Title Phenoxybenzamine in the Treatment of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: a Core Review.
    Date August 2007
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    Perioperative management of neonates after the Norwood procedure is extremely complex. Limited reserve of the neonatal single ventricle and the parallel arrangement of the pulmonary and systemic circuits result in a tenuous balance between pulmonary and systemic blood flows. Precise manipulations of both pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance are necessary to prevent excessive pulmonary blood flow at the expense of systemic oxygen delivery. An emerging treatment strategy aimed at improving early mortality is the intraoperative administration of phenoxybenzamine, a profound systemic vasodilator. Maximum systemic vasodilation is thought to reduce afterload of the single ventricle and produce a more stable parallel circulation by ameliorating the postoperative fluctuations in systemic vascular resistance. Although this strategy has gained popularity at many centers, it is not without scrutiny. The following review provides an overview of the pharmacology of phenoxybenzamine, the surgical and physiologic implications of the Norwood procedure, and a discussion of the pros and cons of phenoxybenzamine administration.

    Title Clinical Measures of Heparin's Effect and Thrombin Inhibitor Levels in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Heart Disease.
    Date November 2006
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    In this investigation, we examined the relationship among three thrombin inhibitors, antithrombin III (ATIII), heparin cofactor II (HCII), and alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), and several clinical tests of heparin's effect in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. One hundred eighteen children were stratified into six age groups: <1 mo, 1-3 mo, 3-6 mo, 6-12 mo, 12-24 mo, and >10 yr. Baseline ATIII, HCII, and alpha2M values were measured. Baseline celite- and kaolin-activated clotting times (ACT) were also measured and repeated 3 min after a standard heparin dose of 400 U/kg. Differences in ACT values before and after heparin administration and a heparin dose-response relationship were calculated for each patient. Kaolin-activated ACT tests showed less variation after heparin administration than celite-activated tests. In contrast to what has been demonstrated in adults, ATIII showed no positive correlation with the clinical tests of heparin's effect nor did the other thrombin inhibitors. Additionally, patients <1 mo old had unexpectedly low levels of alpha2M accompanying their expected low levels of ATIII and HCII. Our findings raise concerns about the ability of heparin to adequately anticoagulate these neonates during cardiopulmonary bypass and, consequently, challenge the accuracy of ACT prolongation to truly reflect the extent of their anticoagulation.

    Title An Evaluation of the Effects of a Standard Heparin Dose on Thrombin Inhibition During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Neonates.
    Date May 2005
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    We compared the adequacy of heparinization in neonates and older children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by measuring heparin activity, thrombin formation, and thrombin activity. Ten neonates and 10 older children were administered 400 U/kg of heparin before CPB. Heparin anti-Xa activity, prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2), and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) were measured at baseline, after 30 min on CPB, immediately post-CPB, and 3 and 24 h post-CPB. Heparin anti-Xa activity was significantly decreased during and immediately post-CPB in the neonatal group. F1.2 and FPA levels in neonates were significantly higher at baseline, decreased with the commencement of CPB, and increased to levels higher than those in older children after CPB. Our data show that with standard heparin doses, neonates exhibit less heparin anti-Xa activity during CPB. Higher baseline levels of F1.2 and FPA present in neonates indicate preoperative activation of their coagulation systems as compared with older children. Although F1.2 and FPA levels initially decrease with the commencement of CPB, probably representing hemodilution, the subsequent increase in these markers indicates significantly more thrombin formation and activity during and after CPB. These results raise the concern that 400 U/kg of heparin may not adequately suppress thrombin formation and activity in neonates undergoing CPB.

    Title Fibrinogen in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: is It Effective?
    Date November 2004
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    There is speculation based on laboratory tests and biochemical data regarding the functional integrity of the fibrinogen in young children. Recent investigations in adults have demonstrated that their fibrinogen level correlates with the thromboelastogram maximum amplitude (MA) after modification with a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker that uncouples platelet-fibrinogen interactions. We postulate that if the fibrinogen of young children is functionally intact then their fibrinogen levels should also correlate with modified thromboelastogram MA values as they do in adults. We compared modified and unmodified thromboelastogram variables of 250 children <2 yr old undergoing cardiac surgery with their fibrinogen levels and platelet counts. Five age groups were distinguished to determine if and when correlations become significant (<1 mo, 1-3 mo, 3-6 mo, 6-12 mo, and 12-24 mo). Fibrinogen levels correlated with modified thromboelastogram MAs only in the 12-24 mo group. In this 12-24 mo age group other correlations between fibrinogen levels and thromboelastogram variables influenced by fibrinogen also became significant, as did correlations noted in adults between platelet counts and thromboelastogram variables. We conclude that the fibrinogen of children <12 mo old with congenital heart disease is qualitatively dysfunctional.

    Title Tissue Factor-activated Thromboelastograms in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: Baseline Values and Comparisons.
    Date November 2003
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    Activation of clotting with tissue factor (TF) allows rapid evaluation of thromboelastograms but alters the values of thromboelastogram variables. We have performed TF-activated thromboelastograms in 250 children <2 yr old undergoing cardiac surgery to establish baseline values. Five groups were distinguished to evaluate the effects of quantitative deficiencies in coagulation factor levels during infancy: <30 days, 1-3 mo, 3-6 mo, 6-12 mo, and 12-24 mo. Activation of clotting (R and K values) was similar among groups. Infants 1-3 mo of age demonstrated increased clot strength compared with the other groups, a finding similar to previous evaluation of native thromboelastograms. The alpha and maximum amplitude values were numerically almost identical in each age group, a unique finding in activated thromboelastograms. Fibrinolysis was similar among groups. We believe that knowledge of baseline TF-activated thromboelastogram variables in young children will be useful in interpreting these thromboelastograms in clinical scenarios, in using these thromboelastograms as part of coagulopathy treatment algorithms, and during the application of more specific thromboelastogram modifiers. Additionally, the similarity of alpha and maximum amplitude values in each age group will allow even faster interpretation of thromboelastogram data. IMPLICATIONS: Baseline values for tissue factor-activated thromboelastograms in young children undergoing cardiac surgery have been established and will permit accurate use and interpretation of this thromboelastogram modification in evaluating and managing coagulopathies.

    Title Rapid Evaluation of Coagulopathies After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Children Using Modified Thromboelastography.
    Date June 2000
    Journal Anesthesia and Analgesia

    Complex coagulopathies follow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children. However, objective laboratory data that can be acquired rapidly to guide their management are lacking. Because thromboelastography has proven useful in this regard, we evaluated the use of celite or tissue factor (TF) activation and heparinase modification of blood samples to allow rapid determination of thromboelastogram data in children younger than 2 yr undergoing CPB. Celite or TF activation shortened the initiation of clotting and, thus, the time required for the important thromboelastogram alpha and maximum amplitude values to begin evolving. Although thromboelastogram alpha and maximum amplitude values were increased with these activators, correlations persisted between platelet count or fibrinogen level and each of these values. The additional use of heparinase allowed thromboelastograms to be obtained during CPB with values not different from those obtained without heparinase after protamine administration. Therefore, celite- or TF-activated, heparinase-modified thromboelastograms begun during CPB allow objective data to be available by the conclusion of protamine administration to help restore hemostasis after CPB in children. Thromboelastography identified transient fibrinolysis during CPB in some children that resolved by the conclusion of protamine administration. Future investigations of the effectiveness of modified thromboelastography-guided coagulopathy management after CPB in children are needed. Implications: Thromboelastography is useful in assessing the coagulopathies that follow cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Modifying blood samples with celite or tissue factor and heparinase allows thromboelastography begun before the termination of cardiopulmonary bypass to become a rapid point-of-care monitor to provide objective data for guiding blood component therapy to manage these coagulopathies.

    Title Hematologic and Economic Impact of Aprotinin in Reoperative Pediatric Cardiac Operations.
    Date September 1998
    Journal The Annals of Thoracic Surgery

    BACKGROUND: Aprotinin consistently reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements in adults during and after cardiac surgical procedures, but its effectiveness in children is debated. We evaluated the hemostatic and economic effects of aprotinin in children undergoing reoperative cardiac procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Control, low-dose aprotinin, and high-dose aprotinin groups were established with 15 children per group. Platelet counts, fibrinogen levels, and thromboelastographic values at baseline and after protamine sulfate administration, number of blood product transfusions, and 6-hour and 24-hour chest tube drainage were used to evaluate the effects of aprotinin on postbypass coagulopathies. Time needed for skin closure after protamine administration and lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and the hospital were recorded prospectively to determine the economic impact of aprotinin. RESULTS: Coagulation tests performed after protamine administration rarely demonstrated fibrinolysis but did show significant decreases in platelet and fibrinogen levels and function. The thromboelastographic variables indicated a preservation of platelet function by aprotinin. Decreased blood product transfusions, shortened skin closure times, and shortened durations of intensive care unit and hospital stays were found in the aprotinin groups, most significantly in the high-dose group with a subsequent average reduction of nearly $3,000 in patient charges. CONCLUSIONS: In children undergoing reoperative cardiac surgical procedures, aprotinin is effective in attenuating postbypass coagulopathies, decreasing blood product exposure, improving clinical outcome, and reducing patient charges.

    Title Principles of Hemostasis in Children: Models and Maturation.
    Journal Paediatric Anaesthesia

    Hemostasis is an active process regulating the formation and dissolution of fibrin clot to preserve vascular integrity. The different phases of hemostasis are coordinated so that effective clotting occurs only at the site of vascular injury while maintaining blood flow in other parts of the circulation. Procoagulant processes culminate in thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation to protect the vasculature against uncontrolled bleeding after injury. Conversely, anticoagulant processes limit clot extension to unaffected portions of the vasculature. Lastly, fibrinolysis is responsible for clot dissolution once tissue repair and regeneration permit the return of normal blood flow. A precise and delicate interplay exists among these processes to ensure normal hemostasis. The hemostatic system is incompletely developed at birth and matures throughout infancy. Both full-term and preterm neonates are born with low levels of most procoagulant proteins including all the contact activation factors and vitamin K-dependent factors. Similarly, levels of the major anticoagulant proteins are low at birth. Although often characterized as 'immature', the neonatal hemostatic system is nevertheless functionally balanced with no tendency toward coagulopathy or thrombosis. In this article, we will review the current models of hemostasis and the maturation of the hemostatic system. Our goal is to help clinicians gain a better understanding of the actions of procoagulant agents and of the disruptive effects of serious systemic illnesses on the precarious hemostatic balance of infants.

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