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Browse Health

Credentials

Education ?

Medical School
Universidad Nacional De Cuyo (1962)
Foreign school

Affiliations ?

Dr. Carretero is affiliated with 4 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations

Score

Rankings

  • Henry Ford Macomb Hospitals
    15855 19 Mile Rd, Clinton Township, MI 48038
    •  
    Top 25%
  • Henry Ford Wyandotte Hospital
    2333 Biddle Ave, Wyandotte, MI 48192
    •  
    Top 25%
  • Henry Ford Hospital
    2799 W Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202
    •  
    Top 25%
  • Henry Ford Medical Center at Maplegrove
    6777 W Maple Rd, West Bloomfield, MI 48322
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Carretero has contributed to 231 publications.
    Title Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein-2 (vamp2) Mediates Camp-stimulated Renin Release in Mouse Juxtaglomerular Cells.
    Date May 2012
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Renin is essential for blood pressure control. Renin is stored in granules in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, located in the pole of the renal afferent arterioles. The second messenger cAMP stimulates renin release. However, it is unclear whether fusion and exocytosis of renin-containing granules is involved. In addition, the role of the fusion proteins, SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins), in renin release from JG cells has not been studied. The vesicle SNARE proteins VAMP2 (vesicle associated membrane protein 2) and VAMP3 mediate cAMP-stimulated exocytosis in other endocrine cells. Thus, we hypothesized that VAMP2 and/or -3 mediate cAMP-stimulated renin release from JG cells. By fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we isolated JG cells expressing green fluorescent protein and compared the relative abundance of VAMP2/3 in JG cells versus total mouse kidney mRNA by quantitative PCR. We found that VAMP2 and VAMP3 mRNA are expressed and enriched in JG cells. Confocal imaging of primary cultures of JG cells showed that VAMP2 (but not VAMP3) co-localized with renin-containing granules. Cleavage of VAMP2 and VAMP3 with tetanus toxin blocked cAMP-stimulated renin release from JG cells by ~50% and impaired cAMP-stimulated exocytosis by ~50%, as monitored with FM1-43. Then we specifically knocked down VAMP2 or VAMP3 by adenoviral-mediated delivery of short hairpin silencing RNA. We found that silencing VAMP2 blocked cAMP-induced renin release by ~50%. In contrast, silencing VAMP3 had no effect on basal or cAMP-stimulated renin release. We conclude that VAMP2 and VAMP3 are expressed in JG cells, but only VAMP2 is targeted to renin-containing granules and mediates the stimulatory effect of cAMP on renin exocytosis.

    Title Angiotensin Ii-induced Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Balb/c but Not C57bl/6j Mice.
    Date January 2012
    Journal Experimental Physiology
    Excerpt

    Balb/c mice, which are T-helper lymphocyte 2 (Th2) responders, are highly susceptible to infectious and non-infectious heart diseases, whereas C57BL/6 mice (Th1 responders) are not. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is not only a vasopressor but also a pro-inflammatory factor that leads to cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction. We hypothesized that Ang II exacerbates cardiac damage in Balb/c but not in C57BL/6 mice even though both strains have a similar level of hypertension. Twelve-week-old male C57BL/6J and Balb/c mice received either vehicle or Ang II (1.4 mg kg(-1) day(-1), s.c. via osmotic minipump) for 8 weeks. At baseline, Balb/c mice exhibited the following: (1) a lower heart rate; (2) an enlarged left ventricular chamber; (3) a lower ejection fraction and shortening fraction; and (4) twice the left ventricular collagen deposition of age-matched C57BL/6J mice. Angiotensin II raised systolic blood pressure (to ∼150 mmHg) and induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in a similar manner in both strains. While C57BL/6J mice developed compensatory concentric hypertrophy and fibrosis in response to Ang II, Balb/c mice demonstrated severe left ventricular chamber dilatation, wall thinning and fibrosis, leading to congestive heart failure as evidenced by dramatically decreased ejection fraction and lung congestion (significant increase in lung weight), which are both characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our study suggests that the Th phenotype plays an active role in cardiac remodelling and function both in basal conditions and in hypertension. Angiotensin II-induced dilated cardiomyopathy in Balb/c mice is an ideal animal model for studying the impact of the adaptive immune system on cardiac remodelling and function and for testing strategies to prevent or treat hypertension-associated heart failure.

    Title Connecting Tubule Glomerular Feedback Antagonizes Tubuloglomerular Feedback in Vivo.
    Date January 2011
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
    Excerpt

    In vitro experiments showed that the connecting tubule (CNT) sends a signal that dilates the afferent arteriole (Af-Art) when Na(+) reabsorption in the CNT lumen increases. We call this process CNT glomerular feedback (CTGF) to differentiate it from tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), which is a cross talk between the macula densa (MD) and the Af-Art. In TGF, the MD signals the Af-Art to constrict when NaCl transport by the MD is enhanced by increased luminal NaCl. CTGF is mediated by CNT Na(+) transport via epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC). However, we do not know whether CTGF occurs in vivo or whether it opposes the increase in Af-Art resistance caused by TGF. We hypothesized that CTGF occurs in vivo and opposes TGF. To test our hypothesis, we conducted in vivo micropuncture of individual rat nephrons, measuring stop-flow pressure (P(SF)) as an index of glomerular filtration pressure. To test whether activation of CTGF opposes TGF, we used benzamil to block CNT Na(+) transport and thus CTGF. CTGF inhibition with the ENaC blocker benzamil (1 μM) potentiated the decrease in P(SF) at 40 and 80 nl/min. Next, we tested whether we could augment CTGF by inhibiting NaCl reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 1 mM) to enhance NaCl delivery to the CNT. In the presence of HCTZ, benzamil potentiated the decrease in P(SF) at 20, 40, and 80 nl/min. We concluded that in vivo CTGF occurs and opposes the vasoconstrictor effect of TGF.

    Title Local Angiotensin Ii Aggravates Cardiac Remodeling in Hypertension.
    Date November 2010
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) contributes to hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction; however, it is difficult to separate the cardiac effect of ANG II from its hemodynamic action in vivo. To overcome the limitations, we used transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a transgene fusion protein that releases ANG II from cardiomyocytes (Tg-ANG II) and treated them with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt to suppress their systemic renin-angiotensin system. Using this unique model, we tested the hypothesis that cardiac ANG II, acting on the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R), increases inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, accelerating cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Male Tg-ANG II mice and their nontransgenic littermates (n-Tg) were uninephrectomized and divided into the following three groups: 1) vehicle-treated normotensive controls; 2) DOCA-salt; and 3) DOCA-salt + valsartan (AT(1)R blocker).Under basal conditions, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiac phenotypes were similar between strains. In DOCA-salt hypertension, SBP increased similarly in both n-Tg and Tg-ANG II, and cardiac function did not differ between strains; however, Tg-ANG II had 1) greater ventricular hypertrophy as well as interstitial and perivascular fibrosis; 2) a higher number of deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells and infiltrating macrophages; 3) increased protein expression of NADPH oxidase 2 and transforming growth factor-β(1); and 4) downregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. Valsartan partially reversed these effects in Tg-ANG II but not in n-Tg. We conclude that, when hemodynamic loading conditions remain unchanged, cardiac ANG II does not alter heart size or cardiac functions. However, in animals with hypertension, cardiac ANG II, acting via AT(1)R, enhances inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death (most likely via downregulation of PI 3-kinase and Akt), contributing to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

    Title Angiotensin Ii Enhances Connecting Tubule Glomerular Feedback.
    Date October 2010
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Increasing Na delivery to epithelial Na channels (ENaCs) in the connecting tubule (CNT) causes dilation of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art), a process we call CNT glomerular feedback (CTGF). Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates ENaC in the collecting duct via Ang II type 1 receptors. We hypothesized that Ang II in the CNT lumen enhances CTGF by activation of Ang II type 1 receptors, protein kinase C and ENaC. Rabbit afferent arterioles and their adherent CNT were microperfused and preconstricted with norepinephrine. Each experiment involved generating 2 consecutive concentration-response curves by increasing NaCl in the CNT lumen. During the control period, the maximum dilation of the afferent arteriole was 7.9±0.4 μm, and the concentration of NaCl in the CNT needed to achieve half maximal response (EC(50)) was 34.7±5.2 mmol/L. After adding Ang II (10(-9) mol/L) to the CNT lumen, the maximal response was 9.5±0.7 μm and the EC(50) was 11.6±1.3 mmol/L (P=0.01 versus control). Losartan, an Ang II type 1 antagonist (10(-6) mol/L) blocked the stimulatory effect of Ang II; PD123319, an Ang II type 2 antagonist (10(-6) mol/L), did not. The protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (10(-8) mol/L) added to the CNT inhibited the stimulatory effect of Ang II. The ENaC inhibitor benzamil (10(-6) mol/L) prevented both CTGF and its stimulation by Ang II. We concluded that Ang II in the CNT lumen enhances CTGF via activation of Ang II type 1 and that this effect requires activation of protein kinase C and ENaC. Potentiation of CTGF by Ang II could help preserve glomerular filtration rate in the presence of renal vasoconstriction.

    Title Role of Prolylcarboxypeptidase in Angiotensin Ii Type 2 Receptor-mediated Bradykinin Release in Mouse Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.
    Date September 2010
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Activation of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT(2)R) causes the release of kinins, which have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. However, it is not clear how AT(2)R interact with the kallikrein-kinin system to generate kinins. Prolylcarboxypeptidase is an endothelial membrane-bound plasma prekallikrein activator that converts plasma prekallikrein to kallikrein, leading to generation of bradykinin from high-molecular-weight kininogen. We hypothesized that AT(2)R-induced bradykinin release is at least in part mediated by activation of prolylcarboxypeptidase. Cultures of mouse coronary artery endothelial cells were transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the AT(2)R gene (Ad-AT(2)R) or green fluorescent protein only (Ad-GFP) as control. We found that overexpression of AT(2)R increased prolylcarboxypeptidase mRNA by 1.7-fold and protein 2.5-fold compared with Ad-GFP controls. AT(2)R overexpression had no effect on angiotensin II type 1 receptor mRNA. Bradykinin release was increased 2.2-fold in AT(2)R-transfected cells. Activation of AT(2)R by CGP42112A, a specific AT(2)R agonist, increased bradykinin further in AT(2)R-transfected cells. These effects were diminished or abolished by AT(2)R blockade or a plasma kallikrein inhibitor. Furthermore, blocking prolylcarboxypeptidase with a small interfering RNA partially but significantly reduced bradykinin release by transfected AT(2)R cells either at the basal condition or when stimulated by the AT(2)R agonist CGP42112A. These findings suggest that overexpression of AT(2)R in mouse coronary artery endothelial cells increases expression of prolylcarboxypeptidase, which may contribute to kinin release.

    Title Enhanced Myogenic Response in the Afferent Arteriole of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
    Date June 2010
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) have normal glomerular capillary pressure even though renal perfusion pressure is higher, suggesting that preglomerular vessels exhibit abnormally high resistance. This may be due to increased superoxide (O(2)(-)) production, which contributes to the vasoconstriction in hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that the myogenic response of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art) is exaggerated in SHRs because of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Single Af-Arts were microdissected from kidneys of SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and microperfused in vitro. When perfusion pressure in the Af-Art was increased stepwise from 60 to 140 mmHg, the luminal diameter decreased by 8.4 + or - 2.9% in WKY Af-Arts but fell by 29.3 + or - 5.6% in SHR Af-Arts. To test whether ROS production is enhanced during myogenic response in SHRs, we measured chloromethyl-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA) florescence before and after increasing intraluminal pressure from 60 to 140 mmHg. Pressure-induced increases in ROS were fourfold greater in SHR Af-Arts compared with WKY Af-Arts (SHR, 48.0 + or - 2.2%; and WKY, 12.2 + or - 0.3%). To test whether O(2)(-) contributes to the myogenic response in SHRs, either the membrane-permeant O(2)(-) scavenger Tempol or the nox2-based NADPH oxidase (NOX2) inhibitor gp91ds-tat were added to the Af-Art lumen and bath and the myogenic response was tested before and after treatment. Both Tempol (10(-4) M) and gp91ds-tat (10(-5) M) significantly attenuated the pressure-induced constriction in SHR Af-Arts but not in WKY Af-Arts. We conclude that 1) pressure-induced constriction is exaggerated in SHR Af-Arts, 2) NOX2-derived O(2)(-) may contribute to the enhanced myogenic response, and 3) O(2)(-) exerts little influence on the myogenic response under normotensive conditions.

    Title Ac-sdkp Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor-beta1-induced Differentiation of Human Cardiac Fibroblasts into Myofibroblasts.
    Date May 2010
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) inhibits collagen production and cell proliferation in cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts, but its effect on differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is not known. High amounts of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) have been found in fibrotic cardiac tissue. TGF-beta1 converts fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, which produce more extracellular matrix proteins than fibroblasts. We hypothesized that 1) Ac-SDKP inhibits TGF-beta1-induced differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts; and 2) this effect is mediated in part by blocking phosphorylation of small-mothers-against-decapentaplegic (Smad) 2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. For this study, we used human fetal cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs), which do not spontaneously become myofibroblasts when cultured at low passages. We investigated the effect of Ac-SDKP on TGF-beta1-induced HCF transformation into myofibroblasts, Smad2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, Smad7 expression, cell proliferation, and collagen production. We also investigated TGF-beta1 production by HCFs stimulated with endothelin-1 (ET-1). As expected, HCFs treated with TGF-beta1 transformed into myofibroblasts as indicated by increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and a higher proportion of the embryonic isoform of smooth muscle myosin compared with untreated cells. TGF-beta1 also increased Smad2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation but did not affect Smad7 expression. In addition, TGF-beta1 stimulated HCF proliferation as indicated by an increase in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and collagen production (hydroxyproline assay). Ac-SDKP significantly inhibited all of the effects of TGF-beta1. It also inhibited ET-1-stimulated TGF-beta1 production. We concluded that Ac-SDKP markedly suppresses differentiation of human cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, probably by inhibiting the TGF-beta/Smad/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and thus mediating its anti-fibrotic effects.

    Title N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline Attenuates Renal Injury and Dysfunction in Hypertensive Rats with Reduced Renal Mass: Council for High Blood Pressure Research.
    Date February 2010
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a naturally occurring peptide of which the plasma concentration is increased 4- to 5-fold by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. We reported previously that, in models of both hypertension and postmyocardial infarction, Ac-SDKP reduces cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. However, it is unknown whether Ac-SDKP can prevent or reverse renal injury and dysfunction in hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that, in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx)-induced hypertension, Ac-SDKP reduces renal damage, albuminuria, and dysfunction by decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration and renal fibrosis and by increasing nephrin protein. Ac-SDKP (800 microg/kg per day, SC via osmotic minipump) or vehicle was either started 7 days before 5/6Nx (prevention) and continued for 3 weeks or started 3 weeks after 5/6Nx (reversal) and continued for another 3 weeks. Rats with 5/6Nx developed high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, albuminuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and increased macrophage infiltration (inflammation) and renal collagen content (fibrosis). Ac-SDKP did not affect blood pressure or left ventricular hypertrophy in either group; however, it significantly reduced albuminuria, renal inflammation, and fibrosis and improved glomerular filtration rate in both prevention and reversal groups. Moreover, slit diaphragm nephrin protein expression in the glomerular filtration barrier was significantly decreased in hypertensive rats. This effect was partially prevented or reversed by Ac-SDKP. We concluded that Ac-SDKP greatly attenuates albuminuria and renal fibrosis and improves renal function in rats with 5/6Nx. These effects may be related to decreased inflammation (macrophages) and increased nephrin protein.

    Title Lack of Glutathione Peroxidase 1 Accelerates Cardiac-specific Hypertrophy and Dysfunction in Angiotensin Ii Hypertension.
    Date January 2010
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) plays an important role in cellular defense by converting hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides to nonreactive products, and Gpx1(-/-) mice, which are characterized by reduced tissue glutathione peroxidase activity, are known to exhibit enhanced oxidative stress. Peroxides participate in tissue injury, as well as the hypertrophy of cultured cells, yet the role of Gpx1 to prevent end organ damage in cardiovascular tissue is not clear. We postulated that Gpx1 deletion would potentiate both aortic and cardiac hypertrophy, as well as mean arterial blood pressure, in response to angiotensin II (AngII). Our results show that short-term AngII markedly increased left ventricular mass, myocyte cross-sectional area, and interventricular septum thickness and decreased shortening fraction in Gpx1(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type animals. On the other hand, AngII resulted in a similar increase in mean arterial blood pressure in wild-type and Gpx1(-/-) mice. Collagen deposition increased in response to AngII, but no differences were found between strains. Vascular hypertrophy increased to the same extent in Gpx1(-/-) and wild-type mice. Collectively, our results indicate that Gpx1 deficiency accelerates cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction but has no effect on vascular hypertrophy and mean arterial blood pressure and suggest a major role for Gpx1 in cardiac dysfunction in AngII-dependent hypertension.

    Title The Kinin B1 Receptor Contributes to the Cardioprotective Effect of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Mice.
    Date April 2009
    Journal Experimental Physiology
    Excerpt

    Recent studies have shown that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or angiotensin II receptors causes upregulation of the B(1) receptor (B(1)R). Here we tested the hypothesis that activation of the B(1)R partly contributes to the cardiac beneficial effect of ACE inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). B(1)R knockout mice (B(1)R(-/-)) and C57Bl/6J (wild-type control animals, WT) were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Three weeks after MI, each strain of mice was treated with vehicle, ACEi (ramipril, 2.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) in drinking water) or ARB (valsartan, 40 mg kg(-1) day(-1) in drinking water) for 5 weeks. We found that: (1) compared with WT mice, B(1)R(-/-) mice that underwent sham surgery had slightly but significantly increased left ventricular (LV) diastolic dimension, LV mass and myocyte size, whereas systolic blood pressure, cardiac function and collagen deposition did not differ between strains; (2) MI leads to LV hypertrophy, chamber dilatation and dysfunction similarly in both WT and B(1)R(-/-) mice; and (3) ACEi and ARB improved cardiac function and remodelling in both strains; however, these benefits were significantly diminished in B(1)R(-/-) mice. Our data suggest that kinins, acting via the B(1)R, participate in the cardioprotective effects of ACEi and ARB.

    Title Cross-talk Between Arterioles and Tubules in the Kidney.
    Date April 2009
    Journal Pediatric Nephrology (berlin, Germany)
    Excerpt

    In hypertension the pressure natriuresis set point is shifted to a higher pressure due to an increase in both renal vascular resistance and sodium (Na) reabsorption. The afferent arterioles (Af-Arts) and efferent arterioles (Ef-Arts) account for most renal vascular resistance; they control glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and peritubular pressure, and, consequently, renal function. Af-Art and Ef-Art resistance is regulated by factors similar to those in other arterioles and also by tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). TGF operates via the macula densa, which senses increases in sodium chloride (NaCl) and sends a signal that constricts the Af-Art and dilates the Ef-Art. In the outer renal cortex, the connecting tubule (CNT) returns to the glomerular hilus and contacts the Af-Art. This morphology is compatible with cross-talk between the CNT and Af-Art, so-called connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF). Our studies show that increasing NaCl delivery to the CNT results in Af-Art dilatation that can be blocked by inhibitors of Na transport. We believe cross-talk between the CNT and Af-Art is a novel mechanism that may contribute to regulation of renal blood flow and GFR.

    Title N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline Prevents Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction Induced by Galectin-3, a Mammalian Adhesion/growth-regulatory Lectin.
    Date March 2009
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is secreted by activated macrophages. In hypertension, Gal-3 is a marker for hypertrophic hearts prone to develop heart failure. Gal-3 infused in pericardial sac leads to cardiac inflammation, remodeling, and dysfunction. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), a naturally occurring tetrapeptide, prevents and reverses inflammation and collagen deposition in the heart in hypertension and heart failure postmyocardial infarction. In the present study, we hypothesize that Ac-SDKP prevents Gal-3-induced cardiac inflammation, remodeling, and dysfunction, and these effects are mediated by the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta/Smad3 signaling pathway. Adult male rats were divided into four groups and received the following intrapericardial infusion for 4 wk: 1) vehicle (saline, n = 8); 2) Ac-SDKP (800 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1), n = 8); 3) Gal-3 (12 microg/day, n = 7); and 4) Ac-SDKP + Gal-3 (n = 7). Left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac output, and transmitral velocity were measured by echocardiography; inflammatory cell infiltration, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and collagen deposition in the heart by histological and immunohistochemical staining; and TGF-beta expression and Smad3 phosphorylation by Western blot. We found that, in the left ventricle, Gal-3 1) enhanced macrophage and mast cell infiltration, increased cardiac interstitial and perivascular fibrosis, and causes cardiac hypertrophy; 2) increased TGF-beta expression and Smad3 phosphorylation; and 3) decreased negative change in pressure over time response to isoproterenol challenge, ratio of early left ventricular filling phase to atrial contraction phase, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Ac-SDKP partially or completely prevented these effects. We conclude that Ac-SDKP prevents Gal-3-induced cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, and dysfunction, possibly via inhibition of the TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling pathway.

    Title Possible Mediators of Connecting Tubule Glomerular Feedback.
    Date February 2009
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    In the renal cortex, the connecting tubule (CNT) returns to the glomerular hilum and contacts the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). Increasing Na delivery to the CNT dilates the Af-Art by activating epithelial Na channels, a process that we call connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF). However, the mediator(s) of CTGF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that Na reabsorption by the CNT induces release of arachidonic acid metabolites that diffuse to and dilate the Af-Art. Microdissected rabbit Af-Arts and adherent CNTs were simultaneously microperfused. CTGF was measured as the increase in diameter of norepinephrine-preconstricted Af-Arts in response to switching NaCl concentration in the lumen of the CNT from 10 to 80 mmol/L. Under control conditions, CTGF was repeatable and completely reversed norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction. In the presence of 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, an inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, CTGF was completely blocked (-0.7+/-0.3 versus 7.3+/-0.5 microm), suggesting that arachidonic acid metabolites mediate CTGF. Because both cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins and epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are known vasodilatory arachidonic acid metabolites, we tested whether indomethacin or MS-PPOH (a cyclooxygenase and an epoxygenase inhibitor) could block CTGF. Both indomethacin and MS-PPOH partially blocked CTGF (2.3+/-0.8 versus 6.5+/-0.5 microm, and 2.9+/-0.8 versus 6.6+/-1.1 microm, respectively). When combined, they completely blocked CTGF (-0.4+/-0.3 versus 6.6+/-1.1 microm). We confirmed these findings by using the epoxyeicosatrienoic acid antagonist 14,15-EEZE. The combination of indomethacin plus 14,15-EEZE completely abolished CTGF (-0.3+/-0.2 versus 8.0+/-1.0 microm). We conclude that increasing Na concentrations in the CNT stimulate release of prostaglandins and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which mediate CTGF.

    Title Deletion of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Provides Cardioprotection in Mice with 2-kidney, 1-clip Hypertension.
    Date January 2009
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ damage. We hypothesized that induction of iNOS contributes to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice with 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension. Deletion of iNOS diminishes oxidative stress, thereby attenuating LV hypertrophy and enhancing cardiac performance. 2-Kidney, 1-clip hypertension was induced in mice lacking iNOS and wild-type controls (C57BL/6J). Sham-clipped mice served as controls. Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly by tail cuff. Left ventricular ejection fraction (by echocardiography) and cardiac response (maximum and minimum dP/dt, as well as an indicator of isovolumic contraction) to isoproterenol (50 ng per mouse, i.v.) were studied at the end of the experiment. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation and an indicator of oxidative stress) was measured by immunohistochemical staining. gp91(phox), endothelial NO synthase, and iNOS protein expression were determined by Western blot. We found that systolic blood pressure, LV weight, myocyte cross-sectional area, interstitial collagen fraction, ejection fraction, and cardiac response to isoproterenol did not differ between strains with sham clipping. 2-Kidney, 1-clip hypertension increased systolic blood pressure, LV weight, myocyte cross-sectional area, and interstitial collagen fraction similarly in both strains. However, in mice lacking iNOS, maximum and minimum dP/dt, as well as an indicator of isovolumic contraction, markedly increased in response to isoproterenol, associated with decreased cardiac 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal expression and urinary nitrate/nitrite. We concluded that deletion of iNOS does not seem to play a significant role in preventing 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy; however, it does enhance preservation of cardiac function, probably because of a reduction of iNOS-induced oxidative stress.

    Title Heme Oxygenase Metabolites Inhibit Tubuloglomerular Feedback (tgf).
    Date December 2008
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
    Excerpt

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is the mechanism by which the macula densa (MD) senses increases in luminal NaCl concentration and sends a signal to constrict the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). The kidney expresses constitutively heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) and low levels of HO-1. HOs release carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and free iron. We hypothesized that renal HOs inhibit TGF via release of CO and biliverdin. Rabbit Af-Arts and attached MD were simultaneously microperfused in vitro. The TGF response was determined by measuring Af-Art diameter before and after increasing NaCl in the MD perfusate. When HO activity was inhibited by adding stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) to the MD perfusate, the TGF response increased from 2.1+/-0.2 to 4.1+/-0.4 microm (P=0.003, control vs. SnMP, n=7). When a CO-releasing molecule, (CORM-3; 50 microM), was added to the MD perfusate, the TGF response decreased by 41%, from 3.6+/-0.3 to 2.1+/-0.2 microm (P<0.001, control vs. CORM-3, n=12). When CORM-3 at 100 microM was added to the perfusate, it completely blocked the TGF response, from 4.2+/-0.4 to -0.2+/-0.3 microm (P<0.001, control vs. CORM-3, n=6). When biliverdin was added to the perfusate, the TGF response decreased by 79%, from 3.4+/-0.3 to 0.7+/-0.4 microm (P=0.001, control vs. biliverdin, n=6). The effects of SnMP and CORM-3 were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. We concluded that renal HO inhibits TGF probably via release of CO and biliverdin. HO regulation of TGF is a novel mechanism that could lead to a better understanding of the control of renal microcirculation and function.

    Title Intracellular Ph Regulates Superoxide Production by the Macula Densa.
    Date October 2008
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
    Excerpt

    We hypothesized that elevated macula densa intracellular pH (pH(i)) during tubuloglomerular feedback enhances O(2)(-) production from NAD(P)H oxidase. Microdissected thick ascending limbs from rabbits with intact macula densa were cannulated and perfused with physiological saline. When luminal NaCl was switched from 10 to 80 mM, O(2)(-) production increased from 0.53 +/- 0.09 to 2.62 +/- 0.54 U/min (P < 0.01). To determine whether inhibiting the Na/H exchanger blocks O(2)(-) production, we used dimethyl amiloride (DMA) to block Na/H exchange. In the presence of DMA, O(2)(-) production induced by NaCl was blunted by 40%. To study the effect of pH(i) on O(2)(-) in intact macula densa cells, we measured O(2)(-) while pH(i) was changed by adjusting luminal pH. When the macula densa was perfused with 80 mM NaCl and the pH of the perfusate was switched to 6.8, 7.4, and 8.0, O(2)(-) production was significantly enhanced, but not at 10 mM NaCl. To ascertain the source of O(2)(-), we used the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin. In the presence of apocynin (10(-5) M), O(2)(-) production induced by elevating pH(i) was blocked. Finally, we measured the optimum pH for O(2)(-) production by the macula densa and found optimum extracellular pH is at 7.7 and optimum pH(i) is approximately 8 for O(2)(-) production. We found that elevated pH(i) enhances O(2)(-) production from NAD(P)H oxidase induced by increasing luminal NaCl when the lumen is perfused with 80 mM NaCl, not 10 mM, and O(2)(-) production is pH sensitive, with an optimum pH(i) of 8.

    Title Prevention of Aortic Fibrosis by N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline in Angiotensin Ii-induced Hypertension.
    Date October 2008
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Fibrosis is an important component of large conduit artery disease in hypertension. The endogenous tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in the heart and kidney. However, it is not known whether Ac-SDKP has an anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect on conduit arteries such as the aorta. We hypothesize that in ANG II-induced hypertension Ac-SDKP prevents aortic fibrosis and that this effect is associated with decreased protein kinase C (PKC) activation, leading to reduced oxidative stress and inflammation and a decrease in the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and phosphorylation of its second messenger Smad2. To test this hypothesis we used rats with ANG II-induced hypertension and treated them with either vehicle or Ac-SDKP. In this hypertensive model we found an increased collagen deposition and collagen type I and III mRNA expression in the aorta. These changes were associated with increased PKC activation, oxidative stress, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNA expression, and macrophage infiltration. TGF-beta1 expression and Smad2 phosphorylation also increased. Ac-SDKP prevented these effects without decreasing blood pressure or aortic hypertrophy. Ac-SDKP also enhanced expression of inhibitory Smad7. These data indicate that in ANG II-induced hypertension Ac-SDKP has an aortic antifibrotic effect. This effect may be due in part to inhibition of PKC activation, which in turn could reduce oxidative stress, ICAM-1 expression, and macrophage infiltration. Part of the effect of Ac-SDKP could also be due to reduced expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-beta1 and inhibition of Smad2 phosphorylation.

    Title Role of Inflammation in the Development of Renal Damage and Dysfunction in Angiotensin Ii-induced Hypertension.
    Date August 2008
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension is associated with an inflammatory response that may contribute to the development of target organ damage. We tested the hypothesis that, in Ang II-induced hypertension, CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) activation plays an important role in the development of renal fibrosis, damage, and dysfunction by causing oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration, and cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we used CCR2 knockout mice (CCR2-/-). The natural ligand of CCR2 is monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a chemokine important for macrophage recruitment and activation. CCR2-/- and age-matched wild-type (CCR2+/+) C57BL/6J mice were infused continuously with either Ang II (5.2 ng/10 g per minute) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for 2 or 4 weeks. Ang II infusion caused similar increases in systolic blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in both strains of mice. However, in CCR2-/- mice with Ang II-induced hypertension, oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration, albuminuria, and renal damage were significantly decreased, and glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher than in CCR2+/+ mice. We concluded that, in Ang II-induced hypertension, CCR2 activation plays an important role in the development of hypertensive nephropathy via increased oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Title Novel Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms of N-acetyl-ser-asp-lys-pro in Hypertension-induced Target Organ Damage.
    Date May 2008
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    High blood pressure (HBP) is an important risk factor for cardiac, renal, and vascular dysfunction. Excess inflammation is the major pathogenic mechanism for HBP-induced target organ damage (TOD). N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (Ac-SDKP), a tetrapeptide specifically degraded by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), reduces inflammation, fibrosis, and TOD induced by HBP. Our hypothesis is that Ac-SDKP exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting: 1) differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) to macrophages, 2) activation and migration of macrophages, and 3) release of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha by activated macrophages. BMSC were freshly isolated and cultured in macrophage growth medium. Differentiation of murine BMSC to macrophages was analyzed by flow cytometry using F4/80 as a marker of macrophage maturation. Macrophage migration was measured in a modified Boyden chamber. TNF-alpha release by activated macrophages in culture was measured by ELISA. Myocardial macrophage activation in mice with ANG II-induced hypertension was studied by Western blotting of Mac-2 (galectin-3) protein. Interstitial collagen deposition was measured by picrosirius red staining. We found that Ac-SDKP (10 nM) reduced differentiation of cultured BMSC to mature macrophages by 24.5% [F4/80 positivity: 14.09 +/- 1.06 mean fluorescent intensity for vehicle and 10.63 +/- 0.35 for Ac-SDKP; P < 0.05]. Ac-SDKP also decreased galectin-3 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophage migration. In addition, Ac-SDKP decreased secretion of TNF-alpha by macrophages stimulated with bacterial LPS. In mice with ANG II-induced hypertension, Ac-SDKP reduced expression of galectin-3, a protein produced by infiltrating macrophages in the myocardium, and interstitial collagen deposition. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that part of the anti-inflammatory effect of Ac-SDKP is due to its direct effect on BMSC and macrophage, inhibiting their differentiation, activation, and cytokine release. These effects explain some of the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties of Ac-SDKP in hypertension.

    Title Role of Cardiac Overexpression of Ang Ii in the Regulation of Cardiac Function and Remodeling Postmyocardial Infarction.
    Date October 2007
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    ANG II has a clear role in development of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. It has been difficult, however, to determine whether these actions are direct or consequences of its systemic hemodynamic effects in vivo. To overcome this limitation, we used transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a transgene fusion protein that releases ANG II from cardiomyocytes (Tg-ANG II-cardiac) without involvement of the systemic renin-angiotensin system and tested whether increased cardiac ANG II accelerates remodeling and dysfunction postmyocardial infarction (MI), whereas those mice show no evidence of cardiac hypertrophy under the basal condition. Male 12- to 14-wk-old Tg-ANG II-cardiac mice and their wild-type littermates (WT) were subjected to sham-MI or MI by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 8 wk. Cardiac ANG II levels were approximately 10-fold higher in Tg-ANG II-cardiac mice than their WT, whereas ANG II levels in plasma and other tissues did not differ between strains. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups with or without MI. In sham-MI, Tg-ANG II-cardiac mice had increased collagen deposition and decreased capillary density. The differences between strains became more pronounced after MI. Although cardiac function was well preserved in the Tg-ANG II-cardiac mice with sham-MI, cardiac remodeling and dysfunction post-MI were more severe than WT. Our results demonstrate that, independent of systemic hemodynamic effects, cardiac ANG II may act locally in the heart, causing interstitial fibrosis in sham-MI and accelerating deterioration of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling post-MI.

    Title Depolarization of the Macula Densa Induces Superoxide Production Via Nad(p)h Oxidase.
    Date July 2007
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
    Excerpt

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)) enhances tubuloglomerular feedback by scavenging nitric oxide at the macula densa. However, the singling pathway of O(2)(-) production in the macula densa is not known. We hypothesized that the increase in tubular NaCl concentration that initiates tubuloglomerular feedback induces O(2)(-) production by the macula densa via NAD(P)H oxidase, which is activated by macula densa depolarization. We isolated and microperfused the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and attached macula densa in rabbits. A fluorescent dye, dihydroethidium, was used to detect O(2)(-) production at the macula densa. When luminal NaCl was switched from 10 to 80 mM, a situation of initiating maximum tubuloglomerular feedback response, O(2)(-) production significantly increased. To make sure that the shifts in the oxyethidium/dihydroethidium ratio were due to changes in O(2)(-), we used tempol (10(-4) M), a stable membrane-permeant superoxide dismutase mimetic. With tempol present, when we switched from 10 to 80 mM NaCl, the increase in oxyethidium/dihydroethidium ratio was blocked. To determine the source of O(2)(-), we used the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin. When luminal NaCl was switched from 10 to 80 mM in the presence of apocynin, O(2)(-) production was inhibited by 80%. To see whether the effect of increasing luminal NaCl involves Na-K-2Cl cotransporters, we inhibited them with furosemide. When luminal NaCl was switched from 10 to 80 mM in the presence of furosemide, O(2)(-) production was blocked. To test whether depolarization of the macula densa induces O(2)(-) production, we artificially induced depolarization by adding valinomycin (10(-6) M) and 25 mM KCl to the luminal perfusate. Depolarization alone significantly increases O(2)(-) production. We conclude that increasing luminal NaCl induces O(2)(-) production during tubuloglomerular feedback. O(2)(-) generated by the macula densa is primarily derived from NAD(P)H oxidase and is induced by depolarization.

    Title Decreased Endogenous Levels of Ac-sdkp Promote Organ Fibrosis.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    There is convincing evidence that chronic treatment with N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), a peptide normally found in tissues and biological fluids, reduces collagen deposition in the heart and kidneys of hypertensive rats and rats with myocardial infarction. However, it is not known whether endogenous Ac-SDKP at basal concentrations has any physiological function related to collagen deposition. Prolyl oligopeptidase is responsible for release of Ac-SDKP from its precursor thymosin-beta(4). When we treated rats with a specific oral rolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor, Ac-SDKP decreased significantly in the plasma, heart, and kidney. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous Ac-SDKP at basal levels plays a physiological role, antagonizing and/or preventing excessive collagen deposition. We studied whether chronic blockade of Ac-SDKP promotes collagen accumulation and/or accelerates this process in the presence of a profibrotic stimulus such as angiotensin II. We found that decreased basal levels of Ac-SDKP increased cardiac and renal perivascular fibrosis and promoted glomerulosclerosis. Moreover, in the presence of angiotensin II decreasing basal levels of Ac-SDKP accelerated interstitial cardiac fibrosis attributable to an increase in cells that produce collagen. We concluded that Ac-SDKP participates in the regulation of collagen content under normal conditions. We believe this is the first study showing that this peptide plays a physiological role at basal concentrations, preventing organ collagen accumulation.

    Title Crosstalk Between the Connecting Tubule and the Afferent Arteriole Regulates Renal Microcirculation.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    The renal afferent arterioles (Af-Arts) account for most of the renal vascular resistance, which is controlled similar to other arterioles and by tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). The latter signal is generated by sensing sodium chloride concentrations in the macula densa; this in turn results in a signal which acts through the extraglomerular mesangium leading to constriction of the Af-Art. In the outer renal cortex, the connecting tubule (CNT) returns to the glomerular hilus and contacts the Af-Art suggesting that crosstalk may exist here as well. To investigate this, we simultaneously perfused a microdissected Af-Art and adherent CNT. Increasing the sodium chloride concentration perfusing the CNT significantly dilated preconstricted Af-Arts. We called this crosstalk 'connecting tubule glomerular feedback' (CTGF) to differentiate it from TGF. We tested whether entry of Na(+) and/or CI(-) into the CNT is required to induce CTGF by replacing Na(+) with choline(+). Increasing choline chloride concentration did not dilate the Af-Art. To test whether epithelial Na channels (ENaCs) mediate CTGF, we blocked ENaC with amiloride and found that the dilatation induced by CTGF was completely blocked. Inhibiting sodium chloride cotransporters with hydrochlorothiazide failed to prevent Af-Art dilatation. Finally, we tested whether nitric oxide released by the CNT mediates CTGF by the addition of a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor to the CNT. This potentiated CTGF rather than blocking it. We suggest that crosstalk exists between CNTs and attached Af-Arts, which is initiated by sodium reabsorption through amiloride-sensitive channels and this can contribute to the regulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration.

    Title Possible Mechanism of Efferent Arteriole (ef-art) Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date June 2007
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is liberated from macula densa cells in response to increased tubular NaCl delivery. However, it is not known whether ATP from the macula densa is broken down to adenosine, or whether this adenosine mediates efferent arteriole (Ef-Art) tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). We hypothesized that increased macula densa Ca(2+), release of ATP and degradation of ATP to adenosine are necessary for Ef-Art TGF. Rabbit Ef-Arts and adherent tubular segments (with the macula densa) were simultaneously microperfused in vitro while changing the NaCl concentration at the macula densa. The Ef-Art was perfused orthograde through the end of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). In Ef-Arts preconstricted with norepinephrine (NE), increasing NaCl concentration from 10 to 80 mM at the macula densa dilated Ef-Arts from 7.5+/-0.7 to 11.1+/-0.3 microm. Buffering increases in macula densa Ca(2+) with the cell-permeant Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM diminished Ef-Art TGF from 3.1+/-0.3 to 0.1+/-0.2 microm. Blocking adenosine formation by adding alpha-beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (MADP) blocked Ef-Art TGF from 2.9+/-0.5 to 0.1+/-0.2 microm. Increasing luminal NaCl at the macula densa from 10 to 45 mM caused a moderate Ef-Art TGF response, 1.3+/-0.1 microm. It was potentiated to 4.0+/-0.3 microm by adding hexokinase, which enhances conversion of ATP into adenosine. Our data show that in vitro changes in macula densa Ca(2+) and ATP release are necessary for Ef-Art TGF. ATP is broken down to form adenosine, which mediates signal transmission of Ef-Art TGF.

    Title Effects of At1 Receptor-mediated Endocytosis of Extracellular Ang Ii on Activation of Nuclear Factor-kappa B in Proximal Tubule Cells.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) exerts powerful proinflammatory and growth effects on the development of Ang II-induced hypertensive glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. The proinflammatory and growth actions of Ang II are primarily mediated by activation of cell surface type 1 receptors (AT(1)) and the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). However, binding of cell surface receptors by extracellular Ang II also induces receptor-mediated endocytosis of the agonist-receptor complex in renal cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether AT(1) receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular Ang II is required for Ang II-induced NF-kappaB activation and subsequent proliferation of rabbit renal proximal tubule cells. Expression of AT(1) (primarily AT(1a) or human AT(1)) receptors in these cells was confirmed by Western blot, showing that transfection of a human AT(1) receptor-specific 20-25 nucleotide siRNA knocked down more than 70% of AT(1) receptor protein (P < 0.01). Stimulation of proximal tubule cells by Ang II (1 nM) induced fourfold increases in NF-kappaB activity (P < 0.01). The Ang II-increased NF-kappaB activity was significantly attenuated by coadministration of losartan (10 microM), an AT(1) receptor-selective blocker, or colchicine (1 microM), a selective cytoskeleton microtubule inhibitor known to block receptor-mediated endocytosis (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Ang II significantly increased (3)H-thymidine incorporation (>55%, P < 0.01), an index of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, and the effect was also attenuated by coadministration of losartan and colchicine (P < 0.01). Our results therefore suggest that AT(1) receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular Ang II may be required for Ang II-induced NF-kappaB activation and subsequent cell proliferation in renal proximal tubule cells.

    Title Characterization and Localization of Ac-sdkp Receptor Binding Sites Using 125i-labeled Hpp-aca-sdkp in Rat Cardiac Fibroblasts.
    Date March 2007
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    We have shown that the tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) inhibited endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and reduced left ventricle collagen deposition in rats with aldosterone (salt)- and ANG II-induced hypertension. However, it is not known whether these effects are mediated by receptor binding sites specific for Ac-SDKP. We hypothesized that Ac-SDKP exerts antifibrotic effects by binding to specific receptor sites in cultured rat CFs, which mediate the inhibitory effects of Ac-SDKP on ET-1-stimulated collagen synthesis. Ac-SDKP binding sites in rat CFs and hearts were characterized by a specific radioligand, (125)I-labeled 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid (or desaminotyrosine) (Hpp)-Aca-SDKP, a biologically active analog of Ac-SDKP. (125)I-labeled Hpp-Aca-SDKP bound to rat CFs and fractionated membranes with similar affinities and specificity in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. Scatchard plot analyses revealed a single class of high-affinity Hpp-Aca-SDKP binding sites (maximal binding: 1,704 +/- 198 fmol/mg protein; dissociation constant: 3.3 +/- 0.6 nM). (125)I-labeled Hpp-Aca-SDKP binding in CFs was displaced by unlabeled native peptide Ac-SDKP (inhibition constant: 0.69 +/- 0.15 nM) and the analog Hpp-Aca-SDKP (inhibition constant: 10.4 +/- 0.2 nM) but not the unrelated peptide ANG II or ET-1 (10 microM). In vitro, both Ac-SDKP and Hpp-Aca-SDKP inhibited ET-1-stimulated collagen synthesis in CFs in a dose-dependent fashion, reaching a maximal effect at 1 nM (control: 7.5 +/- 0.4, ET-1: 19.9 +/- 1.2, ET-1+SDKP: 7.7 +/- 0.4, ET-1+Hpp-Aca-SDKP: 9.7 +/- 0.1 microg/mg protein; P < 0.001). Ac-SDKP also significantly attenuated ET-1-induced increases in intracellular calcium and MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CFs. In the rat heart, in vitro autoradiography revealed specific (125)I-labeled Hpp-Aca-SDKP binding throughout the myocardium, primarily interstitially. We believe that these results demonstrate for the first time that Hpp-Aca-SDKP is a functional ligand specific for Ac-SDKP receptor binding sites and that both Ac-SDKP and Hpp-Aca-SDKP exert antifibrotic effects by binding to Ac-SDKP receptors in rat CFs.

    Title Role of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline in the Antifibrotic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Captopril in Hypertension.
    Date March 2007
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) are known to have antifibrotic effects on the heart and kidney in both animal models and humans. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline is a natural inhibitor of proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and a natural substrate of ACEi that was reported to prevent cardiac and renal fibrosis in vivo. However, it is not clear whether N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline participates in the antifibrotic effects of ACEi. To clarify this issue, we used a model of aldosterone-salt-induced hypertension in rats treated with the ACEi captopril either alone or combined with an anti-N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline monoclonal antibody. These hypertensive rats had the following: (1) left ventricular and renal hypertrophy, as well as increased collagen deposition in the left ventricular and the kidney; (2) glomerular matrix expansion; and (3) increased ED1-positive cells and enhanced phosphorylated-p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the left ventricle and kidney. The ACEi alone significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (P=0.008) with no effect on organ hypertrophy; it significantly lowered left ventricular collagen content, and this effect was blocked by the monoclonal antibody as confirmed by the histological data. As expected, the ACEi significantly decreased renal collagen deposition and glomerular matrix expansion, and these effects were attenuated by the monoclonal antibody. Likewise, the ACEi significantly decreased ED1-positive cells and inhibited p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the left ventricle and kidney, and these effects were blocked by the monoclonal antibody. We concluded that in aldosterone-salt-induced hypertension, the antifibrotic effect of ACEi on the heart and kidney, is partially mediated by N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline, resulting in decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    Title At1 Receptor-mediated Accumulation of Extracellular Angiotensin Ii in Proximal Tubule Cells: Role of Cytoskeleton Microtubules and Tyrosine Phosphatases.
    Date August 2006
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
    Excerpt

    Long-term angiotensin II (ANG II) administration is associated with increased ANG II accumulation in the kidney, but intrarenal compartment(s) involved in this response remains to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that 1) extracellular ANG II is taken up by proximal tubule cells (PTCs) through AT(1) receptor-mediated endocytosis, 2) this process is regulated by cytoskeleton microtubule- and tyrosine phosphatase-dependent mechanisms, and 3) AT(1) receptor-mediated endocytosis of ANG II has a functional relevance by modulating intracellular cAMP signaling. In cultured PTCs, [(125)I]Tyr-labeled ANG II and fluorescein labeled-ANG II were internalized in a time-dependent manner and colocalized with the endosome marker Alexa Fluor 594-transferrin. Endocytosis of extracellular ANG II was inhibited by the AT(1) receptor blocker losartan (16.5 +/- 4.6%, P < 0.01 vs. ANG II, 78.3 +/- 6.2%) and by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide (PAO; 30.0 +/- 3.5%, P < 0.05 vs. ANG II). Intracellular ANG II levels were increased by approximately 58% (basal, 229.8 +/- 11.4 vs. ANG II, 361.3 +/- 11.8 pg ANG II/mg protein, P < 0.01), and the responses were blocked by losartan (P < 0.01), the cytoskeleton microtubule inhibitor colchicine (P < 0.05), and PAO (P < 0.01), whereas depletion of clathrin-coated pits with hyperosmotic sucrose had no effect (356.1 +/- 25.5 pg ANG II/mg protein, not significant). ANG II accumulation was associated with significant inhibition of both basal (control, 15.5 +/- 2.8 vs. ANG II, 9.1 +/- 2.4 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.05) and forskolin-stimulated cAMP signaling (forskolin, 68.7 +/- 8.6 vs. forskolin + ANG II, 42.8 +/- 13.8 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.01). These effects were blocked by losartan and PAO. We conclude that extracellular ANG II is internalized in PTCs through AT(1) receptor-mediated endocytosis and that internalized ANG II may play a functional role in proximal tubule cells by inhibiting intracellular cAMP signaling.

    Title A Second Expressed Kininogen Gene in Mice.
    Date August 2006
    Journal Physiological Genomics
    Excerpt

    We isolated PCR, RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE-PCR)-, and RT-PCR-generated clones from mouse kininogen family transcripts. DNA sequencing indicated that the clones were from two distinct genes. One set (K1) is from the previously reported mouse kininogen gene. The second set (K2) has an open reading frame, is 93% identical to K1 in the overlapping nucleotide sequence, and, unlike T-kininogens in the rat, encodes a bradykinin motif identical to K1. We discovered that K2 exists with two different 5' ends. We used RT-PCR to determine the distribution and relative abundance of K1 and K2 mRNA in mouse tissues. K2 is transcribed and K1 and K2 are generally both expressed in the same tissues; however, they differ in their regulation of the alternative splicing event that yields either low-molecular-weight kininogen (LMWK) or high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK). For example, in the liver K1 is expressed as both HMWK and LMWK, whereas K2 is only expressed as LMWK. Conversely, in the kidney K2 is strongly expressed as both HMWK and LMWK, whereas K1 is not expressed as HMWK and expressed only very weakly as LMWK.

    Title Cross-talk Between Angiotensin Ii and Glucagon Receptor Signaling Mediates Phosphorylation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases Erk 1/2 in Rat Glomerular Mesangial Cells.
    Date July 2006
    Journal Biochemical Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    We have recently shown that the pancreatic hormone glucagon-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK 1/2 as well as growth and proliferation of rat glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) via activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)- and phospholipase C (PLC)/Ca2+-mediated signaling pathways. Since circulating glucagon and tissue angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are inappropriately elevated in type 2 diabetes, we tested the hypothesis that glucagon induces phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in MCs by interacting with Ang II receptor signaling. Stimulation of MCs by glucagon (10 nM) induced a marked increase in intracellular [Ca2+]i that was abolished by [Des-His1, Glu9]-glucagon (1 microM), a selective glucagon receptor antagonist. Both glucagon and Ang II-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation (glucagon: 214+/-14%; Ang II: 174+/-16%; p<0.001 versus control), and these responses were inhibited by the AT1 receptor blocker losartan (glucagon + losartan: 77+/-14%; Ang II + losartan: 84+/-18%; p<0.01 versus glucagon or Ang II) and the AT2 receptor blocker PD 123319 (glucagon + PD: 78+/-7%; Ang II + PD: 87+/-7%; p<0.01 versus glucagon or Ang II). Inhibition of cAMP-dependent PKA with H89 (1 microM) or PLC with U73122 (1 microM) also markedly attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 induced by glucagon (glucagon + U73122: 109+/-15%; glucagon + H89: 113+/-16%; p<0.01 versus glucagon) or Ang II (Ang II + U73122: 111+/-13%; Ang II + H89: 86+/-10%; p<0.01 versus Ang II). Wortmannin (1 microM), a selective PI 3-kinase inhibitor, also blocked glucagon- or Ang II-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that AT1 receptor-activated cAMP-dependent PKA, PLC and PI 3-kinase signaling is involved in glucagon-induced MAP kinase ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in MCs. The inhibitory effect of PD 123319 on glucagon-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation further suggests that AT2 receptors also play a similar role in this response.

    Title Intracellular Ang Ii Induces Cytosolic Ca2+ Mobilization by Stimulating Intracellular At1 Receptors in Proximal Tubule Cells.
    Date June 2006
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
    Excerpt

    Intracellular ANG II induces biological effects in nonrenal cells, but it is not known whether it plays a physiological role in renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs). PTCs express angiotensinogen, renin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNAs, suggesting the presence of high levels of intracellular ANG II. We determined if microinjection of ANG II directly in single PTCs increases intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and, if so, elucidated the cellular mechanisms involved. Changes in [Ca2+]i responses were studied by fluorescence imaging using the Ca2+ indicator fluo 3. ANG II (1 nM) was microinjected directly in the cells, whereas cell-surface angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors were blocked by losartan (10 microM). When ANG II (1 nM) was added to the perfusate, there was a marked increase in [Ca2+]i that was blocked by extracellular losartan. With losartan in the perfusate, intracellular microinjection of ANG II elicited a robust increase in cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i that peaked at 30 s (basal: 2.2 +/- 0.3 vs. ANG II: 14.9 +/- 0.4 relative fluorescence units; P < 0.01). Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA (2 mM) did not alter microinjected ANG II-induced [Ca2+]i responses (Ca2+ free + ANG II: 12.3 +/- 2.6 relative fluorescence units, not significant vs. ANG II); however, pretreatment with thapsigargin to deplete intracellular Ca2+ stores or with U-73122 to inhibit phospholipase C (1 microM each) markedly attenuated microinjected ANG II-induced [Ca2+]i responses. Combined microinjection of ANG II and losartan abolished [Ca2+]i responses, whereas a combination of ANG II and PD-123319 had no effect. These data demonstrate for the first time that direct microinjection of ANG II in single PTCs increases [Ca2+]i by stimulating intracellular AT1 receptors and releases Ca2+ from intracellular stores, suggesting that intracellular ANG II may play a physiological role in PTC function.

    Title Glucagon Receptor-mediated Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 Phosphorylation in Rat Mesangial Cells: Role of Protein Kinase A and Phospholipase C.
    Date March 2006
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Glucagon, a major insulin counterregulatory hormone, binds to specific Gs protein-coupled receptors to activate glycogenolytic and gluconeogenic pathways, causing blood glucose levels to increase. Inappropriate increases in serum glucagon play a critical role in the development of insulin resistance and target organ damage in type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) glucagon induces proliferation of rat glomerular mesangial cells through glucagon receptor-activated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2); and (2) this phosphorylation involves activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and phospholipase C (PLC)/[Ca2+]i signaling pathways. In rat mesangial cells, glucagon (1 nM) stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation by 96% (P<0.01). This proliferative effect was blocked by the specific glucagon receptor antagonist [Des-His1-Glu9] glucagon (1 micromol/L; P<0.01), a mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 (10 micromol/L; P<0.01), a PLC inhibitor U73122 (1 micromol/L; P<0.01), or a PKA inhibitor H-89 (1 micromol/L; P<0.01). The proliferation was associated with a 2-fold increase in p-ERK 1/2 that peaked 5 minutes after glucagon stimulation (P<0.01) and also was blocked by [Des-His1-Glu9] glucagon. Total ERK 1/2 was not affected by glucagon. Pretreating of mesangial cells with U73122 or H89 significantly attenuated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation induced by glucagon. We believe that these are the first data showing that glucagon activates specific receptors to induce ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and thereby increase mesangial cell proliferation and that this effect of glucagon involves both PLC/[Ca2+]i- and cAMP-dependent PKA-activated signaling cascades.

    Title Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors: a New Mechanism of Action.
    Date March 2006
    Journal Circulation
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are valuable agents for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and other cardiovascular and renal diseases. The cardioprotective effects of ACE inhibitors are mediated by blockade of both conversion of angiotensin (Ang) I to Ang II and kinin hydrolysis. Here, we report a novel mechanism that may explain the cardiac antifibrotic effect of ACE inhibition, involving blockade of the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP).

    Title Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Cardiac Function and Remodeling in Mice with Heart Failure Due to Myocardial Infarction.
    Date January 2006
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Using inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) knockout mice (iNOS-/-), we tested the hypotheses that 1) lack of iNOS attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction and improves cardiac reserve postmyocardial infarction (MI), an effect that is partially mediated by reduction of oxidative stress due to reduced interaction between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS); and 2) the cardioprotection afforded by iNOS deletion is eliminated by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) due to inhibition of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS). MI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Male iNOS-/- mice and wild-type controls (WT, C57BL/6J) were divided into sham MI, MI+vehicle, and MI+l-NAME (100 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) in drinking water for 8 wk). Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Left ventricular (LV) maximum rate of rise of ventricular pressure divided by pressure at the moment such maximum occurs (dP/dt/instant pressure) in response to isoproterenol (100 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) iv) was measured with a Millar catheter. Collagen deposition, myocyte cross-sectional area, and expression of nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), markers for ROS, were determined by histopathological and immunohistochemical staining. We found that the MI-induced increase in LV chamber dimension and the decrease in ejection fraction, an index of systolic function, were less severe in iNOS-/- compared with WT mice. L-NAME worsened LV remodeling and dysfunction further, and these detrimental effects were also attenuated in iNOS-/- mice, associated with better preservation of cardiac function. Lack of iNOS also reduced nitrotyrosine and 4-HNE expression after MI, indicating reduced oxidative stress. We conclude that iNOS does not seem to be a pathological mediator of heart failure; however, the lack of iNOS improves cardiac reserve post-MI, particularly when constitutive NOS isoforms are blocked. Decreased oxidative stress and other adaptive mechanisms independent of NOS may be partially responsible for such an effect, which needs to be studied further.

    Title Glomerular Cytochrome P-450 and Cyclooxygenase Metabolites Regulate Efferent Arteriole Resistance.
    Date December 2005
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Bradykinin dilates efferent arterioles via release of efferent arteriole epoxyeicosatrienoic acids when perfused retrograde (no glomerular autacoids). However, when efferent arterioles are perfused orthograde through the glomerulus, bradykinin-induced dilatation is caused by a balance between: (1) the glomerular vasoconstrictor 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and vasodilator prostaglandins, and (2) epoxyeicosatrienoic acids from the efferent arteriole and possibly the glomerulus. However, the role of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid has only been studied with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, which may artificially enhance its production by shunting arachidonic acid into the cytochrome P450 pathway. We hypothesized that in the absence of cyclooxygenase inhibition, bradykinin induces release of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from the glomerulus, which blunts the vasodilator effect of bradykinin; and that prostaglandins released from glomeruli in response to bradykinin are generated by cyclooxygenase-1. Rabbit efferent arterioles preconstricted with norepinephrine were perfused orthograde from the end of the afferent arteriole. Bradykinin was added to the perfusate with or without a 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid antagonist (20-HEDE), epoxyeicosatrienoic acid synthesis inhibitor (MS-PPOH), and/or cyclooxygenase-1 (SC-58560) or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (NS-398). Bradykinin-dependent dilatation was enhanced by 20-HEDE but blunted by MS-PPOH. When the inhibitors were present, bradykinin-induced dilatation was abolished by blockade of cyclooxygenase-1 but not cyclooxygenase-2. We concluded that: (1) in the absence of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, bradykinin causes the release of a glomerular vasoconstrictor (20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) that antagonizes the vasodilator effect of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids released from the efferent arteriole and perhaps from the glomerulus, and (2) bradykinin-induced vasodilatation is caused by the release of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids from the efferent arteriole and glomerular metabolites of cyclooxygenase-1.

    Title Lack of Inducible No Synthase Reduces Oxidative Stress and Enhances Cardiac Response to Isoproterenol in Mice with Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-salt Hypertension.
    Date December 2005
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Although NO derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is thought to be cardioprotective, the role of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) remains controversial. Using mice lacking iNOS (iNOS-/-), we studied (1) whether development of hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and dysfunction after deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt would be less severe compared with wild-type controls (WT; C57BL/6J), and (2) whether the cardioprotection attributable to lack of iNOS is mediated by reduced oxidative stress. Mice were uninephrectomized and received either DOCA-salt (30 mg/mouse SC and 1% NaCl+0.2% KCl in drinking water) or vehicle (tap water) for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) by echocardiography and cardiac response to isoproterenol (50 ng/mouse IV) were studied at the end of the experiment. Expression of eNOS and iNOS as well as the oxidative stress markers 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and nitrotyrosine (a marker for peroxynitrite) were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. DOCA-salt increased SBP and LV weight similarly in both strains and decreased EF in WT but not in iNOS-/-. Cardiac contractile and relaxation responses to isoproterenol were greater, 4-HNE and nitrotyrosine levels were lower, and eNOS expression tended to be higher in iNOS-/-. We conclude that lack of iNOS leads to better preservation of cardiac function, which may be mediated by reduced oxidative stress and increased eNOS; however, it does not seem to play a significant role in preventing DOCA-salt-induced hypertension and hypertrophy.

    Title Novel Mechanism of Action of Ace and Its Inhibitors.
    Date November 2005
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Title Role of the B1 Kinin Receptor in the Regulation of Cardiac Function and Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction.
    Date October 2005
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Kinins exert cardioprotective effects via 2 G-protein-coupled receptors, B1 and B2. Using B1 kinin receptor gene knockout mice (B1-/-), we tested the hypotheses that the B1 receptor plays an important role in preservation of cardiac function, whereas lack of B1 may accelerate cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and that B2 receptors may compensate for lack of B1, whereas blockade of B2 receptors in B1-/- mice may cause further deterioration of cardiac function and remodeling. Female B1-/- mice and wild-type controls (C57BL/6J, B1+/+) underwent sham surgery or myocardial infarction and were treated with either vehicle or B2-antagonist (icatibant, 500 microg/kg per day, subcutaneous) for 8 weeks. We found that in sham myocardial infarction, B1-/- mice had a larger left ventricular diastolic chamber dimension both initially and at 4 to 8 weeks compared with B1+/+. Left ventricular mass and myocyte size were also larger in B1-/- with sham operation than in B1+/+, although cardiac function did not differ between strains. After myocardial infarction, cardiac remodeling and function were similar in both strains, although B1-/- mice tended to have lower blood pressure. Blockade of B2 receptors tended to worsen cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in B1-/- but not in B1+/+. These results may suggest that B2 receptors play an important role in compensating for lack of B1 receptors in mice with myocardial infarction. Dual blockade of both B1 and B2 eliminates this compensation, leading to further deterioration of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Title Increased Intracellular Ph at the Macula Densa Activates Nnos During Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date August 2005
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    The macula densa senses increasing NaCl concentrations in tubular fluid and increases afferent arteriole tone by a process known as tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). Nitric oxide (NO) production by macula densa neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is enhanced by increasing NaCl in the macula densa lumen, and the NO thus formed inhibits TGF. Blocking apical Na(+)/H(+) exchange with amiloride augments TGF and mimics the effect of nNOS inhibition. We hypothesized that increasing NaCl in the macula densa lumen raises macula densa intracellular pH (pH(i)) and activates nNOS.

    Title Inhibition of P38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Protects the Heart Against Cardiac Remodeling in Mice with Heart Failure Resulting from Myocardial Infarction.
    Date June 2005
    Journal Journal of Cardiac Failure
    Excerpt

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have emerged as an important pathophysiologic regulator during the development of heart failure (HF). p38 MAPK activity is elevated in cardiac hypertrophy and HF. We used a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI) to test the hypotheses that (1) inhibition of p38 MAPK activity may improve cardiac function and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) and (2) coadministration of a p38 inhibitor (p38i) and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) may provide only limited further cardioprotection in this model.

    Title Vascular Remodeling and the Kallikrein-kinin System.
    Date May 2005
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    Remodeling of the arterial wall occurs mainly as a consequence of increased wall stress caused by hypertension. In this issue of the JCI, Azizi et al. report that in humans with a kallikrein gene polymorphism that lowers kallikrein activity, the brachial artery undergoes eutrophic inward remodeling in the absence of hypertension or other hemodynamic changes. It has also been reported that alterations of the kallikrein-kinin system are associated with formation of aortic aneurysms. Conversely, after vascular injury, kinins mediate the beneficial effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors that prevent neointima formation. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that decreased kallikrein-kinin system activity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling and disease, while increased activity may have a beneficial effect.

    Title Role of Macula Densa Adenosine Triphosphate (atp) in Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Recent studies have shown that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is liberated from macula densa cells in response to increased tubular NaCl in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that increased NaCl in the macula densa stimulates the release of ATP, resulting in extracellular formation of adenosine which is involved in signal transmission of the tubuloglomerular feedback response.

    Title Superoxide Enhances Tubuloglomerular Feedback by Constricting the Afferent Arteriole.
    Date January 2005
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Superoxide (O(2) (-)) has been shown to augment tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) both in vivo and in vitro by scavenging nitric oxide (NO) in the macula densa (MD). We hypothesized that in addition to this mechanism O(2) (-) potentiates TGF by acting directly on the afferent arteriole (Af-Art).

    Title Hypertensive Therapy: Part Ii.
    Date January 2005
    Journal Circulation
    Title Hypertensive Therapy: Part I.
    Date December 2004
    Journal Circulation
    Title N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline Stimulates Angiogenesis in Vitro and in Vivo.
    Date November 2004
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), a natural inhibitor of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell proliferation, has been suggested as capable of promoting an angiogenic response. We studied whether Ac-SDKP stimulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation; enhances angiogenic response in the rat cornea after implantation of a tumor spheroid; and increases capillary density in rat hearts with myocardial infarction (MI). In vitro, an immortal BALB/c mouse aortic endothelial 22106 cell line was used to determine the effects of Ac-SDKP on endothelial cell proliferation and migration and tube formation. In vivo, a 9L-gliosarcoma cell spheroid (250-300 microm in diameter) was implanted in the rat cornea and vehicle or Ac-SDKP (800 microg.kg(-1).day(-1) ip) infused via osmotic minipump. Myocardial capillary density was studied in rats with MI given either vehicle or Ac-SDKP. We found that Ac-SDKP 1) stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner, 2) enhanced corneal neovascularization, and 3) increased myocardial capillary density. Endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis stimulated by Ac-SDKP could be beneficial in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and MI. Furthermore, because Ac-SDKP is mainly cleaved by ACE, it may partially mediate the cardioprotective effect of ACE inhibitors.

    Title Antifibrotic Effect of Ac-sdkp and Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibition in Hypertension.
    Date October 2004
    Journal Journal of Hypertension
    Excerpt

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a potent natural inhibitor of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation which is degraded mainly by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). In vitro, Ac-SDKP inhibits collagen production by cardiac fibroblasts; while in vivo it blocks collagen deposition in the left ventricle (LV) of rats with hypertension or myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, it reportedly prevents and reverses macrophage infiltration in the LV of rats with MI. We tested the hypothesis that when Ac-SDKP is infused at doses that cause plasma concentrations similar to those observed after ACE inhibition, it mimics the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) in the heart, and, further, that these effects are independent of changes in blood pressure.

    Title Reduction of Cardiac Fibrosis Decreases Systolic Performance Without Affecting Diastolic Function in Hypertensive Rats.
    Date October 2004
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is characterized by an increase in myocyte size and fibrosis. However, it is not clear how each of these components affects hypertensive heart disease (HHD). We have shown in 2 different rat models of hypertension that cardiac fibrosis can be reduced with N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), an antifibrotic peptide normally present in mammals. To assess how inhibition of fibrosis affects HHD, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive controls (WKY) were treated with Ac-SDKP or vehicle. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function were assessed using in vivo pressure-volume (PV) analysis. Left ventricle passive compliance was also determined ex vivo. We found that in SHR, Ac-SDKP normalized left ventricle total collagen content and interstitial collagen fraction without changing myocyte diameter or left ventricle mass. In WKY, collagen did not change significantly after treatment. Ac-SDKP did not affect left ventricle diastolic function, determined in vivo and ex vivo in SHR and WKY, whereas systolic function was significantly decreased in SHR treated with Ac-SDKP and unchanged in treated WKY. We concluded that in adult SHR, reducing left ventricle collagen deposition with Ac-SDKP does not improve diastolic function, whereas it decreases systolic performance. These findings suggest that total left ventricle collagen reduction per se does not necessarily benefit cardiac function. In HHD, other factors besides collagen quantity, such as myocyte hypertrophy and/or collagen type or cross-link, might be targeted to improve cardiac function.

    Title Prolyl Oligopeptidase is Involved in Release of the Antifibrotic Peptide Ac-sdkp.
    Date October 2004
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a ubiquitous tetrapeptide hydrolyzed almost exclusively by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Chronic treatment with Ac-SDKP decreases cardiac and renal fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in hypertensive rats. However, very little is known about endogenous synthesis of Ac-SDKP, except that thymosin-beta4 may be the most likely precursor. Two enzymes are potentially able to release Ac-SDKP from thymosin-beta4: prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) and endoproteinase asp-N. POP is widely present and active in several tissues and biological fluids, whereas endoproteinase asp-N appears to be lacking in mammals. Therefore, we hypothesized that POP is the main enzyme involved in synthesizing the antifibrotic peptide Ac-SDKP. We investigated in vitro and in vivo production of Ac-SDKP. Using kidney cortex homogenates, we observed that Ac-SDKP was generated in a time-dependent manner in the presence of exogenous thymosin-beta4, and this generation was significantly inhibited by several POP inhibitors (POPi), Z-prolyl-prolinal, Fmoc-prolyl-pyrrolidine-2-nitrile, and S17092. Long-term administration of S17092 in rats significantly decreased endogenous levels of Ac-SDKP in the plasma (from 1.76+/-0.2 to 1.01+/-0.1 nM), heart (from 2.31+/-0.21 to 0.83+/-0.09 pmol/mg protein), and kidneys (from 5.62+/-0.34 to 2.86+/-0.76 pmol/mg protein). As expected, ACE inhibitors significantly increased endogenous levels of Ac-SDKP in the plasma, heart, and kidney, whereas coadministration of POPi prevented this increase. We concluded that POP is the main enzyme responsible for synthesis of the antifibrotic peptide Ac-SDKP.

    Title Role of a Selective Aldosterone Blocker in Mice with Chronic Heart Failure.
    Date August 2004
    Journal Journal of Cardiac Failure
    Excerpt

    Spironolactone, a nonselective aldosterone blocker, has a cardioprotective effect; however, significant endocrine side effects limit its use. Eplerenone is a new selective aldosterone blocker. We investigated whether eplerenone attenuates cardiac remodeling and improves function in a mouse model of heart failure and whether coadministration of eplerenone and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) provides better cardioprotection than either agent alone.

    Title Dual Inhibition of Ace and Nep Provides Greater Cardioprotection in Mice with Heart Failure.
    Date August 2004
    Journal Journal of Cardiac Failure
    Excerpt

    Vasopeptidase inhibitors (VPi) may provide a new means of treating hypertension and congestive heart failure, because they simultaneously block angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP-24.11), thereby inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system and enhancing vasodilator and natriuretic substances such as kinins and natriuretic peptides.

    Title Role of Angiotensin Ii Type 2 Receptors and Kinins in the Cardioprotective Effect of Angiotensin Ii Type 1 Receptor Antagonists in Rats with Heart Failure.
    Date June 2004
    Journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology
    Excerpt

    We studied the role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptors and kinins in the cardioprotective effect of angiotensin II type 1 antagonists (AT(1)-ant) in rats with heart failure (HF) after myocardial infarction.

    Title Increased Intracellular Ca++ in the Macula Densa Regulates Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date May 2004
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Tubuloglomerular feedback is initiated by an increase in NaCl at the macula densa lumen, which in turn increases intracellular Ca++. In the present study, we examined the role of increased intracellular Ca++ in tubuloglomerular feedback and the source of the increased Ca++. We hypothesized that an increase in intracellular Ca++ at the macula densa via the basolateral Na+/Ca++ exchanger, caused by an increase in luminal NaCl, initiates Ca++-mediated Ca++ release from intracellular stores, which is essential for tubuloglomerular feedback.

    Title Ac-sdkp Reverses Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats with Heart Failure After Myocardial Infarction.
    Date April 2004
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis in heart failure (HF) after myocardial infarction (MI). N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a naturally occurring antifibrotic peptide whose plasma concentration is increased 4- to 5-fold by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. We tested the hypothesis that in rats with HF after MI, Ac-SDKP acts as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, preventing and also reversing cardiac fibrosis in the noninfarcted area (reactive fibrosis), and thus affording functional improvement. We found that Ac-SDKP significantly decreased total collagen content in the prevention group from 23.7+/-0.9 to 15.0+/-0.7 microg/mg and in the reversal group from 22.6+/-2.2 to 14.4+/-1.6 (P<0.01). Interstitial collagen volume fraction and perivascular collagen were likewise significantly reduced. We also found that infiltrating macrophages were reduced from 264.7+/-8.1 to 170.2+/-9.2/mm2, P<0.001 (prevention), and from 257.5+/-9.1 to 153.1+/-8.5 mm2, P<0.001 (reversal), while transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-positive cells were decreased from 195.6+/-8.4 to 129.6+/-5.7/mm2, P<0.01 (prevention), and from 195.6+/-8.4 to 130.7+/-10.8/mm2, P<0.01 (reversal). Ac-SDKP did not alter either blood pressure or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH); however, it depressed systolic cardiac function in the prevention study while having no significant effect in the reversal group. We concluded that Ac-SDKP has an anti-inflammatory effect in HF that may contribute to its antifibrotic effect; however, this decrease in fibrosis without changes in LVH was not accompanied by an improvement in cardiac function.

    Title Modification of Radiation Injury by Ramipril, Inhibitor of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme, on Optic Neuropathy in the Rat.
    Date April 2004
    Journal Radiation Research
    Excerpt

    Inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) have been used to reduce radiation-induced normal tissue injury. The present study was carried out to determine whether ramipril, one of the inhibitors of ACE, would ameliorate radiation-induced brain damage, using a well-characterized optic neuropathy model in the rat, one of the most critical and radiosensitive structures in the brain. The brains of adult Fischer rats were irradiated stereotactically with 30 Gy using a single collimated beam. Six months after irradiation and 1.5 mg/kg day(-1) ramipril (started 2 weeks after irradiation), rats were assessed for optic nerve damage functionally, using visual evoked potential, and histologically. Results show that ramipril conferred significant modification of radiation injury, since rats receiving radiation alone showed a threefold lengthening in the mean peak latency in the visual evoked potential, whereas 75% of rats receiving radiation followed by ramipril had evoked potentials that resembled those of normal untreated control rats. The histology of irradiated and ramipril-treated optic nerves appeared nearly normal, while there was significant demyelination in both optic nerves of irradiated rats. The study represents the first demonstration of prophylaxis of radiation injury by a carboxyl-containing ACE inhibitor, providing a pharmacological strategy designed to reduce radiation-induced normal tissue damage.

    Title Glomerular Autacoids Stimulated by Bradykinin Regulate Efferent Arteriole Tone.
    Date February 2004
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    We have shown that when efferent arterioles are perfused retrograde to avoid the influence of vasoactive autacoids released by the glomerulus, bradykinin causes dilatation via release of cytochrome p450 (cp450) metabolites, probably epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Here we tested the hypothesis that the glomerulus releases cyclooxygenase (COX) and cp450 metabolites. These eicosanoids, acting as vasopressor and vasodepressor autacoids, control efferent arteriole resistance downstream from the glomerulus.

    Title Ac-sdkp Reverses Cardiac Fibrosis in Rats with Renovascular Hypertension.
    Date January 2004
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a natural substrate for the N-terminal active site of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). We previously reported that Ac-SDKP prevented cardiac fibrosis in rats with renovascular or aldosterone-salt hypertension. However, it is not clear whether Ac-SDKP reverses cardiac fibrosis in hypertension, nor the mechanism(s) involved. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Ac-SDKP reversal of hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis involves a decrease in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and/or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats, Ac-SDKP at 400 or 800 microg/kg per day SC was started 8 weeks after hypertension and cardiac fibrosis were established and was continued for 8 weeks. Left ventricular (LV) collagen in rats with 2K-1C plus vehicle at 8 and 16 weeks after clipping was similar but higher than in the sham group (P<0.05). Ac-SDKP at 400 and 800 microg/kg per day, which increased plasma Ac-SDKP 2- and 5-fold, respectively, reversed the increase in LV collagen in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism by which Ac-SDKP reverses LV fibrosis does not appear to depend on ACE inhibition by Ac-SDKP, since we found that Ac-SDKP at various doses did not affect blood pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin I or bradykinin. However, Ac-SDKP reversed the increase in LV TGF-beta and CTGF compared with rats with 2K-1C plus vehicle (P<0.005). We concluded that in hypertension, Ac-SDKP reverses cardiac fibrosis, perhaps due in part to a decrease in TGF-beta and CTGF in the heart.

    Title Novel Nad(p)h Oxidase Inhibitor Suppresses Angioplasty-induced Superoxide and Neointimal Hyperplasia of Rat Carotid Artery.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Circulation Research
    Excerpt

    Neointimal proliferation occurring after vascular or endovascular procedures is a major complication leading to end-organ or limb ischemia. In experimental models, balloon injury has been shown to induce NAD(P)H oxidase to produce vascular superoxide anion (O2*-) production, which has been implicated in cell proliferation, but a direct link is still unclear. We postulated that inhibition of arterial NAD(P)H oxidase, resulting in decreased O2*-, would lessen the neointimal hyperplasia caused by balloon injury to the common carotid artery (CCA). Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either vehicle, a cell-permeant peptide that inhibits NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91ds-tat, 10 mg/kg per day), or a scrambled peptide control (scrmb-tat). Two days after pump implantation, the left CCA was injured using an intravascular balloon embolectomy catheter (2F Fogarty). Systolic blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff. Fourteen days after injury, CCAs were harvested and analyzed by digital morphometry. Rats in both groups remained normotensive, with no significant differences in systolic blood pressure. Reactive oxygen species measurements after injury indicated a significant reduction in vascular O2*- in rats infused with gp91ds-tat, and the neointima/media area and thickness ratios were significantly lower in their arteries compared with control. On the contrary, no significant change in overall CCA diameter was observed in any group. Our data indicate that in response to balloon injury of the rat carotid artery, NAD(P)H oxidase activity contributes to neointimal hyperplasia and is involved in vascular cell proliferation and migration during restenosis.

    Title Inhibition of Apical Na+/h+ Exchangers on the Macula Densa Cells Augments Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    NO produced by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the macula densa blunts tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). nNOS activity is strongly pH-dependent. Increasing luminal NaCl concentration increases nNOS activity, NO production, and apical Na+/H+ exchange. Na+/H+ exchange alkalinizes the macula densa. We hypothesized that inhibiting apical Na+/H+ exchange in macula densa cells would augment TGF by blunting nNOS activation caused by increasing luminal NaCl concentration. Rabbit afferent arterioles and attached macula densas were microperfused in vitro. TGF response was defined as the change in afferent arteriole diameter caused by increasing the NaCl concentration in the macula densa perfusate. 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI; 10 micromol/L) alone in the macula densa lumen increased the TGF response from 2.4+/-0.1 to 3.8+/-0.2 microm (P<0.01). When dimethyl amiloride (100 micromol/L), a Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, was added to the macula densa lumen, it increased the TGF response from 2.5+/-0.3 to 3.7+/-0.5 microm (P<0.01). In the presence of dimethyl amiloride, 7-NI had no effect on the TGF response (from 2.6+/-0.2 to 2.7+/-0.2 microm). Our data indicate that inhibiting apical Na+/H+ exchange in the macula densa mimics the effect of inhibiting NO production by nNOS in the macula densa on TGF. Thus, it is possible that increased apical Na+/H+ exchange caused by increasing the sodium concentration in the lumen of the macula densa activates macula densa nNOS. The link between nNOS and Na+/H+ exchange may be intracellular pH.

    Title Myocardial Infarction and Cardiac Remodelling in Mice.
    Date April 2003
    Journal Experimental Physiology
    Excerpt

    We established a mouse model of cardiac dysfunction due to myocardial infarction (MI). For this we ligated the left anterior descending coronary artery in male C57BL/6J mice and assessed healing and left ventricular (LV) remodelling at 1, 2 and 4 days and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after MI. Echocardiography was performed at 1 and 2 weeks and 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after MI. We found that neutrophil infiltration of the infarct border was noticeable at 1-2 days. Marked macrophage infiltration occurred at day 4, while lymphocyte infiltration was apparent at 7-14 days. Massive proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen accumulation began by day 7-14, and scar formation was completed by day 21. LV diastolic dimension increased markedly at 2 weeks and remained at the same level thereafter. LV shortening fraction decreased significantly at 2 weeks and then slowly decreased. In non-infarcted areas of the LV, myocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial collagen fraction increased progressively, reaching a maximum at 4 months. This study provides important qualitative and quantitative information about the natural history of cardiac remodelling after MI in mice.

    Title Increased Systolic Performance with Diastolic Dysfunction in Adult Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Hypertensive heart disease is characterized by early development of hypertrophy and fibrosis that leads to heart failure (HF). HF develops in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after 18 months; however, it is not clear whether hypertrophy leads to altered cardiac performance at an earlier age in these rats. We studied cardiac performance in 10- to 11-month-old SHR and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), using presssure-volume (PV) conductance catheter system to evaluate systolic and diastolic function in vivo at different preloads, including preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW), +dP/dt, and its relation to end-diastolic volume (+dP/dt-EDV) and preload-adjusted maximal power (PWR(max)-EDV(2)) as well as the time constant of left ventricular pressure decay, tau (tau), as an index of relaxation. The slope of the end-diastolic pressure-volume relation (EDPVR) and the ex vivo PV relation, both indexes of stiffness, were also calculated for each heart, and the Doppler E/A ratio was determined. In addition, plasma samples were obtained to assess B-type natriuretic peptide levels (BNP). We found that PRSW was higher in SHR than in WKY (174.5+/-15.6 versus 92.6+/-18.9 mm Hg; P<0.01). +dP/dt and +dP/dt-EDV were also enhanced in SHR versus WKY (9125+/-662 versus 6633+/-392 mm Hg/sec, P<0.01, and 28.14+/-4.35 versus 12.7+/-2.8 mm Hg/s per micro L, P<0.02). In addition, PWR-EDV(2) was elevated in SHR (7.3+/-1.5 versus 3.1+/-0.6 mW/ micro L(2)). Tau was prolonged in SHR (14.5+/-1 ms versus 10.8+/-0.8 for WKY, P<0.02) and EDPVR was significantly greater in SHR than in WKY (0.01+/-0.005 versus 0.004+/-0.001, P<0.05). The ex vivo pressure-volume relation was also steeper for SHR and the E/A ratio was 2.53+/-0.15 for SHR versus 1.67+/-0.08 for WKY (P<0.02). BNP was 45+/-2.5 pg/mL for SHR and 33.3+/-1.8 pg/mL for WKY (P<0.02). Taken together, these data suggest that at 10 to 11 months of age, before HF develops, SHR have increased systolic performance accompanied by delayed relaxation and increased diastolic stiffness.

    Title Effects of Pre-existing Left Ventricular Hypertrophy on Ventricular Dysfunction and Remodeling Following Myocardial Infarction in Rats.
    Date January 2003
    Journal The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation : the Official Publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
    Excerpt

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial hypertrophy is a characteristic component of left ventricular (LV) remodeling that may, at least initially, have a beneficial effect on LV function following myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, we examine the effects of pre-existing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on LV function and chamber enlargement following MI in inbred Lewis rats. METHODS: The one-kidney, one-clip model (1K1C) of hypertension was used to produce LVH. Four weeks after 1K1C, rats were randomized to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (LVH + MI group, n = 8) or sham ligation (LVH group, n = 11). Another group of rats underwent sham 1K1C. Four weeks later, they were randomized to coronary ligation (MI group, n = 12) or sham ligation (Sham group, n = 12). LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP, mm Hg), end-diastolic volume (EDV, ml), end-systolic volume (ESV, ml) and ejection fraction (EF) (determined by angiography) were measured in all groups 2 months after MI. RESULTS: LV EDP was 20 +/- 2 mm Hg in the LVH + MI group compared with 9 +/- 1 mm Hg in the MI group (p < 0.05). LV EDV and ESV were significantly greater with LVH + MI than with MI alone (EDV 0.90 +/- 0.03 vs 0.75 +/- 0.02 ml; ESV 0.68 +/- 0.02 vs 0.50 +/- 0.03 ml; p < 0.05). Pre-existing LVH resulted in a greater reduction in EF following MI (25 +/- 2% for LVH + MI vs 34 +/- 2% for MI alone; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing LVH is an important determinant of progressive LV dysfunction and remodeling following MI in Lewis inbred rats.

    Title Role of Mesangial Cells and Gap Junctions in Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date January 2003
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is a process whereby the resistance of the afferent arterioles delivering blood to the glomeruli is regulated by the NaCl concentration of the forming urine in the lumen of the macula densa. Intraglomerular mesangial cells are located between capillaries within the glomerulus, while extraglomerular mesangial cells are located between the macula densa and the afferent arteriole. They are electrically and chemically coupled via gap junctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of mesangial cells and gap junctions in TGF using the isolated, perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus.

    Title Mechanism Involved in Bradykinin-induced Efferent Arteriole Dilation.
    Date January 2003
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    There is evidence that kinins play a role in the regulation of renal hemodynamics. The balance of vascular resistance in afferent and efferent arterioles (Af-Art and Ef-Art) is a crucial factor in controlling glomerular filtration. We have previously reported that bradykinin has a biphasic effect on the Af-Art and that dilation and constriction are due to cyclooxygenase products, not nitric oxide (NO). The present study was designed to examine (1) the direct effect of bradykinin on the Ef-Art and (2) the mechanisms that mediate bradykinin-induced Ef-Art dilation.

    Title Long-term Effects of Selective and Nonselective Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in Mice with Heart Failure.
    Date January 2003
    Journal Journal of Cardiac Failure
    Excerpt

    The ET(A) and ET(B) receptors mediate vasoconstriction, aldosterone release, and fibrosis. However, the role of ET(B) receptors is still controversial because those expressed on endothelial cells also stimulate vasodilatation and may oppose the actions of the ET(A) receptor. Plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) are increased in heart failure (HF) and are associated with myocardial dysfunction. The relative efficacy of selective and nonselective ET antagonists in the treatment of HF is unclear. We hypothesized that blockade of ET(A) receptors may improve cardiac function and prevent left ventricular remodeling in mice with HF, and these effects may be mediated in part by activation of ET(B).

    Title Perivascular Superoxide Anion Contributes to Impairment of Endothelium-dependent Relaxation: Role of Gp91(phox).
    Date November 2002
    Journal Circulation
    Excerpt

    Like endothelial and smooth muscle cells, vascular adventitial fibroblasts contain a substantial NAD(P)H oxidase superoxide anion (O2-)-generating system activated by angiotensin II (Ang II). Based on the ability of nitric oxide (NO*) to diffuse rapidly through tissue and the fast reaction rate of NO* and O2-, we postulated that the interaction between NO. and adventitial NAD(P)H oxidase-derived O2- contributes to impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR).

    Title Left Ventricular Targeting of Reporter Gene Expression in Vivo by Human Bnp Promoter in an Adenoviral Vector.
    Date October 2002
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    To selectively introduce genes into the mouse myocardium, we used a recombinant adenovirus encoding a transgene composed of a cardiac-specific promoter [the proximal human brain natriuretic peptide (hBNP) promoter] coupled to a luciferase reporter gene (Ad.hBNPLuc). Activity in vitro and in vivo was compared with Ad.CMVLuc, which contained the cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/promoter. We tested cell-specific and inducible regulation of Ad.hBNPLuc in vitro. Expression was higher in neonatal cardiac myocytes than in a fibroblast cell line and was induced by interleukin-1beta, phenylephrine, and isoproterenol in myocytes. For in vivo experiments, Ad.hBNPLuc, Ad.CMVLuc, or vehicle was injected into the left ventricular (LV) free wall of the mouse heart. In Ad.hBNPLuc-injected mice, luciferase activity was only detected in the heart. In contrast, Ad.CMVLuc-injected mice had detectable luciferase activity in all tissues examined. Our studies indicate that 1) the cardiac-specific hBNP promoter and direct cardiac injection limit expression of the transgene to the LV free wall; and 2) transgene expression in vitro is inducible and cardiac myocyte specific. Thus the use of the proximal hBNP promoter in recombinant adenoviral vectors may allow cardiac-specific and inducible expression of therapeutic genes in vivo and prevent some of the side effects of systemic adenovirus administration.

    Title Role of At2 Receptors in the Cardioprotective Effect of At1 Antagonists in Mice.
    Date September 2002
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts mainly on two receptor subtypes: AT1 and AT2. Most of the known biological actions of Ang II are mediated by AT1 receptors; however, the role of AT2 receptors remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the cardioprotective effects of AT1 receptor antagonists (AT1-ant) after myocardial infarction (MI) are partially mediated by activation of AT2 receptors; thus in AT2 receptor gene knockout mice (AT2-/Y), the effect of AT1-ant will be diminished or absent. MI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Four weeks later, AT2-/Y and their wild-type littermates (AT2+/Y) were started on vehicle, AT1-ant (valsartan, 50 mg/kg per day), or ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 20 mg/kg per day) for 20 weeks. Basal blood pressure and cardiac function as well as remodeling after MI did not differ between AT2+/Y and AT2-/Y. AT1-ant increased ejection fraction and cardiac output and decreased left ventricular diastolic dimension, myocyte cross-sectional area, and interstitial collagen deposition in AT2+/Y, and these effects were significantly diminished in AT2-/Y. ACE inhibitors improved cardiac function and remodeling similarly in both strains. We concluded that (1) activation of AT2 during AT1 blockade plays an important role in the therapeutic effect of AT1-ant and (2) the AT2 receptor may not play an important role in regulation of cardiac function, either under basal conditions after MI remodeling or in the therapeutic effect of ACE inhibitors.

    Title Vasodilator Action of Angiotensin-(1-7) on Isolated Rabbit Afferent Arterioles.
    Date May 2002
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Recent studies have shown that angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-[1-7]), which is generated endogenously from both Ang I and II, is a bioactive component of the renin-angiotensin system and may play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. However, little is known about its role in regulating the reactivity of the afferent arteriole or the mechanism(s) involved. We hypothesized that Ang-(1-7), acting on specific receptors, participates in the control of afferent arteriole tone. We first examined the direct effect of Ang-(1-7) on rabbit afferent arterioles microperfused in vitro, and we tested whether endothelium-derived relaxing factor/NO and cyclooxygenase products are involved in its actions. To assess the vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7), afferent arterioles were preconstricted with norepinephrine, and increasing concentrations of Ang-(1-7) were added to the lumen. We found that 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L Ang-(1-7) produced dose-dependent vasodilatation, increasing luminal diameter from 8.9+/-1.0 to 16.3+/-1.1 microm (P<0.006). Indomethacin had no effect on Ang-(1-7)-induced dilatation. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NO synthesis inhibitor, abolished the dilatation induced by Ang-(1-7). We attempted to determine which angiotensin receptor subtype is involved in this process. We found that 10(-6) mol/L [d-Ala7]-Ang-(1-7), a potent and selective Ang-(1-7) antagonist, abolished the dilatation induced by Ang-(1-7). An angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (L158809) and an angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonist (PD 123319) at 10(-6) mol/L had no effect on Ang-(1-7)-induced dilatation. Our results show that Ang-(1-7) causes afferent arteriole dilatation. This effect may be due to production of NO, but not the action of cyclooxygenase products. Ang-(1-7) has a receptor-mediated vasodilator effect on the rabbit afferent arteriole. This effect may be mediated by Ang-(1-7) receptors, because angiotensin type 1 and type 2 receptor antagonists could not block Ang-(1-7)-induced dilatation. Thus, our data suggest that Ang-(1-7)opposes the action of Ang II and plays an important role in the regulation of renal hemodynamics.

    Title Effect of Ace Inhibitors and Angiotensin Ii Type 1 Receptor Antagonists on Endothelial No Synthase Knockout Mice with Heart Failure.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    The beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (AT(1)-ant) are reportedly mediated by NO in heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that in the absence of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), (1) left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and myocardial remodeling would be more severe after myocardial infarction (MI), and (2) the cardioprotective effect of ACEi and AT(1)-ant would be diminished or absent in mice with HF after MI. eNOS knockout mice (eNOS-/-) and wild-type C57BL/6J (C57) mice (+/+) were subjected to MI by ligating the left coronary artery. One month after MI, each strain was treated with vehicle, ACEi (enalapril, 20 mg/kg per day), or AT(1)-ant (valsartan, 50 mg/kg per day) for 5 months. Echocardiography was performed, and systolic blood pressure was measured before MI and monthly thereafter. Interstitial collagen fraction and myocyte cross-sectional area were examined histologically. We found that (1) compared with C57 mice, eNOS-/- mice that underwent sham surgery had significantly increased systolic blood pressure (P<0.05) and increased LV mass both initially and at 1 to 3 months, although cardiac function and histological findings did not differ between strains; (2) the development of HF and myocardial remodeling were similar after MI in both strains; and (3) ACEi improved cardiac function and remodeling in C57 mice, as evidenced by increased LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV shortening fraction (LVSF) and decreased diastolic LV dimension, mass, myocyte cross-sectional area, and interstitial collagen fraction, but these benefits were absent or diminished in eNOS-/- mice (for C57 versus eNOS-/-: increase in LVEF after ACEi, 14.2 +/- 2% versus -4.9 +/- 2.5%, respectively [P<0.001]; increase in LVSF, 8.6 +/- 2.1% versus -7.2 +/- 2.8%, respectively [P<0.01]; and decrease in LV mass, -16.6 +/- 15 versus 73 +/- 23 mm(3), respectively [P<0.01]). AT(1)-ant had benefits similar to those of ACEi, which were also absent or diminished in eNOS-/- mice (for C57 versus eNOS-/-: increase in LVEF after AT(1)-ant, 13.5 +/- 1.8% versus -9.8 +/- 3%, respectively [P<0.001]; increase in LVSF, 6.1 +/- 1.6% versus -3.8 +/- 3.1%, respectively [P<0.01]). Our data suggest that the absence of NO does not alter the development of HF after MI; however, it significantly decreases the cardioprotective effects of ACEi or AT(1)-ant.

    Title Mechanism by Which Superoxide Potentiates Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    The macula densa detects changes in NaCl concentration in tubular fluid and transmits a feedback signal, known as tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), which helps to control glomerular afferent arteriole resistance. We and other investigators have reported that synthesis of NO in the macula densa inhibits TGF. NO can be scavenged by superoxide (O(-)(2)) to form peroxynitrite, effectively reducing the bioavailability of NO; there is growing evidence that O(-)(2) regulates vascular tone in the kidney. We hypothesized that O(-)(2) produced in the macula densa enhances TGF and this effect acts only in an autocrine manner within the cells of the macula densa. Afferent arterioles and attached macula densas from Sprague-Dawley rats were simultaneously microperfused in vitro and TGF response examined before and after perfusing the tubular lumen, bath, or vascular lumen with a superoxide scavenger. The macula densa was perfused with solutions containing either 5 mmol/L Na(+) and 3 mmol/L Cl(-) (low NaCl) or 80 mmol/L Na(+) and 77 mmol/L Cl(-) (high NaCl) while keeping pressure in the afferent arteriole constant at 60 mm Hg. When 10(-4) M Tempol, a stable membrane-permeant superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic, was added to the tubular lumen, it inhibited TGF by 56% (before Tempol: TGF, 3.2 +/- 0.3 microm; after Tempol: TGF, 1.4 +/- 0.2 microm; n=6; P<0.05, control versus Tempol). Adding Tempol to the bath inhibited TGF by 48% (before Tempol: TGF, 2.5 +/- 0.25 microm; after Tempol: TGF, 1.3 +/- 0.18 microm; n=6; P<0.05). However, adding Tempol to the vessel lumen did not change TGF response significantly (before Tempol: TGF, 2.7 +/- 0.37 microm; after Tempol: TGF, 3.2 +/- 0.25 microm; n=7; P=0.25). When 300 U/mL of the enzyme SOD, which is not membrane-permeant, was added to either the tubular lumen or bath, it had no effect on TGF response. Finally, to determine whether the effect of O(-)(2) in the macula densa is mediated by its scavenging of NO, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) was added to the macula densa to inhibit neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In the presence of 7-NI, Tempol had no effect (7-NI only: TGF, 3.0 +/- 0.4 microm; 7-NI plus Tempol: TGF, 2.8 +/- 0.5 microm; n=6; P=0.343). Our findings suggest that (1) reducing O(-)(2) increases the bioavailability of NO, which inhibits TGF, (2) both O(-)(2) and NO act within the macula densa, and (3) O(-)(2) appears to have no effect on its own.

    Title Nitric Oxide Produced by Thal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibits Tgf.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the macula densa decreases tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). NO produced by NOS in the thick ascending limb (THAL) inhibits NaCl transport. We hypothesized that NO produced by NOS in the THAL reaches the macula densa and inhibits TGF. Rabbit afferent arterioles and attached macula densa were simultaneously microperfused in vitro. TGF response was determined by measuring afferent arteriole diameter before and after increasing NaCl in the macula densa perfusate. When the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (10 micromol/L) was added to the macula densa lumen, it increased TGF from 2.3 +/- 0.2 to 3.5 +/- 0.5 microm (P<0.02; n=6). In the presence of 7-NI, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (1 mmol/L) enhanced TGF from 2.6 +/- 0.3 to 4.0 +/- 0.5 microm (P<0.02; n=6) when the macula densa was perfused orthograde via the THAL, whereas it had no effect on TGF when the macula densa was perfused retrograde via the distal tubule (DT). Inhibition of macula densa soluble guanylate cyclase with LY83583 (1 micromol/L) blocked the effect of NO produced by THAL NOS when the macula densa was perfused via the THAL. We concluded that NO produced by THAL NOS acts as a paracrine factor, reaching the macula densa and inhibiting TGF.

    Title Possible Role of Adenosine in Macula Densa Control of Glomerular Hemodynamics.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    The macula densa (MD), a plaque of specialized tubular epithelial cells, senses changes in tubular NaCl concentration and sends a signal(s) that controls the resistance of the glomerular afferent arteriole (Af-Art). This mechanism, called tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), is thought to be important in the homeostasis of body fluids and electrolytes. Our aim was to determine the range of NaCl concentrations in tubular fluid at the MD that would elicit the Af-Art response. In addition, we examined the possible involvement of adenosine in transmitting the signal from the MD to the Af-Art.

    Title Role of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Macula Densa.
    Date January 2002
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    There is evidence that macula densa nitric oxide (NO) inhibits tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). However, TGF response is not altered in mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) (-/-). Furthermore, nNOS expression in the macula densa is inversely related to salt intake, yet micropuncture studies have shown that NOS inhibition potentiates TGF in rats on high sodium intake but not in rats on a low-salt diet. These inconsistencies may be due to confounding systemic factors, such as changes in circulating renin. To further clarify the role of macula densa nNOS in TGF response, independent of systemic factors, we tested the hypothesis that (1) TGF response is inversely related to sodium intake, and (2) during low sodium intake, NO produced by macula densa nNOS tonically controls the basal diameter of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art).

    Title Angiotensin Ii Enhances Tubuloglomerular Feedback Via Luminal At(1) Receptors on the Macula Densa.
    Date January 2002
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Recent studies have revealed angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptors on macula densa cells, raising the possibility that angiotensin II (Ang II) could enhance tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) by affecting macula densa cell function. We hypothesized that Ang II enhances TGF via activation of AT1 receptors on the luminal membrane of the macula densa.

    Title Nystatin and Valinomycin Induce Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date December 2001
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
    Excerpt

    The macula densa expresses a luminal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter and a basolateral Cl(-) conductance. Although it is known that cotransport of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) is the first step in tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), subsequent steps are unclear. We hypothesized that Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) entry via the luminal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter elevates intracellular Cl(-), increases electrogenic Cl(-) efflux across the basolateral membrane, and depolarizes the macula densa, initiating TGF. We perfused afferent arterioles with macula densa attached. The macula densa was perfused with solutions containing either 5 mM Na(+) and 3 mM Cl(-) (low NaCl) or 80 mM Na(+) and 77 mM Cl(-) (high NaCl). When the macula densa perfusate was changed from low to high NaCl, afferent arteriole diameter decreased from 15.8 +/- 0.8 to 13.1 +/- 0.7 mm (P < 0.05). Adding 10 microM furosemide to the macula densa lumen blocked TGF. When nystatin, a group I cation ionophore, was added to the macula densa lumen together with furosemide in the presence of low NaCl, it induced TGF (from 18.0 +/- 1.5 to 15.6 +/- 1.6 mm; P = 0.003). When valinomycin, a K(+)-selective ionophore, was added to the macula densa lumen together with furosemide in the presence of low NaCl containing 5 mM K(+), it did not induce TGF. Subsequent addition of 50 mM KCl to the macula densa perfusate induced TGF (from 21.7 +/- 0.8 to 17.5 +/- 1.3 mm; P = 0.0047; n = 6). Adding 50 mM KCl without valinomycin did not induce TGF. When 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB; 1 microM), a Cl(-) channel blocker, was added to the bath, it blocked TGF induced by high NaCl, but did not block TGF induced by valinomycin plus 50 mM KCl. NPPB did not alter afferent arteriole constriction induced by norepinephrine. We concluded that increased NaCl in the lumen of the macula densa leads to influx of Cl(-) via the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter. The accelerated transport increases intracellular Cl(-). The subsequent exit of Cl(-) across the basolateral membrane via Cl( -) channels in turn leads to depolarization of the macula densa and thereby induces TGF.

    Title Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Knockout Mice Do Not Become Hypertensive During Pregnancy.
    Date December 2001
    Journal American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Excerpt

    The purpose of this study was to test whether omitting the vasodilator nitric oxide that is derived from any 1 of the 3 isoforms of nitric oxide synthase results in hypertension during pregnancy.

    Title Long-term Effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline on Left Ventricular Collagen Deposition in Rats with 2-kidney, 1-clip Hypertension.
    Date August 2001
    Journal Circulation
    Excerpt

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a natural inhibitor of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. Ac-SDKP plasma concentration is increased 5-fold after angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Here we studied the effect of Ac-SDKP on monocyte/macrophage infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, and collagen deposition in the rat heart in renovascular hypertension.

    Title Diminished Cardioprotective Response to Inhibition of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme and Angiotensin Ii Type 1 Receptor in B(2) Kinin Receptor Gene Knockout Mice.
    Date June 2001
    Journal Circulation Research
    Excerpt

    Using B(2) kinin receptor gene knockout mice (B(2)(-/-)), we tested the hypothesis that (l) lack of B(2) receptors may affect blood pressure and cardiac function and aggravate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI), and (2) kinins partially mediate the cardiac beneficial effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (AT(1)-ant), whereas lack of B(2) receptors may diminish this cardioprotective effect. Chronic heart failure (HF) was induced by MI, which was caused by coronary artery ligation in both B(2)(-/-) and 129/SvEvTac mice (wild-type control, B(2)(+/+)). An ACEi (ramipril, 2.5 mg/kg/d) or AT(1)-ant (L-158809, 3 mg/kg/d) was given 1 week after MI and was continued for 12 weeks. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, cardiac output (CO), diastolic LV dimension (LVDd), and LV mass were evaluated by echocardiography. Myocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial collagen fraction were studied histopathologically. We found that basal blood pressure and cardiac function were similar in B(2)(+/+) and B(2)(-/-) mice. After MI, development of HF and remodeling were also similar between the 2 strains. The ACEi improved cardiac function and remodeling in both strains; however, its effects were attenuated in B(2)(-/-) mice (respective values for B(2)(+/+) versus B(2)(-/-) mice: overall increase in ejection fraction, 64+/-10% versus 21+/-5% [P<0.01]; increase in CO, 69+/-17% versus 23+/-9% [P<0.01]; overall decrease in LVDd, -24+/-3% versus -7+/-4% [P<0.01]; and decrease in LV mass, -38+/-3% versus -6+/-6% [P<0.01]). AT(1)-ant had a beneficial cardiac effect similar to that produced by ACEi, and this effect was also diminished in B(2)(-/-) mice (respective values for B(2)(+/+) versus B(2)(-/-) mice: overall increase in ejection fraction, 46+/-10% versus 25+/-9% [P<0.01]; increase in CO, 44+/-14% versus 15+/-5% [P<0.01]; overall decrease in LVDd, -14+/-4% versus -6+/-3% [P<0.01]; and decrease in LV mass, -33+/-4 versus -16+/-7% [P<0.01]). The effect of ACEi or AT(1)-ant on myocyte cross-sectional area was similar between strains; however, their effect on the interstitial collagen fraction was diminished in B(2)(-/-) mice. We concluded that (1) lack of B(2) kinin receptors does not affect cardiac phenotype or function, either under normal physiological conditions or during the development of HF; and (2) kinins acting via the B(2) receptor play an important role in the cardioprotective effect of ACEi and AT(1)-ant.

    Title Effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline on Dna and Collagen Synthesis in Rat Cardiac Fibroblasts.
    Date May 2001
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    N:-Acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a natural inhibitor of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell entry into the S phase of the cell cycle and is normally present in human plasma. Ac-SDKP is exclusively hydrolyzed by ACE, and its plasma concentration is increased 5-fold after ACE inhibition in humans. We examined the effect of 0.05 to 100 nmol/L Ac-SDKP on 24-hour (3)H-thymidine incorporation (DNA synthesis) by cardiac fibroblasts both in the absence and presence of 5% FCS. Captopril (1 micromol/L) was added in all cases to prevent the degradation of Ac-SDKP. Treatment of cardiac fibroblasts with 5% FCS increased thymidine incorporation from a control value of 12 469+/-594 to 24 598+/-1051 cpm (P:<0.001). Cotreatment with 1 nmol/L Ac-SDKP reduced stimulation to control levels (10 373+/-200 cpm, P:<0.001). We measured hydroxyproline content and incorporation of (3)H-proline into collagenous fibroblast proteins and found that Ac-SDKP blocked endothelin-1 (10(-8) mol/L)-induced collagen synthesis in a biphasic and dose-dependent manner, causing inhibition at low doses, whereas high doses had little or no effect. It also blunted the activity of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in a biphasic and dose-dependent manner in serum-stimulated fibroblasts, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of DNA and collagen synthesis may depend in part on blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. Participation of p44/p42 in collagen synthesis was confirmed, because a specific inhibitor for p44/p42 activation (PD 98059, 25 micromol/L) was able to block endothelin-1-induced collagen synthesis, similar to the effect of Ac-SDKP. The fact that Ac-SDKP inhibits DNA and collagen synthesis in cardiac fibroblasts suggests that it may be an important endogenous regulator of fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in the heart. Ac-SDKP may participate in the cardioprotective effect of ACE inhibitors by limiting fibroblast proliferation (and hence collagen production), and therefore it would reduce fibrosis in patients with hypertension.

    Title Effects of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Antagonist in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-salt Hypertensive Mice Lacking Ren-2 Gene.
    Date May 2001
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    We previously reported that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) prevented the hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) in 129/SvEvTac mice, which have 2 renin genes (Ren-1 and Ren-2). In the present study, we induced hypertension by uninephrectomy and DOCA-salt in mice having only the Ren-1 gene (C57BL/6J) and investigated the effect of an ACE inhibitor (ramipril, 4 mg. kg(-)(1). d(-)(1)) and an angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist (L-158809, 4 mg. kg(-)(1). d(-)(1)) on the development of hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and renal injury. After 4 weeks of treatment, systolic blood pressure in DOCA-salt mice was significantly increased (128+/-2 mm Hg) compared with controls (109+/-2 mm Hg) (P:<0.001), while plasma renin concentration was decreased by 97% (P:<0.001). DOCA-salt also induced left ventricular and renal hypertrophy and renal damage as manifested by proteinuria. Collagen content in the left ventricle and kidney was significantly higher in DOCA-salt mice (P:<0.001). Urinary albumin (P:<0.05) and proliferating cell nucleic antigen-positive cells in the tubules and interstitium of the renal cortex (P:<0.001) were significantly increased in the DOCA-salt group. Neither the ACE inhibitor nor the AT(1) antagonist had any antihypertensive effect; however, they partially prevented cardiac hypertrophy and completely inhibited left ventricular collagen deposition. In the kidney, both the ACE inhibitor and AT(1) antagonist partially reduced the increase in collagen but had no effect on hypertrophy. They also significantly prevented the effect of DOCA-salt on urinary albumin and proliferating cell nucleic antigen expression in the kidney. Despite the lack of an antihypertensive effect, both ACE inhibitor and AT(1) antagonist prevented cardiac remodeling and renal damage. Our results indicate that ACE inhibitors and AT(1) antagonists exert beneficial effects on the heart and kidney in DOCA-salt hypertensive mice independently of their effects on blood pressure.

    Title Antifibrotic Effects of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline on the Heart and Kidney in Aldosterone-salt Hypertensive Rats.
    Date April 2001
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) inhibits not only hematopoietic cell proliferation but also fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis in vitro. Ac-SDKP also prevents collagen deposition and cell proliferation in the left ventricle (LV) in rats with renovascular hypertension (renin dependent). However, it is not clear whether Ac-SDKP has similar effects in a model of renin-independent hypertension (aldosterone-salt). Using a hypertensive rat model of cardiac and renal fibrosis created by chronic elevation of circulating aldosterone (ALDO) levels, we examined the effect of Ac-SDKP on blood pressure, cardiac and renal fibrosis and hypertrophy, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the LV and left kidney. Uninephrectomized rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) controls that received tap water, (2) rats that received ALDO (0.75 microgram/h SC) and 1% NaCl/0.2% KCl in drinking water (ALDO-salt), (3) rats that received ALDO-salt plus Ac-SDKP 400 microgram. kg(-1). day(-1) SC, and (4) rats that received ALDO-salt plus Ac-SDKP 800 microgram. kg(-1). d(-1) SC. After 6 weeks of treatment, the ALDO-salt group was found to have significantly increased blood pressure with decreased body weight and plasma renin concentration (P<0.05), LV and renal hypertrophy as well as renal injury, significantly increased collagen content in both ventricles and kidney as well as increased collagen volume fraction in the LV (P<0.0001), and significantly increased interstitial and perivascular PCNA-positive cells in the LV and kidney (P<0.0001). Ac-SDKP at 800 microgram. kg(-1). d(-1) markedly prevented cardiac and renal fibrosis (P<0.005) without affecting blood pressure or organ hypertrophy. It also suppressed PCNA expression in the LV and kidney in a dose-dependent manner. We concluded that Ac-SDKP prevents increased collagen deposition and cell proliferation in the heart and kidney in ALDO-salt hypertensive rats. Because ACE inhibitors increase plasma and tissue Ac-SDKP and decrease cardiac and renal fibrosis, we speculate that Ac-SDKP may participate in the antifibrotic effect of ACE inhibitors.

    Title Efferent Arteriole Tubuloglomerular Feedback in the Renal Nephron.
    Date February 2001
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Afferent and efferent arteriole resistance exerts critical and opposite actions in the regulation of glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) plays an important role in the regulation of afferent arteriole resistance; however, the role of TGF in the regulation of efferent arteriole resistance is less well established. We hypothesized that TGF caused by increased NaCl in the tubular fluid stimulates the macula densa to initiate a cascade of events resulting in efferent arteriole vasodilation, mediated by adenosine via its A2 receptor.

    Title Effects of Ace Inhibitor, At1 Antagonist, and Combined Treatment in Mice with Heart Failure.
    Date February 2001
    Journal Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    We tested the hypothesis that a combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1-ant) may have an additive cardioprotective effect in mice with heart failure (HF), because these two agents could have other mechanisms of action besides interrupting the renin-angiotensin system. ACEi prevent degradation of bradykinin. During treatment with AT1-ant, increased angiotensin II could activate AT2 receptors, with an antitrophic effect. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of HF induced by myocardial infarction. Seven days after surgery, mice were divided into six groups and treated for 23 weeks: (a) sham ligation; (b) HF-vehicle; (c) HF-ACEi; (d) HF-AT1-ant; (e) HF-ACEi + AT1-ant (half dose of each); and (f) HF-ACEi + AT1-ant (full dose of each). Cardiac function was evaluated in conscious mice during the treatment period. The HF-vehicle group showed significantly decreased left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), shortening fraction (SF), and cardiac output (CO) and increased LV dimensions, interstitial collagen, and myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA) compared with controls. Treatment with ACEi or AT1-ant significantly increased EF, SF, and CO and decreased LV dimensions and MCSA in mice with HF. However, a combination of these drugs did not improve cardiac function more than ACEi or AT1-ant alone. We concluded that ACEi and AT1-ant have similar cardioprotective effects and may reach maximal effect when given individually; thus no further improvement can be achieved with combined therapy in mice with HF.

    Title Inducible Regulation of Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide Promoter in Transgenic Mice.
    Date February 2001
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Studies have shown that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene expression is rapidly induced in the infarcted heart and that plasma BNP levels reflect the degree of left ventricular dysfunction. Our previous in vitro work using transiently transfected neonatal rat cardiac myocytes has shown that the human BNP (hBNP) promoter, in particular a region extending from -127 to -40 relative to the start site of transcription, is more active in cardiac myocytes than in fibroblasts. To study tissue-specific and transcriptional regulation of the hBNP gene in vivo, we generated transgenic mice containing the proximal hBNP promoter (-408 to +100) coupled to a luciferase reporter gene. In four lines of transgenic mice, luciferase activity was approximately 33- to 100-fold higher in the heart than in other tissues, including the whole brain. To test whether the transgene responded to a pathophysiological stimulus, we induced infarction by coronary artery ligation. Luciferase activity was fivefold higher in the infarcted region of the left ventricle at 48 h than in sham-operated animals and remained elevated for 4 wk. Endogenous BNP mRNA was similarly increased in the infarcted hearts of a separate group of mice. We conclude that 1) the proximal 408-bp region of the hBNP promoter confers cardiac-specific expression and 2) myocardial infarction activates the proximal hBNP promoter in vivo. These data suggest that we have a valid model for the study of basal and inducible regulation of the hBNP gene in vivo.

    Title Chronic Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Blunts Low Sodium-stimulated Renin Without Changing Renal Haemodynamics.
    Date January 2001
    Journal Journal of Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, is found in the macula densa of the renal cortex and is upregulated by dietary sodium restriction. Because of this discrete cortical localization, we hypothesized that COX-2 plays a role in the chronic stimulation of renin via the macula densa pathway.

    Title Upregulation of P67(phox) and Gp91(phox) in Aortas from Angiotensin Ii-infused Mice.
    Date December 2000
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Although NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide (O(2)(-)) is increased during the development of angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, vascular regulation at the protein level has not been reported. We have shown that four major components of NAD(P)H oxidase are located primarily in the vascular adventitia as a primary source of vascular O(2)(-). Here we compare vascular levels of O(2)(-) and NAD(P)H oxidase in normotensive and ANG II-infused hypertensive mice and show that, after 7 days of ANG II infusion (750 microg. kg(-1). day(-1) ip) in C57B1/6 mice, systolic blood pressure was increased compared with that after sham infusion, concomitant with increased O(2)(-) in the thoracic aorta as measured using lucigenin (25 microM)-enhanced chemiluminescence. Both p67(phox) and gp91(phox) were detectable by Western blotting in aortic homogenates, and we observed increased protein levels of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits. These ANG II-induced increases were normalized by simultaneous treatment with the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan. Moreover, the primary location of these subunits was the adventitia as detected immunohistochemically. Our results suggest that ANG II-induced increases in O(2)(-) are due to increased adventitial NAD(P)H oxidase activity, brought about by the heightened expression and interaction of its components.

    Title Role of Neuropeptide Y in the Development of Two-kidney, One-clip Renovascular Hypertension in the Rat.
    Date December 2000
    Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
    Excerpt

    OBJECTIVE: Along with the renin-angiotensin system, sympathetic stimulation may contribute to renovascular hypertension. The vasoactive peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) is co-released with and potentiates the pressor effects of norepinephrine through the Y-1 receptor. NPY, by exaggerating sympathetic activity, may contribute to renovascular hypertension, possibly by augmenting adrenergic-mediated renin release. This was studied by determining the effect of continuous Y-1 blockade on the development of two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension and the effect of NPY on in vitro renin release. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow responses to NPY (10 microg/kg, administered intravenously) were measured in five anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats before and after BIBO3304TF administration to test the Y-1 antagonist BIBO3304TF. In hypertension studies, 28 rats underwent left renal artery clipping. Of these, 13 were implanted with a mini-osmotic pump for continuous BIBO3304TF infusion (0.3 microg/h, administered intravenously); the other 15 underwent sham implantation. Systolic blood pressure was then monitored for 4 weeks. Finally, in vitro renin release was measured from renal cortical slices (n = 6-12) incubated with NPY (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) or NPY plus the adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (10(-4) mol/L). RESULTS: BIBO3304TF attenuated the NPY-induced increase in mean arterial pressure by 54% (P <.02) and the NPY-induced decrease in renal blood flow by 38% (P <.05). In 4-week hypertension studies, systolic blood pressure in clipped controls increased from 130 +/- 3 mm Hg to 167 +/- 6 mm Hg (P <.01), whereas BIBO3304TF-treated rats had no significant increase (125 +/- 3 mm Hg to 141 +/- 8 mm Hg). Final systolic blood pressure was 26 mm Hg lower in BIBO3304TF-treated rats than in controls (P <.01). In renal cortical slices, no NPY effect was observed in basal or isoproterenol-stimulated renin release. CONCLUSIONS: The Y-1 receptor antagonist BIBO3304TF attenuated acute pressor responses to NPY and blunted the development of two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension in rats. NPY may contribute to the hypertensive response in this renovascular hypertension model. Our in vitro data do not suggest that this is due to NPY enhancement of renin release.

    Title Role of Macula Densa Nitric Oxide and Cgmp in the Regulation of Tubuloglomerular Feedback.
    Date November 2000
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Previous studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) produced within cells of the macula densa (MD) modulates tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). We tested the hypothesis that NO produced in the MD acts locally as an autacoid to activate soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase in the MD itself.

    Title Cardiac Interstitial Bradykinin Release During Ischemia is Enhanced by Ischemic Preconditioning.
    Date August 2000
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Ischemic preconditioning is known to protect the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury. We examined the transmural release of bradykinin during myocardial ischemia and the influence of ischemic preconditioning on bradykinin release during subsequent myocardial ischemia. Myocardial ischemia was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery in anesthetized cats. Cardiac microdialysis was performed by implantation and perfusion of dialysis probes in the epicardium and endocardium. In eight animals, bradykinin release was greater in the endocardium than in the epicardium (14.4 +/- 2.8 vs. 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05) during 30 min of ischemia. In seven animals subjected to preconditioning, myocardial bradykinin release was potentiated significantly from 2.4 +/- 0.6 ng/ml during the control period to 23.1 +/- 2.5 ng/ml during 30 min of myocardial ischemia compared with the non-preconditioning group (from 2.7 +/- 0.6 to 13.4 +/- 1.9 ng/ml, P < 0.05, n = 6). Thus this study provides further evidence that transmural gradients of bradykinin are produced during ischemia. The results also suggest that ischemic preconditioning enhances bradykinin release in the myocardial interstitial fluid during subsequent ischemia, which is likely one of the mechanisms of cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning.

    Title Role of Kinins in Chronic Heart Failure and in the Therapeutic Effect of Ace Inhibitors in Kininogen-deficient Rats.
    Date March 2000
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Using Brown Norway Katholiek (BNK) rats, which are deficient in kininogen (kinin precursor) due to a mutation in the kininogen gene, we examined the role of endogenous kinins in 1) normal cardiac function; 2) myocardial infarction (MI) caused by coronary artery ligation; 3) cardiac remodeling in the development of heart failure (HF) after MI; and 4) the cardioprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) on HF after MI. Two months after MI, rats were randomly treated with vehicle or the ACEI ramipril for 2 mo. Brown Norway rats (BN), which have normal kininogen, were used as controls. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic pressure (EDP), and ejection fraction (EF) as well as myocardial infarct size (IS), interstitial collagen fraction (ICF), cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (MCA), and oxygen diffusion distance (ODD) were measured. We found that 1) cardiac hemodynamics, function, and histology were the same in sham-ligated BN and BNK rats; 2) IS was similar in BN and BNK; 3) in rats with HF treated with vehicle, the decrease in LVEF and the increase in LVEDV, LVESV, LVEDP, ICF, MCA, and ODD did not differ between BNK and BN; and 4) ACEI increased EF, decreased LVEDV and LVESV, and improved cardiac remodeling in BN-HF rats, and these effects were partially blocked by the bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist icatibant (HOE-140). In BNK-HF rats, ACEI failed to produce these beneficial cardiac effects. We concluded that in rats, lack of kinins does not influence regulation of normal cardiac function, myocardial infarct size, or development of HF; however, kinins appear to play an important role in the cardioprotective effect of ACEI, since 1) this effect was significantly diminished in kininogen-deficient rats and 2) it was blocked by a B(2) kinin receptor antagonist in BN rats.

    Title Essential Hypertension : Part Ii: Treatment.
    Date February 2000
    Journal Circulation
    Title Essential Hypertension. Part I: Definition and Etiology.
    Date February 2000
    Journal Circulation
    Title Centrally Produced Neuronal Nitric Oxide in the Control of Baroreceptor Reflex Sensitivity and Blood Pressure in Normotensive and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
    Date January 2000
    Journal Japanese Journal of Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    We studied the effect of chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade in the brain on mean arterial pressure [MAP (mmHg)], heart rate [HR (bpm)] and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity [BRS (mean slope: bpm/mmHg)] in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) (50 microg/kg per day, 11-12 days) increased MAP in WKY and SHR (125+/-2.1 vs 118+/-1.1 controls, P<0.01 and 179+/-3.59 vs 156+/-4.0 controls, P<0.001, respectively) without affecting HR. In L-NAME-treated WKY, BRS to bradycardia was suppressed (-0.79+/-0.09 vs -1.76+/-0.17 controls, P=0.001), whereas in SHR, L-NAME did not affect BRS to bradycardia. BRS to tachycardia remained unaffected in either strain. In WKY, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI x Na+) (34 microg i.c.v./kg per day, 11-12 days), a selective nNOS inhibitor, did not affect MAP or HR, but BRS to bradycardia and tachycardia was decreased (-0.37+/-0.20 vs -0.97+/-0.41 controls, P<0.01 and -1.78+/-0.20 vs -2.52+/-0.40 controls, P=0.05, respectively). In SHR, the same dose of 7-NI x Na+ increased resting MAP (171+/-5.00 vs 150+/-7.00 controls, P<0.05) without affecting HR or BRS to bradycardia or tachycardia. Thus in WKY, BRS to acute changes in systemic blood pressure (BP) is regulated by NO produced by nNOS in the brain, serving as a neurotransmitter in sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. In SHR, systemic BP is regulated in part by NO released by the type I NOS isoenzyme in the brain.

    Title Reactive Oxygen Species: Role in the Relaxation Induced by Bradykinin or Arachidonic Acid Via Edhf in Isolated Porcine Coronary Arteries.
    Date December 1999
    Journal Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    Although endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is thought to be a cytochrome P-450 product (arachidonic acid metabolite) in some tissues, in porcine coronary arteries (PCAs) its nature remains unclear. Because phospholipase A2 and C are involved in the synthesis and/or release of EDHF in the PCA, the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway may be involved. In the presence of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5) M) and the NOS inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10(-4) M), both bradykinin (BK; 10(-9)-10(-6) M) and AA (10(-7)-10(-4) M) induced dose-dependent relaxation of PGF2alpha-contracted PCA rings, which was blocked by a high extracellular concentration of KCl (30 mM) or pretreatment with ouabain, a Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) inhibitor (5 x 10(-7) M). Eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA; 20 microM), which inhibits all AA pathways, slightly affected the response to BK and AA; however, lipoxygenase or cytochrome P-450 inhibitors had no effect, suggesting that relaxation is independent of these enzymatic pathways. Because endothelial cells can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via metabolism of AA and independent of cyclooxygenase activity, we also studied (a) whether ROS can relax the PCA, as well as the mechanism(s) involved, and (b) the role of ROS in BK- and AA-induced relaxation. Xanthine (X; 100 microM) plus xanthine oxidase (XO; 0.02 U/ml) induced time-dependent relaxation of PGF2alpha-contracted PCA rings in the presence of indomethacin and L-NAME. Dilatation was not affected by superoxide dismutase (SOD; 500 U/ml) but was abolished by catalase (300 U/ml), suggesting that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved. When rings were contracted by depolarizing them with 30 mM KCl, X/XO failed to elicit relaxation. Ouabain abolished the response to X/XO, suggesting that X/XO may induce relaxation by hyperpolarizing vascular smooth muscle cells via stimulation of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump. We therefore questioned whether ROS might be involved in BK- and AA-induced relaxation. Because catalase combined with SOD had little or no effect, we concluded that in the PCA, the relaxation induced by BK via EDHF involves some mechanism independent of NO, AA metabolism, or ROS.

    Title Echocardiographic Assessment of Cardiac Function in Conscious and Anesthetized Mice.
    Date December 1999
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Using a high-frequency linear transducer (15L8), we studied 1) the feasibility of performing echocardiography in nonanesthetized mice compared with mice given pentobarbital sodium (Pento) or a mixture of ketamine and xylazine and 2) the feasibility of echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, dilatation, and function in mice with two-kidney, one-clip hypertension or myocardial infarction (MI). Heart rate (HR) in awake mice was 658 +/- 9 beats/min; Pento and ketamine plus xylazine reduced HR to 377 +/- 11 and 293 +/- 19 beats/min, respectively, associated with a significant decrease in shortening fraction (SF), ejection fraction (EF), and cardiac output (CO) and an increase in LV end-diastolic (LVEDD) and end-systolic dimensions (LVESD). Mice with 4 wk of two-kidney, one-clip hypertension had increased LV mass (15.62 +/- 0. 62 vs. 22.17 +/- 1.79 mg) without altered LV dimensions, SF, EF, or CO. Mice studied 4 wk post-MI exhibited obvious LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction, as evidenced by increased LVEDD and LVESD and decreased SF, EF, and CO. Our findings clearly show the adverse impact of anesthesia on basal cardiac function and the difficulty in interpreting data obtained from anesthetized mice. We believe this is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of using echocardiography to assess cardiovascular function in the nonanesthetized mouse.

    Title Role of Nitric Oxide in the Control of Cardiac Oxygen Consumption in B(2)-kinin Receptor Knockout Mice.
    Date November 1999
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    The aim of this study was to determine whether bradykinin, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramiprilat, and the calcium-channel antagonist amlodipine reduce myocardial oxygen consumption (MV(O2)) via a B(2)-kinin receptor/nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Left ventricular free wall and septum were isolated from normal and B(2)-kinin receptor knockout (B(2) -/-) mice. Myocardial tissue oxygen consumption was measured in an airtight chamber with a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Baseline MV(O2) was not significantly different between normal (239+/-13 nmol of O(2). min(-1). g(-1)) and B(2) -/- (263+/-24 nmol of O(2). min(-1). g(-1)) mice. S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (10(-7) to 10(-4) mol/L) reduced oxygen consumption in a concentration-dependent manner in both normal (maximum, 36+/-3%) and B(2) -/- mice (28+/-3%). This was also true for the endothelium-dependent vasodilator substance P (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L; 22+/-7% in normal mice and 20+/-4% in B(2) -/- mice). Bradykinin (10(-7) to 10(-4) mol/L), ramiprilat (10(-7) to 10(-4) mol/L), and amlodipine (10(-7) to 10(-5) mol/L) all caused concentration-dependent decreases in MV(O2)in normal mice. At the highest concentration, tissue O(2) consumption was decreased by 18+/-3%, 20+/-5%, and 28+/-3%, respectively. The reduction in MV(O2) to all 3 drugs was attenuated in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester. However, in the B(2) -/- mice, bradykinin, ramiprilat, and amlodipine had virtually no effect on MV(O2). Therefore, nitric oxide, through a bradykinin-receptor-dependent mechanism, regulates cardiac oxygen consumption. This physiological mechanism is absent in B(2) -/- mice and may be evidence of an important therapeutic mechanism of action of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and amlodipine.

    Title Endothelial Nitric Oxide Gene Knockout Mice: Cardiac Phenotypes and the Effect of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor on Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury.
    Date August 1999
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) released by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is not only important in blood pressure regulation but also involved in cardiac function and remodeling and in the cardioprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). With the use of a 2D Doppler echocardiography system equipped with a 15-MHz linear transducer, we evaluated left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in conscious eNOS knockout mice (eNOS(-/-); n=15) and their wild-type littermates (eNOS(+/+); n=16). We also studied whether in eNOS(-/-) mice (1) myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is more severe and (2) the cardioprotective effect of ACEi is diminished or absent. In comparison with the wild type, eNOS(-/-) mice had significantly increased systolic blood pressure (128+/-3 versus 108+/-5 mm Hg; P<0.001) and decreased heart rate (531+/-22 versus 629+/-18 bpm; P<0.001) associated with increased LV posterior wall thickness (0.80+/-0.04 versus 0.64+/-0.02 mm; P<0.001) and LV mass (18.3+/-0.9 versus 13.1+/-0.5 mg/10 g body weight; P<0.01). Despite hypertension and LV hypertrophy, LV chamber dimension, shortening fraction and ejection fraction (indicators of LV contractility), and cardiac output did not differ between the 2 strains, which indicates that LV function in eNOS(-/-) mice is well compensated. We also found that in eNOS(+/+) mice, ACEi decreased the ratio of myocardial infarct size to area at risk from 62.7+/-3.9% to 36.3+/-1.6% (P<0. 001), whereas in eNOS(-/-) mice this effect of ACEi was almost abolished: the ratio of myocardial infarct size to area at risk was 67.2+/-2.9% in the vehicle-treated group and 62.7+/-3.9% in mice treated with ACEi. Moreover, infarct size in vehicle-treated eNOS(-/-) mice was not significantly different from eNOS(+/+) mice given the same treatment. We concluded that (1) endothelium-derived NO plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure homeostasis; (2) NO released under basal conditions has no significant impact on cardiac function; and (3) ACEi protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice and that this effect is mediated in part by endothelium-derived NO.

    Title An Enhanced Effect of Arginine Vasopressin in Bradykinin B2 Receptor Null Mutant Mice.
    Date July 1999
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Under water restriction, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released and promotes water reabsorption in the distal nephron, mainly through AVP V2-receptors. It has been proposed that renal kinins counteract the hydro-osmotic effect of AVP. We hypothesized that kinins acting through B2 receptors antagonize the urinary concentrating effect of AVP. To test this, bradykinin B2 receptor knockout mice (B2-KO) and 129/SvEv mice (controls) were placed in metabolic cages and urine collected for 24 hours (water ad libitum). After that, urine was again collected from the same mice during 24 hours of water restriction. Urinary volume (UV), urinary osmolarity (UOsm), and urinary Na+ (UNaV) and K+ (UKV) excretion were determined. On water restriction, UV in controls decreased by approximately 25%, whereas in B2-KO mice there was almost a 60% drop in urinary output (P=0.001 versus controls). In the controls, water restriction increased UOsm by 347 mOsm/kg H2O, approximately 14% above baseline (NS), whereas in knockout mice the increase was 3 times that seen in the controls: >1000 mOsm/kg H2O (P=0.001 versus controls). Compared with normohydration, UNaV and UKV in the water-restricted state increased more in controls than in B2-KO mice. This difference in electrolyte excretion could be explained by greater dehydration in the controls (dehydration natriuresis). In a second protocol, we tried to mimic the effect of endogenous AVP by exogenous administration of an AVP V2-receptor agonist, desmopressin (DDAVP). To suppress endogenous AVP levels before DDAVP administration, mice were volume-overloaded with dextrose and alcohol. UOsm was 685+/-125 and 561+/-58 mOsm/kg H2O in water-loaded controls and B2-KO mice, respectively. After DDAVP was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 1 microgram/kg, UOsm increased to 1175+/-86 mOsm/kg H2O (Delta+490 mOsm) in the controls and 2347+/-518 mOsm/kg H2O (Delta+1786 mOsm) in B2-KO mice (P<0.05 versus controls). We concluded that water restriction or exogenous administration of an AVP V2-receptor agonist has a greater urinary concentrating effect in B2-KO mice than in controls, suggesting that endogenous kinins acting through B2 receptors oppose the antidiuretic effect of AVP in vivo.

    Title Reduction of Myocardial Infarct Size by Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase.
    Date May 1999
    Journal American Journal of Hypertension
    Excerpt

    The inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform (iNOS) is upregulated by cytokines and endotoxins in many types of cells, including cardiac myocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) induced by cytokines can be cytotoxic, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and septic shock. To examine the role of iNOS in the ischemic myocardium, we studied: 1) the time course of expression of iNOS mRNA after myocardial infarction (MI) in male Sprague-Dawley rat hearts and expression of iNOS protein in the infarcted region; 2) whether hypoxia in vitro is a potential mediator of the induction of iNOS mRNA; and 3) whether inhibition of iNOS by two different selective inhibitors (aminoguanidine and S-methylisothiourea sulfate) in vivo influences infarct size. Myocardial infarction was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and tissue was collected at selected times thereafter from both ligated and sham-operated rats. iNOS mRNA was induced in the infarcted region of the left ventricle for 7 days; iNOS protein was also detected in the infarcted area. We next tested whether hypoxia would induce iNOS in vitro. In cultured neonatal ventricular myocytes, iNOS mRNA was slightly induced by 6 to 24 h of hypoxia; however, iNOS protein was only detected when the cytokine interleukin-1beta was present. To study whether iNOS activity contributed to myocardial damage (eg, infarct size), we administered the first dose of the NOS inhibitors 24 h before LAD occlusion and then a second dose after surgery. Inhibition of iNOS activity with aminoguanidine reduced infarct size by 20% but had no effect on infiltration by neutrophils, whereas the more selective inhibitor S-methylisothiourea sulfate reduced infarct size by 41%. These data suggest that NO derived from the iNOS isoform contributes to some of the myocardial injury following MI, possibly by causing myocardial cell death in areas bordering the ischemic region of the heart.

    Title Effect of Ace Inhibitor on Doca-salt- and Aortic Coarctation-induced Hypertension in Mice: Do Kinin B2 Receptors Play a Role?
    Date February 1999
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Kinins have been shown to play an important role in the cardioprotective effect of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) during heart failure and ischemia-reperfusion. However, it is controversial as to whether kinins oppose the hypertensinogenic effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate plus salt (DOCA-salt) or aortic coarctation and whether they mediate both chronic antihypertensive and cardiac antihypertrophic effects of ACEi in hypertension. Using normal 129/SvEvTac mice and mice lacking the bradykinin B2 receptor gene (B2-KO), we investigated whether (1) the hypertensinogenic effect of DOCA-salt or aortic coarctation is enhanced in B2-KO mice and (2) the chronic antihypertensive and antihypertrophic effects of an ACEi (ramipril, 4 mg. kg-1. d-1) are mediated by B2 receptors in aortic coarctation (6 weeks)- and DOCA-salt (4 weeks)-induced hypertension. Before surgery, there was no difference between 129/SvEvTac and B2-KO mice in terms of blood pressure and heart weight, suggesting that kinins are not essential to maintaining normal blood pressure. DOCA-salt (volume expansion) or aortic coarctation (renin-dependent) induced similar hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in 129/SvEvTac and B2-KO mice, suggesting that kinins do not play an essential role in the development of DOCA-salt- or aortic coarctation-induced hypertension. We found that B2 receptors mediate only the early (1 week) but not the late phase (4 weeks) of the chronic hypotensive effect of ACEi in DOCA-salt hypertension. On the other hand, chronic ACE inhibition prevented the development of hypertension and LVH in both 129/SvEvTac and B2-KO mice given DOCA-salt or subjected to aortic coarctation, suggesting that kinins do not participate in the chronic antihypertensive and antihypertrophic effects of ACEi in these 2 models of hypertension. Thus, in mice, kinins acting via B2 receptors do not participate in (1) maintenance of normal basal blood pressure, (2) establishment and maintenance of hypertension induced by DOCA-salt or aortic coarctation, and (3) chronic antihypertensive and cardiac antihypertrophic effects of ACEi in DOCA-salt and aortic coarctation hypertension.

    Title Role of Nnos in Blood Pressure Regulation in Enos Null Mutant Mice.
    Date December 1998
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    The role of neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in regulating blood pressure (BP) remains uncertain. Recently it was reported that in mice lacking functional endothelial NOS (eNOS) genes (-/-), acute administration of a nonselective NOS inhibitor, Nw-nitro-L-arginine, decreased mean BP, suggesting that NO released by non-eNOS isoforms increases BP. Because the inducible NOS isoform is not constitutively expressed and when induced causes hypotension, we hypothesize that it is NO produced by nNOS that increases BP in the absence of eNOS activity. To test this hypothesis, we studied the acute effect of selective and nonselective nNOS inhibitors on BP and cerebellar NOS activity in eNOS (-/-), wild-type (+/+), and heterozygous (+/-) mice as well as in +/+ mice with renovascular hypertension. Because it is not known whether the decrease in BP caused by acute NOS inhibition in -/- mice can occur chronically, we also studied the effect of chronic NOS inhibition on both BP and cerebellar NOS activity. eNOS (-/-) mice had higher BP than +/+ or +/-mice, and acute administration of the selective nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) decreased their mean BP from 137+/-13 to 124+/-12 mm Hg (P<0.01). In +/+, +/-, or renovascular hypertensive +/+ mice, 7-NI caused a small but insignificant rise from 105+/-5 to 110+/-6 mm Hg, from 115+/-9 to 119+/-13 mm Hg, and from 146+/-6 to 150+/-6 mm Hg, respectively. Fifteen minutes after administration of 7-NI, cerebellar NOS activity decreased by 70%; however, this inhibitory effect was brief, since 2 hours after 7-NI administration NOS returned toward control values. Chronic oral or intraperitoneal administration of 7-NI did not inhibit cerebellar NOS activity, whereas the nonselective NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) decreased this activity by 50%. Therefore, we studied the effect of chronic L-NAME administration (4 weeks) on BP. In -/- mice, chronic L-NAME administration decreased BP from 135+/-4 to 120+/-3 mm Hg (P<0.05), whereas in +/+ and +/-mice, as expected, it increased BP from 109+/-2 to 125+/-3 mm Hg (P<0.001) and from 107+/-6 to 119+/-5 mm Hg (P<0.02), respectively. After L-NAME administration was stopped, BP returned to baseline. These results suggest that in eNOS -/- mice, NO derived from nNOS increases BP both acutely and chronically.

    Title Biphasic Effect of Bradykinin on Rabbit Afferent Arterioles.
    Date September 1998
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Bradykinin plays an important role in the regulation of renal hemodynamics. However, there have been few studies of the effect of bradykinin on isolated afferent arterioles, vascular segments that are important for the regulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Our purpose was to study (1) the effects of bradykinin on isolated perfused rabbit afferent arterioles and (2) the mechanisms of actions. Afferent arterioles dissected from rabbits were perfused in vitro at 60 mm Hg. In afferent arterioles preconstricted with phenylephrine, 10(-12) to 10(-10) mol/L bradykinin increased luminal diameter from 9.0+/-1.0 to 14.3+/-1.2 microm (P<0.003). In contrast, 10(-9) and 10(-8) mol/L bradykinin decreased luminal diameter to 10.8+/-1.4 and 9.7+/-1.2 microm, respectively (P<0.001). Bradykinin added to the bath had no effect on preconstricted afferent arterioles. The addition of [des-Arg9]-bradykinin (10(-9) and 10(-8) mol/L), a B1 receptor agonist, to the lumen decreased diameter from 9.7+/-1.2 to 6.7+/-1.2 microm at 10(-8) mol/L (P<0.002). Icatibant (Hoe 140), a B2 receptor antagonist, blocked both the vasodilation and vasoconstriction induced by bradykinin as well as the vasoconstriction induced by [des-Arg9]-bradykinin. L-NAME had no effect on bradykinin-induced dilation or constriction. Indomethacin blocked both the dilation induced by 10(-12) to 10(-10) mol/L bradykinin and the constriction induced by 10(-9) to 10(-8) mol/L bradykinin. In fact, in the presence of indomethacin, 10(-9) and 10(-8) mol/L bradykinin increased luminal diameter from 6.2+/-0.7 to 10.7+/-0.6 microm at 10(-8) mol/L (P<0.001), which was attenuated by L-NAME. Finally, in the presence of SQ29548, a prostaglandin H2/thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, bradykinin caused dilation at all concentrations tested. In conclusion, bradykinin has a biphasic effect on afferent arterioles. Both dilation and constriction may be mediated by bradykinin B2 receptors. The mechanisms of vasodilation and vasoconstriction are due to cyclooxygenase products, not nitric oxide.

    Title Linoleic Acid Induces Relaxation and Hyperpolarization of the Pig Coronary Artery.
    Date March 1998
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated C18 fatty acid, is one of the major fatty acids in the coronary arterial wall. Although diets rich in linoleic acid reduce blood pressure and prevent coronary artery disease in both humans and animals, very little is known about its mechanism of action. We believed that its beneficial effects might be mediated by changes in vascular tone. We investigated whether linoleic acid induces relaxation of porcine coronary artery rings and the mechanism involved in this process. Linoleic acid and two of its metabolites, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) and 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), induced dose-dependent relaxation of prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha-precontracted rings that was not affected by indomethacin (10[-5] mol/L), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, or cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate (CDC; 10[-5] mol/L), a lipoxygenase inhibitor. Removal of endothelial cells had no effect on vasorelaxation, suggesting a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). When rings were contracted with KCl, linoleic acid failed to induce relaxation. Although tetrabutylammonium (5 x 10[-3] mol/L), a nonselective K+ channel blocker, slightly inhibited the relaxation caused by linoleic acid, glibenclamide (10[-6] mol/L), an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, and charybdotoxin (7.5x10[-8] mol/L) or tetraethylammonium (5x10[-3] mol/L), two different Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers, had no effect. However, relaxation was completely blocked by ouabain (5x10[-7] mol/L), a Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, or by a K+-free solution. In addition, linoleic acid (10[-6] mol/L) caused sustained hyperpolarization of porcine coronary VSMC (from -49.5+/-2.0 to -60.7+/-4.2 mV), which was also abolished by ouabain. We concluded that linoleic acid induces relaxation and hyperpolarization of porcine coronary VSMC via a mechanism that involves activation of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump.

    Title Autacoids Mediate Coronary Vasoconstriction Induced by Nitric Oxide Synthesis Inhibition.
    Date February 1998
    Journal Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis results in coronary vasoconstriction. Using a Langendorff rat heart preparation, we tested the hypothesis that this vasoconstriction is caused by the unopposed effect of the autacoids prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) or thromboxane A2 (TxA2) or both through a mechanism that involves oxygen free radicals. The vasoconstriction induced by NO synthesis inhibition was studied with two different NO synthase inhibitors, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and N(omega)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). We found that the decrease in coronary flow (CF) induced by L-NAME (from 19.3 +/- 0.9 to 13.2 +/- 0.9 ml/min; p < 0.001) and L-NMMA (from 20.1 +/- 0.4 to 15.0 +/- 0.3 ml/min; p < 0.001) was completely blocked by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. A different cyclooxygenase inhibitor (ibuprofen), a PGH2/TxA2-receptor antagonist (SQ29548), and a TxA2 synthase inhibitor (CGS 13080) also completely abolished the vasoconstrictor effect of L-NAME, suggesting that this vasoconstriction is mediated by TxA2. Two different scavengers of superoxide radical anions (O2-), the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a cell-permeable SOD mimic, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (Tempol), also blocked the vasoconstriction induced by NO synthesis inhibition. In contrast, catalase, which inactivates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), failed to do so, indicating that O2- is needed for the vasoconstrictor effect of L-NAME, whereas H2O2 is not. To determine whether O2- acts on the conversion of PGH2 to TxA2 or at the receptor or postreceptor level, we studied whether the vasoconstriction induced by exogenous PGH2 or the TxA2 receptor agonist U46619 is blocked by scavengers of O2-. CF decreased by 50% with PGH2 (from 21 +/- 2.1 to 10.6 +/- 5.8 ml/min; p < 0.01), and this decrease was abolished by SOD and Tempol but not catalase. However, SOD had no effect on the vasoconstriction induced by U46619, which decreased CF by 45% (from 17.3 +/- 2.5 to 9.5 +/- 1.8 ml/min; p < 0.01). In addition, PGH2 increased the release of TxB2 (the stable metabolite of TxA2) in the coronary effluent (from 5.1 +/- 1.2 to 136.1 +/- 11.8 pg/ml/min). The release of TxB2 was significantly lower in hearts treated with SOD (76.8 +/- 14.2 pg/ml/min) and CGS (65.7 +/- 13.9 pg/ml/min). We conclude that the coronary vasoconstriction induced by inhibition of NO synthesis is the result of the unopposed effect of the autacoid TxA2 through activation of its receptor, and that O2- is necessary for conversion of PGH2 to TxA2.

    Title Heterogeneity of Angiotensin Action in Renal Circulation.
    Date February 1998
    Journal Kidney International. Supplement
    Excerpt

    Reported concentrations of angiotensin II (Ang II) in renal interstitial fluid are as high as 10 nM. Despite such high concentrations, intrarenal arterial infusion of Ang II at rates that induce far less change in renal Ang II concentration still elicits renal vasoconstriction. We examined whether the glomerular afferent arterioles (Af-Art) was more sensitive to intraluminal than extraluminal Ang II in superficial or juxtamedullary nephrons. Rat superficial Af-Arts with the intact glomerulus were microdissected and perfused in vitro at 70 mmHg, while juxtamedullary Af-Arts were visualized in isolated perfused kidneys (at 100 mm Hg) according to the method of Casellas and Navar. Increasing doses of Ang II (1 pM to 10 nM) or norepinephrine (NE; 1 nM to 1 microM) were added to either bath (extraluminal) or arteriolar perfusate (intraluminal). Decreases in luminal diameter induced by Ang II were significantly larger with intraluminal than extraluminal administration in superficial Af-Art: at 100 pM the diameter decreased by 52 +/- 8% (N = 6) and 7 +/- 3% with intraluminal and extraluminal administration, respectively. In contrast, in the juxtamedullary Af-Arts intraluminal and extraluminal Ang II caused similar constriction. On the other hand, there was no difference in intraluminal versus extraluminal NE action in either superficial or juxtamedullary nephrons. In conclusion, glomerular Af-Arts seem to have a higher sensitivity to luminal than interstitial Ang II in superficial but not juxtamedullary nephrons. Such heterogeneities in Ang II action may be important in the control of glomerular hemodynamics under various physiological and pathological conditions.

    Title Role of Nitric Oxide in the Control of Glomerular Microcirculation.
    Date October 1997
    Journal Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
    Excerpt

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the control of glomerular haemodynamics and is synthesized from the amino acid L-arginine by a family of enzymes, NO synthase (NOS). 2. Nitric oxide synthase is present in the endothelium and also in the macula densa, a plaque of specialized tubular epithelial cells. Endothelial NOS is known to be stimulated by shear stress and hormones, while the factor that regulates the activity of macula densa NOS remains undefined. 3. Studies with the in vitro microperfusion of glomerular arterioles have shown that the constriction of afferent arterioles (Af-Art) induced by myogenic responses and angiotensin II (AngII) is stronger in the absence rather than in the presence of luminal flow. Furthermore, endothelial disruption or NOS inhibition abolishes such differences, suggesting that flow through the lumen stimulates the endothelium to synthesize and release NO, which in turn attenuates both the myogenic response and the action of AngII in the Af-Art. 4. In contrast, NOS inhibitors have no effect on efferent arteriolar (Ef-Art) constriction induced by AngII. 5. In preparations in which Af-Art and the macula densa are simultaneously microperfused, selective inhibition of macula densa NOS has been shown to augment Af-Art constriction when the NaCl concentration at the macula densa is high, suggesting that the macula densa produces NO, which in turn modulates tubuloglomerular feedback. 6. Thus, the differential actions of NO in the Af-Art, Ef-Art and the macula densa may be important in the control of glomerular haemodynamics under various physiological and pathological conditions.

    Title Role of Kinins in the Cardioprotective Effect of Preconditioning: Study of Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury in B2 Kinin Receptor Knockout Mice and Kininogen-deficient Rats.
    Date October 1997
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Kinins acting on the B2 receptor appear to be involved in the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We tested the hypothesis that in mice lacking the gene encoding for the B2 kinin receptor (B2 knockout mice; B2-KO) as well as in rats deficient in high-molecular-weight (HMW) kininogen (Brown Norway Katholiek rats; BNK), the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning is diminished or abolished. 129SvEvTac (SV129) mice and Brown Norway rats (BN) served as controls. We confirmed that plasma HMW kininogen in BNK rats was 100-fold lower than in BN and 140-fold lower than in Sprague-Dawley rats (33+/-4 versus 1814+/-253 and 2397+/-302 ng/mL, P<.01). Each strain of mice was divided into (1) controls (without preconditioning); (2) one cycle of preconditioning (3 minutes ligation and 5 minutes reperfusion); and (3) three cycles of preconditioning. Each strain of rats was divided into (1) controls; and (2) three cycles of preconditioning. All animals were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. In SV129 controls, the ratio of infarct size to risk area (IS/AR) was 55.6+/-4.6%. One and three cycles of preconditioning reduced IS/AR to 38.6+/-3.2% and 31.1+/-2.3%, respectively (P<.05 and P<.01 versus control). This protective effect was absent in B2-KO mice: IS/AR was 54.8+/-2.9% in controls, 58.5+/-3.6% with one cycle of preconditioning, and 58.5+/-3.4% with three cycles. In BN rats without preconditioning, IS/AR was 84.7+/-3.9%; preconditioning reduced it to 61.6+/-3.4% (P<.01). In BNK rats, IS/AR was 87.1+/-4.8% in controls and 84.3+/-4.1% with preconditioning. Preconditioning also prevented reperfusion arrhythmias in BN but not BNK rats. Within species, risk area, mean blood pressure, and heart rate were similar between strains. We concluded that (1) preconditioning protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice and rats; (2) activation of prekallikrein, which in turn generates kinins from HMW kininogen, may contribute to the effect of preconditioning; and (3) an intact kallikrein-kinin system is necessary for the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning.

    Title Effect of Neutral Endopeptidase 24.11 Inhibition on Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury: the Role of Kinins.
    Date July 1997
    Journal Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Part of this cardioprotective effect may be mediated through kinins. Because kinins are also metabolized by neutral endopeptidase (NEP) 24.11 in vivo, we hypothesized that (a) inhibition of NEP-24.11 would afford cardioprotection similar to that of ACEi and potentiate the effect of ACEi; and (b) these effects are mediated by kinins or atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or both. In Lewis inbred rats, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded for 30 min, followed by 120-min reperfusion. Immediately before reperfusion rats received vehicle, the ACEi ramiprilat, the NEP-24.11 inhibitor (NEPi) CGS24592, or both. To test whether the effect of NEPi could be suppressed by blocking kinins or ANP, the kinin-receptor antagonist icatibant or ANP antagonist HS-142-1 was administered before LAD occlusion. In controls, infarct size/risk area was 69 +/- 4%; NEPi reduced this to 24 +/- 4% (p < 0.001) and ramiprilat to 20 +/- 3% (P < 0.001). NEPi did not potentiate the effect of ramiprilat (infarct size/risk area, 18 +/- 4%). The protective effect of NEPi was blocked by icatibant; infarct size/risk area, 61 +/-4%, significantly larger than NEPi along (p < 0.001) but no different from controls. The effect of NEPi was slightly diminished by the ANP antagonist HS-142-1 (infarct size/risk area, 35 +/- 3%; NS vs. NEPi alone). Thus NEP-24.11 participates in catabolism of kinins in the heart; inhibition of NEP-24.11 may increases cardiac kinins, which are responsible for the cardioprotective effect of NEPi.

    Title Tissue Targeting of Angiotensin Peptides.
    Date June 1997
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an octapeptide generated by the sequential proteolytic action of renin and angiotensin converting enzyme on the glycoprotein angiotensinogen. While numerous mammalian tissues have been shown to express some or all of the components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the function of most of these tissue RAS remains a matter of conjecture. To test for tissue-specific functions of Ang II and as an alternative to co-expressing all the components of RAS, we have engineered a fusion protein that leads to direct Ang II release within specific tissues. The angiotensin peptide is cleaved from the fusion protein within the secretory pathway by the ubiquitous endoprotease furin and is released from the cell by constitutive secretion. Direct injection of an expression vector encoding such a fusion protein into rat cardiac ventricles results in a highly localized expression of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA (an angiotensin responsive marker of cardiac hypertrophy), demonstrating the utility of this approach for local targeting of mature peptides to tissues in animal models.

    Title Effects of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Ii Type 1 Receptor Antagonists in Rats with Heart Failure. Role of Kinins and Angiotensin Ii Type 2 Receptors.
    Date May 1997
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) improve cardiac function and remodeling and prolong survival in patients with heart failure (HF). Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1-ant) may have a similar beneficial effect. In addition to inhibition of the RAS, ACEi may also act by inhibiting kinin destruction, whereas AT1-ant may block the RAS at the level of the AT1 receptor and activate the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor. Using a model of HF induced by myocardial infarction (MI) in rats, we studied the role of kinins in the cardioprotective effect of ACEi. We also investigated whether an AT1-ant has a similar effect and whether these effects are partly due to activation of the AT2 receptor. Two months after MI, rats were treated for 2 mo with: (a) vehicle; (b) the ACEi ramipril, with and without the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant (B2-ant); or (c) an AT1-ant with and without an AT2-antagonist (AT2-ant) or B2-ant. Vehicle-treated rats had a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic (LVEDV) and end-systolic volume (LVESV) as well as interstitial collagen deposition and cardiomyocyte size, whereas ejection fraction was decreased. Left ventricular remodeling and cardiac function were improved by the ACEi and AT1-ant. The B2-ant blocked most of the cardioprotective effect of the ACEi, whereas the effect of the AT1-ant was blocked by the AT2-ant. The decreases in LVEDV and LVESV caused by the AT1-ant were also partially blocked by the B2-ant. We concluded that (a) in HF both ACEi and AT1-ant have a cardioprotective effect, which could be due to either a direct action on the heart or secondary to altered hemodynamics, or both; and (b) the effect of the ACEi is mediated in part by kinins, whereas that of the AT1-ant is triggered by activation of the AT2 receptor and is also mediated in part by kinins. We speculate that in HF, blockade of AT1 receptors increases both renin and angiotensins; these angiotensins stimulate the AT2 receptor, which in turn may play an important role in the therapeutic effect of the AT1-ant via kinins and other autacoids.

    Title Chronic Heart Failure Induced by Coronary Artery Ligation in Lewis Inbred Rats.
    Date April 1997
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Rat models of heart failure (HF) secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) are useful in studying the progression of cardiac dysfunction and in testing therapeutic approaches. Sprague-Dawley rats are frequently used; however, this model is hampered by high mortality and a marked variability in infarct size and cardiac dysfunction, necessitating large numbers of rats and prolonged follow-up when studying the progression of dysfunction. In the present work, we developed a model of HF utilizing Lewis inbred rats. Ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Lewis rats produced more uniform and larger infarcts (40 +/- 1.7 vs. 28 +/- 2.3%; P < 0.001) and lower mortality (16 vs. 36%; P < 0.001) than in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using this rat model, we further studied the course of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and enlargement from 1 wk to 6 mo after MI with cineventriculography. LV end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume were determined with the area-length method. LV ejection fraction ranged between 0.57 and 0.62 in control rats; after MI, it decreased significantly to 0.48 +/- 0.04 at 1 wk, 0.36 +/- 0.02 at 2 wk, 0.48 +/- 0.02 at 1 mo, 0.35 +/- 0.03 at 2 mo, 0.30 +/- 0.02 at 3 mo, 0.31 +/- 0.02 at 4 mo, and 0.24 +/- 0.02 at 6 mo (P < 0.001, MI vs. sham). LV end-diastolic volume in control rats ranged between 0.32 and 0.42 ml; it increased to 0.48 +/- 0.04 ml at 1 wk, 0.46 +/- 0.02 ml at 2 wk, and 0.46 +/- 0.03 ml at 1 mo. It markedly increased to 0.79 +/- 0.03, 0.79 +/- 0.06, 0.78 +/- 0.03, and 0.80 +/- 0.05 ml at 2, 3, 4, and 6 mo, respectively, after MI (P < 0.001 vs. sham). LV end-diastolic pressure was significantly elevated at all time points. Thus coronary ligation in Lewis inbred rats produces uniformly large infarcts with low mortality, progressive LV dysfunction, and increased LV chamber size. This model may be useful in studying chronic HF secondary to MI.

    Title Cyclooxygenase-2 Mediates Increased Renal Renin Content Induced by Low-sodium Diet.
    Date March 1997
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    We hypothesized that neuronal nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which both exist in the renal cortex, predominantly in the macula densa, play a role in the control of renal renin tissue content. We studied the possible role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in regulating renal renin content by using mice in which the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene has been disrupted (nNOS-/-) compared with its two progenitor strains, the 129/SvEv and the C57BL/6, to determine if the absence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase would result in decreased renal renin content or blunt the increase observed during low sodium intake. Renal renin content from cortical slices was determined in adult mice from all three strains maintained on a normal sodium diet. Renal renin content was significantly reduced in the nNOS-/- mice compared with the 129/SvEv and the C57BL/6 mice (3.11 +/- 0.23 versus 5.66 +/- 0.50 and 7.55 +/- 1.17 micrograms angiotensin l/mg dry weight, respectively; P < .005), suggesting that neuronal nitric oxide synthase may stimulate renal renin content under basal conditions. Neither selective pharmacological inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase using 7-nitroindazole or disruption of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene affected the increase in renal content observed during dietary sodium restriction. The influence of cyclooxygenase-2 on renal renin content through a macula densa-mediated pathway was studied using a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, NS398, in 129/SvEv mice. A low-sodium diet increased renal renin content from 6.97 +/- 0.52 to 11.59 +/- 0.79 micrograms angiotensin l/mg dry weight (P < .005); but this increase was blocked by NS398. In addition, treatment with NS398 reduced renin mRNA in response to a low-sodium diet. Thus, increased renal renin content in response to dietary sodium restriction appears to require the induction of cyclooxygenase-2, while neuronal nitric oxide synthase appears to affect basal but not stimulated renal renin content.

    Title Effect of High Salt Intake in Mutant Mice Lacking Bradykinin-b2 Receptors.
    Date March 1997
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Renal kinins release prostaglandins and nitric oxide via the B2 receptor, promoting diuresis and natriuresis; hence, they may also contribute significantly to blood pressure regulation. We hypothesized that mutant mice lacking the gene encoding for the bradykinin-B2 receptor (B2-KO) become hypertensive when placed on a long-term high-salt diet. To test this, B2-KO and control mice were placed on either a normal (0.2%) or high-Na+ diet (3.15% in food plus 1% saline as drinking water) for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was determined during weeks 6 and 8 by a computerized tail-cuff system. At the end of the 8-week period, mice were anesthetized for determination of mean blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance. In B2-KO mice maintained on high Na+, systolic blood pressure was 15 mm Hg higher than in knockout animals on normal Na+ (P < .01). In contrast, there was no difference in blood pressure in control mice fed either a normal or a high-Na+ diet. Consistent with the systolic blood pressure data, direct mean arterial pressure revealed that B2-KO mice on high Na+ were hypertensive (115 +/- 6 in B2-KO on high-Na+ diet versus 79 +/- 2.8 in B2-KO on normal Na+, P < .0001); renal blood flow was reduced by 20% (P < .05) and renal vascular resistance was doubled (P < .0001) compared with B2-KO mice on normal Na+. In contrast, control mice on high Na+ were normotensive and tended to have increased renal blood flow and decreased renal vascular resistance compared with control mice on a normal Na+ diet. These findings indicate that kinins play an important role in preventing salt-sensitive hypertension; this may be achieved by maintaining renal blood flow under conditions of high salt intake.

    Title Nitric Oxide in the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus.
    Date November 1996
    Journal Kidney International. Supplement
    Title Angiotensin Ii Action in Isolated Microperfused Rabbit Afferent Arterioles is Modulated by Flow.
    Date November 1996
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    We have recently presented evidence that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs) modulate angiotensin II (Ang II) action in microperfused afferent arterioles (Af-Arts). Because flow may be a physiological stimulus of endothelial release of NO and PGs, we tested the hypothesis that flow through the lumen of the Af-Art stimulates the endothelium to produce NO and PGs, which in turn modulate the action of Ang II. We microdissected the terminal segment of an interlobular artery together with two Af-Arts, their glomeruli and efferent arterioles (Ef-Art). The two Af-Arts were perfused simultaneously from the interlobular artery, while one Ef-Art was occluded. Since the arteriolar perfusate contained 5% albumin, oncotic pressure built up in the glomerulus with the occluded Ef-Art and opposed the force of filtration, resulting in little or no flow through the corresponding Af-Art. Thus this preparation allowed us to observe Ang II action in free-flow and non-flow Af-Arts simultaneously. Ang II-induced constriction was weaker in free-flow than non-flow Af-Arts, with the luminal diameter decreasing by 8 +/- 2% and 23 +/- 3% at 10(-9) M, respectively (P < 0.013 free-flow vs. non-flow; N = 9). Disrupting the endothelium augmented Ang II action in free-flow (33 +/- 5.1%; P < 0.01 vs. intact endothelium) but not non-flow Af-Arts (31 +/- 5.3%), thus abolishing the differences between them (N = 8). Pretreatment with an inhibitor of either NO synthase (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) or cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) augmented Ang II action more in free-flow than non-flow Af-Arts, likewise abolishing the differences between them. These results suggest that intraluminal flow modulates the vasoconstrictor action of Ang II in Af-Arts via endothelium-derived NO and PGs. Thus flow may be important in the fine control of glomerular hemodynamics.

    Title Salt-sensitive Hypertension in Bradykinin B2 Receptor Knockout Mice.
    Date September 1996
    Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
    Excerpt

    The kallikrein-kinin system regulates water and sodium excretion and thus plays a role in blood pressure (BP) homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that mice lacking the gene encoding for the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2-KO) have a greater hypertensive response to chronic high Na+ intake (salt sensitivity) compared to controls. We also obtained dose-response curves for different vasoactive substances in both groups. The hypertensive effect of high Na+ intake was almost doubled in B2-KO mice compared to controls. A high-Na+ diet increased heart and kidney weight in B2-KO, but not in controls, suggesting an increased afterload in B2-KO mice. The BP response to bradykinin was completely abolished in B2-KO, but that to acetylcholine was conserved. The hypertensive response to angiotensin II was not exaggerated in B2-KO mice. This study describes a new salt-sensitive animal model and suggests that in mice kinins play a role in preventing salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Title Role of Nitric Oxide in the Effect of Blood Flow on Neointima Formation.
    Date July 1996
    Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
    Excerpt

    PURPOSE: Neointima formation after arterial injury is inhibited by increased blood flow. The object of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide mediates the effect of increased blood flow on neointima formation. METHOD: Balloon catheter-denuded rat carotid arteries were exposed to increased blood flow or control blood flow by ligation of the contralateral carotid artery. Beginning 2 days before balloon denudation, rats were given either saline vehicle alone or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day or 2 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. The normalized neointima area was measured 14 days after denudation. RESULTS: Blood flow was significantly increased by ligation of the contralateral carotid artery for all drug treatments (p<0.008). In rats given saline vehicle only, normalized neointima area was significantly reduced after increased blood flow compared with control blood flow (0.33+/-0.04 compared with 0.48+/-0.03; p=0.006). Systolic blood pressure was significantly elevated by treatment with high-dose L-NAME (p=0.002 compared with vehicle), but was not altered by low-dose L-NAME (p=NS compared with vehicle). Normalized neointima area was not significantly reduced after increased carotid blood flow for rats treated with either dose of L-NAME (p=NS). CONCLUSION: The inhibition of neointima formation by increased blood flow was abolished with hypertensive and nonhypertensive doses of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, which suggests that the L-NAME effects are independent of systemic hemodynamic alterations. It is concluded that flow-induced inhibition of neointima formation is mediated in part by nitric oxide.

    Title Influence of Nacl Concentration at the Macula Densa on Angiotensin Ii-induced Constriction of the Afferent Arteriole.
    Date June 1996
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    The macula densa, a plaque of specialized tubular epithelial cells, monitors NaCl concentrations in tubular fluid and controls resistance of the glomerular afferent arteriole (AA). In vivo micropuncture studies suggest that there are significant interactions between angiotensin II (Ang II) and macula densa control of glomerular hemodynamics. We tested the hypothesis that Ang II causes stronger constriction of the AA when NaCl concentration at the macula densa is elevated. Rabbit AAs and the attached macula densa were simultaneously microperfused in vitro, and dose-response curves to Ang II were obtained when the macula densa was not perfused or was perfused with either low NaCl (Na+, 26 mEq/L; Cl-, 7 mEq/L) or high NaCl (Na+, 84 mEq/L; Cl-, 65 mEq/L). Ang II induced stronger constriction when the macula densa was perfused with high NaCl; the decrease in diameter at 100 pmol/L was 29 +/- 5.6% (n= 7) compared with 2.1 +/- 1.2% (n=8) for the nonperfused macula densa or 6.1 +/- 4.2% (n=7) for low NaCl (P < .002). However, there was no such difference in the action of norepinephrine. Adding furosemide (10 micromol/L) to the macula densa perfusate abolished the difference in Ang II action between low and high NaCl at the macula densa. Since AA tone is higher when the NaCl concentration at the macula densa is elevated, we tested whether augmented Ang II action is due to higher AA tone. Preconstriction of the AA by 20% with norepinephrine had no effect on Ang II action. Thus, our results demonstrate that sensitivity of the AA to Ang II increases when NaCl concentration at the macula densa is elevated. Such modulation of Ang II action by macula densa NaCl concentration may be important in the control of glomerular hemodynamics.

    Title Mechanism of the Nitric Oxide-induced Blockade of Collecting Duct Water Permeability.
    Date June 1996
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Nitric oxide has a diuretic effect in vivo. We have shown that nitric oxide inhibits antidiuretic hormone-stimulated osmotic water permeability in the collecting duct; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We hypothesized that inhibition of antidiuretic hormone-stimulated water permeability by nitric oxide in the collecting duct is the result of activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, which in turn decreases intracellular cAMP. To test this hypothesis, we microperfused cortical collecting ducts. Antidiuretic hormone-stimulated water permeability was 317 +/- 47 microm/s (P < .001). Addition of spermine NONOate, a nitric oxide donor, to the bath decreased water permeability to 74 +/- 38 microm/s (P < .002). In the presence of LY 83583, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, spermine NONOate did not change water permeability. Addition of spermine NONOate increased cGMP production (P < .01). In the presence of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, spermine NONOate did not change water permeability. Since antidiuretic hormone increases water permeability by increasing cAMP, we hypothesized that nitric oxide inhibits water permeability by decreasing cAMP. In tubules pretreated with antidiuretic hormone, intracellular cAMP was 18.9 +/- 3.9 fmol/mm. In tubules treated with antidiuretic hormone and spermine NONOate, cAMP was 9.3 +/- 1.7 fmol/mm (P < .03). We also examined the effect of spermine NONOate on dibutyryl-cAMP-stimulated water permeability. In the presence of dibutyryl-cAMP, water permeability was 388 +/- 30 microm/s. Addition of spermine NONOate had no significant effect on water permeability. Time controls and inhibitors by themselves did not change antidiuretic hormone-stimulated water permeability. We concluded that nitric oxide decreases antidiuretic hormone-stimulated water permeability by increasing cGMP via soluble guanylate cyclase, activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase and decreasing cAMP.

    Title Mechanisms of Action of Atrial Natriuretic Factor and C-type Natriuretic Peptide.
    Date June 1996
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    After secretion by the heart, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) circulates in plasma, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), which is found in abundance in the endothelium, may regulate vascular tone in a paracrine manner. However, there is little information on the effect of CNP on renal microvessels. We hypothesized that CNP dilates the afferent arteriole via the nitric oxide pathway, whereas ANF acts directly on vascular smooth muscle cells. When we perfused rat kidneys with minimal essential medium and bovine serum albumin at 100 mm Hg and examined the juxtamedullary afferent arterioles, neither CNP nor ANF was found to have any effect. When the peptides were added to arterioles preconstricted with norepinephrine, CNP and ANF dilated them in a similar fashion; diameters increased by 25 +/- 4% (n=7) and 29 +/- 6% (n=6) at 10(-7) mol/L, respectively (P < .008). Pretreatment with 10(-4) mol/L N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 5 x 10(-6) mol/L indomethacin blocked CNP-induced dilation; dilation by ANF was unaffected by indomethacin (52 +/- 25%, n=5) and potentiated by L-NAME (73 +/- 14%, n=5). Thus, CNP dilates the afferent arterioles via the prostaglandin/nitric oxide pathway, whereas ANF dilates them directly. This difference may be important in controlling glomerular hemodynamics.

    Title Myocardial Contractility is Modulated by Angiotensin Ii Via Nitric Oxide.
    Date June 1996
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    We hypothesized that in cardiac muscles, angiotensin II partially inhibits the contractile response to beta-agonists. We studied the contractile response of isolated rat left ventricular papillary muscles to isoproterenol and the effect of angiotensin II on this response. We also investigated whether the effect of angiotensin II is mediated by bradykinin, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and/or cGMP. Contractility of isolated papillary muscles was recorded with a force transducer, and rest tension, maximal developed tension (DT), maximal rate of rise in developed tension [T(+)], and maximal velocity of relaxation [T(-)] were measured (1) under basal conditions, (2) after pretreatment with various drugs, and (3) after cumulative doses of isoproterenol. Pretreatment groups included (1) vehicle (controls); (2) angiotensin II; (3) angiotensin II and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide release; (4) L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthase; (5) L-arginine and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine; (6) 8-bromo-cGMP, analogous to the second messenger of nitric oxide; (7) angiotensin II and icatibant (Hoe 140), a bradykinin B2 antagonist; and (8) angiotensin II and indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. There were no differences in contractile parameters before and after any of the pretreatments. Isoproterenol increased DT, T(+), and T(-), and these effects were attenuated by angiotensin II, L-arginine, and 8-bromo-cGMP. The effects of angiotensin II and L-arginine were blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide release with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine. Neither the bradykinin B2 antagonist nor the cyclooxygenase inhibitor altered the effects of angiotensin II. We concluded that angiotensin II partially inhibits the contractile response of cardiac papillary muscles to isoproterenol This effect is likely mediated by nitric oxide release, perhaps acting via cGMP. Kinins and prostaglandins do not appear to participate in the inhibitory effect of angiotensin II. Attenuation of the contractile effect of isoproterenol by angiotensin II may help explain why cardiac function improves in heart failure after blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Title Paracrine Systems in the Cardioprotective Effect of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury in Rats.
    Date April 1996
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    After transient episodes of ischemia, benefits of thrombolytic or angioplastic therapy may be limited by reperfusion injury. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury, an effect mediated by kinins. We examined whether the protective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramiprilat on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion is due to kinin stimulation of prostaglandin and/or nitric oxide release. The left anterior descending coronary artery of Lewis inbred rats was occluded for 30 minutes, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Immediately before reperfusion rats were treated with vehicle, ramiprilat, or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. We tested whether pretreatment with the kinin receptor antagonist Hoe 140, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin blocked the effect of ramiprilat on infarct size and reperfusion arrhythmias. In controls, infarct size as a percentage of the area at risk was 79 +/- 3%; ramiprilat reduced this to 49 +/- 4% (P < .001), but losartan had little effect (74 +/- 6%, P = NS). Pretreatment with Hoe 140, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or indomethacin abolished the beneficial effect of ramiprilat. Compared with the 30-minute ischemia/120-minute reperfusion group, nonreperfused hearts with 30 minutes of ischemia had significantly smaller infarct size as a percentage of the area at risk, whereas in the 150-minute ischemia group it was significantly larger. This suggests that reperfusion caused a significant part of the myocardial injury, but it also suggests that compared with prolonged ischemia, reperfusion salvaged some of the myocardium. Ventricular arrhythmias mirrored the changes in infarct size. Thus, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury and arrhythmias; these beneficial effects are mediated primarily by a kinin-prostaglandin-nitric oxide pathway, not inhibition of angiotensin II formation.

    Title Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renal Blood Flow.
    Date March 1996
    Journal New Horizons (baltimore, Md.)
    Excerpt

    Nitric oxide (NO.) is a simple molecule, synthesized from the amino acid L-arginine by a family of enzymes, NO. synthase (NOS). The L-arginine-NO. pathway plays a dominant role in the control of renal function under various physiologic and pathologic conditions. NO. is continuously released by the endothelium, and controls the tone of the glomerular afferent arteriole by modulating myogenic response and the action of various vasoconstrictors. On the other hand, NO. produced by the macula densa controls glomerular hemodynamics indirectly through tubuloglomerular feedback and renin release. It appears that NO. is also involved in medullary circulation and tubular function and, therefore, pressure natriuresis. Thus, the L-arginine-NO. pathway seems to play an important role in sodium hemostasis. Under certain pathologic conditions, NOS may be induced in the endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, mesangial, and tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophages, producing a large amount of NO., which may contribute to progression of renal disease. In acute renal failure, endogenous NO. seems to have a protective role against renal damage, as the inhibition of NOS aggravates renal dysfunction and histology. Although dietary L-arginine supplementation has been shown to protect against progression of renal damage, clarification of the exact role of NO. and the mechanism of L-arginine's beneficial effects must await further investigation. Finally, the recent development of targeting specific NOS isoforms or tissue may help clarify the role of the L-arginine-NO pathway in various physiologic and pathologic conditions, leading to the development of new therapeutic modalities.

    Title Flow Modulates Myogenic Responses in Isolated Microperfused Rabbit Afferent Arterioles Via Endothelium-derived Nitric Oxide.
    Date July 1995
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    Flow may be a physiological stimulus of the endothelial release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs). We tested the hypothesis that pressure-induced constriction of the glomerular afferent arteriole (Af-Art) is modulated by luminal flow via endothelial production of NO. We microdissected the terminal segment of an interlobular artery together with two Af-Arts, their glomeruli (GL) and efferent arterioles (Ef-Art). The two Af-Arts were perfused simultaneously from the interlobular artery, while one Ef-Art was occluded. Since the arteriolar perfusate contained 5% albumin, oncotic pressure built up in the glomerulus with the occluded Ef-Art and opposed the force of filtration, resulting in little or no flow through the corresponding Af-Art. Thus this preparation allowed us to observe free-flow and no-flow Af-Arts simultaneously during stepwise 30-mmHg increases in intraluminal pressure (from 30 to 120 mmHg). Pressure-induced constriction was weaker in free-flow than no-flow Af-Arts, with the luminal diameter decreasing by 11.1 +/- 1.7 and 25.6 +/- 2.3% (n = 30), respectively, at 120 mmHg. To examine whether flow modulates myogenic constriction through endothelium-derived NO and/or PGs, we examined pressure-induced constriction before and after (a) disruption of the endothelium, (b) inhibition of NO synthesis with NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or (c) inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin. Both endothelial disruption and L-NAME augmented pressure-induced constriction in free-flow but not no-flow Af-Arts, abolishing the differences between the two. However, indomethacin had no effect in either free-flow or no-flow Af-Arts. These results suggest that intraluminal flow attenuates pressure-induced constriction in Af-Arts via endothelium-derived NO. Thus flow-stimulated NO release may be important in the fine control of glomerular hemodynamics.

    Title Effect of Inhibiting Renal Kallikrein on Prostaglandin E2, Water, and Sodium Excretion.
    Date June 1995
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    To test the hypothesis that renal kinins act as natriuretic and diuretic hormones, we examined the effect of inhibiting glandular kallikrein on renal function in normotensive unanesthetized rats during normal sodium intake. To inhibit kallikrein at both the luminal and basolateral sides of the distal nephron, we used Fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies to rat urinary kallikrein (Fab-kallikrein). Fab fragments have advantages over intact IgG: they are filtered through the glomerulus and reach the lumen of the distal nephron, where kallikrein is localized and urinary kinins are released. Furthermore, the Fab fragment-antigen complex does not activate the complement system, avoiding the side effects associated with intact antibodies. Fab-kallikrein effectively blocked generation of kinins in the nephron lumen, decreasing urinary kininogenase activity (kallikrein) by 74% to 85% and kinin excretion by 76% to 79%. Fab-kallikrein induced a 30% decrease in urine volume and a 20% to 40% decrease in urinary sodium excretion but did not alter blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, or renal blood flow. Although urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion also tended to decrease, this change was slower and of lesser magnitude than those of kinin and kininogenase excretion and did not attain statistical significance after Bonferroni's correction. In controls injected with either vehicle or Fab fragments of monoclonal antibodies to ricin (a vegetable protein not present in mammals), none of these parameters decreased significantly. We conclude that renal kinins participate in the short-term regulation of water and sodium excretion in normotensive unanesthetized rats, acting as diuretic and natriuretic hormones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Potentiation by Aminopeptidase P of Blood Pressure Response to Bradykinin.
    Date May 1995
    Journal British Journal of Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    We examined whether a specific aminopeptidase P (APP) inhibitor, apstatin, increases vasodepressor responses to bradykinin in anaesthetized rats, and whether it would augment blood pressure responses further after treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), lisinopril. Apstatin doubled the maximum blood pressure response to bradykinin. The area under the curve (AUC), which incorporates both peak blood pressure changes and duration of response, was doubled in apstatin-treated rats vs controls and in the apstatin+lisinopril group vs lisinopril alone. These data demonstrate that APP is an important kinase in vivo.

    Title Effects of Interleukin-1 Beta and Nitric Oxide on Cardiac Myocytes.
    Date April 1995
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Using cultured neonatal ventricular myocytes, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) directly influences myocyte growth. Treatment of myocytes with phenylephrine stimulated growth, as indicated by increases in atrial natriuretic factor, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA and BNP secretion, activator protein 1 activity (activation of early-response genes), and total cellular protein content. NO was stimulated by treatment of myocytes with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) or was generated by the NO donor nitroglycerin, and its effects on total protein content and BNP secretion were measured. Treatment of cardiocytes with 3.4 nmol/L IL-1 beta for 24 hours stimulated NO (nitrite) production by threefold, which resulted from an increase in the inducible isoform of NO synthase mRNA. Dexamethasone inhibited IL-1 beta induction of nitrite production, whereas the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine had no effect. IL-1 beta had no effect on either basal or phenylephrine-stimulated protein content but inhibited phenylephrine-stimulated BNP secretion. Nitroglycerin (10(-7) to 10(-3) mol/L) dose-dependently increased NO production; however, only the highest dose (10(-3) mol/L) reduced basal and phenylephrine-stimulated total protein content and BNP secretion. cGMP, a second messenger of NO, had no effect on either basal or phenylephrine-stimulated BNP secretion or total protein content. In conclusion, our data indicate that BNP mRNA is stimulated by phenylephrine as shown previously for atrial natriuretic factor. Although both BNP and total protein content are increased by phenylephrine, these effects are not inhibited by NO. However, IL-1 beta inhibits phenylephrine-stimulated BNP secretion but not total protein content, suggesting that regulation of BNP secretion can be dissociated from total protein synthesis during myocyte growth.

    Title Nitric Oxide Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Reversal of Two-kidney, One Clip Renovascular Hypertension After Unclipping.
    Date March 1995
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    It is well established that two-kidney, one clip renovascular hypertension can be rapidly reversed by unclipping. We hypothesized that rapid renal reperfusion and the subsequent fall in blood pressure are mediated in part by nitric oxide, the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. We tested whether the hypotensive response to unclipping could be blocked by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition using a bolus of 10 mg/kg body wt N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Rats were made hypertensive by placing a silver clip on the left renal artery. After 4 weeks, they were anesthetized and either not treated (controls) or had nitric oxide synthesis blockade. After 10 minutes, the clip was removed and blood pressure monitored over 60 minutes. Initial pressure in controls was 157 +/- 8 mm Hg, and heart rate was 310 +/- 21 beats per minute. Unclipping resulted in pressure falling to 125 +/- 6 mm Hg within 45 minutes (P < .005). Heart rate was unchanged (312 +/- 9 beats per minute). In contrast, nitric oxide synthesis inhibition increased blood pressure from 149 +/- 6 to 174 +/- 9 mm Hg (P < .001). Unclipping did not change blood pressure, which was 167 +/- 8 mm Hg after 60 minutes (P < .005 versus controls), and heart rate remained unchanged (282 +/- 13 versus 276 +/- 16 beats per minute). We determined the blood flow to the clipped kidneys using radioactive microspheres. Unclipping untreated hypertensive rats resulted in a 10-fold increase in renal blood flow (P < .001), concomitant with a decrease in blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Endogenous Bk Stimulates Ischemically Sensitive Abdominal Visceral C Fiber Afferents Through Kinin B2 Receptors.
    Date January 1995
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Abdominal ischemia and reperfusion reflexly activate the cardiovascular system. In the present study, we evaluated the role of endogenously produced bradykinin (BK) in the stimulation of ischemically sensitive visceral afferents. Single-unit activity of abdominal visceral C fiber afferents was recorded from the right thoracic sympathetic chain of anesthetized cats during 5 min of abdominal ischemia. Abdominal ischemia increased the portal venous plasma BK level from 49 +/- 10 to 188 +/- 66 pg/ml (P < 0.05). Injection of BK (1 microgram/kg ia) into the descending aorta significantly increased impulse activity (0.88 +/- 0.16 impulses/s) of 10 C fibers, whereas a kinin B1-receptor agonist, des-Arg9-BK (1 microgram/kg), did not alter the discharge rate. Inhibition of kininase II activity with captopril (4 mg/kg i.v.) potentiated impulse activity of 14 ischemically sensitive C fibers (0.44 +/- 0.09 vs. precaptopril, 0.33 +/- 0.08 impulses/s; P < 0.05). In addition, a kinin B2-receptor antagonist (NPC-17731; 40 micrograms/kg i.v.) attenuated activity of afferents during ischemia (0.39 +/- 0.08 vs. pre-NPC-17731, 0.72 +/- 0.13 impulses/s; P < 0.05) and eliminated the response of 10 C fibers to BK. Another kinin B2-receptor antagonist, Hoe-140 (30 micrograms/kg iv), had similar inhibitory effects on six other ischemically sensitive C fibers. In 15 separate cats treated with aspirin (50 mg/kg i.v.), Hoe-140 (30 micrograms/kg i.v.) attenuated impulse activity of only 3 of 16 ischemically sensitive C fibers. These data suggest that BK produced during abdominal ischemia contributes to the stimulation of ischemically sensitive visceral C fiber afferents through kinin B2 receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Role of B1 and B2 Receptors and of Nitric Oxide in Bradykinin-induced Relaxation and Contraction of Isolated Rat Duodenum.
    Date November 1994
    Journal Life Sciences
    Excerpt

    Bradykinin (BK) and its analogues induce a typical biphasic response (relaxation followed by contraction) in the isolated rat duodenum. We studied the role of B1 and B2 BK receptors and nitric oxide (NO) in relaxation and contraction of the isolated rat duodenum. Both effects are concentration-dependent: BK has shown an EC50 (contraction) of 3.8 +/- 1.9 x 10(-7) M and an IC50 (relaxation) of 3.0 +/- 0.7 x 10(-9). Similar results were obtained with the selective B2 receptor agonists [Hyp3,Tyr(Me)8]-BK and [Phe8 psi (CH2-NH)Arg9]-BK, showing an EC50 of 9.6 +/- 1.9 x 10(-7) M and 5.6 +/- 2.9 x 10(-7) M and an IC50 of 3.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-10) M and 6.8 +/- 1.7 x 10(-10) M, respectively. Furthermore, the effects induced by these three agonists were not altered when tissues were treated with 42.1 microM Mergetpa, a carboxypeptidase N inhibitor. While the relaxant and contractile effects elicited by BK were significantly inhibited in the presence of Hoe 140 (0.7 microM), a selective B2 receptor antagonist, those induced by the selective B1 receptor agonist desArg9-BK were not. Furthermore, [Leu8]-desArg9-BK (2.6 microM), which is both a pure and selective B1 receptor antagonist, acted as an agonist on the rat duodenum, inducing a biphasic relaxant and contractile effect. These relaxant and contractile effects were not altered by drugs that inhibit or stimulate NO production, such as L-NAME (200 microM), a combination of L-NAME (200 microM) and indomethacin (2.5 microM), L-arginine (1 mM), or superoxide dismutase (20 U/ml). However, the contractile effect was significantly reduced when tissues were preincubated with methylene blue (100 microM), which inhibits activation of guanylate cyclase. We conclude that 1) BK and its analogues selectively activate a B2 receptor, producing a biphasic effect (relaxation and contraction); 2) DesArg9-BK may either acts via a different receptor which might be another B1 receptor subtype or a typical B1 receptor where [Leu8]-desArg9-BK acts as a partial agonist; and 3) neither NO nor the prostaglandin pathway mediates BK-induced relaxation in the isolated rat duodenum.

    Title Endothelial-derived Nitric Oxide Inhibits Sodium Transport by Affecting Apical Membrane Channels in Cultured Collecting Duct Cells.
    Date October 1994
    Journal Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : Jasn
    Excerpt

    Previously, it has been shown that the addition of bradykinin (Bk) to M-1 cortical collecting duct cells in the presence of endothelial cells decreased short-circuit current (Isc), a measure of net active transport. This effect is presumably due to the release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO), because the decrease in Isc could be blocked with Nw-nitro-L-arginine. To show that the inhibition of Isc was due to EDNO rather than prostaglandins, the ability of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor to block the inhibition was examined. When Bk was added to cocultures in the presence of meclofenamate (10(-5) M), Isc decreased from 62 +/- 12 to 44.5 +/- 7 muA/cm2, not significantly different from that in the absence of meclofenamate. To determine if the effect was due to an alteration of sodium absorption, Bk (10(-9) M) was added to cocultures, resulting in a decrease in Na flux from 28 +/- 3.1 to 20 +/- 2.2 nEq/min (P < 0.05), with Isc decreasing from 25 +/- 2.4 to 20 +/- 3.6 nEq/min (P < 0.05). To examine if the inhibition was due to blockade at the apical membrane sodium channel or the basolateral Na+/K+ ATPase, the cation-selective ionophore nystatin was used. Nystatin reversed the effect of EDNO on Isc. The effects of EDNO on Na+/K+ ATPase were also measured directly. Under maximum rate conditions, the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of control and Bk-treated cocultures was 5.2 +/- 0.3 and 6.8 +/- 1.0 nmol/min per square centimeter, respectively (not significantly different).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Role of Kinins and Nitric Oxide in the Antihypertrophic Effect of Ramipril.
    Date July 1994
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    We examined the effect of non-antihypertensive doses of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril, kinins, and/or nitric oxide on left ventricular hypertrophy in rats with aortic coarctation. We investigated the effect of either HOE 140, a specific B2 receptor antagonist, or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on the antihypertrophic effect of ramipril at non-antihypertensive doses (10 micrograms/kg per day) failed to alter left ventricular hypertrophy significantly, although a small decrease was obtained. Given at a dose of 1 mg/kg per day for 6 weeks, ramipril prevented increased blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy after aortic coarctation. Neither of these effects was blocked by simultaneous administration of HOE 140 (500 micrograms/kg per day). In rats with aortic coarctation treated with L-NAME, blood pressure increased further but left ventricular weight did not. Ramipril (1 mg/kg per day) significantly reduced left ventricular hypertrophy, although blood pressure was still higher than in rats given water alone. The slope of the correlation between left ventricular weight and blood pressure in rats that received L-NAME was significantly lower than in rats that did not (0.52 versus 1.29; P = .008). This suggests that for each 1 mm Hg that the blood pressure increased, the increase in left ventricular weight was less in the L-NAME groups. Thus, only antihypertensive doses of ramipril possessed antihypertrophic activity. Kinins did not participate in the chronic antihypertensive and antihypertrophic effects of ramipril. In hypertension induced or aggravated by chronic nitric oxide synthase, L-NAME partially impaired development of left ventricular hypertrophy for reasons that are unclear.

    Title A Local Kallikrein-kinin System is Present in Rat Hearts.
    Date July 1994
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    It has been reported that kinins mediate part of the beneficial cardiac effects induced by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in situations such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, and cardiac hypertrophy. However, it is not known whether the heart contains an independent kallikrein-kinin system. We measured kallikrein in tissue and in the incubation medium of heart slices. Heart slices released active and total (trypsin-activatable) kallikrein into the medium (46 +/- 5 and 380 +/- 18 pg bradykinin/mg, respectively, after 1 hour and 78 +/- 6 and 654 +/- 14 pg bradykinin/mg after 2 hours, n = 7). Release was not due to tissue damage because lactate dehydrogenase, a cytosolic marker, decreased from 8.9 +/- 2.9 to 2.9 +/- 1.0 U/mg per hour. Although kallikrein was released, total tissue kallikrein in the slices did not change (423 +/- 25 pg bradykinin/mg in nonincubated slices and 370 +/- 42 pg bradykinin/mg after 2 hours, P = NS), suggesting pool replenishment. Cardiac kallikrein activity was inhibited by incubation with anti-glandular kallikrein antibodies. Pretreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor puromycin (10 mg IP) lowered release of active kallikrein from 78 +/- 6 to 22 +/- 4 pg bradykinin/mg and total kallikrein from 654 +/- 14 to 113 +/- 9 pg bradykinin/mg (P < .001). By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with kallikrein family oligonucleotide primers and a specific kallikrein probe, we found that mRNA for tissue kallikrein is present in both atrial and ventricular RNA. Kallikrein activity was also detected in primary cultures of neonatal rat atrial and ventricular cardiocytes and their incubation medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Glomerular Prostaglandins Modulate Vascular Reactivity of the Downstream Efferent Arterioles.
    Date June 1994
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    The balance of vascular resistance in afferent (Af-) and efferent arterioles (Ef-Arts) is a crucial factor that determines glomerular hemodynamics. We have recently reported that when Ef-Arts were perfused from the distal end of the Af-Art through the glomerulus (orthograde perfusion; OP), both angiotensin II (Ang II) and norepinephrine (NE) induced much weaker constriction than they did when Ef-Arts were perfused from the distal end (retrograde perfusion; RP). This difference was not affected by inhibiting synthesis of nitric oxide. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that glomerular prostaglandins (PGs) may modulate vascular reactivity of the downstream Ef-Art. In addition, we examined the possible modulatory role of PGs in the Af-Art responses to Ang II or NE. Both Ang II and NE caused dose-dependent constriction of Ef-Arts with either OP or RP; however, the constriction was stronger in RP. At 10(-8) M, Ang II decreased Ef-Art diameter by 35 +/- 3.5% in OP (N = 9) compared to 73 +/- 3.9% in RP (N = 5), while 10(-6) M NE decreased the diameter by 25 +/- 3.6% in OP (N = 9) compared to 62 +/- 7.2% in RP (N = 5). Pretreatment with 5 x 10(-5) M indomethacin (Indo) did not alter basal diameter with either method of perfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Vascular Kallikrein in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-salt Hypertensive Rats.
    Date February 1994
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    We determined the status of vascular kallikrein in rats with severe hypertension caused by treatment with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and drinking of 1% NaCl for 6 weeks. We assayed active and total kininogenase (kallikrein) activity in the perfusate and in arterial and venous tissue. DOCA-salt rats had higher systolic blood pressure at 6 weeks (214 +/- 5 mm Hg) than rats drinking tap water (135 +/- 4 mm Hg) or saline (145 +/- 8 mm Hg). Kininogenase in the perfusate (nanograms bradykinin per minute per kilogram body weight) increased significantly at 2 weeks, from 5.8 +/- 2.1 to 8.9 +/- 1.4 for active kallikrein and from 28.7 +/- 0.4 to 48.7 +/- 2.9 for total kallikrein. Total kallikrein returned to control values at 4 weeks, whereas it was significantly reduced at 6 weeks (20.9 +/- 0.7). Active kallikrein was significantly depressed at 4 and 6 weeks (1.08 +/- 0.1 and 0.85 +/- 0.1, respectively [P < .05]). Active kallikrein in arterial tissue (picograms bradykinin per milligram per minute) showed a small but significant increase at 2 weeks, from 156 +/- 7 to 201 +/- 10 (P < .05), finally decreasing significantly by 6 weeks to 64 +/- 3; however, total kallikrein showed a significant decrease only at 6 weeks, from 844 +/- 17 to 427 +/- 27. Both active and total kallikrein in the veins were higher than control values at 2 weeks, changing from 437 +/- 7 to 541 +/- 19 and from 1619 +/- 17 to 2062 +/- 86, respectively. Venous kallikrein remained elevated until the end of the experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Effects of a Metalloendopeptidase-24.15. Inhibitor on Renal Hemodynamics and Function in Rats.
    Date February 1994
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    N-[1-(R,S)-carboxyl-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Phe-p-aminobenzoate (cFP-AAF-pAB), an active-site-directed inhibitor of metalloendopeptidase-24.15, has been shown to lower blood pressure, increase cardiac output and renal blood flow, and potentiate the intravenous bradykinin-induced vasodepressor response. Because in vivo cFP-AAF-pAB can be converted to N-[1-(R,S)-carboxyl-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala (a compound with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity) by metalloendopeptidase-24.11, it is possible that some of its effects are due to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. In the present study, we questioned (1) whether cFP-AAF-pAB inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme in vivo and (2) whether cFP-AAF-pAB has renal effects that are independent of its conversion to an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. cFP-AAF-pAB alone (3 mumol in 300 microL per rat) almost abolished the blood pressure response to angiotensin I, suggesting that in vivo it inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme. In rats pretreated with a high dose of enalaprilat (1 mg/kg), cFP-AAF-pAB had no further effect on blood pressure, renal blood flow, or potentiation of the vasodepressor response to bradykinin but still increased glomerular filtration rate by 44 +/- 9% (P < .01); urine volume increased by 118 +/- 10% (P < .001), urinary sodium excretion by 230 +/- 31% (P < .001), urinary potassium excretion by 68 +/- 14% (P < .01), and urinary cyclic GMP by 55 +/- 18% (P < .01). All of these changes were significant compared with enalaprilat/vehicle-treated rats. Fractional excretion of sodium and potassium did not differ from controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Removal of Endothelium-dependent Relaxation by Antibody and Complement in Afferent Arterioles.
    Date February 1994
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Studies of endothelial regulation of microvascular function have been hampered by the technical difficulty of removing the endothelium without damaging the vascular smooth muscle cells. This study presents a novel method of endothelial damage and lysis based on the facts that endothelial cells express specific antigens and that complement reacts with antibody/antigen complexes, causing cell lysis. We isolated and perfused rabbit glomerular afferent arterioles in vitro and examined vascular responses before and after treating them with an antibody against factor VIII-related antigen and complement. The treatment consisted of perfusing afferent arterioles with medium containing the antibody and complement for 10 minutes, followed by a 20-minute washout period. Before treatment, acetylcholine and the calcium ionophore A23187 (receptor- and nonreceptor-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilators, respectively) dilated norepinephrine-preconstricted afferent arterioles, whereas neither dilated the arterioles after treatment, suggesting loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In contrast, responses to nicardipine and norepinephrine (endothelium-independent vasodilator and constrictor, respectively) were not altered by the treatment, indicating intact vascular smooth muscle cell function. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the antibody- and complement-treated arterioles had various degrees of endothelial damage, including areas of detachment from the basement membrane and marked loss of the number and structure of mitochondria, but no evidence of vascular smooth muscle cell damage. These results indicate that treatment with anti-factor VIII-related antigen antibody and complement is an effective method for eliminating endothelium-dependent vasodilation without altering endothelium-independent responses. Thus, this method may be useful for studying the functional role of the endothelium in microvessels.

    Title Ventriculographic Evaluation in Three Rat Models of Cardiac Dysfunction.
    Date February 1994
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Chronic cardiac dysfunction was produced in rats by means of 1) aorto-caval fistula (A-V fistula), 2) coronary ligation, or 3) coronary embolization. Eleven to twelve weeks later, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated by ventriculography and compared with normal controls. A-V fistula decreased LVEF by 13% and increased cardiac output (CO) by 82%. Coronary ligation and embolization produced a greater decrease in LVEF (-36% and -30%) and a decrease in CO (-36% and -29%). Systemic vascular resistance was significantly decreased in the A-V fistula (-47%) model but increased in both ligation and embolization models (by 99 and 87%). LV end-diastolic volume was increased in fistula or ligation (by 68 and 36%), whereas there was no change in rats with embolization. LV end-systolic volume and LV end-diastolic pressure were significantly increased in all three models. Plasma atrial natriuretic factor was increased by 676% with fistula, 212% with ligation, and 113% with embolization. There was no significant change in plasma renin activity or catecholamines in any of the models. We concluded that coronary embolization and ligation are effective methods of producing chronic LV dysfunction in rats, as evidenced by the significant decrease in LVEF. On the other hand, A-V fistula is an appropriate model of myocardial hypertrophy with greatly increased plasma atrial natriuretic factor, but cardiac dysfunction was minimal as indicated by the mild decrease in LVEF.

    Title The Molecular Biology of the Kallikrein-kinin System: Iii. The Human Kallikrein Gene Family and Kallikrein Substrate.
    Date January 1994
    Journal Journal of Hypertension
    Title Neither Endogenous nor Exogenous Bradykinin Stimulates Aldosterone in Vivo.
    Date January 1994
    Journal Endocrinology
    Excerpt

    It has been suggested that bradykinin (BK) can directly stimulate aldosterone secretion in vitro. Both chronic and acute studies were performed to determine whether we could show a pathway by which BK could stimulate plasma aldosterone in vivo. Chronic studies employed four groups of eight rats fed either a normal sodium or a sodium-restricted diet over 9 days. Half of the rats received infusion of a saline vehicle, and the others received the BK B-2 receptor antagonist HOE-140 at a rate of 200 micrograms/kg.day over 7 days via a sc implanted osmotic minipump. This rate was derived from studies showing that HOE-140 blocked pharmacological doses of exogenous BK. With a normal diet, there was no difference in plasma aldosterone in vehicle-treated rats vs. those treated with HOE-140 (368 +/- 55 vs. 329 +/- 66 pg/ml, respectively). Sodium restriction increased plasma aldosterone 10-fold, but again there was no difference between vehicle-treated rats and those treated with HOE-140 (2964 +/- 439 vs. 3755 +/- 475 pg/ml, respectively). Acute studies employed two groups of six rats. Direct suprarenal intraaortic infusion of 2 micrograms/min BK or saline vehicle was performed over 2 h. Plasma aldosterone was not changed in vehicle-treated groups, but decreased by 22% (P < 0.05) after BK infusion. Thus, blockade of kinin B-2 receptors had no effect on plasma aldosterone in normal or sodium-restricted diet rats. Acute BK infusion did not increase plasma aldosterone. We conclude that although BK may stimulate aldosterone in vitro, we found no physiological correlate to suggest that BK regulates plasma aldosterone in vivo.

    Title The Molecular Biology of the Kallikrein-kinin System: I. General Description, Nomenclature and the Mouse Gene Family.
    Date December 1993
    Journal Journal of Hypertension
    Title The Molecular Biology of the Kallikrein-kinin System: Ii. The Rat Gene Family.
    Date December 1993
    Journal Journal of Hypertension
    Title Kallikrein Release by Vascular Tissue.
    Date November 1993
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Vascular tissue contains kallikrein and kallikrein mRNA, suggesting a vascular kallikrein-kinin system. We questioned whether 1) kallikrein concentration varies among large and small vessels; 2) kallikrein is released by vascular tissue; and 3) blocking protein synthesis inhibits release, suggesting de novo synthesis. Using rat vascular rings and isolated-perfused hindquarters, we examined kallikrein in the bath and perfusate. Active kallikrein was higher in tail arteries than the aorta (P < 0.001); tail veins had six times more kininogenase than the vena cava (P < 0.001). Total kallikrein showed a similar pattern, being highest in tail vessels. Arterial rings released active and total kallikrein. After 1, 2, and 3 h incubation, cumulative release was as follows: active, 90 +/- 13, 201 +/- 25, and 311 +/- 41 pg.h-1 x mg tissue-1; total, 170 +/- 14, 366 +/- 24, and 537 +/- 40 pg.h-1 x mg tissue-1, indicating constant release up to > or = 3 h. In contrast, lactic dehydrogenase fell from 6.7 +/- 2.5 to 2.5 +/- 0.4 U.h-1 x mg tissue-1. Total kallikrein in the rings was 302 +/- 51 pg bradykinin/mg wt tissue before 3 h and 298 +/- 68 afterward. Kallikrein released by the hindquarters after 3 h was as follows: active, 6.2 +/- 2.8 ng bradykinin.min-1 x kg.body wt-1; total, 85.2 +/- 17 ng bradykinin.min-1 x kg body wt-1. Puromycin pretreatment (10 mg ip) reduced total perfusate kallikrein from 105 +/- 19 to 8.5 +/- 3.6 (P < 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Renal Versus Femoral Hemodynamic Response to Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor Synthesis Inhibition.
    Date September 1993
    Journal Journal of Vascular Research
    Excerpt

    Systemic inhibition of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) synthesis leads to acute hypertension and increased peripheral vascular resistance. The changes in vascular resistance are not evenly distributed to all vascular beds. In this study, we compared the renal and femoral hemodynamic responses to EDRF synthesis inhibition. Renal blood flow (RBF) and femoral blood flow (FBF) were assessed in the presence and absence of DuP 753, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Inhibition of EDRF synthesis by a bolus dose of Lw-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increased blood pressure (BP) by 21 +/- 1 mm Hg (p < 0.001) and decreased RBF by 32 +/- 5% (from 5.9 +/- 0.5 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 ml/min/g kidney weight; p < 0.005) while FBF remained unchanged (9.5 +/- 0.4 versus 9.4 +/- 0.4 ml/min). Renal vascular resistance (RVR) increased by 83 +/- 16% (p < 0.001), compared with only a 24 +/- 6% increase in femoral vascular resistance (FVR; p < 0.005). To eliminate the influence of systemic hypertension, we returned organ perfusion pressure to pre-L-NAME levels by partial aortic constriction. The kidney maintained RBF by decreasing RVR by 8 +/- 2% (p < 0.02), while FBF decreased by 15 +/- 5% (p < 0.01). When rats were pretreated with DuP 753, L-NAME still increased BP by 22 +/- 2 mm Hg, but RVR increased by only 26 +/- 5% (from 13.2 +/- 1.6 to 16.8 +/- 2.7; p < 0.01) and RBF did not change. DuP 753 had no effect on the femoral vascular response to L-NAME.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Adrenal Kallikrein.
    Date July 1993
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Kallikrein was identified in the adrenal glands of the rat. The enzyme was present in active and inactive forms (n = 9), since preincubation with trypsin increased kininogenase activity from 54.8 +/- 11.8 to 230 +/- 23 pg bradykinin per milligram protein per minute. Adrenal kininogenase activity was inhibited by 91% by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (2 mM), 81% by D-Phe-Phe-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (1 microM), 88% by aprotinin (1,000 KIU), and only 16% by soybean trypsin inhibitor (50 microM). Preincubation with antibodies against rat urinary kallikrein resulted in over 90% inhibition of kininogenase activity. Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein was 30.7 +/- 4.8 ng/mg protein (n = 11). The apparent molecular weight of the adrenal kininogenase on gel filtration chromatography was 33,000 +/- 500 D. Both the adrenal enzyme and the purified submandibular gland kallikrein used as a control had the same mobility on alkaline polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. To determine whether messenger RNA (mRNA) for glandular kallikrein is present in adrenal gland RNA, we used the polymerase chain reaction employing oligonucleotide primers and glandular kallikrein 32P complementary DNA (cDNA) as a probe, which should give a cDNA fragment of 370 bp. Southern blots of the amplified products revealed a fragment of the predicted size. In conclusion, glandular kallikrein has been identified in the adrenal glands. The presence of mRNA for glandular kallikrein suggests that kallikrein is synthesized locally in this tissue. This provides an anatomic basis for possible participation of a local kallikrein-kinin pathway in the regulation of adrenal function.

    Title Role of Kinins and Nitric Oxide in the Effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Neointima Formation.
    Date June 1993
    Journal Circulation Research
    Excerpt

    Marked neointima formation occurs after balloon injury to the intima of rat arteries. Angiotensin II has been implicated as a growth factor in this process, since angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block neointima formation after injury. However, ACE is an important kininase, and its inhibitors may act in part by a kinin-mediated mechanism. Kinins are also known to stimulate synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide (EDRF/NO) and prostacyclin, both of which have antigrowth effects. To determine whether the effect of ACE inhibitors on neointima formation is due to blockade of angiotensin II synthesis alone and/or inhibition of kinin inactivation, we followed two approaches. First, we compared the inhibition of neointima formation induced by the AT1-type angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan with that caused by the ACE inhibitor ramipril. We also studied whether a kinin receptor antagonist, Hoe 140, blocks the effect of two different ACE inhibitors, ramipril and enalapril, on neointima formation. In addition, we studied whether the effect of ramipril is blocked by an NO synthesis inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). Although both ramipril and losartan significantly reduced neointima formation, ramipril had a more marked effect (p < 0.05 for ramipril versus losartan). The kinin antagonist Hoe 140 reduced the inhibitory effect of ramipril and enalapril by 73% and 62%, respectively. The remaining effect of the ACE inhibitors was now similar to that of losartan. Inhibition of neointima formation by ramipril was also blocked by the NO synthesis inhibitor L-NAME.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor/nitric Oxide Modulates Angiotensin Ii Action in the Isolated Microperfused Rabbit Afferent but Not Efferent Arteriole.
    Date June 1993
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    It has been reported that sensitivity to angiotensin II (Ang II) is higher in efferent (Ef) than afferent (Af) arterioles (Arts). We tested the hypothesis that this is due to arteriolar differences in the interaction between Ang II and endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide (EDNO). Rabbit Af-Arts with glomerulus intact were microperfused in vitro at a constant pressure. Ef-Arts were perfused from the distal end of either the Af-Art (orthograde perfusion) or the Ef-Art (retrograde perfusion) to eliminate influences of the Af-Art or glomerulus, respectively. Ang II did not alter Af-Art luminal diameter until the concentration reached 10(-9) M, which decreased the diameter by 11 +/- 2.6% (n = 11; P < 0.002). In contrast, Ef-Arts became significantly constricted at concentrations as low as 10(-11) M with either perfusion. Surprisingly, the decrease in Ef-Art diameter at 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M was significantly greater with retrograde perfusion (44 +/- 6.9%, 70 +/- 5.6%, and 74 +/- 4.1%, respectively; n = 5) than with orthograde perfusion (16 +/- 4.2%, 25 +/- 2.9%, and 35 +/- 3.5%; n = 9). ENDO synthesis inhibition with 10(-4) M nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) decreased the diameter to a greater extent in Af-Arts (22 +/- 3.0%; n = 11) compared to Ef-Arts with either orthograde (9.5 +/- 2.3%; n = 8) or retrograde perfusion (1.2 +/- 2.1%; n = 6). With L-NAME pretreatment, Af-Art constriction induced by 10(-10) M (14 +/- 4.0%, n = 9) and 10(-9) M Ang II (38 +/- 3.9%) was significantly greater compared to nontreated Af-Arts. In contrast, L-NAME pretreatment had no effect on Ang II-induced constriction in Ef-Arts with either perfusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates higher sensitivity of Ef-Arts to Ang II, particularly with retrograde perfusion. Our results suggest that EDNO significantly modulates the vasoconstrictor action of Ang II in Af-Arts II but not Ef-Arts, contributing to the differential sensitivity to Ang II.

    Title Impaired Response to Acetylcholine Despite Intact Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor/nitric Oxide in Isolated Microperfused Afferent Arterioles of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat.
    Date February 1993
    Journal Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
    Excerpt

    The major characteristic of renal hemodynamics in hypertension is abnormally high resistance of the preglomerular vessel, most likely the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). Although endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)/nitric oxide (NO) has been studied extensively in large vessels, little is known about its role in Af-Art reactivity. Using isolated microperfused Af-Arts of 12- to 13-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive control, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, we examined the effect of acetylcholine (ACh) or N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), which stimulates or blocks endothelium-derived NO, respectively. Af-Arts were preconstricted with norepinephrine to 70 +/- 5 and 62 +/- 4% of the control diameter in SHRs and WKY rats, respectively; the intraluminal pressure was kept at either 100 or 70 mm Hg. In SHRs, ACh (1 nM-0.1 mM) added to the Af-Art perfusate caused no vasodilation but tended to decrease the diameter further to 59 +/- 6% of control (N = 8). In contrast, in WKY rats, ACh reversed the luminal diameter to 90 +/- 4% of control (N = 6, p < 0.01 compared with SHRs). Contrary to the responses to ACh, blockade of endothelium-derived NO with L-NAME decreased the basal diameter by 31 +/- 8 and 14 +/- 5% in SHRs and WKY rats, respectively. We conclude that ACh-induced vasodilation is impaired in SHR Af-Art. The impaired response to ACh may be due to factors other than endothelium-derived NO such as endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF).

    Title Plasma Renin Activity and the Renal Response to Nitric Oxide Synthesis Inhibition.
    Date February 1993
    Journal Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : Jasn
    Excerpt

    Inhibition of systemic endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) synthesis with L-Nw-nitroarginine (L-NAME) results in decreased RBF, which can be reversed by acute blockade of angiotensin II (AII). Because AII is particularly elevated in the renal circulation, it was hypothesized that the degree of renal vasoconstriction produced by L-NAME in Inactin-anesthetized rats is related to PRA. To test this, PRA was chronically increased or suppressed by the manipulation of dietary sodium (eating 0.03% sodium chow or deoxycorticosterone acetate plus drinking 1% NaCl, respectively). After 10 days, rats were anesthetized for determination of blood pressure (BP) and RBF before and after L-NAME (10 mg/kg body wt). In rats with high PRA (61.6 +/- 10.4 ng of angiotensin I [Al]/mL/h; N = 8), L-NAME increased BP by 29 +/- 2 mm Hg (from 110 +/- 4 to 139 +/- 5 mm Hg; P < 0.001), decreased RBF by 27% (from 7.9 +/- 0.3 to 5.8 +/- 0.3 mL/min/g kidney wt; P < 0.001), and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) by 67% (from 14.5 +/- 0.9 to 24.2 +/- 1.1 resistance units [RU]; P < 0.001). When rats with high PRA (N = 8) were treated with 10 mg/kg body wt of DuP 753, on AII receptor antagonist, L-NAME similarly increased BP by 30 +/- 5 mm Hg (from 81 +/- 3 to 111 +/- 5; P < 0.001) but RBF did not change and RVR increased by only 31% (from 10.9 +/- 0.8 to 13.3 +/- 0.7 RU; P < 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title A Common Nomenclature for Members of the Tissue (glandular) Kallikrein Gene Families.
    Date January 1993
    Journal Agents and Actions. Supplements
    Title The Kallikrein--kinin System in Blood Vessels.
    Date January 1993
    Journal Agents and Actions. Supplements
    Excerpt

    We have previously reported that vascular tissue contains kallikrein and kallikrein mRNA. We can now show that kallikrein is present throughout the vascular tree and is released from arterial and venous rings incubated "in vitro". Using the isolated perfused rat hindquarters as a model, we found that kallikrein appeared in the perfusate in concentrations that increased linearly with time. Treatment with puromycin inhibited kallikrein release by 87% (p < 0.01), these data suggest that kallikrein is synthesized and released by the vascular wall. Local generation of kinins (autocrine/paracrine system) may contribute to the regulation of vascular homeostasis.

    Title The Kallikrein-kinin System in Cardiac Tissue.
    Date January 1993
    Journal Agents and Actions. Supplements
    Excerpt

    Kallikrein and minute amounts of kininogen have been found in rat cardiac tissue. The mRNA for kallikrein was also determined by the polymerase chain reaction using KK-specific probe. The existence of an intrinsic kallikrein-kinin system in the heart raises the possibility that the enzyme-peptide system is involved in local regulation of cardiac function and metabolism.

    Title Angiotensin Dependence of Endothelium-mediated Renal Hemodynamics.
    Date November 1992
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Endothelium-derived relaxing factor has been shown to regulate renal blood flow, and inhibition of its synthesis increases blood pressure and renal vascular resistance and decreases renal blood flow. Using the substrate antagonist NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), we tested whether renal vasoconstriction induced by endothelium-derived relaxing factor synthesis inhibition could be mediated in part by angiotensin II. In 14 control rats, 10 mg/kg body wt L-NAME increased blood pressure from 106 +/- 6 to 126 +/- 6 mm Hg (p < 0.001), increased renal vascular resistance by 74% (from 19.3 +/- 2.6 to 33.6 +/- 2.9 resistance units), and decreased renal blood flow by 34% (from 5.9 +/- 0.5 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 ml.min-1.g kidney wt-1, p < 0.005). When six rats were treated with 10 mg/kg body wt of the angiotensin receptor antagonist DuP 753, L-NAME increased blood pressure from 84 +/- 4 to 106 +/- 4 mm Hg (p < 0.001); however, renal vascular resistance increased by only 27% (from 13 +/- 2 to 17 +/- 3 resistance units, p < 0.01; p < 0.05 different from control value) and renal blood flow was unchanged. Likewise, after pretreatment of six rats with 32 micrograms/100 g body wt of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, L-NAME increased blood pressure from 88 +/- 5 to 124 +/- 6 mm Hg (p < 0.001) and renal vascular resistance by 54% (from 12 +/- 1 to 18 +/- 3 resistance units, p < 0.01; p < 0.05 different from control value) but renal blood flow was unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Synthesis of Renin by Tubulocystic Epithelium in Autosomal-dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.
    Date November 1992
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Evidence suggests an important role for the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Therefore, we studied the presence of immunoreactive renin in renal biopsies and measured the concentrations of renin in cyst fluids. Normal kidneys and kidneys with renal artery stenosis were used for comparison. In ADPKD, immunoreactive renin was present in juxtaglomerular apparatus, associated arterioles, and in some cells within the connective tissue surrounding the cysts. Vascular immunoreactive renin was less prominent than in renal artery stenosis. Increased amounts of tubular immunoreactive renin were noted in polycystic kidneys, as compared to normal kidneys and kidneys with renal artery stenosis. Cyst fluids contained renin detected by Western analysis and enzymatic activity; concentrations were greater in gradient cysts than in nongradient cysts. Seventy-four percent of the renin in gradient cysts was active as compared to 23% in nongradient cysts and 15% in plasma. To determine whether cyst epithelial cells are capable of synthesizing renin, these cells were isolated in tissue culture. Enzymatic assay of extracts from these cells revealed the presence of renin-like enzymatic activity (1.3 +/- 0.8 ng AI/mg protein/hr). The synthesis of renin by tubulocystic epithelium was confirmed by [35S]-methionine radiolabeling of cyst-derived cells, followed by immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE and by detection of renin mRNA by the polymerase chain reaction. These results indicate that the tubulocystic epithelium has the potential to synthesize renin. Elevated levels of active renin in renal cysts may be linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD. The occurrence of renin in the lining epithelium of cyst walls raises the possibility that abnormal expression of the renin-angiotensin system may, by a paracrine or autocrine mechanism, regulate epithelial hyperplasia in growing renal cysts.

    Title Macula Densa Control of Renin Release and Glomerular Hemodynamics.
    Date November 1992
    Journal The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    Excerpt

    In each nephron of the mammalian kidney, the tubule returns to the hilus of the parent glomerulus, forming the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA). The JGA displays a unique arrangement of afferent and efferent arterioles, interstitial cells and macula densa (a specialized plaque of tubular epithelial cells). Because of this intimate anatomical relationship, it has long been suggested that the macula densa may somehow sense changes in the composition of the tubular fluid and control both the glomerular filtration rate and renin release. Despite extensive investigation, attempts to obtain direct evidence of this have been hindered by the anatomical complexity of the JGA. However, recent technical developments now permit direct assessment of the role of the macula densa in the control of both renin release and glomerular hemodynamics. These developments include microdissection/perfusion of the afferent arteriole, the macula densa or both, as well as a sensitive renin assay which permits measurement of renin release from a single JGA. Observations resulting from such developments are discussed in this article.

    Title Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor Regulates Renin Release in Vivo.
    Date September 1992
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), through its inhibitory second messenger guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), inhibits renin release in vitro. To determine whether EDRF affects renin in vivo, we tested whether EDRF synthesis inhibition could stimulate renin secretion in intact rats. Because EDRF synthesis inhibition increases blood pressure and consequently withdraws sympathetic activity (both renin inhibitory signals), we also studied the effect of L-N omega-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) when renal perfusion pressure was controlled and during beta-adrenergic blockade. Mean blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured in anesthetized rats before and after EDRF synthesis inhibition by a 10 mg/kg body wt bolus of L-NAME. L-NAME decreased PRA by 67% [from 11.0 +/- 2.7 to 3.7 +/- 0.8 ng angiotensin I (ANG I).ml-1.h-1, n = 12; P less than 0.001], increased BP by 20 +/- 2 mmHg (P less than 0.001), and decreased HR from 332 +/- 8 to 312 +/- 9 beats/min (P less than 0.005). We repeated our experiment in rats instrumented with an intra-aortic balloon catheter to control renal perfusion pressure and pretreated with propranolol to eliminate the beta-adrenergic effect. Under these conditions, L-NAME now increased PRA by 55% (from 6.9 +/- 1.9 to 10.8 +/- 2.6 ng ANG I.ml-1.h-1, n = 12; P less than 0.02), whereas renal perfusion pressure was unchanged (91 +/- 4 vs. 90 +/- 4 mmHg). HR increased slightly from 308 +/- 5 to 315 +/- 3 beats/min (P less than 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Anf and Bradykinin Synergistically Inhibit Transport in M-1 Cortical Collecting Duct Cell Line.
    Date August 1992
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Previous data suggest that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and bradykinin (BK) interact to increase Na+ and water excretion. We propose that this interaction is due to a synergistic action that inhibits Na+ absorption in the distal nephron. We examined the effects of BK and ANF on transport by monolayers of a cortical collecting duct cell line, M-1. BK (10(-8) M) had no effect on short-circuit current (Isc). Similarly, ANF (10(-8) M) did not inhibit Isc. In contrast, Isc decreased by 18% (from 57 +/- 8 to 46 +/- 6 microA/cm2) when BK and ANF were added simultaneously at this concentration (P less than 0.05). Because guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and protein kinase C are implicated in the second messenger cascades of ANF and BK, we investigated their potential roles in mediating this interaction. Dibutyryl-cGMP (10(-4) M) inhibited Isc from 33 +/- 4 to 22 +/- 3 microA/cm2 (P less than 0.05) in the presence of BK but not in its absence. Staurosporine and calphostin C, inhibitors of protein kinase C, completely blocked the decrease in Isc caused by simultaneous addition of ANF and BK. cAMP levels in M-1 cells were not affected by either ANF alone or BK alone; however, when cultures were treated with both hormones, cAMP decreased from 856 +/- 56 to 332 +/- 26 fmol/10(6) cells (P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Renal Kinin Antagonism Does Not Impair Pressure-induced Natriuresis.
    Date August 1992
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    We studied the contribution of the renal kallikrein-kinin system to short-term electrolyte and water balance during baseline and during acutely elevated renal perfusion pressure (RPP) in the anesthetized dog. Renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow rate, renin secretion rate, and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and kinins were measured at baseline RPP during intrarenal infusion of 0.9% saline or the competitive bradykinin analogue [D-Arg0,Hyp3,Thi5,D-Phe7,Thi8]bradykinin (50 micrograms/min), which blocks vascular and interstitial kinin receptors. RPP was then raised above baseline (control group 25%; kinin analogue group 22%) by ligating the celiac artery, the superior mesenteric artery, and the aorta distal to the renal arteries. Renal parameters were again measured during infusion of saline or the kinin analogue. The analogue had no effect on renal hemodynamic or excretory parameters at baseline perfusion pressures. Increasing RPP significantly increased urine flow rates and urinary sodium excretion rates (control group, 43 mumol/min; kinin analogue group, 55 mumol/min) in both groups of animals. Increasing pressure also tended to decrease renin secretion rate in both groups of animals; however, neither increased pressure nor infusion of the analogue affected urinary excretion of PGE2 or kinins. The results suggest that intrarenal kinins are not powerful short-term regulators of electrolyte and water balance and that an intact kallikrein-kinin system is not necessary to induce pressure diuresis and natriuresis.

    Title Endothelium Modulates Renal Blood Flow but Not Autoregulation.
    Date August 1992
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Inhibition of the production of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) nitric oxide using N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increases blood pressure (BP) and decreases renal blood flow (RBF), suggesting that basal EDRF can modulate both systemic resistance and renal perfusion. We tested whether L-NAME inhibition of EDRF could also change the autoregulation of RBF. Blood pressure and RBF were measured in Inactin-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. A bolus of 10 mg/kg body wt of L-NAME produced the maximum pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg) and blocked acetylcholine-induced renal vasodilation. In control rats, sequential changes in renal perfusion pressure showed that RBF was well autoregulated down to 95 +/- 2 mmHg. L-NAME increased BP, decreased RBF by 33% (P less than 0.005), and increased renal vascular resistance twofold. Although RBF was decreased, the kidney was still able to autoregulate RBF, although reset around the lower flow. Acute hypertension by carotid occlusion and vagotomy increased BP by 26 +/- 6 mmHg (P less than 0.005) and slightly increased RBF, while autoregulation was maintained. The pressor response to L-NAME was amplified to 38 +/- 6 mmHg (P less than 0.001), but RBF decreased by 35% (P less than 0.01). Autoregulation of RBF was maintained, although reset around the lower flow. We conclude that, although endothelial EDRF production may help maintain RBF, it does not seem to mediate the intrinsic autoregulatory responses of the renal vasculature to altered renal perfusion pressure.

    Title Sympathetic Modulation of Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor.
    Date June 1992
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    To determine whether the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is sympathetically mediated, we studied the effects of beta-blockade by propranolol, ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium, or mechanical pithing on the blood pressure response to EDRF inhibition in anesthetized rats. We inhibited EDRF with 10 mg/kg of either NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). In controls, L-NMMA and L-NAME increased blood pressure by 14 +/- 1 (p less than 0.01) and 22 +/- 2 mm Hg (p less than 0.01), respectively. Propranolol lowered blood pressure from 98 +/- 3 to 72 +/- 4 mm Hg without altering the response to L-NAME (delta 26 +/- 3). This response correlated with the resting blood pressure (r = 0.87; p less than 0.001). Hexamethonium (25 mg/kg) lowered blood pressure from 118 +/- 6 to 85 +/- 4 mm Hg but did not change the response to L-NMMA (delta 15 +/- 1). In pithed rats, blood pressure was lowered, but the pressor response to L-NAME was unchanged. When blood pressure was returned to normotensive levels by angiotensin II, norepinephrine, or phenylephrine, L-NAME increased blood pressure by 50 +/- 2, 68 +/- 8, and 109 +/- 7 mm Hg, respectively (p less than 0.001). We conclude that an intact autonomic nervous system is not needed for the pressor response to EDRF inhibition. The enhanced response in pithed rats treated with vasoconstrictors may be due to removal of the buffering effect of the baroreceptors and the absence of EDRF, which would oppose vasoconstriction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor Inhibits Transport and Increases Cgmp Content in Cultured Mouse Cortical Collecting Duct Cells.
    Date April 1992
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    Stimulation of the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in the kidney has been shown to result in natriuresis without affecting glomerular filtration rate. This may be due to EDRF directly regulating solute transport in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). To test this hypothesis, we measured the effect of bradykinin (Bk) or acetylcholine (Ach) on short-circuit current (Isc; a measure of active transport) in a CCD cell line (M-1), in the presence or absence of cow pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. 10(-9) M Bk or 10(-7) M Ach had no effect on M-1 Isc in which CPAE cells were absent. The addition of CPAE cells to M-1 cells also did not affect M-1 Isc. On the other hand, when 10(-9) M Bk or 10(-7) M Ach were added to M-1 cells in the presence of CPAE cells, Isc decreased from 43 +/- 4.5 to 26 +/- 4 and 64 +/- 9 to 33 +/- 4 microA/cm2, respectively (P less than 0.001). Nitroarginine (N-Arg, 10(-4) M), a competitive inhibitor of EDRF production, blocked the inhibition in M-1 Isc due to both agonists. Since cGMP is the second messenger of EDRF in vascular smooth muscle, we measured the effects of Bk on cGMP production in M-1 cells in the presence and absence of CPAE cells. Bk increased cGMP content in M-1 cells in the presence of CPAE cells from 33 +/- 3.4 to 132 +/- 11.7 fmol/10(6) M-1 cells (P less than 0.001). When cultures of M-1 and CPAE cells were treated with N-Arg and challenged with Bk, Bk's effect on cGMP was partially blocked (61.4 +/- 12 fmol/10(-6) M-1 cells; NS). These data suggest that EDRF inhibits transport and increases cGMP content in M-1 cells.

    Title Pressure-induced Constriction of the Afferent Arteriole of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
    Date March 1992
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    In uncomplicated essential hypertension, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and glomerular capillary pressure are within the normal range despite elevated renal perfusion pressure, suggesting abnormally high resistance of the preglomerular vessels. Among various preglomerular vascular segments, the afferent arteriole (Af-Art) is thought to be the site responsible for most resistance. However, little is known about the vascular reactivity of the Af-Art or its alteration in hypertension. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pressure-induced constriction is exaggerated in Af-Arts from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Single Af-Arts were microdissected from kidneys of SHRs and normotensive control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and were microperfused in vitro. When pressure in the Af-Art was increased stepwise from 20 to 80 mm Hg, luminal diameter increased similarly in both WKY and SHR Af-Arts (from 10.0 +/- 0.8 to 18.6 +/- 1.3 microns and from 10.1 +/- 1.2 to 16.9 +/- 1.5 microns, respectively). However, when pressure was further increased to 140 mm Hg, the diameter remained unchanged in WKY Af-Arts (19.2 +/- 1.9 microns), whereas it decreased significantly to 11.1 +/- 0.9 microns in those from SHRs. We conclude that pressure-induced constriction is exaggerated in SHR Af-Arts, which may contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension.

    Title Submandibular Enzymatic Vasoconstrictor Messenger Rna in Rat Kidney.
    Date March 1992
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Recently, we reported the isolation and identification of a potent vasoconstrictor enzyme from the rat submandibular gland, a member of the rat kallikrein gene family, which we named submandibular enzymatic vasoconstrictor (SEV). We studied whether messenger RNA (mRNA) for SEV is present in the kidney and isolated glomeruli, using the polymerase chain reaction assay with primers specific to the entire rat kallikrein family that would amplify a 430-bp fragment from their mRNA. As a probe we used a phosphorus-32-labeled oligonucleotide specific for SEV mRNA. A fragment of the predicted size was obtained on Southern blot for amplified renal RNA; however, no signal was obtained with glomerular RNA. To further confirm the presence of SEV mRNA in the kidney, polymerase chain reaction was repeated using primers specific to SEV mRNA that would amplify a 372-bp fragment from SEV mRNA alone. Again, a fragment of the predicted size was obtained on Southern blot after amplification of renal RNA but not RNA from the glomeruli. Southern blot of polymerase chain reaction-amplified RNA with primers that amplified the entire kallikrein gene family, using kallikrein complementary DNA that recognizes all members of the kallikrein gene family as a probe, revealed a 430-bp fragment for both renal and glomerular RNA, indicating that glomeruli contain mRNA for a member or members of the kallikrein family other than SEV. When the Southern blots were hybridized with a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide probe specific for glandular kallikrein, a fragment of the predicted size was obtained from amplified renal RNA but not glomerular RNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Renin Distribution in the Rabbit Renal Microvasculature.
    Date March 1992
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Immunocytochemical studies have shown that renin, which is normally located in the juxtaglomerular afferent arteriole, may also be found farther upstream toward the interlobular artery during chronic stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system. We assessed the renin distribution along the renal microvasculature using both quantitative analysis and immunocytochemistry in rabbits that received a normal sodium diet (0.48% NaCl), a low sodium diet (0.04% NaCl), or enalapril (1 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. From the outer cortex we microdissected 1) the proximal portion of the afferent arteriole (p-AF) extending from the interlobular artery to a point 50 microns from the glomerulus, 2) the distal 50 microns including its intact terminus (d-AF), and 3) the glomerulus without the vascular pole (GL) and measured their renin content. In controls, renin was 0.3 +/- 0.2, 27.0 +/- 5.2, and 2.8 +/- 0.5 ng angiotensin I/hr/arteriole (or GL) in the p-AF, d-AF, and GL, respectively. The low sodium diet and enalapril increased renin in the d-AF (53.1 +/- 6.9 and 68.4 +/- 8.1, respectively) but not in the GL (3.3 +/- 1.0 and 3.6 +/- 0.7). In the p-AF, both caused a small increase (delta = 1.5); however, this increase was minuscule compared with the large increase in the d-AF (delta = 41).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Nonprostanoid Endothelium-derived Factors Inhibit Renin Release.
    Date March 1992
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Although endothelium-derived prostaglandin I2 stimulates renin release, exogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) can inhibit it. To characterize the role of EDRF as an endogenous regulator of renin release, we inhibited or stimulated its production in rat renal cortical slices in vitro. Renin concentration in the incubation medium was determined by radioimmunoassay for angiotensin I (Ang I) generation. NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (LNMMA) (10(-4) M), which blocks EDRF formation, significantly enhanced basal renin release from kidney slices by more than 50% in control medium (40.0 +/- 14.3 ng Ang I/hr/mg/30 min; p less than 0.01) or in medium treated with 1.6 x 10(-5) M meclofenamate (50.8 +/- 8.4 ng Ang I; p less than 0.025). Isoproterenol (10(-5) M)-stimulated renin release (40.0 +/- 14.3 ng Ang I; p less than 0.02) was not modified by LNMMA; addition of L-arginine (10(-5) M), the precursor of EDRF, did not change basal but blocked isoproterenol stimulation of renin. Nitroprusside (10(-5) M) completely reversed melittin-stimulated renin release. Endothelin-1, an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor, inhibits renin release and stimulates EDRF and prostaglandin synthesis. To determine whether any of the renin-inhibiting effect of endothelin-1 was due to its stimulation of EDRF, we compared the effect of endothelin-1 on cortical slices with and without EDRF inhibition. Endothelin-1 (10(-7) M) decreased renin by 36.7 +/- 10.9 ng Ang I (p less than 0.01) compared with controls, and the response was the same after either LNMMA or hemoglobin treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Kinins Mediate the Antiproliferative Effect of Ramipril in Rat Carotid Artery.
    Date February 1992
    Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
    Excerpt

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to inhibit neointimal proliferation in response to endothelial injury in the rat carotid artery. Since ACE inhibitors block degradation of kinins, our objective in this study was to determine whether kinins mediate the antiproliferative effect of the ACE inhibitor ramipril. Endothelial denudation was achieved in the left carotid artery of male Sprague-Dawley rats using a balloon catheter. The rats were divided into four groups: a) vehicle (saline); b) DuP 753 10 mg/kg/day; c) ramipril 5 mg/kg/day; and d) ramipril 5 mg/kg/day plus Hoe 140 70 micrograms/kg/day. Ramipril markedly reduced neointimal proliferation compared to control (vehicle) (p less than 0.05) and DuP 753-treated groups (p less than 0.05). When ramipril was given together with Hoe 140 its effect was significantly blunted (p less than 0.05). These results show that kinins are important mediators in the antiproliferative effect of ACE inhibitors.

    Title T-kininogenase Activity of the Rat Submandibular Gland is Predominantly Due to the Kallikrein-like Serine Protease Antigen Gamma.
    Date January 1992
    Journal The Biochemical Journal
    Excerpt

    T-kininogen, the major kininogen in rat plasma, releases Ile-Ser-bradykinin (T-kinin) when incubated with trypsin, but is not a substrate for tissue kallikrein. Enzymes able to release T-kinins from T-kininogen have been found in the rat submandibular gland, but precise identification of these enzymes and their possible relationship to kallikrein-like enzymes has not been established. We studied T-kininogenase activity in fractionated submandibular gland homogenate. The main T-kininogen catalytic enzyme was purified and characterized, and found to be identical to antigen gamma, a kallikrein-like enzyme which we have previously characterized. Of other identified kallikrein-like enzymes only tonin showed weak T-kininogenase activity, which was about 0.25% of that of antigen gamma. No other T-kininogen catalytic enzymes were observed. Antigen gamma released a kinin which was identified as T-kinin by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. The T-kininogenase activity of antigen gamma had a Km of 29 +/- 4 microM and a kcat/Km of 140 M-1.s-1, and was comparable with its high and low molecular mass-kininogenase activity (7.4 and 10 micrograms of kinin/h per mg respectively). In contrast, tissue kallikrein released 0.2 and 42,200 micrograms of kinin/h per mg respectively. Thus antigen gamma is a weak kininogenase. The isoelectric point of antigen gamma, but not its molecular mass, differed from that of other kallikrein-like enzymes. Isoelectrofocusing in flat-bed gels combined with immunostaining was therefore a convenient method for identification. The kallikrein-like nature of antigen gamma was demonstrated by its immunological similarity to tissue kallikrein and tonin and by 91% and 87% amino acid sequence similarity with tonin and kallikrein respectively (67 amino acids sequenced). Complete identity was also not observed with other sequenced kallikrein genes, mRNAs or proteins.

    Title Characterization of a Mouse Cortical Collecting Duct Cell Line.
    Date October 1991
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    A cortical collecting duct (CCD) cell line has been developed from a mouse transgenic for the early region of simian virus 40, Tg(SV40E)Bri/7. CCDs were microdissected and placed on collagen gels. Monolayers were subsequently subcultured onto permeable collagen membranes and maintained in serum-supplemented medium. One line, designated M-1, retained many characteristics of the CCD, including a typical epithelial appearance and CCD-specific antigens. M-1 cells, when grown in monolayers on permeable supports, exhibited a high transepithelial resistance (885.7 +/- 109.6 ohms/cm2) and developed a lumen negative transepithelial potential difference (PD) of -45.7 +/- 3.5 mV. The associated short-circuit current (SCC) averaged 71.8 +/- 10.3 microA/cm2, and was reduced by 95% by luminal application of amiloride. The cultured cells responded to arginine vasopressin (AVP) with a significant increase in SCC. M-1 cells generated significant transepithelial solute gradients. After 24 hours incubation, the composition of the luminal (L) and basolateral (B) media (in mM) was: [Na+], L = 106.7 +/- 0.9 and B = 127.4 +/- 0.4; [K+], L = 8.6 +/- 0.6 and B = 2.1 +/- 0.3; [Cl], L = 68.6 +/- 5.8 and B = 101.8 +/- 6.6; [HCO3], L = 15.5 +/- 1.5 and B = 8.6 +/- 1.2; while pH was 7.16 +/- 0.03 at the luminal and 6.94 +/- 0.03 at the basolateral side. The formation of these concentration gradients indicates that the CCD cultures absorb Na+ and Cl- and secrete K+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Zinc Metallopeptidase Inhibitors. A Novel Antihypertensive Treatment.
    Date October 1991
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Inhibitors of two zinc metallopeptidases, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral metalloendopeptidase-24.11 (EP-24.11), are antihypertensive agents. In this issue of Hypertension, Genden and Molineaux report that yet another peptidase inhibitor, metalloendopeptidase-24.15, EC 3.4.24.15 (EP-24.15), lowers blood pressure in normotensive rats. In this editorial we discuss the possible role of kinins as common mediators of part of the vasodepressor action of these peptidase inhibitors. Genden and Molineaux report that the marked fall in blood pressure caused by the EP-24.15 inhibitor is almost abolished by a kinin receptor antagonist, supporting the hypothesis that kinins play a role in the regulation of normal blood pressure. We have confirmed that the EP-24.15 inhibitor used by these investigators lowers blood pressure. Up to now, EP-24.15 has not been implicated in in vivo metabolism of kinins. Although a number of kininases have been identified, our own previous work indicated that the metabolic pathway responsible for clearing kinins from the circulation involves the action of kininase II (angiotensin I converting enzyme) and renal peptidases. Nevertheless, the main metabolic pathway involved some other unidentified enzyme, since in these experiments disappearance of kinins from the circulation was only marginally reduced by a "cocktail" of inhibitors of ACE, EP-24.11, and carboxypeptidase N. It could be that EP-24.15 is involved in kinin metabolism. However, a number of questions need to be answered with regard to the mechanism by which the EP-24.15 inhibitor lowers blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Local Hormonal Factors (intracrine, Autocrine, and Paracrine) in Hypertension.
    Date October 1991
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Vasoactive hormones acting as endocrine, neuroendocrine, or local hormonal systems (intracrine, autocrine, and paracrine) are an important component of the many factors that regulate blood pressure. Hypertension may be the result of an alteration in the balance between vasodepressor and vasopressor hormonal systems. Changes in this balance could be due to genetic factors such as mutations in one of the genes of the vasoactive system or environmental factors that alter the synthesis and release of one or more vasoactive hormones. Endocrine and neuroendocrine vasopressor hormonal systems, such as the renin-angiotensin system and catecholamines, play a well-established and important role in the regulation of blood pressure and the pathogenesis of some secondary forms of hypertension. The blockade of such systems has already resulted in effective antihypertensive treatment. The role of local hormonal systems is less well established; however, recent evidence suggests they also play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and the pathogenesis of hypertension. Some vasopressor hormonal systems, such as the renin-angiotensin system, can act as both endocrine or local hormonal systems. Work using transgenic rats harboring the mouse Ren-2 gene has conclusively demonstrated that the renin-angiotensin system, acting as a local hormonal system, has the capability to cause severe hypertension. Whether this model of experimental hypertension mimics any type of human hypertension is not known. Vasodepressor hormones such as kinins, prostaglandins, and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) act mainly as local hormonal systems, with the notable exception of atrial natriuretic factor, which may act as both an endocrine and a local hormone. The tissue kallikrein-kinin system, acting either directly or via paracrine eicosanoids or EDRF, participates in local regulation of the circulation, renal function, and the acute antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) that distinguishes the kallikrein gene family of a strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) from normotensive Brown Norway rats has been identified. In a set of 32 recombinant inbred strains derived from these SHR and Brown Norway strains, the RFLP marking the kallikrein gene family of SHR cosegregated with an increase in blood pressure. Also, in a study of Utah families it was found that a dominant-allele kallikrein gene expressed as high urinary kallikrein excretion was associated with a decreased risk of essential hypertension. In conclusion, vasopressor and vasodepressor hormones, acting not only as endocrine but also as local hormones, play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure and the pathogenesis of hypertension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    Title Macula Densa Control of Glomerular Hemodynamics.
    Date October 1991
    Journal Kidney International. Supplement
    Title Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor Modulates Endothelin Action in Afferent Arterioles.
    Date July 1991
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Endothelin is a potent vasoconstrictor, whereas endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is a potent vasodilator. Both are produced by the endothelium. Although they have been studied extensively in large vessels, little is known about their actions in renal microvessels. Using microdissected rabbit afferent arterioles, we studied the vascular response to synthetic endothelin and its interaction with EDRF and the effect of endothelin on renin release. Afferent arterioles were either microperfused in vitro at 60 mm Hg to measure luminal diameter or incubated without microperfusion to assess renin release. When added to the bath, 10(-10) or 10(-9) M endothelin decreased the diameter by 32 +/- 8% (n = 7, p less than 0.01) or 76 +/- 7% (p less than 0.0001), respectively. Pretreatment with Nw-nitro L-arginine, which inhibits synthesis of EDRF, decreased basal diameter by 15 +/- 1% (p less than 0.001) and augmented endothelin-induced constriction; decrease in diameter with 10(-10) M endothelin was 78 +/- 10% (n = 4, p less than 0.01 versus nontreated). In afferent arterioles preconstricted by endothelin, acetylcholine at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-5) M increased the diameter in a dose-dependent manner. Basal renin release was 0.62 +/- 0.15 ng angiotensin I/hr/afferent arterioles/hr (n = 13) and was not affected by endothelin (10(-10) to 10(-6) M). Increase in renin release by isoproterenol was the same in afferent arterioles pretreated with vehicle or endothelin (10(-7) M; delta, 0.49 +/- 0.21 versus 0.42 +/- 0.19; n = 13).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Endothelin-1 and Human Platelet Activity.
    Date June 1991
    Journal Thrombosis Research
    Excerpt

    Endothelin-1, a peptide produced by endothelium, causes vascular smooth muscle contraction possibly by mobilizing intracellular calcium. Shifts in ionized calcium may also play a role in platelet activation. Accordingly, the effects of endothelin on platelet ionized calcium and aggregation were studied. The measurements were made in aequorin-loaded gel-filtered human platelets derived from healthy donors. Endothelin even in a final concentration of 10(-6) M did not cause a measurable change in platelet ionized calcium or aggregation. When tested in combination with collagen, thrombin and platelet activating factor, endothelin showed no synergistic effect. These observations raise the possibility that endothelin may not interact with platelets in a physiologically significant way.

    Title Modulation of Angiotensin Ii-induced Vasoconstriction by Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factor in the Isolated Microperfused Rabbit Afferent Arteriole.
    Date May 1991
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    Although endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) has been studied extensively in large vessels, little is known about its role in the preglomerular afferent arteriole (Af-Art). We tested the hypothesis that EDRF, which is produced locally in the Af-Art, modulates arteriolar responses to angiotensin II (AII). A single rabbit Af-Art with its glomerulus intact was microperfused in vitro at 60 mmHg. When 0.1 microM AII was first applied, luminal diameter decreased by 49 +/- 7.0% (n = 9; P less than 0.0001); however, constriction waned, with the decrease becoming 15 +/- 3.5% at 1 min. After washing the Af-Art, repeated AII caused less constriction (13 +/- 4.0%; P less than 0.0002 vs. first application), showing tachyphylaxis. Pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine (N-Arg), which inhibits synthesis of nitric oxide (an EDRF), decreased basal diameter by 18 +/- 3.0% (n = 14; P less than 0.0001). N-Arg also augmented AII-induced constriction (86 +/- 6.8%; P less than 0.02 vs. nontreated Af-Art) and rendered it persistent (82 +/- 6.9% at 1 min). Even after pretreatment with N-Arg, repeated AII caused a weaker response, which was restored by washing with kidney homogenate rich in angiotensinase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that local production of EDRF is an important determinant of the tone of the Af-Art. Our results suggest that the transient nature of AII-induced constriction of the Af-Art may be due to production of EDRF, while tachyphylaxis may be the result of long lasting receptor occupancy.

    Title An in Vitro Approach to the Study of Macula Densa-mediated Glomerular Hemodynamics.
    Date April 1991
    Journal Kidney International
    Title A Novel Serine Protease with Vasoconstrictor Activity Coded by the Kallikrein Gene S3.
    Date April 1991
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    A fraction separated from rat submandibular gland homogenates was found to contain a potent vasoconstrictor when tested on isolated rabbit aortic rings. The vasoconstrictor was purified by a series of chromatographic steps. The purified compound (2.77 x 10(-9) M) induced 40% of the maximum contractile response to 60 mM KCl. Constriction was slow in onset, long-lasting, rinse-resistant, and unchanged by de-endothelialization; in addition, it was dose-related and inhibited by both EGTA and verapamil, but it was not affected by DUP753, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. The compound was found to be a protein having a pI of 7.36 and a molecular weight of approximately 29,000 and exhibiting partial immunologic identity to rat glandular kallikrein and rat tonin. After 2-mercaptoethanol treatment, it separated into heavy (approximately 19,900) and light (approximately 10,700) chains having amino-terminal sequences of AY(X)HNNDLMLL and VVGGYN(X)ETNSQ, respectively. We found that they correspond to the amino-terminal and internal sequence of a previously unidentified kallikrein-like serine protease whose mRNA, named S3, has been found in the rat submandibular gland and prostate. The vasoconstrictor is able to hydrolyze t-butoxycarbonyl-valine-proline-arginine-methylcoumarin amide (a thrombin substrate), although its Kcat/Km was only 0.02% that of rat thrombin. Both vasoconstrictor and enzymatic activity on t-butoxycarbonyl-valine-proline-arginine-methylcoumarin amide were completely suppressed by amidinophenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and soybean trypsin inhibitor; however, they were unaffected by hirudin, a thrombin inhibitor. At pH 6.5, it released angiotensin II when incubated with sheep angiotensinogen, although it had approximately one-tenth the activity of tonin. The submandibular enzymatic vasoconstrictor is a kallikrein-like enzyme, having some properties of both tonin and thrombin. It directly contracts vascular smooth muscle, acting via a mechanism that requires intact enzymatic activity.

    Title Cosegregation of Blood Pressure with a Kallikrein Gene Family Polymorphism.
    Date March 1991
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    It has recently been proposed that sequence variation in the gene coding for tissue kallikrein might be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, molecular evidence of an association between a sequence alteration in the kallikrein gene family and the transmission of increased blood pressure has never been reported. In 32 recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the normotensive Brown Norway rat (BN), we investigated whether a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marking the kallikrein gene family cosegregated with blood pressure. In the RI strains that inherited the kallikrein RFLP from the SHR progenitor strain, the median systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were significantly greater than in the RI strains that inherited the kallikrein RFLP from the BN progenitor strain. These findings suggest that in the rat, sequence variation in the kallikrein gene family, or in closely linked genes, may have the capacity to affect blood pressure.

    Title Tissue Kallikrein Processes Small Proenkephalin Peptides.
    Date February 1991
    Journal Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
    Excerpt

    Tissue kallikrein may play a role in processing precursor polypeptide hormones. We investigated whether hydrolysis of natural enkephalin precursors, peptide F and bovine adrenal medulla docosapeptide (BAM-22P), by hog pancreatic kallikrein is consistent with this concept. Incubation of peptide F with this tissue kallikrein resulted in the release of Met5-enkephalin and Met5-Lys6-enkephalin. Met5-Lys6-enkephalin was the main peptide released, indicating that the major cleavage site was between two lysine residues. At 37 degrees C and pH 8.5, the KM values for formation of Met5-enkephalin and Met5-Lys6-enkephalin were 129 and 191 microM, respectively. Corresponding kcat values were 0.001 and 0.03 s-1 and kcat/KM ratios were 8 and 1.6.10(2) M-1.s-1, respectively. Cleavage of peptide F at acidic pH (5.5) was negligible. When BAM-22P was used as a substrate, Met5-Arg6-enkephalin was released, thus indicating cleavage between two arginine residues. At pH 8.5, KM was 64 microM, kcat was 4.5 s-1, and the kcat/KM ratio was 7.10(4) M-1.s-1. At 5.5, the pH of the secretory granules, KM, kcat and kcat/KM were 184 microM, 1.9 s-1 and 10(4) M-1.s-1, respectively. It is unlikely that peptide F could be a substrate for kallikrein in vivo; however, tissue kallikrein could aid in processing proenkephalin precursors such as BAM-22P by cleaving Arg-Arg peptide bonds.

    Title A Potent Vasoconstrictor in the Rat Submandibular Gland.
    Date February 1991
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    We detected a novel vasoconstrictor in an arginine esterase fraction separated from fractions containing tonin and other esterases that were obtained from a rat submandibular gland extract. When tested on isolated rabbit aorta rings, the substance caused dose-related contractions that were slow in onset, long-lasting, and difficult to reverse by rinsing. The substance acts directly on vascular smooth muscle, since preincubation with plasma or intact endothelium is not required. The fact that the constrictor was destroyed by heat and incubation with pronase suggests that it is a protein. Molecular sieving indicates an estimated molecular weight of 24,000 Da. It has a neutral isoelectric point that is higher than the pI of tonin, from which it can be separated by anion exchange chromatography. A small amount of the vasoconstrictor was obtained by gel filtration and eluted from isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gels. The purified substance showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was a potent vasoconstrictor; an estimated concentration of 2.5 nM induced contraction of isolated rabbit aorta rings ranging from 15% to 40% of the maximum contraction obtained by 60 mM KCl. Contraction was completely blocked by 1 mM (p-amidinophenyl)methanesulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor. Contractile activity was not affected by hirudin, a thrombin inhibitor, but was completely inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor and blunted by aprotinin; thus it may be a trypsin-like serine protease. Purified vasoconstrictor preparation showed hydrolyzing activity on Pro-Phe-Arg-methyl-coumarin amide, a kallikrein substrate. We conclude that a novel vasoconstrictor serine protease is present in the rat submandibular gland.

    Title Bradykinin Release from Contracting Skeletal Muscle of the Cat.
    Date January 1991
    Journal Journal of Applied Physiology (bethesda, Md. : 1985)
    Excerpt

    Results of previous studies from our laboratory suggest that bradykinin has a role in the exercise pressor reflex elicited by static muscle contraction. The purpose of this study was to quantify the release of bradykinin from contracting skeletal muscle. In 18 cats, blood samples were withdrawn directly from the venous effluent of the triceps surae muscles immediately before and after 30 s of static contraction producing peak muscle tensions of 33, 50, and 100% of maximum electrically stimulated contraction. Contractions producing muscle tensions of 50 and 100% of maximum increased muscle venous bradykinin levels by 27 +/- 9 and 19 +/- 10 pg/ml, respectively. Conversely, 33% maximum contraction did not alter muscle venous bradykinin concentrations. However, when captopril was administered to slow the degradation of bradykinin, muscle venous bradykinin increased from 68 +/- 15 pg/ml at rest to 106 +/- 18 after contractions of 33% of maximum. When muscle ischemia was induced by 2 min of arterial occlusion before and during 30 s of 33% of maximum contraction, muscle venous bradykinin increased by 15 +/- 5 pg/ml. In addition, contraction-induced changes in muscle venous pH and lactate strongly correlated with bradykinin concentrations (r = 0.80 and 0.83, respectively). These data demonstrate that static contraction of relatively high intensity evokes the release of bradykinin from skeletal muscle and that ischemia, decreased pH, and increased lactate are strongly correlated with this release.

    Title Renin Release from Microdissected Superficial, Midcortical, and Juxtamedullary Afferent Arterioles in Rabbits.
    Date December 1990
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    Renal renin content and release decrease from outer to inner cortex; this may be due to a cortical-to-medullary gradient in glomerular density and/or renin content per afferent arteriole. Although low sodium diets have been reported to decrease the tissue renin gradient, little information is available on renin release by different areas of the renal cortex or the effect of a low sodium diet. In the present study, we examined basal- and isoproterenol-stimulated renin release and content in microdissected superficial, midcortical, and juxtamedullary afferent arterioles from rabbits on normal and low sodium diets. Renin content was 25.8 +/- 3.6, 1.4 +/- 0.32, and 0.27 +/- 0.09 ng angiotensin I (Ang I)/hour/arteriole in the superficial, midcortical and juxtamedullary arterioles, respectively. Dietary sodium restriction significantly increased it to 60.1 +/- 7.3, 13.8 +/- 3.1, and 1.48 +/- 0.6, respectively. Renin release was 0.64 +/- 0.13, 0.15 +/- 0.04, and 0.025 +/- 0.013 ng Ang I/hour/arteriole/hour incubation of arteriole in the superficial, midcortical and juxtamedullary arterioles, respectively. With sodium restriction it increased significantly for the superficial, (1.77 +/- 0.27) and midcortical (0.62 +/- 0.11) but not the juxtamedullary arterioles (0.038 +/- 0.02). With either diet, renin release and content among the three types of arterioles were significantly different. Isoproterenol (1.6 x 10(-4) M) significantly stimulated renin release from all three types of arterioles whether rabbits were fed a normal or low sodium diet; however, only in the superficial arterioles was the increase (delta) greater with dietary sodium restriction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title A Kallikrein-like Enzyme in Blood Vessels of One-kidney, One Clip Hypertensive Rats.
    Date November 1990
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Active and inactive kallikrein or a kallikrein-like enzyme are found in the aorta, vena cava, and tail artery and veins of the rat. We studied the concentration of vascular kininogenase in rats with one-kidney, one clip renovascular hypertension and in unilaterally nephrectomized normotensive rats. Six weeks after surgery, active and total vascular kininogenase activity (active plus trypsin-activated) was measured. Blood pressure was 212 +/- 4 mm Hg in the hypertensive rats (n = 33) and 120 +/- 1 mm Hg in the normotensive rats (n = 32) (p less than 0.001). Active kininogenase was lower in the hypertensive rats; although the difference was not significant in the thoracic aorta (56 +/- 8 versus 77 +/- 15), it was highly significant in the abdominal aorta (63 +/- 13 versus 167 +/- 17, p less than 0.001) and tail artery (48 +/- 8 versus 197 +/- 31, p less than 0.003). Total vascular kininogenase activity (active plus trypsin-activated) was lower in the hypertensive rats in all arteries examined: thoracic aorta (183 +/- 16 versus 380 +/- 38, p less than 0.003), abdominal aorta (565 +/- 61 versus 1,093 +/- 74, p less than 0.001), and tail artery (532 +/- 112 versus 1,243 +/- 135, p less than 0.003). Active kininogenase in the vena cava was higher in the hypertensive rats (213 +/- 56 versus 131 +/- 31); however, this difference was not statistically significant, whereas in the tail veins it was highly significant (1,803 +/- 221 versus 771 +/- 79, p less than 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title The Hydrolysis of Endothelins by Neutral Endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase).
    Date September 1990
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Excerpt

    Endothelins 1-3 are a family of 21-amino acid peptides whose structure consists of two rings formed by intra-chain disulfide bonds and a linear "COOH-terminal tail." These peptides were originally described on the basis of their potent vasoconstrictor activity. The hydrolytic inactivation of endothelin action has recently been implicated to be attributed, at least in part, to the enzyme neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (Scicli, A. G., Vijayaraghavan, J., Hersh, L., and Carretero, O. (1989) Hypertension 14, 353). The kinetic properties and mode of hydrolysis of the endothelins by this enzyme are reported in this study. The Km for endothelins 1 and 3 hydrolysis is approximately 2 microM while endothelin2 exhibits a 5-fold higher Km. Endothelins 1 and 2 exhibit similar Vmax values while endothelin3 is hydrolyzed considerably more slowly. The initial cleavage site in endothelin1 is at the Ser5-Leu6 bond located within one of the cyclic structures. Thermolysin, a bacterial neutral endopeptidase with a similar substrate specificity to neutral endopeptidase 24.11 initially cleaves endothelin1 between His16-Leu17 which lies within the COOH-terminal linear "tail" portion of the molecule. The cleavage of endothelins 2 and 3 by neutral endopeptidase 24.11 differs from that observed with endothelin1 in that cleavage of these endothelins occurs at Asp18-Ile19 within the linear COOH-terminal tail structure. These results demonstrate that the endothelins are good substrates for neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and suggest that their mode of cleavage is dependent upon both amino acid sequence as well as peptide conformation.

    Title Kallikrein Messenger Rna in Rat Arteries and Veins.
    Date September 1990
    Journal Circulation Research
    Excerpt

    Glandular kallikrein (EC 3.4.21.8) belongs to a subgroup of serine proteases coded by a multigene family. A kininogenase resembling glandular kallikrein has been identified in vascular tissue; however, it is not clear whether it is synthesized by vascular tissue or taken up from plasma. To determine the potential for kallikrein synthesis in vascular tissues, we tested whether messenger RNA (mRNA) for glandular kallikrein is present in rat arteries and veins. Poly(A+) RNA was isolated from pools of arteries or veins (n = 3, 30 rats each). Poly(A+) RNA from the kidney and liver was used as a positive and negative control, respectively. As a probe, we used rat pancreatic kallikrein 32P-labeled complementary DNA, which recognizes mRNA of the entire rat kallikrein family. Slot-blot analysis indicated that kallikrein mRNA was present in mRNA from the arteries, veins, and kidney but not from the liver. Poly(A+) RNA from arteries and veins contained approximately 1% as much kallikrein mRNA as that from the kidney. To confirm the slot-blot results and determine whether the mRNA for true glandular kallikrein was present in vascular tissue, we employed a polymerase chain reaction assay, first using primers specific for the entire kallikrein family (which amplify a 430-bp fragment) and then using primers specific for true glandular kallikrein mRNA (which amplify a 370-bp fragment). After the polymerase chain reaction assay, both arteries and veins showed fragments of these sizes when tested with rat kallikrein complementary DNA probe, thus confirming the presence of glandular kallikrein mRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Renal Effects of Fab Fragments of Kinin Antibodies on Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-salt-treated Rats.
    Date July 1990
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    The role of the renal kallikrein-kinin system in the regulation of renal function is not completely understood. Intrarenal kinins can influence renal function by acting as paracrine hormones at basolateral, luminal, or both sites in the distal nephron. To examine the role of intrarenal kinins in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-treated rats, which have high renal kallikrein, Fab fragments of antibradykinin antibody or DArg[Hyp3Thi5,8DPhe7]bradykinin, a kinin antagonist, were used to block kinins. At the dose used, the antibody (25 mg) and kinin antagonist (10 micrograms/min/rat) inhibited the hypotensive effect of intra-arterially injected bradykinin (100 ng) by 70% and 52%, respectively. The antibody appeared in the urine within 30 minutes after administration. Urinary volume was lowered from 9.4 +/- 0.2 to 6.7 +/- 0.4 microliters/min/g kidney wt (p less than 0.001, paired t test) by the antibody and from 8.5 +/- 0.3 to 6.8 +/- 0.4 microliters/min/g kidney wt (p less than 0.004, paired t test) by the kinin antagonist. The antibody lowered urine sodium excretion from 1.11 +/- 0.04 to 0.88 +/- 0.06 mueq/min/g kidney wt (p less than 0.001, paired t test), whereas the kinin antagonist had no significant effect. Neither altered blood pressure, renal blood flow, or glomerular filtration rate. These data suggest that in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-treated rats, excretion of water and sodium is regulated in part by kinins. The antidiuretic effect of the antibody and kinin antagonist might be due to blockade of kinins in the vascular-interstitial space of the kidney, since the kinin antagonist is likely hydrolyzed in the proximal tubule and does not reach the lumen of the distal nephron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title The Brain Kallikrein-kinin System. A Possible Role in Blood Pressure Regulation.
    Date May 1990
    Journal Hypertension
    Title Glandular Kallikrein-like Enzyme in Adrenal Glands.
    Date February 1990
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Excerpt

    A kallikrein-like kininogenase was identified in the rat adrenal gland. Most of the enzyme was present in an inactive form, since pre-incubation with trypsin markedly increased kininogenase activity from 54.8 +/- 11.8 to 230 +/- 23.0 pg bradykinin/mg protein/min. Adrenal kininogenase was inhibited 90% by phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride, 92% by D-Phe-Phe-Arg-chloromethylketone, 91% by aprotinin, and only 15% by soybean trypsin inhibitor. Pre-incubation with antibodies against rat urinary kallikrein resulted in 85% inhibition. The apparent molecular weight of adrenal kininogenase on gel filtration chromatography was 33 Kd. The enzyme was strongly adsorbed to immobilized rat urinary kallikrein antibodies and required drastic conditions for elution. In canine adrenal glands, we found that there was no difference in the cortical and medullary distribution of active and inactive SBTI resistant kininogenase activity. We conclude that an enzyme which closely resembles glandular kallikrein is present in adrenal glands.

    Title Contributions of Various Rat Plasma Peptidases to Kinin Hydrolysis.
    Date January 1990
    Journal The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
    Excerpt

    The relative contribution of plasma carboxypeptidase N (kininase I), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (kininase II), neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase A) and postproline cleaving enzyme to total kininase activity in rat plasma was determined by measuring bradykinin hydrolysis with and without various concentrations of inhibitors of these enzymes. We used DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethyl-thiopropanoic acid to inhibit kininase I, enalaprilat for ACE, phosphoramidon for neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Pro-prolinal for postproline cleaving enzyme. Bradykinin was added to rat plasma and incubated at 37 degrees C. Kininase activity was evaluated based on the decrease in bradykinin during incubation. Bradykinin was measured by radioimmunoassay, using an antibody that recognizes its carboxyl group. Of the total plasma kininase activity, carboxypeptidase N was responsible for 11.0 +/- 2.5% (N = 5; P less than .05) and ACE for 46.8 +/- 1.5% (N = 5; P less than .001), whereas the contribution of neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and postproline cleaving enzyme turned out to be negligible. Of the kininase activity in rat plasma, 42% could not be explained by any of these four enzymes. We concluded that ACE is responsible for most of the kininase activity in rat plasma; carboxypeptidase N contributes to a slight degree. The fact that 42% of total plasma kininase activity could not be explained by any of the enzymes tested suggests that there are still other kininases in rat plasma which remain to be discovered.

    Title Role of Endogenous Brain Kinins in the Cardiovascular Response to Intracerebroventricular Melittin.
    Date January 1990
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Intracerebroventricular infusion of the peptide melittin increases immunoreactive kinins in the cerebrospinal fluid of anesthetized dogs, probably secondary to activation of brain or cerebrospinal fluid kininogenases. Intracerebroventricular melittin also increases blood pressure and heart rate, possibly mediated by brain kinins, since intracerebroventricular bradykinin also increases blood pressure and heart rate. We tested whether the effects of centrally administered melittin on blood pressure and heart rate could be blocked by simultaneous infusion of a kinin receptor antagonist, [DArg0]Hyp3-Thi5,8[DPhe7]bradykinin, in normotensive awake rats. In the controls, intracerebroventricular infusion of kinin receptor antagonist given for 1 hour at a rate of 10 micrograms/hr blocked bradykinin-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate by 80%. Basal blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by the kinin receptor antagonist alone. After a 30-minute infusion of melittin (8 micrograms/30 min), cerebrospinal fluid kininogenase activity (n = 17) rose from 0.13 +/- 0.05 to 0.43 +/- 0.1 ng/ml/min (p less than 0.02). Although cerebrospinal fluid kinins increased from below sensitivity (0.02 ng/ml, n = 12) to 0.19 +/- 0.1 ng/ml (n = 17), this change was due to drastic increases in three rats, whereas in 12 of them kinins were below sensitivity. Incubation of bradykinin (10 ng) with 0.1 ml rat cerebrospinal fluid for 5 minutes destroyed 70% of kinins, suggesting that rapid destruction may have made detection of increased CSF kinins difficult.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Kinin Antagonist Does Not Protect Against the Hypotensive Response to Endotoxin, Anaphylaxis or Acute Pancreatitis.
    Date December 1989
    Journal The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
    Excerpt

    The vasodilator bradykinin (Bk) has long been though to participate in shock induced by endotoxemia, anaphylaxis and acute pancreatitis. Recently developed kinin antagonists have made it possible to test this hypothesis. We studied the effect of two of them. DArg0Hyp3-Thi5.8-DPhe7-Bk (45 and 220 micrograms/kg/min) and Lys-Lys-Hyp2-Thi5.8-DPhe7-Bk (100 micrograms/kg/min) on the early hypotensive response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats infused with the antagonist vehicle were used as controls. At 45 micrograms/kg/min, DArg0-Hyp3-Thi5.8-dPhe7-Bk prevented the hypotensive response to high doses of Bk; however, neither antagonist prevented the hypotensive response to LPS. Circulating kinins measured 3 min after injecting LPS or vehicle were similar (16.3 +/- 1.4 vs. 26.0 +/- 7.2 pg/ml; P greater than .23). In allergically sensitized rats, 500 micrograms/kg/min DArg0-Hyp3-Thi5.8-DPhe-7-Bk did not alter the hypotensive (anaphylactic) response to antigen challenge (P greater than .38). Similarly, hypotension caused by development of acute pancreatitis in rats was not prevented by infusion of DArg0-Hyp3-Thi5.8-DPhe7-Bk at 200 micrograms/kg/min, 10 min) (P greater than .69). These results indicate that in the rate formation of kinins is not a major contributor to the hypotensive response observed in early endotoxemia, anaphylaxis and acute pancreatitis.

    Title Role of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and Other Peptidases in in Vivo Metabolism of Kinins.
    Date September 1989
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Arterial plasma kinins and mean arterial pressure were measured in intact and bilaterally nephrectomized rats infused with vehicle or bradykinin to study the role of 1) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and other peptidases and 2) the kidney (a kininase-rich organ) in the metabolism of kinins in vivo. Before the infusion, rats were pretreated with vehicle, enalaprilat (an ACE inhibitor), or a cocktail of kininase inhibitors containing 1) enalaprilat, 2) DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethyl-thiopropanoic acid (MGTA), a carboxypeptidase N inhibitor, 3) phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, and 4) bestatin, an aminopeptidase B inhibitor. In the rats with vehicle (n = 8), the cocktail did not significantly increase endogenous kinins (from 31 +/- 6 to 41 +/- 9 pg/ml, p = 0.94). In the rats infused with bradykinin (peptidase substrate), plasma kinins increased threefold in the group pretreated with the vehicle, 21-fold in the enalaprilat group, and 22-fold in the cocktail group. These increases were doubled by nephrectomy but were not affected by ureteral ligation. In the groups pretreated with the cocktail or enalaprilat, the hypotensive effect of bradykinin was correlated with plasma kinin concentration (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). After bradykinin infusion was stopped, plasma kinins decreased by half in 10-12 seconds in the rats pretreated with vehicle, enalaprilat, or cocktail. We concluded that ACE and the kidney are important to the metabolism of circulating kinins while carboxypeptidase N, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and aminopeptidase B are not. We also concluded that other tissue peptidases, not affected by either the above inhibitors or nephrectomy, play an important role in kinin metabolism.

    Title Body Fluid Volume and Angiotensin Ii in Maintenance of One-kidney, One Clip Hypertension.
    Date September 1989
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    To investigate the possible role of body fluid volume or the renin-angiotensin system in the maintenance of high blood pressure in chronic one-kidney, one clip (1K1C) hypertension, we studied whether blood pressure remained high after removal of the clip while the body fluid volume was kept constant or when angiotensin II (Ang II) was infused in conscious 1K1C rats. Blood pressure fell 58 +/- 13 mm Hg in 1K1C rats after removal of the clip. When body fluid volume was kept at the same level as before "unclipping," blood pressure fell only 9 +/- 2 mm Hg after removal of the clip; if body fluid volume was then allowed to decrease, blood pressure fell an additional 55 +/- 8 mm Hg. When Ang II was infused after removal of the clip, blood pressure fell 26 +/- 7 mm Hg despite the fact that plasma Ang II increased to nonphysiological concentrations (1,161 +/- 353 pg/ml). After Ang II infusion was stopped, blood pressure fell an additional 44 +/- 13 mm Hg. When Ang II was infused and body fluid volume kept constant, blood pressure still did not change after removal of the clip, although plasma Ang II concentrations increased to nonphysiological levels (618 +/- 98 pg/ml). After the Ang II infusion was discontinued and the body fluid volume was no longer kept constant, blood pressure fell 78 +/- 9 mm Hg. These data further support the hypothesis that a volume factor, not the renin-angiotensin system, is important in the maintenance of high blood pressure in 1K1C hypertension.

    Title Effect of Prostanoids on Renin Release from Rabbit Afferent Arterioles with and Without Macula Densa.
    Date September 1989
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    There is evidence that cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid participate in the control of renin release. In this study we tested the hypothesis that prostaglandin (PG) I2 and/or its metabolite(s), which are synthesized in the afferent arteriole (AF), stimulate renin release by acting directly on the AF while PGE2 stimulates renin release indirectly via the macula densa. AF alone and AF with macula densa attached (AF-MD) were microdissected from rabbit kidneys and incubated in vitro. The renin release rate from a single AF (or an AF-MD) was calculated and expressed as ng AI.hr-1. AF-1/hr (where AI is angiotensin I). When arachidonic acid (0.12 mM) or PGI2 (10 microM) was added to AF, renin release increased significantly (P less than 0.0001) from 1.04 +/- 0.21 to 3.12 +/- 0.86 (x +/- SEM, N = 7), and from 0.45 +/- 0.14 to 1.48 +/- 0.53 (N = 9), respectively. During the recovery period, renin release increased even further, reaching 9.53 +/- 1.76 and 4.50 +/- 1.24, respectively. A PGI2 synthetase inhibitor, 9, 11-azoprosta-5,13-dienoic acid blocked the effect of arachidonic acid. To examine whether the increases in renin release during the recovery period were due to metabolite(s) of PGI2, we tested the effect of both 6-keto-PGE1 (an active metabolite of PGI2) and carba-PGI2 (a synthetic analog that is metabolized differently from PGI2). Six-keto-PGE1 and carba-PGI2 increased renin release only during the experimental period with no further increase during the recovery period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Role of Kinin in Regulation of Rat Submandibular Gland Blood Flow.
    Date August 1989
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    In tissues rich in kallikrein, vasodilator kinins, acting as paracrine hormones, may play a role in the local regulation of blood flow. We studied the role of kinins in the regulation of blood flow in the rat submandibular gland using a kinin analogue with antagonistic properties, [DArg0]Hyp3-Thi5-8[DPhe7]bradykinin. When infused into the carotid artery (20 micrograms/min/rat), this antagonist blocked the effect of bradykinin (25-250 ng/kg, intracarotid injection) on glandular blood flow. In nephrectomized rats, the antagonist also blocked the increase in glandular blood flow caused by enalaprilat, a kininase II converting enzyme inhibitor. At a dose of 20 micrograms/min/rat, the antagonist produced no detectable change in basal glandular blood flow; however, at a higher dose (100 micrograms/min/rat), it caused a significant decrease (p less than 0.001). In eight of 10 rats, blood flow decreased by 75% or more; this effect was not blocked by the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine. After antagonist infusion was stopped, blood flow returned toward normal. Sympathetic nerve stimulation of the gland induced vasoconstriction followed by poststimulatory vasodilatation. In rats displaying severe vasoconstriction after the antagonist, postsympathetic vasodilatation was abolished even when stimulation was performed after the antagonist infusion had been stopped and blood flow returned toward normal. Although a direct vasoconstrictor effect of the kinin antagonist cannot be completely ruled out, these data suggest that, in the rat submandibular gland, kinins may play a role in regulation of basal blood flow and vasodilatation after converting enzyme inhibitor or sympathetic stimulation.

    Title Kinin Antagonist Reverses Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-stimulated Vascular Prostaglandin I2 Synthesis.
    Date August 1989
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Treatment with a converting enzyme inhibitor has been shown to stimulate aortic prostaglandin I2 synthesis. We studied whether converting enzyme inhibitor-stimulated prostaglandin I2 synthesis might be mediated by kinins. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a continuous 70-minute infusion of either saline or a kinin analogue antagonist, [DArg0-Hyp3-Thi5-DPhe7-Thi8]bradykinin, 8 micrograms/kg/min. After 10 minutes, rats were given an intravenous bolus of either vehicle or the converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat (30 micrograms/100 g body wt). After 70 minutes, aorta and renal cortical slices were harvested and incubated in vitro in buffer without drugs at pH 7.4, 37 degrees C for 60 minutes. The buffer was then sampled for measurement of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (an index of prostaglandin I2), prostaglandin E2, and renin release (angiotensin I generation) by radioimmunoassay. The aortic prostaglandin I2 from rats treated with converting enzyme inhibitor was significantly elevated (36.7 +/- 5.0 ng/mg dry wt/hr) compared with aorta from rats treated with either vehicle (25.6 +/- 2.2 ng/mg/hr), kinin antagonist (25.1 +/- 2.4 ng/mg/hr), or kinin antagonist plus converting enzyme inhibitor (23.0 +/- 2.0 ng/mg/hr), p less than 0.02. There were no differences in aortic prostaglandin E2, renin release, or prostaglandin E2 from renal cortical slices. Direct in vitro incubation of aorta with molar concentrations of converting enzyme inhibitor from 10(-9) to 10(-4) had no effect on prostaglandin I2. These results suggest that kinins may mediate the effect of converting enzyme inhibition on aortic prostaglandin I2 synthesis and thereby may account for part of the hemodynamic responses resulting from treatment using converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Title Kinins Contribute to the Contractile Effects of Rat Glandular Kallikrein on the Isolated Rat Uterus.
    Date June 1989
    Journal The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
    Excerpt

    Glandular kallikrein is known to promote contractions of the isolated, estrogenized rat uterus, perhaps independently of kinin formation. The recent availability of kinin receptor antagonists led us to study whether they might affect the oxytocic activity of kallikrein. DArg0-Hyp3-Thi5,8-DPhe7-bradykinin (8.5 x 10(-7) M) displaced the dose-response curves to both bradykinin (from 1.0 x 10(-9) to 4.0 x 10(-6) M) and kallikrein (from 4.7 x 10(-11) to 8.0 x 10(-9) M) approximately one order of magnitude to the right. This inhibition could not be due to a nonspecific effect on the uterine muscle, as the contractile response to oxytocin was not altered. In addition, carboxypeptidase B (a potent kininase) and kinin antibodies reduced the contractile response to kallikrein by 70 and 60%, respectively. Removal of the intervening agent restored the normal response. The effect of kallikrein depended on its enzymatic activity, inasmuch as kallikrein inactivated with D-Phe-Arg-Arg-CH2Cl was not oxytocic. Prolonged or multiple exposures to kallikrein completely abolished uterine response, whereas the effect of bradykinin was unaltered. Uterine horns rendered insensitive to kallikrein by prolonged exposure still contracted in response to trypsin. Kininogen was present in the uterine tissue in a concentration of 1.5 +/- 0.3 ng of bradykinin equivalents per mg wet wt. No more than 15.9 +/- 1.2% of this total was due to plasma contamination. Only 21.5 +/- 2.9% of total kininogen could be cleaved by kallikrein. We conclude that part of the oxytocic activity of kallikrein is related to generation of kinins from a kallikrein-sensitive kininogen present in the isolated rat uterus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Synthesis of Epoxide and Vicinal Diol Regioisomers from Docosahexaenoate Methyl Esters.
    Date June 1989
    Journal Journal of Lipid Research
    Excerpt

    Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)) was recently shown to be metabolized by liver microsomes to vicinal diol regioisomers. To identify the diols, and to compare their biological actions with those of epoxide precursors, we developed a chemical method to synthesize microgram to milligram amounts of epoxides and corresponding diols. In brief, methylated docosahexaenoate was reacted for 15 min with 0.1 eq m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. After normal- and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, six products were isolated. The underivatized or hydrogenated products were characterized and identified using capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The products were identified as 19,20-, 16,17-, 13,14-, 10,11-, 7,8-, and 4,5-epoxy-docosapentaenoate. Per incubation, the total epoxide yield from 22:6(n-3) was 8.6%. By reincubating unused substrate 10-20 times (cycling), the total epoxide could be increased to 55-70%. As found for epoxides of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the yield of individual regioisomers increased as the distance between the targeted double bond and carbomethoxy group increased. Each epoxide regioisomer was hydrolyzed to its corresponding vicinal diol. The gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and mass spectra of the diol products were found to match those of metabolites produced by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases.

    Title Excess Antibody Immunoassay for the Measurement of Tonin in Rat Tissues and Plasma.
    Date May 1987
    Journal Journal of Immunological Methods
    Excerpt

    Tonin, a proteolytic enzyme isolated from the rat submandibular gland, can generate angiotensin II directly from angiotensinogen. To date a method for the measurement of tonin in plasma has not been available and the present paper describes a sensitive and specific excess antibody immunoassay for determination of tonin in tissue homogenates and plasma. Interference from immunologically cross-reacting proteins was evaluated and the assay was found to be specific for tonin. Tonin measured in various tissue homogenates was directly proportional to the amount of sample added, giving a linear dose-response curve. The slope of this curve was determined by the recovery of tonin, which was better than 55% for urine and all tissues tested. The highest concentration of tonin was seen in the submandibular and sublingual gland (69 and 0.7 microgram/mg protein, respectively). The parotid gland, the exorbital lacrimal gland, liver, kidney, pancreas, and lung contained only negligible amounts (less than 4 ng/mg protein). Tonin in plasma was bound to one major inhibitor with a molecular weight of about 650,000-750,000. A partial splitting of the tonin-inhibitor complex was obtained by preincubating plasma with guanidine, allowing tonin to be measured with a recovery of 38 +/- 13% (n = 16) and with a linear dose-response curve. The concentration of immunoreactive tonin in normal arterial plasma from adult male rats was 0.90 +/- 0.53 ng/ml (n = 16). The concentration decreased after removal of the submandibular glands and increased after sympathetic stimulation.

    Title Release of Kallikrein and Tonin from the Rat Submandibular Gland.
    Date March 1987
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Excerpt

    The interaction of neurotransmitters and hormones with specific receptors on the plasma membranes of cells results in enzyme secretion from exocrine glands. However, the effects of agonists on the release of kallikrein and tonin from the rat submandibular gland have not yet been evaluated systematically. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of norepinephrine, isoproterenol, methacholine, and cholecystokinin on the simultaneous release of kallikrein and tonin from the rat submandibular gland. Submandibular gland slices were incubated in vitro at 37 degrees C in a modified Krebs-Ringer medium containing 0.2% each of glucose and bovine serum albumin and bubbled with a gas mixture of 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Glandular kallikrein and tonin secreted into the incubation medium were determined by specific radioimmunoassays. Norepinephrine at 10(-5) M concentration increased kallikrein secretion from a control value of 7.7 +/- 1.5 to 114.7 +/- 26.9 ng/min/mg tissues (p less than .01), and at 10(-4) M concentration kallikrein secretion increased to 265.9 +/- 58.3 ng/min/mg tissue (p less than .01). Similarly, norepinephrine at 10(-5) M enhanced the release of tonin from a basal rate of 4.4 +/- 0.6 to 57 +/- 14.4 ng/min/mg tissue (p less than .05), and at 10(-4) M the rate increased to 91.3 +/- 20.0 ng/min/mg tissue (p less than .01). In contrast, isoproterenol, methacholine, and cholecystokinin did not increase the secretion of kallikrein or tonin. We conclude that the secretion of kallikrein and tonin from rat submandibular glands upon sympathetic stimulation is mediated through stimulation of alpha-adrenoceptors only.

    Title Effect of Sodium Restriction and Corticosteroids on Glandular Kallikrein in Plasma and in the Submandibular Gland.
    Date March 1987
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Excerpt

    We investigated whether sodium restriction or mineralocorticoid influence the release of submandibular kallikrein into the blood and/or the concentration of kallikrein in glandular tissue. For this we measured submandibular gland blood flow, arterial and submandibular gland venous kallikrein, and kallikrein in glandular homogenates of male Sprague-Dawley rats after one week of either low sodium or deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) treatment. We also studied the effect of dexamethasone on the concentration of kallikrein in gland tissue and peripheral plasma. Kallikrein in plasma and in homogenates was measured by radioimmunoassay. Blood flow was determined by timed collections of venous outflow. Kallikrein release was calculated as the arteriovenous difference in kallikrein times the rate of submandibular gland plasma flow. The concentration of kallikrein in arterial plasma, the basal submandibular kallikrein release into blood, and the concentration of kallikrein in submandibular gland tissue were all higher during low sodium than during normal sodium intake (20.1 +/- 3.6 ng/ml vs 10.7 +/- 0.5, p less than 0.05; 0.40 +/- 0.09 ng/min/100 g bw vs 0.18 +/- 0.02, p less than 0.05, and 81.6 +/- 5.5 micrograms/mg protein vs 65.1 +/- 4.0, p less than 0.05, respectively). In contrast, DOCA treatment did not affect the concentration of kallikrein in arterial plasma, the basal release of kallikrein from the submandibular gland into blood, or the concentration of kallikrein in the gland. Dexamethasone in doses that did not affect the normal growth of the animals had no significant effect on the concentration of kallikrein either in submandibular gland tissue or in peripheral plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Effect of Dl-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic Acid on the Blood Pressure Response to Vasoactive Substances.
    Date May 1986
    Journal The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
    Excerpt

    The importance of kininase I (carboxypeptidase N) in the catabolism of circulating kinins is not known. DL-2-Mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid (MGTA) has been reported to be an inhibitor of kininase I both in vitro and in vivo. In order to evaluate the possible role of kininase I in the in vivo inactivation of bradykinin, the authors studied the blood pressure responses of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats to bradykinin before and after the i.v. administration of MGTA (a 10-mg/kg bolus followed by 1 mg/kg/min continuous infusion). MGTA potentiated bradykinin-induced hypotension. The specificity of MGTA for kininase I was tested using other peptide and nonpeptide vasoactive substances. MGTA potentiated the hypertension due to angiotensin I, angiotensin II and vasopressin, but it did not affect the response to phenylephrine. On the other hand, MGTA did not potentiate the hypotensive action of acetylcholine, but it did potentiate that of sodium nitroprusside. The potentiation of bradykinin-induced hypotension is compatible with inhibition of kininase I by MGTA. The data suggest, however, that MGTA is not selective for any enzyme that inactivates kinins, inasmuch as other peptides and nonpeptide vasoactive substances are also potentiated.

    Title Role of Calcium and Calmodulin in Release of Kallikrein and Tonin from Rat Submandibular Gland.
    Date April 1986
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    We investigated the role of calcium and calmodulin as intracellular mediators of kallikrein and tonin release induced by norepinephrine (NE). We studied the secretion rate of kallikrein and tonin from submandibular gland of rat in response to NE in the presence or absence of calcium, two calcium blockers, and four different calmodulin antagonists. Submandibular gland slices were incubated in vitro, and glandular kallikrein and tonin secreted into the incubation medium were determined by direct radioimmunoassays and expressed as nanograms per minute per milligram tissue. NE (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) increased the kallikrein secretion from the control value of 8.2 +/- 2.6 to 134.9 +/- 41.4 (P less than 0.05) and to 191.2 +/- 62.7 (P less than 0.05), and the release of tonin from a basal rate of 3.5 +/- 0.6 to 51.5 +/- 9.1 (P less than 0.05) and to 64.4 +/- 13.7 (P less than 0.05). The deletion of calcium and addition of EGTA into the incubation medium significantly attenuated the secretion of kallikrein and tonin induced by NE. Nifedipine, at concentrations which inhibit voltage-dependent calcium channels, did not affect the release of kallikrein and tonin, and only a high concentration (10(-4) M) reduced the release. TMB-8, a blocker of intracellular calcium, had no effect either. Phenothiazines, triflupromazine (10(-6) M) and trifluoperazine (10(-4) M), decreased significantly the kallikrein release elicited by 10(-5) M NE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Effect of Urinary Alkalinization on the Intrarenal Formation of Kinins.
    Date January 1986
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    Alterations in the urinary excretion rate of kallikrein (UKKV) have frequently been assumed to reflect alterations in the intrarenal generation of kinins. Since other factors such as urinary pH and the activity of renal kininases may affect the intrarenal concentration of kinins, we investigated the effect of urinary alkalinization on kinin excretion in the presence and absence of kininase II inhibition. Urine was collected from the ureters of rats during control (ctl) (0.15 M NaCl infusion) and experimental (exp) periods. During exp periods, group I (time control) was infused with 0.15 M NaCl, group II with 0.3 M NaCl, and groups III and IV with 0.3 M NaHCO3, all at 0.12 ml/min. Prior to the ctl period, group IV was pretreated with the kininase II inhibitor captopril (40 mg/kg). During the exp period, urinary kinin excretion (UKiV) increased significantly in all groups ([exp - ctl] UKiV = 21 +/- 7, 27 +/- 9, 52 +/- 14, and 70 +/- 9 pg X min-1 X kg-1 in groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively). Urinary pH increased significantly in groups II, III, and IV. The increases in UKiV and pH were significantly greater in the bicarbonate-infused rats than in control. Partial correlation coefficients show that UKiV correlates with a high degree of significance only with urinary pH (r = 0.6). During the ctl period, UKiV in the captopril-pretreated rats was not different from that in other groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Possible Role of Adenosine in the Macula Densa Mechanism of Renin Release in Rabbits.
    Date November 1985
    Journal The Journal of Clinical Investigation
    Excerpt

    This study was designed to examine: (a) the effects of adenosine and its analogues on renin release in the absence of tubules, glomeruli, and macula densa, and (b) whether adenosine may be involved in a macula densa-mediated renin release mechanism. Rabbit afferent arterioles (Af) alone and afferent arterioles with macula densa attached (Af + MD) were microdissected and incubated for two consecutive 30-min periods. Hourly renin release rate from a single arteriole (or an arteriole with macula densa) was calculated and expressed as ng AI X h-1 X Af-1 (or Af + MD-1)/h (where AI is angiotensin I). Basal renin release rate from Af was 0.69 +/- 0.09 ng AI X h-1 X Af-1/h (means +/- SEM, n = 16) and remained stable for 60 min. Basal renin release rate from Af + MD was 0.20 +/- 0.04 ng AI X h-1 X Af + MD-1/h (n = 6), which was significantly lower (P less than 0.0025) than that from Af. When adenosine (0.1 microM) was added to Af, renin release decreased from 0.72 +/- 0.16 to 0.24 +/- 0.04 ng AI X h-1 X Af-1/h (P less than 0.025; n = 9). However, when adenosine was added to Af + MD, no significant change in renin release was observed. N6-cyclohexyl adenosine (an A1 adenosine receptor agonist) at 0.1 microM decreased renin release from Af from 0.69 +/- 0.14 to 0.39 +/- 0.12 ng AI X h-1 X Af-1/h (n = 5, P less than 0.05). However, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (an A2 adenosine receptor agonist) either at 0.1 microM or at 10 microM had no effect. Theophylline, at a concentration (10 microM) that does not block phosphodiesterase but does block adenosine receptors, increased renin release from Af + MD from 0.21 +/- 0.03 to 0.46 +/- 0.08 ng AI X h-1 X Af + MD-1/h (P less than 0.05; n = 8). The results are consistent with the hypotheses that adenosine decreases renin release via the activation of A1 adenosine receptors, and that adenosine may be an inhibitory signal from the macula densa to juxtaglomerular cells.

    Title Effects of Synthetic Atrial Natriuretic Factor in the Isolated Perfused Rat Kidney.
    Date November 1985
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    It is known that atrial extracts (AE) and synthetic atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) can increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and electrolyte and water excretion both in vivo and in vitro. It is not clear, however, if ANF-induced increases in filtered load (increased GFR) are required to produce natriuresis and diuresis. We perfused isolated rat kidneys with AE or synthetic ANF at constant pressure in a single-pass system. Extracts of atrial tissue (1 mg/ml) and high concentrations of ANF (31 and 61 ng/ml) significantly increased both GFR and electrolyte and water excretion. During continued infusion of ANF, GFR stabilized at increased levels, but sodium and water excretion continued to increase. After the termination of infusions, GFR and potassium excretion returned to control levels, but sodium and water excretion remained significantly elevated. Infusion of a low concentration of ANF (3 ng/ml) significantly increased sodium and water excretion without changing either GFR or potassium excretion. We conclude that increases in GFR are not a prerequisite for natriuresis and diuresis in response to ANF, but that increases in GFR can potentiate the response. Furthermore, our data suggest that ANF increases potassium excretion only if it increases GFR.

    Title Renin Release from Isolated Afferent Arterioles.
    Date September 1985
    Journal Kidney International
    Excerpt

    A new in vitro system was developed in which renin release was studied in the absence of tubules, glomeruli, and macula densa. Rabbit afferent arterioles were isolated by microdissection and incubated in medium 199 for consecutive 15-min periods. Renin concentration of incubation media and arteriolar tissue was measured using partially purified rabbit angiotensinogen. Basal renin release rate was 0.68 +/- 0.06 ng of angiotensin I (AI) X hr-1 X arteriole-1/hr incubation of arterioles (x +/- SEM, N = 29), and remained stable for 60 min. The renin release rate was 2.76 +/- 0.22% of arteriolar renin content each hour, and there was a significant correlation between the two (r = 0.73, P less than 0.01). Renin release increased from 0.56 +/- 0.07 to 1.71 +/- 0.17 ngAI X hr-1 X arteriole-1/hr (P less than 0.01, N = 6) during exposure to isoproterenol (8.1 X 10(-5) M) and returned to basal values during the recovery period. Dietary sodium depletion resulted in a significantly greater arteriolar renin content (86.1 +/- 17.5 ngAI X hr-1/arteriole) compared with that from rabbits on a normal sodium diet (26.8 +/- 2.51 ngAI X hr-1/arteriole). However, sodium depletion did not alter the basal renin release rate suggesting that sodium depletion increased renin content in a storage pool rather than a pool contributing to basal release. It is concluded that the isolated afferent arteriole is a good model for the study of renin release in the absence of tubules, glomeruli, and macula densa.

    Title Clearance and Metabolism of Glandular Kallikrein in the Rat.
    Date July 1985
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    This study was undertaken to characterize the clearance of circulating rat glandular kallikrein and to determine the contribution of various organs and the urinary excretion to the removal of glandular kallikrein from the bloodstream. We injected either active 125I-kallikrein or kallikrein inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (125I-PMSF-kallikrein) intravenously into intact or nephrectomized rats and then studied the disappearance rate of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable radioactivity from the circulation. Inactivation by PMSF markedly reduced the binding of kallikrein to plasma protease inhibitors. The removal rate of the acid-precipitable radioactivity fit a biexponential curve for both active and inactive kallikrein. In the intact rats approximately 50% of the radioactivity was removed from the circulation 30 min after the injection of active 125I-kallikrein. Removal of the kidneys did not significantly affect the clearance of active kallikrein. On the other hand, inactive 125I-PMSF-kallikrein was removed from blood faster than active 125I-kallikrein in normal animals. Approximately 50% of the radioactivity was removed from the circulation 8 min after the injection, and the half-life of inactive 125I-PMSF-kallikrein was markedly prolonged by bilateral nephrectomy. Active 125I-kallikrein was taken up by tissues, particularly the liver and the kidney. In urine, less than 2% of the radioactivity was excreted in 60 min as TCA-precipitable material. We concluded that glandular kallikrein is cleared rapidly from the circulation of the rat, probably in the form of a complex with a plasma protease inhibitor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Lack of Evidence for the Participation of Tonin in the Pathogenesis of One-kidney, One-clip Renovascular Hypertension.
    Date December 1984
    Journal Circulation Research
    Excerpt

    It has been reported that immunization against tonin normalizes blood pressure, and that sialoadenectomy, during which the tonin-rich salivary glands are removed, decreases blood pressure in one-kidney, one-clip hypertension. To investigate the role of tonin on this form of hypertension further, we actively immunized one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rabbits with tonin and measured both the blood pressure response and the titer of antibodies raised against tonin. In addition, because sialoadenectomy may alter food intake, we assessed the effect of sialoadenectomy on the blood pressure of one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats fed a liquid diet to facilitate eating. After immunization, all rabbits developed antitonin-antibody titers ranging from 1:300 to 1:56,000. However, in none of the rabbits did the blood pressure decrease significantly (114 +/- 3 mm Hg before immunization; 129 +/- 6 mm Hg at 16 weeks after immunization). In one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats, sialoadenectomy did not lower blood pressure (179 +/- 5 mm Hg before sialoadenectomy; 202 +/- 9 mm Hg 3 weeks after sialoadenectomy). Neither blood pressure nor body weight differed between sialoadenectomy and sham-sialoadenectomy one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats (n = 6). In conclusion, neither active immunization against tonin in one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rabbits nor sialoadenectomy in one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats significantly reduced established hypertension. These results do not support the hypothesis that tonin is involved in the pathogenesis of one-kidney, one-clip hypertension in these animal models.

    Title A Role of Glandular Kallikreins in Blood Pressure Regulation.
    Date April 1984
    Journal Acta Medica Scandinavica. Supplementum
    Title Immunoreactive Glandular Kallikrein in Plasma During Alterations of Urinary Kallikrein Excretion.
    Date February 1984
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    To determine whether maneuvers known to modify immunoreactive urinary kallikrein excretion (iUKK) also alter the concentration of immunoreactive glandular kallikrein (iGKK) in plasma, we measured iGKK in the plasma and urine of rats before, at 1 week, and at 3 weeks after induction of two-kidney, one clip hypertension, low sodium intake, and DOCA-salt hypertension. Glandular kallikrein in plasma and urine was measured by radioimmunoassay. Clipping of a renal artery decreased iUKK from 11.7 +/- 0.5 microgram/24 hr/100 g body weight (BW) to 7.8 +/- 0.5 and 8.2 +/- 0.5 at 1 and 3 weeks after surgery without significantly changing iGKK in plasma. The level of iGKK in the plasma did not correlate significantly with iUKK in the clipped group. Low sodium intake significantly increased iUKK, which rose from 6.6 +/- 0.3 microgram/24 hr/100 g BW to 9.6 +/- 0.5 and 13.9 +/- 0.7 after 1 and 3 weeks. In addition, low sodium intake appeared to increase iGKK in plasma, and a significant positive correlation was observed between iUKK and iGKK in plasma in the group on low sodium diet (r = 0.65, p less than 0.01). DOCA-salt treatment increased iUKK significantly from 10.4 +/- 0.6 microgram/24 hr/100 g BW to 17.1 +/- 1.4 and 22.6 +/- 2.3 at 1 and 3 weeks after. The iGKK in plasma increased from 13.8 +/- 0.5 to 15.4 +/- 0.7 ng/ml (p less than 0.05) at 1 week after the DOCA-salt treatment began, but it returned to pretreatment levels 3 weeks later (14.5 +/- 0.7 ng/ml, n.s.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Interference of Converting Enzyme Inhibitors with the Kallikrein-kinin System.
    Date January 1984
    Journal Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. Part A, Theory and Practice
    Excerpt

    The unstimulated rat submandibular gland releases kallikrein into the circulation. This release is greatly increased by sympathetic nervous stimulation of the gland. We studied the effect of an angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (captopril) on blood flow of the unstimulated submandibular gland, and the effect of the ACE inhibitor on blood kinins and blood pressure of rats with prior sympathetic stimulation of the gland. To minimize the effects mediated by inhibition of angiotensin II formation, all rats were nephrectomized 48 hours before the studies. Administration of the ACE inhibitor caused a 2.4-fold increase in the blood flow of the unstimulated gland (p less than 0.001). Pretreatment with kinin antibodies diminished this increase by 86% (p less than 0.001). After sympathetic stimulation, blood flow to the gland increased five times, and kinin output in the venous effluent increased from 19 +/- 13 to 14,400 +/- 8,800 pg/min (p less than 0.001). Despite this conspicuous increase, arterial blood kinins did not change. Administration of the ACE inhibitor after stimulation of the gland resulted in a 10-fold increase in arterial blood kinins and in a pronounced decrease in blood pressure from 100 +/- 5 to 58 +/- 6 mmHg. This decrease was almost completely blocked by antibodies to either kallikrein or kinin. We concluded that the glandular kallikrein-kinin system may participate in the regulation of local blood flow in organs rich in glandular kallikrein such as the rat submandibular gland.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Title Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Release of Rat Submandibular Gland Kallikrein into the Circulation.
    Date August 1983
    Journal Circulation Research
    Excerpt

    We have previously demonstrated that the rat submandibular gland releases immunoreactive kallikrein into the circulation. To study the role of the autonomic nervous system in this release, submandibular gland blood flow and kallikrein concentration in peripheral arterial and venous blood from the gland were measured and secretion rates calculated before and after parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve stimulation (8V, 2 msec, 10 Hz) for 1 minute. Immunoreactive kallikrein in plasma was measured by radioimmunoassay, and timed collections of venous outflow were used to measure blood flow. During basal conditions, the unstimulated submandibular gland of the rat released immunoreactive kallikrein into blood at the rate of 0.92 +/- 0.07 ng/min. Parasympathetic stimulation increased blood flow 4-fold (before, 68.5 +/- 8.3 microliters/min; after, 253.5 +/- 76.2; P less than 0.05) without significantly changing immunoreactive kallikrein secretion rate. Sympathetic stimulation produced an 11-fold increase in blood flow (before, 64.9 +/- 9.3 microliters/min; after, 709.6 +/- 97.5; P less than 0.05) and a 57-fold increase in immunoreactive kallikrein secretion rate from the gland (before, 1.05 +/- 0.25 ng/min; after, 59.8 +/- 18.6; P less than 0.05). Sympathetic stimulation also produced a 4-fold increase in the concentration of immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in arterial plasma (before, 15.2 +/- 1.1 ng/ml; after, 56.2 +/- 12.9; P less than 0.05). Pretreatment with phentolamine (1 mg/kg) or prazosin (0.2 mg/kg) blocked the increase in kallikrein secretion rate produced by sympathetic stimulation. These results indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, through activation of alpha 1-adrenoreceptors, controls kallikrein secretion from the submandibular gland into the circulation. Released kallikrein may be responsible for the reactive vasodilation observed in the rat submandibular gland after sympathetic stimulation.

    Title Blood and Urinary Kinins in Human Subjects During Normal and Low Sodium Intake.
    Date July 1983
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Title Renal Kallikrein in Venous Effluent of Filtering and Non-filtering Isolated Kidneys.
    Date July 1983
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Title Blood Kinins After Sympathetic Nerve Stimulation of the Rat Submandibular Gland.
    Date April 1983
    Journal Hypertension
    Title Immunohistochemical Localization of Tonin and Its Relation to Kallikrein in Rat Salivary Glands.
    Date January 1983
    Journal The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
    Excerpt

    Tonin and kallikrein are serine proteases present in high concentrations in the submandibular gland of the rat. These enzymes release the vasoactive peptides angiotensin II and lysyl-bradykinin from the precursors angiotensinogen and kininogen, respectively. Tonin and kallikrein were purified from homogenates of rat submandibular gland, and antisera against each protein were raised in rabbits. The anti-kallikrein antibody also reacted with tonin, showing partial cross-reactivity between kallikrein and tonin when tested by double immunodiffusion and by immunoelectrophoresis. The anti-tonin antibody did not appear to react with kallikrein in immunodiffusion systems. The cellular localization of tonin was investigated by the indirect immunofluorescence and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase techniques. In the granular tubular cells tonin-specific staining was abundantly present with a granular distribution; in the striated duct cells tonin-specific staining was observed as a thin luminal rim. Tonin was not detected in any other structures of the gland. When the localization of tonin was compared with that of kallikrein, both enzymes were found within the same granular tubular cells. However, more kallikrein than tonin was detected in the striated duct cells. Furthermore, kallikrein but not tonin was found in the ductal cells of the parotid and sublingual glands.

    Title Role of Kallikrein in the Hypertensive Effect of Captopril After Sympathetic Stimulation of the Rat Submandibular Gland.
    Date December 1982
    Journal Circulation Research
    Title Immunoreactive Glandular Kallikrein in Rat Plasma: a Radioimmunoassay for Its Determination.
    Date May 1982
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Excerpt

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed to measure immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma. To prevent the binding of radioactive kallikrein to plasma inhibitors, 125I-kallikrein was inactivated with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a procedure that maintained 125I-kallikrein immunoreactivity. Different volumes of plasma displaced 125I-PMSF-kallikrein in a parallel fashion to the kallikrein standard curve. The sensitivity of the RIA was 200 pg, and the recovery of nonradioactive active kallikrein added to plasma was 58.7%. The concentration of immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in normal rat plasma averaged 47.1 +/- 1.7 (SE) ng/ml. Bilateral nephrectomy caused a threefold increase in circulating glandular kallikrein (50 +/- 2.7 to 167 +/- 7 ng/ml; P less than 0.001). REmoval of the submandibular and sublingual glands significantly decreased its concentration from 52 +/- 2.3 to 34 +/- 1.6 ng/ml (P less than 0.001). Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein was higher in the submandibular gland vein than in arterial blood (venous: 94 +/- 10.5; arterial: 64 +/- 6.3 ng/ml; P less than 0.05) and was lower in the renal venous blood (venous: 44 +/- 2.2; arterial: 53 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; P less than 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the use of 125I-PMSF-kallikrein as tracer prevents the interference in the RIA caused by plasma protease inhibitors. It also indicates that the submandibular gland is an important source of the immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma and that the kidney probably participates in its metabolism. Glandular kallikrein released by the submandibular gland into the circulation may participate in regulating local blood flow before it is inactivated by plasma inhibitors.

    Title Evidence Against a Role of Vasopressin in the Maintenance of High Blood Pressure in Mineralocorticoid and Renovascular Hypertension.
    Date May 1981
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    To determine the role of vasopressin in the maintenance of high blood pressure, the antihypertensive effect of the antagonists of the vasopressor effect of vasopressin, [1-deaminopenicillamine, 4-valine, 8-D-arginine] vasopressin (dPVDAVP), and [1-(beta-mercapto-beta, beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionic acid), 4-valine, 8-D-arginine] vasopressin (cyclo dVDAVP), was studied in unanesthetized, nonsurgically stressed rats with adrenal regeneration hypertension, malignant DOCA-salt hypertension, and malignant two-kidney, one clip Goldblatt hypertension. The doses of vasopressin antagonist used blocked the blood pressure (BP) response to vasopressin almost completely, with no changes in the pressor response to norepinephrine and angiotensin II. Administration of the vasopressin antagonists did not induce significant changes in the mean BP in any of the three experimental groups studied. It is suggested that in unanesthetized, nonsurgically stressed rats with adrenal regeneration hypertension, malignant DOCA-salt hypertension, and malignant two-kidney, one clip Goldblatt hypertension, vasopressin does not have a role in the maintenance of high BP.

    Title Glandular Kallikrein in Plasma and Urine: Evaluation of a Direct Ria for Its Determination.
    Date December 1979
    Journal Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
    Excerpt

    To determine whether there is glandular kallikrein in plasma, untreated as well as acetone-treated and heated-acidified rat plasmas together with rabbit anti-rat urinary kallikrein were used in counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Precipitation bands were observed with untreated and acetone-treated plasma, suggesting that glandular kallikrein is present in plasma. This enzyme, however, cannot be quantified in the untreated plasma by a new direct RIA since kallikrein inhibitors present in plasma appear to interfere with this assay. Destroying the inhibitors by acetone treatment or by heat and acidification of the plasma partially solves this problem. In the second part of the study, this RIA as well as a kininogenase and an esterase assay were used to measure urinary kallikrein in DOCA-salt treated rats and in control rats. There is a significant correlation between urinary kallikrein measured by the direct RIA and by a kininogenase method (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in both DOCA-salt treated and in the control rats. Although the results obtained by the direct RIA and an esterase method significantly correlate in the control rats (r = -0.048, p greater than 0.1). This suggests that part of the urinary esterase activity in the Doca-salt rats is due to urinary enzymes other than kallikrein and that the esterase assay is not reliable for the determination of urinary kallikrein in pathological situations. However, the direct RIA and the kininogenase assay are suitable for this purpose.

    Title Relation Between Structure and Correcting Activity of Bovine High Molecular Weight Kininogen Upon the Clotting Time of Fitzgerald-trait Plasma.
    Date June 1979
    Journal The Journal of Experimental Medicine
    Excerpt

    Bovine high molecular weight kininogen (bHMWK) partially corrects the activated plasma thromboplastin time (aPTT) of Fitzgerald trait plasma which is congenitally deficient in HMWK. The relationship between the structure and activity of HMWK was clarified by studying the effects of different fragments of bHMWK on the aPTT of Fitzgerald-trait plasma. The peptides studied were lys-bradykinin-free HMWK, bradykinin-fragment 1-2-free HMWK, heavy chain, fragment 1-2-light chain, and light chain. All fragments were tested in equimolar concentrations. Bradykinin-fragment 1-2-free HMWK, heavy chain, and light chain have little or no correcting activity upon Fitzgerald-trait plasma aPTr. Fragment 1-2 light chain has the same correcting activity as intact bHMWK, while that of lys-bradykinin-free HMWK appears to be higher. Both fragment 1-2 and fragment 2 inhibit the clotting time of normal human plasma. When compared on a molar basis, fragment 2 is a more active inhibitor than fragment 1-2. When the effects of bovine plasma kallikrein upon bHMWK and hHMWK were studied, it was found that it released kinins from both kininogens. However, while the correcting activity of bHMWK was completely destroyed after 60 min of incubation, that of hHMWK was fully retained. These data suggest that: (a) the active part of bHMWK is comprised of the fragment 1-2 light chain portion; (b) fragment 1-2 or fragment 2 is the binding site to negatively charged surfaces, while the light chain interacts with other components of the surface-mediated reactions; and (c) bovine plasma kallikrein releases kinins, but probably does not cause the release of fragment 1-2 from human HMWK.

    Title Effects of Propranolol on the Development of Renovascular Hypertension in the Rat.
    Date July 1977
    Journal American Heart Journal
    Title Effect of Bovine High Molecular Weight Kininogen and Its Fragments on Fitzgerald Trait Plasma.
    Date October 1976
    Journal Thrombosis Research
    Title Effect of Chronic Sodium Depletion in Dogs with Denervated Kidneys and Hearts.
    Date March 1975
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology
    Title Plasma Renin and Blood Pressure After Sympathetic Stimulation in Normotensive and Hypertensive Patients.
    Date June 1972
    Journal The American Journal of Cardiology
    Title Upregulated Expression of Rat Heart Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Angiotensin Ii- but Not Phenylephrine- Induced Hypertension.
    Date
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    -Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), part of an immunoglobulin-like superfamily of adhesion molecules, is involved in several cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether in vivo angiotensin II (Ang II) increases ICAM-1 in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with vehicle or Ang II (750 µg. kg(-1). d(-1) SC) for 7 days. The contribution of Ang II receptors to ICAM-1 expression was investigated with a nonpeptide Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist losartan (30 mg. kg(-1). d(-1) in drinking water). Systolic blood pressure was elevated in Ang II-treated animals compared with sham-treated controls, and losartan blocked this increase. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (5 µg/kg IP bolus), a prototype inducer of ICAM-1, was administered as a positive control for ICAM-1 expression. After treatment, hearts were frozen in liquid nitrogen; homogenates were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with an anti-rat ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. We detected a predominantly high-molecular-weight band in homogenates from non-TNF-alpha-treated rats, which was enhanced by 80+/-5% in TNF-alpha-treated rats. This band measured approximately 200 kDa, which is the molecular weight of ICAM-1 in its native dimer form. The same band was detected in homogenates from sham and Ang II-treated rats, with the latter showing a 150+/-10% increase in ICAM-1 versus sham controls. Immunoprecipitation of rat heart homogenates with anti-rat ICAM-1 antibody resulted in a dominant band of the same molecular weight as samples not treated with antibody. Losartan prevented enhanced expression of ICAM-1 in the presence of Ang II but had no effect on basal ICAM-1 expression. Phenylephrine, an alpha-agonist (3 mg. kg(-1). d(-1) ), was infused for 1 week but had no effect on ICAM-1 expression, even though systolic blood pressure was elevated to the same level as in rats treated with Ang II. Thus, heart ICAM-1 expression is enhanced via AT(1) receptor activation independent of hypertension. Ang II-induced ICAM-1 expression was time and dose dependent, with maximal expression occurring within 5 to 7 days at 100 to 750 µg/kg Ang II. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated markedly increased ICAM-1 levels in the perivascular area in Ang II-infused rats. Monocyte/macrophage accumulation was significantly greater in Ang II-treated rat hearts than in sham-treated hearts (10+/-1; P:<0.001; n=5). Thus during inflammation, overexpression of ICAM-1 may contribute to cardiovascular damage in diseases characterized by increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Title Effect of Chronic Blockade of the Kallikrein-kinin System on the Development of Hypertension in Rats.
    Date
    Journal Hypertension
    Excerpt

    -The kallikrein-kininogen-kinin system is an important vasodilator and vasodepressor component of the cardiovascular system. Acting mainly through B(2) receptors, kinins may counterbalance the pressor effect of angiotensin II, salt, and mineralocorticoids plus salt. Using rats lacking the bradykinin precursors low- and high-molecular-weight kininogen or a B(2) kinin receptor antagonist (icatibant), we investigated whether absence or blockade of the kallikrein-kinin system alters blood pressure (BP) in rats given (1) chronic infusion of Ang II, (2) a normal or high salt diet, or (3) chronic administration of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) plus salt. We confirmed the genotype and phenotype of Brown Norway Katholiek rats (BNK) and found that they had a G-to-A point mutation on the kininogen gene compared with Brown Norway (BN) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, very low levels of high-molecular-weight kininogen (17+/-3 ng/mL) compared with BN and SD (1814+/-253 and 2397+/-302 ng/mL, respectively; P:<0.01), and plasma low-molecular-weight kininogen concentrations below detectable limits compared with 1773+/-74 and 1781+/-140 ng/mL for BN and SD, respectively. Basal BP was the same in BNK and BN. Chronic infusion of icatibant did not alter BP in BN or Wistar rats. At doses that blocked the acute effect of bradykinin, icatibant did not potentiate the pressor effect of a chronic subpressor or pressor dose of angiotensin II in male and female Wistar rats nor that of a high salt diet (2%) plus unilateral nephrectomy in male Wistar rats. Moreover, blockade of the kallikrein-kininogen-kinin system in either BN rats given a very high dose of icatibant or kinin-deficient rats (BNK) did not potentiate the pressor effect of angiotensin II (nonpressor dose) or a high salt (3% NaCl) diet given for 2 weeks. Established DOCA-salt hypertension was not exaggerated in rats treated with icatibant but was partially attenuated by ramipril (1.5 mg. kg(-)(1). d(-)(1) for 7 days; P:<0.002). This antihypertensive effect was abolished by icatibant (P:<0.002, ramipril versus ramipril plus icatibant). These results suggest that endogenous kinins do not participate in the maintenance of normal blood pressure or antagonize the development of hypertension induced by chronic infusion of angiotensin II, a high salt diet, or DOCA-salt. However, kinins appear to play an important role in the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in DOCA-salt hypertension.

    Title Renal Protective Effects of N-acetyl-ser-asp-lys-pro in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-salt Hypertensive Mice.
    Date
    Journal Journal of Hypertension
    Excerpt

    Hypertension-induced renal injury is characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and proteinuria. Previous studies have demonstrated that N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (Ac-SDKP) inhibits renal damage following diabetes mellitus and antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis. However, its effects on low-renin hypertensive nephropathy are not known. Thus, we hypothesized that Ac-SDKP has renal protective effects on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice, decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration, matrix deposition and albuminuria.

    Title Heme Oxygenase Metabolites Inhibit Tubuloglomerular Feedback In Vivo.
    Date
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
    Excerpt

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is a renal autoregulatory mechanism that constricts the afferent arteriole in response to increases in distal NaCl. Heme oxygenases (HO-1 and HO-2) release carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, which may help control renal function. We showed in vitro that HO products inhibit TGF; however, we do not know whether this also occurs in vivo or the mechanism(s) involved. We hypothesized that in vivo HO-1 and HO-2 in the nephron inhibit TGF via release of CO and biliverdin. First we performed laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by realtime PCR and found that both HO-1 and HO-2 are expressed in the macula densa. We next performed micropuncture experiments in vivo on individual rat nephrons, adding different compounds to the perfusate, and found that an HO inhibitor, SnMP, potentiated TGF (P < 0.05, SnMP vs. control). The CO-releasing molecule CORM-3 partially inhibited TGF at 50 μmol/L (P < 0.01, CORM-3 vs. control) and blocked it completely at higher doses. A soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, LY83583, blocked the inhibitory effect of CORM-3 on TGF. Biliverdin also partially inhibited TGF (P < 0.01, biliverdin vs. control), most likely due to decreased superoxide (O(2)(-)) since biliverdin was rendered ineffective by tempol, a O(2)(-) dismutase mimetic. We concluded that HO-1 and HO-2 in the nephron inhibit TGF by releasing CO and biliverdin. The inhibitory effect of CO on TGF is mediated by the sGC/cGMP signaling pathway, while biliverdin probably acts by reducing O(2)(-).

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