Browse Health
Neurologist (brain, nervous system)
26 years of experience
Accepting new patients

Education ?

Medical School
Aristotle University Of Thessaloniki (1984)
Foreign school

Awards & Distinctions ?

Castle Connolly's Top Doctors™ (2013)
American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology

Affiliations ?

Dr. Mitsias is affiliated with 4 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations



  • Henry Ford Wyandotte Hospital
    2333 Biddle Ave, Wyandotte, MI 48192
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Henry Ford Macomb Hospitals
    15855 19 Mile Rd, Clinton Township, MI 48038
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Henry Ford Hospital
    2799 W Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202
    • Currently 4 of 4 crosses
    Top 25%
  • Henry Ford Medical Center at Maplegrove
    6777 W Maple Rd, West Bloomfield, MI 48322
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Mitsias has contributed to 23 publications.
    Title Headache at Onset of Acute Cerebral Ischemia.
    Date October 2009
    Journal Headache
    Title Periictal Diffusion Abnormalities of the Thalamus in Partial Status Epilepticus.
    Date February 2009
    Journal Epilepsia

    To identify and describe thalamic dysfunction in patients with temporal as well as extratemporal status epilepticus (SE) and to also analyze the specific clinical, radiological, and electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics of patients with acute thalamic involvement.

    Title Longitudinal Myelitis, Aseptic Meningitis, and Conus Medullaris Infarction As Presenting Manifestations of Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
    Date September 2008
    Journal Lupus

    A healthy boy developed subacutely progressive quadriparesis, complicated by sudden paraplegia, fever, and meningeal signs, diagnosed as longitudinal myelitis, aseptic meningitis, and conus medullaris infarction and identified as the presenting manifestations of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Rapid expansion of the conus on serial neuroimaging led to emergent decompressive laminectomy and cord biopsy showing vasculitis and cord infarction. The patient had partial recovery after treatment with high-dose steroids. Increased vigilance is required when pediatric patients develop a similar subacute presentation on the ground of active systemic lupus erythematosus because it may herald the onset of a catastrophic neurological syndrome.

    Title Evaluation of the Stability of Blood Flow over Time in the Dominant Hemisphere: a Functional Transcranial Doppler Study.
    Date November 2007
    Journal Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

    Functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) has been used for the identification of cerebral hemispheric dominance in various cognitive tasks. In our study, we have used fTCD with the aim to compare blood flow patterns in the hemispheres not only during the task activation periods but also in the post-stimulus phase. Normal volunteers, 25 right and 25 left-handed, were included. Mean flow velocities (FVs) in the bilateral middle cerebral arteries were recorded during the performance of six cognitive tasks and during the intervals between tasks. The lateralization index (LI) was calculated separately for each test (LI1-6), on the basis of the percent change of blood FV from baseline. To estimate flow fluctuations, a novel index, the LI-variability, was also calculated using a formula constituted by the minimum and maximum mean values recorded at specific time intervals during the entire procedure. Laterization indices, LI-3 and LI-4, corresponding to word generation and reading aloud tasks, produced the highest degree of activation. A perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa=1.000, P<0.001) was observed among LI-3, LI-4, and LI-V. The repetition of recordings gave excellent test-retest reliability in 10 randomly selected participants. Our results suggest that the hemisphere that is characterized as dominant by fTCD maintains a more stable flow pattern during the performance of successive cognitive tasks. Although it could not be considered as a clinically useful tool as yet, this observation introduces a novel parameter such as the stability of blood flow over time, which could potentially provide insight in the study of cerebral functions.

    Title Intravenous Ganciclovir Consistently Induces Remission of Persistent Epstein-barr Encephalitis in an Hiv-1-infected Patient.
    Date August 2007
    Journal Aids (london, England)
    Title Orthostatic Tremor Due to Thiamine Deficiency.
    Date April 2007
    Journal Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
    Title Multiparametric Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis of Ischemic Lesions Using Pre- or Post-gd T1 Mri.
    Date April 2007
    Journal Cerebrovascular Diseases (basel, Switzerland)

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to evaluate effects of Gd-diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) injection on T(1)-weighted images of stroke and lesion segmentation and characterization results generated by our multiparametric iterative self-organizing data (ISODATA) method. The post-Gd image incorporates vasculature information into the analysis. METHODS: Either a pre-Gd T(1)-weighted image (T1WI) or a post-Gd T1WI was used along with diffusion-, T(2)- and proton-density-weighted images in the analysis. ISODATA is a data-driven method that segments and characterizes tissue damage in stroke using multiparametric MRI. RESULTS: Experimental results in both animal and human studies showed that the use of post-Gd T1WI modified the segmentation and characterization results on the periphery of the lesion. The peripheral region that changes with Gd-DTPA has a higher permeability compared to the rest of the lesion. Either of the data sets (including pre- or post-Gd T1WI) was used to estimate the tissue recovery and generated consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that our multiparametric ISODATA approach consistently identifies and characterizes the core of the ischemic lesion. It also shows that the inclusion of post-Gd T1WI results in the segmentation and characterization of the lesion periphery if it has a higher permeability compared to the rest of the lesion. Finally, it confirms that the multiparametric ISODATA MRI characterizes tissue damage and recovery in stroke.

    Title Non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Myelography in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension.
    Date October 2006
    Journal Cephalalgia : an International Journal of Headache
    Title Recovery in a Patient with Locked-in Syndrome.
    Date August 2006
    Journal The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. Le Journal Canadien Des Sciences Neurologiques

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sildenafil citrate has been shown to enhance neurogenesis, angiogenesis, synaptogenesis, and neurological outcome by augmentation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in animal models of ischemic stroke. Whether sildenafil citrate may be helpful for recovery in human stroke is unknown at this time. METHODS: A 41-year-old woman with locked-in syndrome due to pontine infarction began receiving 150 mg of oral sildenafil citrate daily on a compassionate use basis in August 2003 and continues treatment at this time. Magneto-encephalography (MEG) was performed at 12 and 17 months after stroke. RESULTS: No serious adverse events have occurred. Significant milestone recoveries including standing, use of both arms, talking, and full return of swallowing have occurred, particularly after nine months of treatment. The MEG showed a significantly increased amplitude in the somatosensory cortex. CONCLUSION: Daily use of high dose sildenafil citrate appears to be safe in this patient with stroke resulting in locked-in syndrome. Further studies will be required to establish safety and efficacy.

    Title Factors Determining Headache at Onset of Acute Ischemic Stroke.
    Date March 2006
    Journal Cephalalgia : an International Journal of Headache

    Headache is a frequent accompaniment of acute ischaemic stroke. The predisposing factors and underlying mechanisms are currently incompletely defined. We analysed prospectively collected data relevant to headache occurring at ischaemic stroke onset in consecutive patients included in the Henry Ford Hospital Stroke Data Bank. Patients with headache (HA+) and without headache (HA-) were compared for demographic factors, medical history, medications, examination findings, laboratory findings, and stroke localization and subtype. Group comparisons for categorical data were performed with chi(2) test, and for continuous variables with two-sample t-tests. Stepwise logistic regression analysis, including all variables with P<0.25, was used to define the independent predictors of onset headache. Three hundred and seventy-five patients had complete headache and clinical datasets and were included in the analysis (HA+, N=118; HA-, N=257). Multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictors of HA+ were: infarct in the distribution of the posterior circulation [P=0.0076, odds ratio (OR) 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23, 3.77], absence of history of hypertension (P=0.0106, OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27, 0.84), and treatment with warfarin at the time of the index stroke (P=0.0135, OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.39, 17.21). The occurrence of headache at onset of ischaemic stroke is determined by posterior circulation distribution of the ischaemic event, absence of history of hypertension and treatment with warfarin at the time of the index stroke. These results suggest that preserved elasticity and maintenance of the intracranial vasculature in a relaxed state, in combination with coagulation system derangements, and activation of dense perivascular afferent nerves, play a role in the pathogenesis of onset headache.

    Title Mri-guided, Open Trial of Abciximab for Ischemic Stroke Within a 3- to 24-hour Window.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Neurology

    The authors assessed the effect of IV abciximab on early neurologic improvement and ischemic lesion growth in 29 patients with supratentorial stroke and NIH stroke scale score (NIHSSS) > or = 4 (11.1 +/- 5.9), treated within 3 to 24 (13.6 +/- 5.5) hours of onset. The 48 to 72-hour NIHSSS improvement was 4.4 +/- 3.2 and the 24-hour lesion growth on DWI was +23% (-50%, +103%); 7/26 (27%) patients experienced lesion size decrease. Treatment of sub-24-hour stroke with abciximab improves early post-treatment neurologic status and often attenuates ischemic lesion growth.

    Title Predicting Final Infarct Size Using Acute and Subacute Multiparametric Mri Measurements in Patients with Ischemic Stroke.
    Date July 2005
    Journal Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging : Jmri

    PURPOSE: To identify early MRI characteristics of ischemic stroke that predict final infarct size three months poststroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiparametric MRI (multispin echo T2-weighted [T2W] imaging, T1-weighted [T1W] imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) was performed acutely (<24 hours), subacutely (three to five days), and at three months. MRI was processed using maps of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2, and a self-organizing data analysis (ISODATA) technique. Analyses began with testing for individual MRI parameter effects, followed by multivariable modeling with assessment of predictive ability (R(2)) on final infarct size. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients were studied, 15 of whom were treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) before acute MRI. The acute DWI and DWI-ISODATA mismatch lesion size, and the interactions of ADC, T2, and T2W imaging lesion with tPA remained in the final multivariable model (R(2) = 70%). A large acute DWI lesion or DWI < ISODATA lesion independently predicted increase in the final infract size, with predictive ability 68%. Predictive ability increased (R(2) = 83%) when subacute MRI parameters were included along with acute DWI, DWI-ISODATA mismatch, and acute T2W image lesion size by tPA treatment interaction. Subacute DWI > acute DWI lesion size predicted an increased final infarct size (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Acute-phase DWI and DWI-ISODATA mismatch strongly predict the final infarct size. An acute-to-subacute DWI lesion size change further increases the predictive ability of the model.

    Title Cortical Hyperexcitability in Migraine Patients Before and After Sodium Valproate Treatment.
    Date March 2005
    Journal Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society

    DC-magnetoencephalography (DC-MEG)waveforms arising during migraine aura were used to determine the effectiveness of prophylactic medication therapy on neuronal hyperexcitability. Nine patients were prescribed valproate (Depakote) for migraine prophylaxis. MEG scans were recorded during visual stimulation before commencing medication and again after 30 days of daily use of valproate. Cortical brain activity was recorded during stimulation with a black-and-white circular checkerboard pattern alternating at 8 Hz and were analyzed with MR-FOCUSS. Large-amplitude DC-MEG signals, imaged to extended areas of occipital cortex, were seen before therapy. After 30 days of prophylactic treatment, reduced DC-MEG shifts in the occipital cortex and reduced incidence of migraine attacks were observed. Using visual stimulation, the authors demonstrated the hyperexcitability of widespread regions throughout occipital cortex in migraine patients, explaining the susceptibility for triggering spreading cortical depression and migraine aura. This study confirms that MEG can noninvasively determine the status of neuronal excitability before and after therapy. This finding may be helpful in determining which prophylactic medications will be most effective in reducing hyperexcitability in particular patients.

    Title Multiparametric Iterative Self-organizing Mr Imaging Data Analysis Technique for Assessment of Tissue Viability in Acute Cerebral Ischemia.
    Date February 2005
    Journal Ajnr. American Journal of Neuroradiology

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Defining viability and the potential for recovery of ischemic brain tissue can be very valuable for patient selection for acute stroke therapies. Multiparametric MR imaging analysis of ischemic lesions indicates that the ischemic lesion is inhomogeneous in degree of ischemic injury and recovery potential. We sought to define MR imaging characteristics of ischemic lesions that are compatible with viable tissue. METHODS: We included patients with supratentorial ischemic stroke who underwent multiparametric MR imaging studies (axial multi-spin-echo T2-weighted imaging, T1-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging) at the acute (< 24 hours) and outcome (3 months) phases of stroke. Using the algorithm Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA), the lesion was segmented into clusters and each was assigned a number, called the tissue signature (white matter = 1, CSF = 12, all others between these two). Recovery was defined as at least a 20% size reduction from the acute phase ISODATA lesion volume to the outcome phase T2-weighted imaging lesion volume. The tissue signature data were collapsed into the following categories: < or = 3, 4, 5, and > or = 6. Logistic regression analysis included the following parameters: lesion volume, tissue signature value, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, relative ADC (rADC) expressed as a ratio, T2 value, and T2 ratio. The model with the largest goodness of fit value was selected. RESULTS: We included 48 patients (female-male ratio, 26:22; age, 64 [+/-14] years; 15 treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA] within 3 hours of onset; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 7 [range, 2-26]). Median symptom onset-to-MR imaging time interval was 9.5 hours. With ISODATA processing, we generated 200 region-of-interest tissue records (one to nine tissue records per patient). Regarding tissue recovery, we detected a three-way interaction among ADC, ISODATA tissue signature, and previous treatment with rt-PA (P = .003). In the group not treated with rt-PA, ischemic tissues with acute rADC greater than the median (0.79) and tissue signature < or = 4 were more likely to recover (80% vs. 31% and 13%, odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.12 [0.05, 0.30] and 0.04 [0.01, 0.18] for tissue signatures 5 and 6, respectively). CONCLUSION: ISODATA multiparametric MR imaging of acute stroke clearly shows inhomogeneity and different viability of the ischemic lesion. Ischemic tissues with lower acute phase ISODATA tissue signature values (< or = 4) and higher rADC values (> or = 0.79) are much more likely to recover than those with higher signature values or lower rADC values. The effect of these factors on tissue recovery, however, is dependent on whether preceding treatment with rt-PA had been performed. Our approach can be a valuable tool in the design of therapeutic stroke trials with an extended time window.

    Title Treatment of Acute Supratentorial Ischemic Stroke with Abciximab is Safe and May Result in Early Neurological Improvement. A Preliminary Report.
    Date November 2004
    Journal Cerebrovascular Diseases (basel, Switzerland)
    Title Mri Tissue Characterization of Experimental Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.
    Date July 2003
    Journal Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging : Jmri

    PURPOSE: To extend the ISODATA image segmentation method to characterize tissue damage in stroke, by generating an MRI score for each tissue that corresponds to its histological damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After preprocessing and segmentation (using ISODATA clustering), the proposed method scores tissue regions between 1 and 100. Score 1 is assigned to normal brain matter (white or gray matter), and score 100 to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Lesion zones are assigned a score based on their relative levels of similarities to normal brain matter and CSF. To evaluate the method, 15 rats were imaged by a 7T MRI system at one of three time points (acute, subacute, chronic) after MCA occlusion. Then they were killed and their brains were sliced and prepared for histological studies. MRI of two or three slices of each rat brain (using two DWI (b = 400, b = 800), one PDWI, one T2WI, and one T1WI) was performed, and an MRI score between 1 and 100 was determined for each region. Segmented regions were mapped onto the histology images and scored on a scale of 1-10 by an experienced pathologist. The MRI scores were validated by comparison with histology scores. To this end, correlation coefficients between the two scores (MRI and histology) were determined. RESULTS: Experimental results showed excellent correlations between MRI and histology scores at different time points. Depending on the reference tissue (gray matter or white matter) used in the standardization, the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 (P < 0.0001) to 0.78 (P < 0.0001) using the entire dataset, including acute, subacute, and chronic time points. This suggests that the proposed multiparametric approach accurately identified and characterized ischemic tissue in a rat model of cerebral ischemia at different stages of stroke evolution. CONCLUSION: The proposed approach scores tissue regions and characterizes them using unsupervised clustering and multiparametric image analysis techniques. The method can be used for a variety of applications in the field of computer-aided diagnosis and treatment, including evaluation of response to treatment. For example, volume changes for different zones of the lesion over time (e.g., tissue recovery) can be evaluated.

    Title Multiparametric Mri Isodata Ischemic Lesion Analysis: Correlation with the Clinical Neurological Deficit and Single-parameter Mri Techniques.
    Date January 2003
    Journal Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to show that the computer segmentation algorithm Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA), which integrates multiple MRI parameters (diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], T2-weighted imaging [T2WI], and T1-weighted imaging [T1WI]) into a single composite image, is capable of defining the ischemic lesion in a time-independent manner equally as well as the MRI techniques considered the best for each phase after stroke onset (ie, perfusion weighted imaging [PWI] and DWI for the acute phase and T2WI for the outcome phase). METHODS: We measured MRI parameters of PWI, DWI, T2WI, and T1WI from patients at the acute phase (<30 hours) and DWI, T2WI, and T1WI at the outcome phase (3 months) of ischemic stroke. The clinical neurological deficit was graded with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We compared the ISODATA lesion size with the PWI, DWI, and T2WI lesion sizes measured within the same slice at each phase. The lesion sizes were also correlated with NIHSS score of each phase. RESULTS: We included 11 patients; 9 (82%) were women, and 7 (64%) were black. The mean+/-SD age was 65.5+/-9.3 years (range, 45 to 82 years). The median NIHSS score was 15 (minimum, 4; maximum, 24)at the acute phase and 3 (minimum, 0; maximum, 22) at the outcome phase. The median time interval from stroke symptom onset to the acute MRI study was 10 hours (range, 6 to 29 hours), and the mean time interval to the outcome study was 93+/-11 days (range, 72 to 106 days). In the acute phase, the ISODATA lesion size had high correlation with the PWI lesion size (r=0.95; 95% CI, 0.89 to 0.98; P<0.0001), DWI lesion size (r=0.83; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.92; P<0.0001), and T2WI lesion size (r=0.67; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.84; P=0.008) and moderate correlation with NIHSS score (r=0.59; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.88; P=0.06). In the outcome phase, the ISODATA lesion size had high correlation with the T2WI lesion size (r=0.97; 95% CI, 0.94 to 0.99; P<0.0001) and NIHSS score (r=0.78; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.94; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The integrated ISODATA method can identify and characterize the ischemic lesion independently of time elapsed since stroke onset. The ISODATA lesion size highly correlates with the PWI and DWI lesion size in the acute phase and with the T2WI lesion size in the outcome phase of ischemic stroke, as well as with the clinical neurological status of the patient.

    Title Vertebrobasilar Territory Ischemia Due to Cervical Spondylosis.
    Date April 2002
    Journal Cerebrovascular Diseases (basel, Switzerland)
    Title Magnesium Sulfate Therapy After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
    Date March 2002
    Journal Journal of Neurosurgery

    OBJECT: Vasospasm remains a significant source of neurological morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), despite advances in current medical, surgical, and endovascular therapies. Magnesium sulfate therapy has been demonstrated to be both safe and effective in preventing neurological complications in obstetrical patients with eclampsia. Evidence obtained using experimental models of brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and SAH indicate that Mg may also have a role as a neuroprotective agent. The authors hypothesize that MgSO4 therapy is safe, feasible, and has a beneficial effect on vasospasm and, ultimately, on neurological outcome following aneurysmal SAH. METHODS: A prospective randomized single-blind clinical trial of high-dose MgSO4 therapy following aneurysmal SAH (Hunt and Hess Grades II-IV) was performed in 40 patients, who were enrolled within 72 hours following SAH and given intravenous MgSO4 or control solution for 10 days. Serum Mg++ levels were maintained in the 4 to 5.5 mg/dl range throughout the treatment period. Clinical management principles were the same between groups (including early use of surgery or endovascular treatment, followed by aggressive vasospasm prophylaxis and treatment). Daily transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonographic recordings were obtained, and clinical outcomes were measured using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). The patients' GOS scores and the TCD recordings were analyzed using the independent t-test. Forty patients were enrolled in the study: 20 (15 female and five male patients) received treatment and 20 (11 female and nine male patients) comprised a control group. The mean ages of the patients in these groups were 46 and 51, respectively, and the mean clinical Hunt and Hess grades were 2.6 +/- 0.68 in the MgSO4 treatment group and 2.3 +/- 0.73 in the control group (mean +/- standard deviation [SD], p = 0.87). Fisher grades were similar in both groups. Mean middle cerebral artery velocities were 93 +/- 27 cm/second in MgSO4-treated patients and 102 +/- 34 cm/second in the control group (mean +/- SD, p = 0.41). Symptomatic vasospasm, confirmed by angiography, occurred in six of 20 patients receiving MgSO4 and in five of 16 patients receiving placebo. Mean GOS scores were 3.8 +/- 1.6 and 3.6 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SD, p = 0.74) in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Significant adverse effects from treatment with MgSO4 did not occur. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of high-dose MgSO4 following aneurysmal SAH is safe, and steady Mg++ levels in the range of 4 to 5.5 mg/dl are easily maintained. This treatment does not interfere with neurological assessment, administration of anesthesia during surgery, or other aspects of clinical care. We observed a trend in which a higher percentage of patients obtained GOS scores of 4 or 5 in the group treated with MgSO4, but the trend did not reach a statistically significant level. A larger study is needed to evaluate this trend further.

    Title Cerebral Ventricles Are Smaller in Hispanic Than Non-hispanic Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.
    Date June 2001
    Journal Neurology
    Title Neuroimages: Amusement Park Stroke.
    Date August 2000
    Journal Neurology
    Title Blood Pressure Declines and Less Favorable Outcomes in the Ninds Tpa Stroke Study.
    Journal Journal of the Neurological Sciences

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for secondary stroke prevention but the immediate management of blood pressure after stroke is uncertain. We evaluated outcomes in the NINDS tPA stroke study in relation to blood pressure declines during the first 24 h after randomization. METHODS: Declines in blood pressure compared to baseline and preceding time points were analyzed in relationship to favorable outcomes (by a global test), poor outcomes (Rankin scale >3) and death at 3 months. RESULTS: 551 patients did not receive immediate pre-randomization anti-hypertensive treatment and had available blood pressures. Multivariate analysis showed significantly and progressively reducing likelihoods of a favorable outcome with each 10 mmHg decline in systolic blood pressure (SBP) >50 mmHg compared to any preceding measurement. Poor outcomes were significantly more likely in patients with >50 mmHg SBP reduction (or >30 mmHg compared to any immediately preceding measurement). There was an increased risk of death with blood pressure declines >60 mmHg. tPA treatment still produced favorable outcomes compared with placebo even with blood pressure declines. The median largest SBP reduction from baseline in patients treated with tPA was 35 mmHg compared to 30 mmHg in placebo-treated patients (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, progressively reducing likelihoods of a favorable outcome were seen with increasing declines in SBP. Despite a greater likelihood of favorable outcomes, tPA treatment was associated with a greater reduction in blood pressure than placebo. Randomized trials of blood pressure management are needed.

    Title Moyamoya Syndrome Associated with Graves' Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    Journal Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases : the Official Journal of National Stroke Association

    We report a patient and critically review the literature in order to define the demographic, clinical, neuroradiologic, and treatment features of moyamoya syndrome (MMS) in the setting of Graves' disease (GD). We performed a comprehensive English language Medline search using the keywords "moyamoya," "Graves' disease," and "thyrotoxicosis." We included all patients with angiographic findings consistent with MMS. A 23-year-old woman with active GD presented with intermittent confusion and right arm paresis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute left and chronic bilateral hemispheric infarcts. Cerebral angiography revealed multivessel intracranial occlusive disease. Initial treatment with plasmapheresis plus aspirin stabilized the patient's neurologic deficits. Antithyroid treatment plus subsequent surgical encephalomyosynangiosis resulted in prolonged neurologic stability. We studied 30 patients (27 women [90%], 23 of Asian descent [77%]), with a mean age of 29 ± 11.6 years. Hemiparesis (n = 12; 40%) was the leading clinical sign, and ischemic infarction was the most frequent neuroimaging finding (n = 26; 87%). Treatment regimens included antithyroid medications alone (n = 5; 17%), antithyroid plus antiplatelet agents (n = 9; 30%), neurosurgical revascularization after antithyroid medication (n = 11; 37%), and plasmapheresis in the acute thyrotoxic state (n = 2; 7%). Most patients had good short-to-medium term outcome (n = 14; 78% of reported outcome). Plasmapheresis-treated patients achieved neurologic stabilization and had good outcomes. MMS, an infrequent complication of GD, typically affects young women. Our findings indicate that plasmapheresis can stabilize the neurologic picture in the acute phase, and that antithyroid and antiplatelet therapy, combined with revascularization surgery, may improve long-term outcomes. Further work is needed to establish an optimal treatment strategy.

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