Browse Health
15 years of experience


Education ?

Medical School Score Rankings
Johns Hopkins University (1997)
Top 25%

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Pediatrics

Affiliations ?

Dr. Law is affiliated with 2 hospitals.

Hospital Affiliations

  • Mt Washington Pediatric Hosp
    1708 W Rogers Ave, Baltimore, MD 21209
  • Kennedy Kreiger Institute
    707 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Law has contributed to 18 publications.
    Title Stability of Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Community Settings.
    Date April 2011
    Journal Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

    The study's objectives were to assess diagnostic stability of initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in community settings and identify factors associated with diagnostic instability using data from a national Web-based autism registry. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the relative risk of change in initial ASD diagnosis as a function of demographic characteristics, diagnostic subtype, environmental factors and natural history. Autistic disorder was the most stable initial diagnosis; pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified was the least stable. Additional factors such as diagnosing clinician, region, when in time a child was initially diagnosed, and history of autistic regression also were significantly associated with diagnostic stability in community settings. Findings suggest that the present classification system and other secular factors may be contributing to increasing instability of community-assigned labels of ASD.

    Title Accuracy of Phenotyping of Autistic Children Based on Internet Implemented Parent Report.
    Date December 2010
    Journal American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics : the Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics

    While strong familial evidence supports a substantial genetic contribution to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), specific genetic abnormalities have been identified in only a small minority of all cases. In order to comprehensively delineate the genetic components of autism including the identification of rare and common variants, overall sample sizes an order of magnitude larger than those currently under study are critically needed. This will require rapid and scalable subject assessment paradigms that obviate clinic-based time-intensive behavioral phenotyping, which is a rate-limiting step. Here, we test the accuracy of a web-based approach to autism phenotyping implemented within the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). Families who were registered with the IAN and resided near one of the three study sites were eligible for the study. One hundred seven children ascertained from this pool who were verbal, age 4-17 years, and had Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) scores > or =12 (a profile that characterizes a majority of ASD-affected children in IAN) underwent a clinical confirmation battery. One hundred five of the 107 children were ASD positive (98%) by clinician's best estimate. One hundred four of these individuals (99%) were ASD positive by developmental history using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and 97 (93%) were positive for ASD by developmental history and direct observational assessment (Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule or expert clinician observation). These data support the reliability and feasibility of the IAN-implemented parent-report paradigms for the ascertainment of clinical ASD for large-scale genetic research.

    Title Trends in Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses: 1994-2007.
    Date February 2010
    Journal Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

    We analyzed predictors of parent-reported initial diagnosis (autistic disorder [AD], pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS], pervasive developmental disorder ['PDD'] and autism spectrum disorder ['ASD'], and Asperger syndrome [AS]), among 6,176 individuals with autism spectrum disorders diagnosed from 1994 through 2007. Overall, distribution of diagnoses was influenced by a secular time trend factor; other significant factors included ethnicity, white race, geographic location, urbanicity, and initial evaluator. Since 2001, most initial diagnoses of AD and AS have remained steady while 'PDD' and PDD-NOS have decreased. 'ASD' diagnoses have increased, especially among school-based teams; AS diagnoses also increased uniquely among these evaluators. Findings from this study suggest that current diagnostic guidelines may not be meeting all community evaluator needs.

    Title Routine Skin Cultures in Predicting Sepsis Pathogens Among Hospitalized Preterm Neonates in Bangladesh.
    Date October 2008
    Journal Neonatology

    BACKGROUND: Few studies from developing countries have examined sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of routine surface cultures. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of skin cultures among preterm neonates admitted to Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Bangladesh. METHODS: The study was nested within a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of emollient treatment in Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Bangladesh. A total of 497 preterm infants <33 weeks gestational age and <72 h of chronological age were enrolled, and the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of skin cultures were analyzed among 3,765 blood-skin culture pairs, wherein the skin culture was obtained within 13 days before the blood culture. RESULTS: Overall sensitivity, specificity, and PPV were 16, 38, and 5%, respectively. PPV during Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreaks was about 9%, and the inguinal site had the highest PPV (6%) among the three skin sites. Acinetobacter spp.- and K. pneumoniae-specific PPVs were 28 and 23%, respectively. PPV was <2% for Candida spp., Enterobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. CONCLUSION: Routine skin culture is inefficient in predicting the pathogen responsible for sepsis among premature neonates, even in a developing country setting, where the burden of bacterial infection is relatively high. Skin cultures are also of limited utility during K. pneumoniae outbreaks, and are not recommended.

    Title Effect of Skin Barrier Therapy on Neonatal Mortality Rates in Preterm Infants in Bangladesh: a Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial.
    Date March 2008
    Journal Pediatrics

    OBJECTIVE: Skin barrier therapy during the neonatal period, when the skin barrier is most highly compromised and the risk of death is greatest, has been shown to have a number of potential benefits, including reduced risk of nosocomial sepsis. Topical application of emollients that augment skin barrier function was evaluated as a strategy for improving survival rates among hospitalized preterm infants in Bangladesh. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in the special care nursery at Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, the largest tertiary care children's hospital in Bangladesh. Preterm infants (gestational age: < or = 33 weeks; N = 497) received daily topical applications of sunflower seed oil or Aquaphor ointment. Neonatal mortality rates were compared in an intent-to-treat analysis with a control group that did not receive emollient therapy. RESULTS: Treatment with sunflower seed oil resulted in a statistically significant 26% reduction in mortality rates, compared with infants not receiving topical emollient therapy. Aquaphor therapy also significantly reduced mortality rates, by 32%. CONCLUSIONS: Topical therapy with skin barrier-enhancing emollients improved survival rates among preterm hospitalized infants in Bangladesh. This study provides strong evidence for the implementation of topical therapy for high-risk preterm neonates in developing countries.

    Title Acceptability of Massage with Skin Barrier-enhancing Emollients in Young Neonates in Bangladesh.
    Date December 2007
    Journal Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition

    Oil massage of newborns has been practised for generations in the Indian sub-continent; however, oils may vary from potentially beneficial, e.g. sunflower seed oil, to potentially toxic, e.g. mustard oil. The study was carried out to gain insights into oil-massage practices and acceptability of skin barrier-enhancing emollients in young, preterm Bangladeshi neonates. Preterm infants of <33 weeks gestational age were randomized to high-linoleate sunflower seed oil, Aquaphor Original Emollient Ointment, or the comparison group (usual care). A survey was administered at admission to assess routine skin-care practices prior to admission and at discharge to assess acceptability of emollient therapy during hospitalization. Oil massage was given to 83 (21%) of 405 babies before hospital admission, 86% (71/83) of whom were delivered at home. Application of oil, most commonly mustard oil (88%, 73/83), was started within one hour of birth in 51 cases (61%) and was applied all over the body (89%, 74/83) one to six (mean 2.2) times before admission. Of infants who received emollient therapy in the hospital, 42% (n=32) of mothers reported that the emollient applied in the hospital was better than that available at home, and only 29% would use the same oil (i.e. mustard oil) in the future as used previously at home. No problems resulted from use of emollient in the hospital. Topical therapy with sunflower seed oil or Aquaphor was perceived by many families to be superior to mustard oil. If caregivers and health professionals can be motivated to use inexpensive, available emollients, such as sunflower seed oil that are beneficial, emollient therapy could have substantial public-health benefit.

    Title Effect of Topical Emollient Treatment of Preterm Neonates in Bangladesh on Invasion of Pathogens into the Bloodstream.
    Date July 2007
    Journal Pediatric Research

    Topical emollient therapy may reduce the incidence of serious infections and mortality of preterm infants in developing countries. We tested whether emollient therapy reduced the burden of pathogens on skin and/or prevented bacterial translocation. Neonates <33 wk gestational age were randomized to treatment with sunflower seed oil (SSO) or Aquaphor or the untreated control group. Skin condition score and skin cultures were obtained at enrollment and on d 3, 7, and weekly thereafter, and blood cultures were obtained for episodes of suspected nosocomial sepsis. For analysis, blood cultures were paired with skin cultures obtained 0-3 d before the blood culture. Skin condition scores at 3 d were better in patients treated with either emollient compared with untreated controls; however, skin flora was similar across the groups. The SSO group showed a 72% elevated odds of having a false-positive (FP) skin culture associated with a negative blood culture (i.e. skin flora blocked from entry into blood) compared with the control group. Topical therapy with SSO reduced the passage of pathogens from the skin surface into the bloodstream of preterm infants.

    Title Effect of Topical Treatment with Skin Barrier-enhancing Emollients on Nosocomial Infections in Preterm Infants in Bangladesh: a Randomised Controlled Trial.
    Date April 2005
    Journal Lancet

    BACKGROUND: Infections and complications of prematurity are main causes of neonatal mortality. Very low birthweight premature infants have compromised skin barrier function, and are at especially high risk for serious infections and mortality. Our aim was to ascertain whether topical application of emollients to enhance skin barrier function would prevent nosocomial infections in this population. METHODS: We randomly assigned infants born before week 33 of gestation after admission to Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Bangladesh, to daily massage with sunflower seed oil (n=159) or Aquaphor (petrolatum, mineral oil, mineral wax, lanolin alcohol; n=157). We then compared incidence of nosocomial infections among infants in these two groups with an untreated control group (n=181) by an intention-to-treat analysis. FINDINGS: 20 patients in the control group, and 22 in each of the treatment groups left the hospital early, but were included in the final analysis. Overall, infants treated with sunflower seed oil were 41% less likely to develop nosocomial infections than controls (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.96, p=0.032). Aquaphor did not significantly reduce the risk of infection (0.60, 0.35-1.03, p=0.065). No adverse events were seen. INTERPRETATION: Our findings confirm that skin application of sunflower seed oil provides protection against nosocomial infections in preterm very low birthweight infants. The low cost, availability, simplicity, and effect of treatment make it an important intervention for very low birthweight infants admitted to hospital in developing countries.

    Title Topically Applied Sunflower Seed Oil Prevents Invasive Bacterial Infections in Preterm Infants in Egypt: a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.
    Date September 2004
    Journal The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

    BACKGROUND: Because the therapeutic options for managing infections in neonates in developing countries are often limited, innovative approaches to preventing infections are needed. Topical therapy with skin barrier-enhancing products may be an effective strategy for improving neonatal outcomes, particularly among preterm, low birth weight infants whose skin barrier is temporarily but critically compromised as a result of immaturity. METHODS: We tested the impact of topical application of sunflower seed oil 3 times daily to preterm infants <34 weeks gestational age at the Kasr El-Aini neonatal intensive care unit at Cairo University on skin condition, rates of nosocomial infections and mortality. RESULTS: Treatment with sunflower seed oil (n = 51) resulted in a significant improvement in skin condition (P = 0.037) and a highly significant reduction in the incidence of nosocomial infections (adjusted incidence ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.81; P = 0.007) compared with infants not receiving topical prophylaxis (n = 52). There were no reported adverse events as a result of topical therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Given the low cost (approximately .20 dollars for a course of therapy) and technologic simplicity of the intervention and the effect size observed in this study, a clinical trial with increased numbers of subjects is indicated to evaluate the potential of topical therapy to reduce infections and save newborn lives in developing countries.

    Title Clinical Outcomes Following Percutaneous Magnetic Resonance Image Guided Laser Ablation of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.
    Date March 2003
    Journal Human Reproduction (oxford, England)

    BACKGROUND: Fibroids are common benign tumours of the uterus. Percutaneous magnetic resonance (MR) image guided laser ablation provides a minimally invasive, day-case alternative to surgery for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids. METHODS: Women with symptomatic fibroids wishing to avoid surgery were treated with laser ablation. MR thermal mapping ensured that maximal safe energy was applied. Fibroid volume was measured at 3 and 12 months, menstrual blood loss was recorded before and after treatment and a menorrhagia outcomes questionnaire (MOQ) was used to assess satisfaction. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients was treated. There was a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in mean fibroid volume of 31%. This was 41% at 1 year follow-up (P < 0.001). Measured menstrual blood loss in eight patients complaining of excessive bleeding was reduced (P = 0.012). The MOQ total outcome score was not as good as that seen in hysterectomy patients (P = 0.02) but the quality of life/satisfaction score was similar (P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: We have used objective and subjective outcome measures to determine the efficacy of MR guided laser ablation for fibroids. Based on this limited study we are encouraged that this procedure may represent a minimally invasive alternative therapy for fibroids.

    Title Lamotrigine Therapy for Autistic Disorder: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.
    Date December 2001
    Journal Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

    In autism, glutamate may be increased or its receptors up-regulated as part of an excitotoxic process that damages neural networks and subsequently contributes to behavioral and cognitive deficits seen in the disorder. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of lamotrigine, an agent that modulates glutamate release. Twenty-eight children (27 boys) ages 3 to 11 years (M = 5.8) with a primary diagnosis of autistic disorder received either placebo or lamotrigine twice daily. In children on lamotrigine, the drug was titrated upward over 8 weeks to reach a mean maintenance dose of 5.0 mg/kg per day. This dose was then maintained for 4 weeks. Following maintenance evaluations, the drug was tapered down over 2 weeks. The trial ended with a 4-week drug-free period. Outcome measures included improvements in severity and behavioral features of autistic disorder (stereotypies, lethargy, irritability, hyperactivity, emotional reciprocity, sharing pleasures) and improvements in language and communication, socialization, and daily living skills noted after 12 weeks (the end of a 4-week maintenance phase). We did not find any significant differences in improvements between lamotrigine or placebo groups on the Autism Behavior Checklist, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales, the PL-ADOS, or the CARS. Parent rating scales showed marked improvements, presumably due to expectations of benefits.

    Title Dynamic Imaging of the Pelvic Floor Using an Open-configuration Magnetic Resonance Scanner.
    Date July 2001
    Journal Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging : Jmri

    The aims of this study were to develop a noninvasive, erect, gravity-dependent method for assessing movements of the female pelvic floor, to describe the range of movements in pelvic floor ascent and descent in asymptomatic and symptomatic women, and to quantify any differences. A total of 102 women, 28-86 years of age, 35 symptomatic and 67 asymptomatic, were included in the study. They were scanned in a sitting position in an open scanner with good vertical access using fast-gradient echo sequences fast spoiled grass (FSPGR). Measurements of the bladder base, uterocervical junction, and anorectal junction were taken in the sagittal plane. The levator ani (LA) muscle insertion was assessed in the coronal plane with the patients at rest, during maximal strain, and during maximum contraction of the pelvic floor. Premenopausal multiparous women have a significantly lower bladder base (8/0 mm above the baseline; P value = 0.009) and uterocervical junction (15.5/3.5 mm; P value = 0.03) at rest than nulliparous women, and this becomes more apparent on straining. Parity confers a more significant effect on the position and function of the pelvic floor than menopausal status. All pelvic organs are lower at rest and on straining in women with defecation difficulties (0/-24 mm; P value = 0.001). These differences are also seen when comparing women with and without urinary incontinence. Dynamic seated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows that all the pelvic organs are lower at rest and on straining in multiparous women and in those with urinary incontinence than in a group of asymptomatic nulliparous volunteers. This difference is also seen in the position of the bladder base and anorectal junction during pelvic floor contraction. These findings suggest general pelvic floor weakness in women who present with symptoms in one compartment and indicate the need for evaluation of the entire pelvic floor particularly prior to surgery. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:923-929.

    Title Familial Clustering of Autoimmune Disorders and Evaluation of Medical Risk Factors in Autism.
    Date August 1999
    Journal Journal of Child Neurology

    Autism is an age-dependent neurologic disorder that is often associated with autoimmune disorders in the patients' relatives. To evaluate the frequency of autoimmune disorders, as well as various prenatal and postnatal events in autism, we surveyed the families of 61 autistic patients and 46 healthy controls using questionnaires. The mean number of autoimmune disorders was greater in families with autism; 46% had two or more members with autoimmune disorders. As the number of family members with autoimmune disorders increased from one to three, the risk of autism was greater, with an odds ratio that increased from 1.9 to 5.5, respectively. In mothers and first-degree relatives of autistic children, there were more autoimmune disorders (16% and 21%) as compared to controls (2% and 4%), with odds ratios of 8.8 and 6.0, respectively. The most common autoimmune disorders in both groups were type 1 diabetes, adult rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Forty-six percent of the autism group reported having relatives with rheumatoid diseases, as compared to 26% of the controls. Prenatal maternal urinary tract, upper respiratory, and vaginal infections; asphyxia; prematurity, and seizures were more common in the autistic group, although the differences were not significant. Thirty-nine percent of the controls, but only 11% of the autistic, group, reported allergies. An increased number of autoimmune disorders suggests that in some families with autism, immune dysfunction could interact with various environmental factors to play a role in autism pathogenesis.

    Title Prevalence of Onchocerca Volvulus Nodules in the Sankuru River Valley, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Reliability of Verbal Assessment As a Method for Determining Prevalence.
    Date September 1998
    Journal The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

    The epidemiology of onchocerciasis in much of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) is not well established. We report the results of an onchocerciasis rapid assessment survey carried out in 18 villages of the Sankuru River Valley in the central part of this country in preparation for mass distribution of ivermectin. Thirty men from each village were randomly selected and examined for subcutaneous nodules. The prevalence of nodules among these men in each village ranged from 82.5% to 100% with a mean prevalence of 95.0%. This study also assessed the validity of using verbal assessment instead of physical examination to determine prevalence of nodules. This verbal method had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 83.3%. High sensitivity and specificity for this method suggest that it might be a cost-effective approach to determine the prevalence of onchocerciasis over large areas without using physical examinations requiring medical personal. This approach could be particularly useful where the coverage of health services is poor. The use of the Global Positioning System made it possible to send coordinates and survey data electronically to World Health Organization personnel in Geneva for computer generation of prevalence maps. The use of river boats to conduct surveys and support ivermectin distribution in the Congo is discussed.

    Title Dose-dependent Stimulation of Gallbladder Contraction by Intravenous Erythromycin in Man.
    Date March 1993
    Journal Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

    We have previously shown that a single oral dose of 500 mg erythromycin causes gallbladder contraction. The effect of intravenous erythromycin on antroduodenal motility is dose-dependent; < 3 mg/kg body weight stimulates propagated contractions in a fashion similar to motilin while doses > 7 mg/kg cause giant non-propagated antral contractions not seen with motilin. Using ultrasound, we have examined the effect of differing doses of intravenous erythromycin on gallbladder motility in man. Erythromycin (1 mg/kg) caused fasting gallbladder contraction to 52% of basal gallbladder volume (P < 0.001), and increased gallbladder emptying following a liquid meal (maximal percentage emptied 75 +/- 6.8% vs. 58 +/- 9.0% following saline, P < 0.05). Erythromycin (7 mg/kg) however, had no effect on gallbladder fasting or post-prandial motor activity. We conclude that the effect of erythromycin on gallbladder motility is dose-dependent, with higher doses having no effect. It is possible that at higher doses erythromycin stimulates other receptors in addition to the motilin receptor, and that the combined effect is different to the stimulation of the motilin receptor alone.

    Title Effect of Oral Erythromycin on Gallbladder Motility in Normal Subjects and Subjects with Gallstones.
    Date June 1992
    Journal Gastroenterology

    The action of the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin on human gallbladder contraction, measured by ultrasound, both in normal subjects and those with gallstone disease was studied. In 17 normal subjects, oral erythromycin administration (500 mg; vs. placebo) reduced fasting gallbladder volume at 2 hours (26.2 vs. 19.0 mL; P less than 0.001), and postprandial residual gallbladder volume (9.0 vs. 4.4 mL; P less than 0.001) and the rate constant of gallbladder emptying following the meal was significantly increased. Erythromycin also reduced fasting and residual gallbladder volumes in 13 patients with gallstone disease: in 6 who underwent cholecystolithotomy, fasting volume was 29.5 vs. 22.3 mL (P less than 0.05) and residual volume was 17.7 vs. 6.5 mL (P less than 0.05), and in 7 with gallstones in situ, fasting volume was 23.8 vs. 14.3 mL (P less than 0.05) and residual volume was 17.2 vs. 5.0 mL (P less than 0.05). In 7 of 8 subjects with gallstones and impaired gallbladder emptying, the gallbladder emptied normally following administration of erythromycin, and in 3 of the other 5 gallstone subjects gallbladder emptying was increased. In 6 normal subjects given erythromycin three times weekly for 1 month, the effect was maintained (fasting volume, 18.8 mL, P less than 0.001; residual volume, 3.7 mL, P less than 0.001). Oral erythromycin significantly reduces fasting and postprandial residual gallbladder volumes in both normal subjects and subjects with gallstones and reverses the gallbladder motility defect found in a proportion of subjects with gallstones. This effect is maintained for a month in normal subjects.

    Title Simplified Age-weight Mortality Risk Classification for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in Low-resource Settings.
    Journal The Journal of Pediatrics

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a valid neonatal mortality risk prediction score feasible for use in developing countries. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of 467 neonates, </=1500 g, enrolled in trials during 1998 to 2005 at tertiary care children's hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Cairo, Egypt, and a community field site in Sarlahi District, Nepal. We derived simplified mortality risk scores and compared their predictive accuracy with the modified Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) II. Outcome was death during hospital stay (Dhaka and Cairo) or end of the neonatal period (Nepal). RESULTS: The area under the curve receiver operating characteristic was 0.62, 0.71, 0.68, and 0.69 on the basis of the (a) CRIB II applied to the Dhaka-Cairo dataset; (b) an 18-category, simplified age, weight, sex score; (c) a binary-risk simplified age-weight (SAW) classification derived from the Dhaka-Cairo dataset; and (d) external validation of the binary-risk SAW classification in the Nepal dataset, respectively. Mortality risk prediction with the SAW classification on the basis of gestational age (</=29 weeks) or weight (<1000 g) was improved (P = .048) compared with CRIB II. CONCLUSIONS: The SAW classification is a markedly simplified mortality risk prediction score for use in identifying high-risk, very low birth weight neonates in developing country settings for whom urgent referral is indicated.

    Title Verification of Parent-report of Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis to a Web-based Autism Registry.
    Journal Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

    Growing interest in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research requires increasingly large samples to uncover epidemiologic trends; such a large dataset is available in a national, web-based autism registry, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). The objective of this study was to verify parent-report of professional ASD diagnosis to the registry's database via a medical record review on a sample of IAN Research participants. Sixty-one percent of families agreed to participate; 98% (n = 116) of whom provided documentation verifying a professionally diagnosed ASD. Results of this study suggest that information collected from parents participating in IAN Research is valid, participants can be authenticated, and that scientists can both confidently use IAN data and recruit participants for autism research.

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