Orthopaedic Surgeon, Surgical Specialist
19 years of experience
Video profile
Accepting new patients
Michigan Orthopaedic Institute
27207 Lahser Rd
Ste 200B
Southfield, MI 48034
Locations and availability (6)

Education ?

Medical School Score
Wayne State University (1991)
  • Currently 1 of 4 apples

Awards & Distinctions ?

American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery

Affiliations ?

Dr. Shapiro is affiliated with 6 hospitals.

Hospital Affilations



  • Beaumont Hospital,Troy
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    44201 Dequindre Rd, Troy, MI 48085
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Beaumont Hospital, Grosse Pointe
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    468 Cadieux Rd, Grosse Pointe, MI 48230
    • Currently 3 of 4 crosses
    Top 50%
  • Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak
    Orthopaedic Surgery
    3601 W 13 Mile Rd, Royal Oak, MI 48073
    • Currently 2 of 4 crosses
  • Ambulatory Surgery Center,
  • West Bloomfield 2 Years
  • Royal Oak 10 Years
  • Publications & Research

    Dr. Shapiro has contributed to 23 publications.
    Title Camp-coupled Riboflavin Trafficking in Placental Trophoblasts: a Dynamic and Ordered Process.
    Date August 2006
    Journal Biochemistry

    Riboflavin (RF, vitamin B(2)), an essential micronutrient central to cellular metabolism through formation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactors, is internalized, at least in part, via a proposed receptor-mediated endocytic (RME) process. The purpose of this study was to delineate the cellular RF distribution using human placental trophoblasts and evaluate the regulatory role of cAMP in this process. Subcellular fractionation and three-dimensional confocal microscopy analyses were carried out to define the RF accumulation profile. Biochemical assays evaluating the cAMP dependence of this pathway were also performed. This study records an intracellular RF distribution pattern that shows dynamic accumulation of the ligand predominantly in the endosomal and lysosomal compartments and to a lesser extent in the Golgi and mitochondria. In contrast, transferrin (TF) colocalizes rapidly within endosomes with minimal accumulation in the other organelles. The temporal and spatial distribution of RF and TF colocalized with unique markers of the endocytic machinery provides added morphological evidence in support of the RME process with ultimate translocation to the mitochondrial domain. Colocalized staining with the Golgi also suggests a possible recycling or exocytic mechanism for this ligand. Furthermore, this study demonstrates cAMP regulation of the putative ligand-bound RF receptor and its association into endocytic vesicles. Delineating the dynamics of the process governing cellular RF homeostasis presents an untapped resource that can be further exploited in improving our current understanding of nutritional biology and fetal growth and development, and perhaps in targeting the endogenous system for developing novel therapeutic approaches.

    Title Activation of Trap/mediator Subunit Trap220/med1 is Regulated by Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Phosphorylation.
    Date January 2006
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology

    The TRAP/Mediator coactivator complex serves as a molecular bridge between gene-specific activators and RNA polymerase II. TRAP220/Med1 is a key component of TRAP/Mediator that targets the complex to nuclear hormone receptors and other types of activators. We show here that human TRAP220/Med1 is a specific substrate for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. We demonstrate that ERK phosphorylates TRAP220/Med1 in vivo at two specific sites: threonine 1032 and threonine 1457. Importantly, we found that ERK phosphorylation significantly increases the stability and half-life of TRAP220/Med1 in vivo and correlates with increased thyroid hormone receptor-dependent transcription. Furthermore, ERK phosphorylates TRAP220/Med1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner, resulting in peak levels of expression during the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. ERK phosphorylation of ectopic TRAP220/Med1 also triggered shuttling into the nucleolus, thus suggesting that ERK may regulate TRAP220/Med1 subnuclear localization. Finally, we observed that ERK phosphorylation of TRAP220/Med1 stimulates its intrinsic transcriptional coactivation activity. We propose that ERK-mediated phosphorylation is a regulatory mechanism that controls TRAP220/Med1 expression levels and modulates its functional activity.

    Title A Role for Mixed Lineage Kinases in Regulating Transcription Factor Ccaat/enhancer-binding Protein-{beta}-dependent Gene Expression in Response to Interferon-{gamma}.
    Date August 2005
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBP-beta) regulates a variety of cellular functions in response to exogenous stimuli. We have reported earlier that C/EBP-beta induces gene transcription through a novel interferon (IFN)-response element called gamma-IFN-activated transcriptional element. We show here that IFN-gamma-induced, C/EBP-beta/gamma-IFN-activated transcriptional element-dependent gene expression is regulated by mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family. MLK3 appears to activate C/EBP-beta in response to IFN-gamma by a mechanism involving decreased phosphorylation of a specific phosphoacceptor residue, Ser(64), within the transactivation domain. Decreased phosphorylation of Ser(64) was independent of IFN-gamma-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and did not require the ERK phosphorylation site Thr(189) located in regulatory domain 2 of C/EBP-beta. Together these studies provide the first evidence that MLK3 is involved in IFN-gamma signaling and identify a novel mechanism of transcriptional activation by IFN-gamma.

    Title Distinct Cell Cycle Timing Requirements for Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase and Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling Pathways in Somatic Cell Mitosis.
    Date October 2002
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are necessary for cell cycle progression into S phase; however the importance of these pathways after the restriction point is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the regulation and function of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and PI3K during G(2)/M in synchronized HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. Phosphorylation and activation of both the MAP kinase kinase/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways occur in late S and persist until the end of mitosis. Signaling was rapidly reversed by cell-permeable inhibitors, indicating that both pathways are continuously activated and rapidly cycle between active and inactive states during G(2)/M. The serum-dependent behavior of PI3K/Akt versus ERK pathway activation indicates that their mechanisms of regulation differ during G(2)/M. Effects of cell-permeable inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants show that both pathways are needed for mitotic progression. However, inhibiting the PI3K pathway interferes with cdc2 activation, cyclin B1 expression, and mitotic entry, whereas inhibiting the ERK pathway interferes with mitotic entry but has little effect on cdc2 activation and cyclin B1 and retards progression from metaphase to anaphase. Thus, our study provides novel evidence that ERK and PI3K pathways both promote cell cycle progression during G(2)/M but have different regulatory mechanisms and function at distinct times.

    Title Mekk1 Plays a Critical Role in Activating the Transcription Factor C/ebp-beta-dependent Gene Expression in Response to Ifn-gamma.
    Date August 2002
    Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    IFN-gamma induces a number of genes to up-regulate cellular responses by using specific transcription factors and the cognate elements. We recently discovered that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBP-beta) induces gene transcription through an IFN-response element called gamma-IFN-activated transcriptional element (GATE). Using mutant cells, chemical inhibitors, and specific dominant negative inhibitors, we show that induction of GATE-driven gene expression depends on MEK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase) and ERKs (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases) but is independent of Raf-1. Interestingly in cells lacking the MEKK1 gene or expressing the dominant negative MEKK1, ERK activation, and GATE dependent gene expression is inhibited. A dominant negative MEKK1 blocks C/EBP-beta-driven gene expression stimulated by IFN-gamma. These studies describe an IFN-gamma-stimulated pathway that involves MEKK1-MEK1-ERK1/2 kinases to regulate C/EBP-beta-dependent gene expression.

    Title Involvement of the Map Kinase Erk2 in Muc1 Mucin Signaling.
    Date July 2001
    Journal American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

    MUC1 mucin is a receptor-like glycoprotein expressed abundantly in various cancer cell lines as well as in glandular secretory epithelial cells, including airway surface epithelial cells. The role of this cell surface mucin in the airway is not known. In an attempt to understand the signaling mechanism of MUC1 mucin, we established a stable cell line from COS-7 cells expressing a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CD8 and the cytoplasmic (CT) domain of MUC1 mucin (CD8/MUC1 cells). We previously observed that treatment of these cells with anti-CD8 antibody resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the CT domain of the chimera. Here we report that treatment of CD8/MUC1 cells with anti-CD8 resulted in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 as assessed by immunoblotting, kinase assay, and immunocytochemistry. The activation of ERK2 was completely blocked either by a dominant negative Ras mutant or in the presence of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor. We conclude that tyrosine phosphorylation of the CT domain of MUC1 mucin leads to activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway through the Ras-MEK-ERK2 pathway. Combined with the existing data by others, it is suggested that one of the roles of MUC1 mucin may be regulation of cell growth and differentiation via a common signaling pathway, namely the Grb2-Sos-Ras-MEK-ERK2 pathway.

    Title Erk1 and Erk2 Activate Ccaaat/enhancer-binding Protein-beta-dependent Gene Transcription in Response to Interferon-gamma.
    Date February 2001
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Interferons (IFNs) regulate the expression of a number of cellular genes by activating the JAK-STAT pathway. We have recently discovered that CCAAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBP-beta) induces gene transcription through a novel IFN response element called the gamma-IFN-activated transcriptional element (Roy, S. K., Wachira, S. J., Weihua, X., Hu, J., and Kalvakolanu, D. V. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 12626-12632. Here, we describe a new IFN-gamma-stimulated pathway that operates C/EBP-beta-regulated gene expression independent of JAK1. We show that ERKs are activated by IFN-gamma to stimulate C/EBP-beta-dependent expression. Sustained ERK activation directly correlated with C/EBP-beta-dependent gene expression in response to IFN-gamma. Mutant MKK1, its inhibitors, and mutant ERK suppressed IFN-gamma-stimulated gene induction through the gamma-IFN-activated transcriptional element. Ras and Raf activation was not required for this process. Furthermore, Raf-1 phosphorylation negatively correlated with its activity. Interestingly, C/EBP-beta-induced gene expression required STAT1, but not JAK1. A C/EBP-beta mutant lacking the ERK phosphorylation site failed to promote IFN-stimulated gene expression. Thus, our data link C/EBP-beta to IFN-gamma signaling through ERKs.

    Title Identification of Grim-19, a Novel Cell Death-regulatory Gene Induced by the Interferon-beta and Retinoic Acid Combination, Using a Genetic Approach.
    Date November 2000
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    We show here that the combination of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) induces the death of tumor cells. To understand the molecular basis for synergistic growth-suppressive action and to identify the gene products that participate in this process, we have employed an antisense knock-out technique. This approach permits the isolation of cell death-associated genes based on their selective inactivation by overexpression of antisense cDNAs. Because the antisense mRNA inactivates gene expression of death-specific genes, transfected cells survive in the presence death inducers. Several Genes associated with Retinoid-IFN-induced Mortality (GRIM) were identified using this approach. Here we report the isolation of a novel GRIM gene, GRIM-19. This 552-base pair cDNA encodes a 16-kDa protein. Antisense expression of GRIM-19 confers a strong resistance against IFN/RA-induced death by reducing the intracellular levels of GRIM-19 protein. Overexpression of GRIM-19 enhances cell death in response to IFN/RA. GRIM-19 is primarily a nuclear protein whose expression is induced by the IFN/RA combination. Together, our studies identify a novel cell death-regulatory molecule.

    Title Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Activates Topoisomerase Iialpha Through a Mechanism Independent of Phosphorylation.
    Date May 1999
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-related kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2, regulate cellular responses by mediating extracellular growth signals toward cytoplasmic and nuclear targets. A potential target for ERK is topoisomerase IIalpha, which becomes highly phosphorylated during mitosis and is required for several aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, including chromosome condensation and daughter chromosome separation. In this study, we demonstrated interactions between ERK2 and topoisomerase IIalpha proteins by coimmunoprecipitation from mixtures of purified enzymes and from nuclear extracts. In vitro, diphosphorylated active ERK2 phosphorylated topoisomerase IIalpha and enhanced its specific activity by sevenfold, as measured by DNA relaxation assays, whereas unphosphorylated ERK2 had no effect. However, activation of topoisomerase II was also observed with diphosphorylated inactive mutant ERK2, suggesting a mechanism of activation that depends on the phosphorylation state of ERK2 but not on its kinase activity. Nevertheless, activation of ERK by transient transfection of constitutively active mutant MAP kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) enhanced endogenous topoisomerase II activity by fourfold. Our findings indicate that ERK regulates topoisomerase IIalpha in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential target for the MKK/ERK pathway in the modulation of chromatin reorganization events during mitosis and in other phases of the cell cycle.

    Title Nuclear Localization of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1 (mkk1) is Promoted by Serum Stimulation and G2-m Progression. Requirement for Phosphorylation at the Activation Lip and Signaling Downstream of Mkk.
    Date March 1999
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Stimulation of mammalian cells results in subcellular relocalization of Ras pathway enzymes, in which extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases rapidly translocate to nuclei. In this study, we define conditions for nuclear localization of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) by examining effects of perturbing the nuclear export signal (NES), the regulatory phosphorylation sites Ser218 and Ser222, and a regulatory domain at the N terminus. After disrupting the NES (Delta32-37), nuclear uptake of MKK was enhanced when quiescent cells were activated with serum-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or BXB-Raf-1 cotransfection. Uptake was enhanced by mutation of Ser218 and Ser222 to Glu and Asp, respectively, and blocked by mutation of these residues to Ala, although mutation of Lys97 to Met, which renders MKK catalytically inactive, did not interfere with uptake. Therefore, nuclear uptake of MKK requires incorporation of phosphate or negatively charged residues at the activation lip but not enzyme activity. On the other hand, uptake of an active MKK mutant with disrupted NES (Delta32-51) was elevated in quiescent as well as stimulated cells, and pretreatment of cells with the MKK inhibitor 1,4-diamino-2, 3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene blocked nuclear uptake. Thus, signaling downstream of MKK is also necessary for translocation. Finally, wild type MKK containing an intact NES translocates to nuclei during mitosis before envelope breakdown. Comparison of mutants with Ser to Glu and Asp or Ala substitutions indicates that Ser phosphorylation is also required for mitotic nuclear uptake of MKK.

    Title Activation of the Mkk/erk Pathway During Somatic Cell Mitosis: Direct Interactions of Active Erk with Kinetochores and Regulation of the Mitotic 3f3/2 Phosphoantigen.
    Date October 1998
    Journal The Journal of Cell Biology

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, which includes extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1, ERK2) and MAP kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MKK1, MKK2), is well-known to be required for cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase, but its role in somatic cell mitosis has not been clearly established. We have examined the regulation of ERK and MKK in mammalian cells during mitosis using antibodies selective for active phosphorylated forms of these enzymes. In NIH 3T3 cells, both ERK and MKK are activated within the nucleus during early prophase; they localize to spindle poles between prophase and anaphase, and to the midbody during cytokinesis. During metaphase, active ERK is localized in the chromosome periphery, in contrast to active MKK, which shows clear chromosome exclusion. Prophase activation and spindle pole localization of active ERK and MKK are also observed in PtK1 cells. Discrete localization of active ERK at kinetochores is apparent by early prophase and during prometaphase with decreased staining on chromosomes aligned at the metaphase plate. The kinetochores of chromosomes displaced from the metaphase plate, or in microtubule-disrupted cells, still react strongly with the active ERK antibody. This pattern resembles that reported for the 3F3/2 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes a phosphoepitope that disappears with kinetochore attachment to the spindles, and has been implicated in the mitotic checkpoint for anaphase onset (Gorbsky and Ricketts, 1993. J. Cell Biol. 122:1311-1321). The 3F3/2 reactivity of kinetochores on isolated chromosomes decreases after dephosphorylation with protein phosphatase, and then increases after subsequent phosphorylation by purified active ERK or active MKK. These results suggest that the MAP kinase pathway has multiple functions during mitosis, helping to promote mitotic entry as well as targeting proteins that mediate mitotic progression in response to kinetochore attachment.

    Title Signal Transduction Through Map Kinase Cascades.
    Date May 1998
    Journal Advances in Cancer Research
    Title Feedback Regulation of Raf-1 and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (map) Kinase Kinases 1 and 2 by Map Kinase Phosphatase-1 (mkp-1).
    Date February 1998
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Inactivation of growth factor-regulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) has been proposed to occur in part through dephosphorylation by the dual specificity MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), an immediate early gene that is induced by mitogenic signaling. In this study, we examined the effect of MKP-1 on signaling components upstream of ERK1 and ERK2. Coexpression of MKK1 or MKK2 with MKP-1 resulted in 7-10-fold activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK), which required the presence of regulatory serine phosphorylation sites. Endogenous MKK1 and MKK2 were also activated upon MKP-1 expression. Raf-1, a direct regulator of MKK1 and MKK2, was activated under these conditions, and a synergistic activation of MKK was observed upon coexpression of Raf-1 and MKP-1. This effect did not appear to involve synthesis of autocrine growth factors or the inhibition of basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity but was inhibited by a dominant negative Ras mutant, indicating that MKP-1 enhances Ras-dependent activation of Raf-1 in a cell autonomous manner. This study demonstrates positive feedback regulation of Raf-1 and MKK by the MKP-1 immediate early gene and a potential mechanism for activating Raf-1/MKK signaling pathways alternative to those involving ERK.

    Title Megakaryocytic Differentiation Induced by Constitutive Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase.
    Date April 1997
    Journal Molecular and Cellular Biology

    The K562 erythroleukemia cell line was used to study the molecular mechanisms regulating lineage commitment of hematopoietic stem cells. Phorbol esters, which initiate megakaryocyte differentiation in this cell line, caused a rapid increase in extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which remained elevated for 2 h and returned to near-basal levels by 24 h. In the absence of extracellular stimuli, ERK could be activated by expression of constitutively active mutants of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase (MKK), resulting in cell adhesion and spreading, increased cell size, inhibition of cell growth, and induction of the platelet-specific integrin alphaIIb beta3, all hallmarks of megakaryocytic differentiation. In contrast, expression of wild-type MKK had little effect. In addition, constitutively active MKK suppressed the expression of an erythroid marker, alpha-globin, indicating the ability to suppress cellular responses necessary for alternative cell lineages. The MKK inhibitor PD98059 blocked MKK/ERK activation and cellular responses to phorbol ester, demonstrating that activation of MKK is necessary and sufficient to induce a differentiation program along the megakaryocyte lineage. Thus, the MAP kinase cascade, which promotes cell growth and proliferation in many cell types, instead inhibits cell proliferation and initiates lineage-specific differentiation in K562 cells, establishing a model system to investigate the mechanisms by which this signal transduction pathway specifies cell fate and developmental processes.

    Title The Seven-transmembrane-spanning Receptors for Endothelin and Thrombin Cause Proliferation of Airway Smooth Muscle Cells and Activation of the Extracellular Regulated Kinase and C-jun Nh2-terminal Kinase Groups of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases.
    Date June 1996
    Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    In airway smooth muscle cells ligand binding to the seven-transmembrane endothelin and thrombin receptors stimulates cell growth. Rapid activation of the extracellular regulated kinase 2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase groups of mitogen-activated protein kinases was also observed. The results demonstrate a novel mechanism of seven-transmembrane receptor signaling involving activation of the Jun kinase pathway. Receptor coupling to Jun kinase activation may involve heterotrimeric G proteins since the kinase was enzymatically activated in cells treated with aluminum fluoride. The activity of Raf-1, measured by immune complex kinase assay, revealed that platelet-derived growth factor and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate both stimulated Raf-1 activity, while thrombin and endothelin did not appreciably stimulate Raf-1. The data suggest that endothelin and thrombin stimulate Raf-1-independent mechanisms of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Endothelin- or thrombin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was significantly inhibited by activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase by forskolin. Proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells, measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, was also greatly attenuated by forskolin.

    Title Non-neoplastic Tumors of the Hand and Upper Extremity.
    Date September 1995
    Journal Hand Clinics

    A variety of non-neoplastic, tumor-like conditions exist in the upper extremity. Some are common, others rare. Careful history, physical diagnosis, and a variety of imaging modalities can be helpful in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and developing a successful treatment plan for this group of lesions.

    Title Oxygen-induced Changes in Protein Synthesis and Cell Proliferation in Cultured Lung Slices.
    Date January 1995
    Journal The American Journal of Physiology

    Elevated fractions of inspired O2 induce significant remodeling of the airways and vasculature of the lung. The present study was undertaken to determine the direct effects of altered levels of O2 on protein synthesis and cell proliferation in lung tissue cultured in vitro. Rat lungs were inflated with low-melt agarose, cut transversely into 1-mm sections, and cultured in a serum-free medium for up to 7 days in the presence of 10, 21, 40, or 70% O2. Tissue structure integrity was maintained as assessed by light and electron microscopy. Fractional synthesis rates (FSR, %protein/day) of soluble protein from cultured lung homogenates demonstrated an O2 concentration-dependent response. Tissue cultured in the presence of 70% O2 exhibited the highest FSR. The FSR of tissue cultured in 21 or 40% O2 did not differ and demonstrated FSR values greater than tissue cultured in 10% O2. Cell proliferation was assessed histologically in parenchymal gas-exchange regions of lung slices cultured in the presence of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Labeling indexes for tissue cultured in 21, 40, or 70% indicated an O2-dependent increase in cell proliferation after 3 days in culture followed by a return to baseline levels after 7 days. Tissue cultured in the presence of 10% O2 showed no change in cell proliferation over time. The data indicate a direct influence of O2 on lung cell growth and proliferation. Additionally, these studies show that this in vitro model may be suitable for further understanding of the mechanistic basis involved in proliferative events during lung injury.

    Title An Effective Technique for Corticosteroid Injection into the Knee Joint.
    Date April 1994
    Journal Orthopaedic Review

    Local injection of a corticosteroid into the knee joint is a commonly used modality for the treatment of various inflammatory processes. Injection of these agents at the superomedial or superolateral poles of the patella have led to problems with pain and discomfort for the patients, as well as damage to the chondral surface of the patella. Injection through the patellar tendon can lead to side effects related to injection into the fat pad and into the anterior cruciate ligament. These problems can be avoided by using the inferomedial or inferolateral poles of the patella as a needle insertion site.

    Title Acute Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: the Importance of Physeal Stability.
    Date September 1993
    Journal The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

    To test the traditional classification system of slipped capital femoral epiphysis, we evaluated the presenting symptoms and radiographs of fifty-four patients and reclassified the slipped epiphyses as unstable or stable, rather than acute, chronic, or acute-on-chronic. Slips were considered to be unstable when the patient had such severe pain that weight-bearing was not possible even with crutches. Slips were considered to be stable when the patient could bear weight, with or without crutches. We reviewed the records on fifty-five hips in which the slip would have been classified as acute because the duration of symptoms was less than three weeks; thirty of these were unstable and twenty-five were stable. All slips were treated with internal fixation. A reduction occurred in twenty-six of the unstable hips and in two of the stable hips. Fourteen (47 per cent) of the thirty unstable hips and twenty-four (96 per cent) of the twenty-five stable hips had a satisfactory result. Avascular necrosis developed in fourteen (47 per cent) of the unstable hips and in none of the stable hips. We were not able to demonstrate an association between early reduction and the development of avascular necrosis.

    Title Influence of Water Deficit on Maize Endosperm Development : Enzyme Activities and Rna Transcripts of Starch and Zein Synthesis, Abscisic Acid, and Cell Division.
    Journal Plant Physiology

    In maize (Zea mays L.), drought during the post-pollination stage decreases kernel growth and often leads to grain yield losses. Kernels in the apical region of the ear are more severely affected than basally positioned kernels. We hypothesized that water deficit during early endosperm development might inhibit kernel growth by decreasing endosperm cell division, and that this response might be mediated by changes in endosperm abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Greenhouse-grown maize, cultivar Pioneer 3925, was subjected to water limitation from 1 to 15 days after pollination (DAP), spanning the period of endosperm cell division and induction of storage product accumulation. Water deficit decreased the number of endosperm nuclei during the treatment period; the most substantial effect was in the apical region of ears. Correspondingly, endosperm fresh weight, starch accumulation and dry mass at maturity were decreased by water limitation. Abscisic acid concentrations in endosperm were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Water deficit increased ABA concentration in apical-region endosperm by four-fold compared to controls. ABA concentrations were also increased in middle and basal regions of the ear, but to a lesser extent. Two key enzymes in the starch synthesis pathway, sucrose synthase and granule-bound ADP-glucose starch synthase, and zein, the major storage protein in maize endosperm, were studied as markers of storage product synthesis. Water deficit did not affect sucrose synthase enzyme activity or RNA transcript abundance relative to total RNA. However, ADP-glucose starch synthase activity and RNA transcript abundance decreased slightly in apical-region endosperm of water-limited plants by 15 DAP, compared with well-watered controls. In contrast to starch, there was no treatment effect on the accumulation of zein, evaluated at either the polypeptide or RNA level. We conclude that under the conditions tested, the establishment of starch and zein synthetic potential in endosperm was only slightly affected by plant water deficit during the early phase of kernel growth, and that capacity for growth and starch accumulation was affected by the extent to which cell division was inhibited. Based on correlative changes in ABA concentration and cell division we suggest that ABA may play a role in inhibiting endosperm cell division during water limitation.

    Title The Effect of Local Corticosteroid or Ketorolac Exposure on Histologic and Biomechanical Properties of Rabbit Tendon and Cartilage.
    Journal Hand (new York, N.y.)

    Tendonitis, tenosynovitis, and the arthritides are clinical problems commonly encountered in daily orthopaedic practice. Systemic anti-inflammatories, physical therapy, and local corticosteroid injections all are used as nonoperative treatments of these conditions. Systemic anti-inflammatory agents and local corticosteroid agents, however, can be associated with adverse effects that render them intolerable to some patients. As a preliminary study assessing the feasibility of local injection of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, the histological and biomechanical effects of local exposure of rabbit cartilage and tendon to injectable steroidal (corticosteroid) and injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (ketorolac tromethamine, KT) were determined. Thirty rabbits underwent bilateral knee joint, patellar tendon, and Achilles tendon injections with either normal saline, corticosteroid, or KT. Mechanical and histologic evaluation of the tissues was performed at 6 and 15 weeks after injection. Gross tendon adhesions were observed in more corticosteroid-treated specimens than those exposed to normal saline or KT. Microscopic evaluation of tendons revealed no significant differences among the three groups. Mild cartilage degenerative changes were noted across all groups. Evidence of cartilage necrosis was noted for the corticosteroid-treated group only. Tendons exposed to corticosteroid or KT demonstrated increased load and energy to failure, but exhibited no difference in material stiffness or strain. The use of an injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent may be safe and even pose less threat to local tissues after intra-articular and peri-tendinous administration.

    Title Phospholipid-induced in Vivo Particle Migration to Enhance Pulmonary Deposition.
    Journal Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Amount of drug actually reaching the target region in the lung following pulmonary inhalation is often estimated at less than 10% for older devices. Current particle and device engineering technologies have improved on this but still fail to recover the "wasted" fraction of the drug and deliver it deeper into the lungs, which is generally desirable. FDA has approved several exogenous surfactants for prophylaxis and rescue treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Their approved mode of administration (intratracheal instillation) and site of action (alveolar spaces) suggest that the phospholipids in the exogenous surfactants can spread from the trachea to alveolar air spaces and exert advantageous effects. We investigated whether in vivo lung migration of particles based on this phenomenon was possible and could be quantified based on changes in total and regional deposition of fluorescently labeled latex beads, utilized as an insoluble drug model. Following intranasal administration of beads, migration to rodent lungs was monitored upon intranasal instillation of Survanta((R)) (exogenous surfactant) or saline (control). After intranasal instillation approximately 12% of beads were found to migrate to the lung, and total lung deposition increased by approximately 10% on administration of Survanta ((R)) or saline (control). After intranasal administration approximately 1% of beads in the lung were found to migrate to peripheral regions of the lungs, and a four- to six-fold increase in peripheral lung deposition was observed after Survanta ((R)) instillation, compared to the saline control, which was determined to be independent of dose and volume of Survanta ((R)) instillate in the range we studied. The in vivo rodent studies provided support for the idea that intranasally administered particles deposited in non-target lung locations may be translocated to peripheral sites in the lung therapeutically after surfactant application.

    Title Inhibition of Protein-protein Interactions with Low Molecular Weight Compounds.
    Journal Current Trends in Medicinal Chemistry

    An overview of issues associated with the design and development of low molecular weight inhibitors of protein-protein interactions is presented. Areas discussed include information on the nature of protein-protein interfaces, methods to characterize those interfaces and methods by which that information is applied towards ligand identification and design. Specific examples of the strategy for the identification of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions involving the proteins p56lck kinase, ERK2 and the calcium-binding protein S100B are presented. Physical characterization of the inhibitors identified in those studies shows them to have drug-like and lead-like properties, indicating their potential to be developed into therapeutic agents.

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